108 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
  2. Mar 2024
    1. Iran’s Shahini gas field is the largest discovery of the past two years. Little has been reported about the field, but it is supposedly the largest dry gas field ever found in Iran, potentially “containing” 623 billion
    1. Die Abhängigkeit Europas von russischem Pipelinegas ist in zwei Jahren von 40% auf 10% gesunken. Die Importe von LNG haben um 40% zugenommen, wobei auch da ein erheblicher Anteil aus Russland stammt. Die USA sind der weltgrößte LNG-Exporteur. Mit großer Wahrscheinlichkeit werden bei LNG Überkapazitäten aufgebaut. In Österreich ist die Abhängigkeit von russischem Gas noch immer hoch, weil rein betriebswirtschaftlich entscheiden wird. Die OMV war 2023 verpflichtet, Gas für gut 60 TWh aus Russland zu beziehen und jedenfalls zu bezahlen. https://www.derstandard.at/story/3000000206989/warum-der-abschied-von-russischem-gas-noch-immer-so-schwer-faellt

    1. Österreich könnte auf russisches Gas verzichten, allerdings sind dazu u.a. Ausbaumaßnahmen (West-Austria Gaspipeline) nötig. Über Deutschland transportiertes Gas verteuert sich durch die Speicherumlage. Die Hauptalternative zu russischem Gas ist LNG aus den USA. Der Artikel, der viele Detailinformationen enthält, erwähnt, dass die Probleme mit der Definition von Erdgas als „Übergangsenergie“ zusammenhängen. https://www.derstandard.at/story/3000000209552/abkehr-von-russischem-gas-erfordert-investitionen-in-vorgelagertes-netz

    1. Die weltwetterorganisation WMO fast in ihrem Bericht über 2023 die Daten verschiedener Services zusammen und kommt zu dramatischen Aussagen über die Entwicklung der Temperatur auf der Erdoberfläche insbesondere insgesamt und besonders an der Oberfläche der Meere. Gleichzeitig ergibt eine Studie der BU Wien dass die Prognosen vieler, darunter großer starken über die Entwicklung der Emissionen deutlich zu optimistisch sind. https://www.derstandard.de/story/3000000212370/weltwetterorganisation-zeichnet-duesteres-bild-vom-klima-des-letzten-jahres

  3. Feb 2024
  4. Jan 2024
    1. Guter Überblick über das Lobbying-Netzwerk der deutschen Gasindustrie. Der Verbraucht an Erdgas hat sich in Deutschland seit 1990 verdoppelt, obwohl Erdgas insgesamt etwa so viel Emissionen verursacht wie Kohle. Die LNG-Infrastruktur, die die deutsche Bundesregierung gerade aufbaut, ist auf um ein Drittel höhere Kapazitäten angelegt, als aus Russland importiert wurden. https://taz.de/Fossile-Politik/!5983492/

  5. Dec 2023
    1. Dichter und sehr gut dokumentierter Überblicksratikel über die Expansionspläne der Öl- und Gasindustrie. Aus unerschlossenen Feldern sollen 230 Milliarden Barrel Öläquivalent gefördert werden - im klaren Widerspruch zum Pariser Abkommen. Durch Ausbeutung neuer Lager werden bis 2025 voraussichtlich 70 Gt CO<sub>2</sub> und damit 17% des Budgets für das 1,5° Ziel ausgestoßen. Eingegangen wird auch auf den Ausstiegsplan des Tyndall Centre. https://taz.de/Run-auf-fossile-Brennstoffe/!5973686/

  6. Nov 2023
    1. A second MoU on gas export partnership was agreed between Riverside LNG of Nigeria and Germany's Johannes Schuetze Energy Import AG. Under the accord, Nigeria will supply 850,000 tons of natural gas to Germany annually which is expected to rise to 1.2 million. The first deliveries will be in 2026, Ngelale said.The deal will help process about 50 million cubic feet per day of natural gas that otherwise would have flared.

      ok, so instead of being flared for no money, it's being bought by German to burn instead.

    1. Economies that are heavily reliant on oil and gas revenues face some stark choices and pressures in energy transitions.
      • for: stats - oil and gas - steep drop in revenues of fossil fuel producer economies

      • stats: oil and gas - steep drop in revenues of fossil fuel reliant economies

        • per capita net income from oil and natural gas among producer economies will be 60% lower in 2030 in a 1.5 °C scenario.relative to revenues between 2010 and 2022.
      • question

        • many producer economies are not diversifying into clean energy fast enough to compensate for these steep revenue drops
    2. A productive debate about the oil and gas industry in transitions needs to avoid two common misconceptions. The first is that transitions can only be led by changes in demand.
      • for: double bind - oil and gas industry committing to clean energy, oil and gas industry - Mexican standoff - SIMPOL

      • comment

        • The oil and gas industry faces the dilemma of the first mover. Nobody wants to take the risk to commit
        • It's a Mexican standoff but maybe SIMPOL is the solution
      • reference

    3. For producers that choose to diversify and are looking to align with the aims of the Paris Agreement, our bottom-up analysis of cash flows in a 1.5 °C scenario suggests that a reasonable ambition is for 50% of capital expenditures to go towards clean energy projects by 2030, on top of the investment needed to reduce scope 1 and 2 emissions.
      • for: stats - oil and gas industry - required investments in clean energy

      • stats: oil and gas industry - required investments in clean energy

        • 50 % of capital expenditure by 2030 and reduction in scope 1 and 2 emissions
      • comment

        • Wow, is it really possible for the industry to spend 50 % of their budget on clean energy in 7 years? This would be unprecedented, given that greenwashing is all we've ever seen in the past.
    4. Some 30% of the energy consumed in a net zero energy system in 2050 comes from low-emissions fuels and technologies that could benefit from the skills and resources of the oil and gas industry.
      • for: stats - oil and gas industry - repurposing for clean energy

      • stats: oil and gas industry - repurposing for clean energy

        • only 30 % of the energy consumed in a clean energy future within 1.5 Deg C comes from low emission fuels and technologies that benefit from oil and gas industry resources
        • this leaves a huge deficit of 70 %.
      • question

        • How will the transition account for these human and technological resources?
    5. Many producers say they will be the ones to keep producing throughout transitions and beyond. They cannot all be right.
      • for: stats - oil and gas industry - fight for survival

      • stats: oil and gas industry - fight for survival

        • competing oil producers will have to reach an agreement on who has the right to produce the remaining carbon budget
        • 24 million barrels a day are still produced in a 1.5 Deg C scenario but are largely uncombusted
          • 75 % of that will be used in petrochemical and other industry
          • 920 billion cubic meters of natural gas
            • 50% of this for hydrogen production
    6. In a scenario that hits global net zero emissions by 2050, declines in demand are sufficiently steep that no new long lead-time conventional oil and gas projects are required. Some existing production would even need to be shut in. In 2040, more than 7 million barrels per day of oil production is pushed out of operation before the end of its technical lifetime in a 1.5 °C scenario.
      • for: stats - oil and gas industry - steep drop in production

      • stats - oil and gas industry - steep drop in production

        • no new fields can be developed to meet a 1.5 Deg C scenario
        • any new developments face the certain risk of being a stranded asset
        • by 2040, 7 million less barrels of oil are produced each day to meet a 1.5 Deg C scenario
    7. The production, transport and processing of oil and gas results in just under 15% of global energy-related greenhouse gas emissions. This is a huge amount, equivalent to all energy-related greenhouse gas emissions from the United States.
      • for: stats - oil and gas industry operational emissions

      • stats: oil and gas industry - operational emissions

        • 15% of all global emissions are from the production, transport and processing of fossil fuels
    8. Oil and gas producers account for only 1% of total clean energy investment globally.
      • for: stats - oil and gas industry - clean energy investments

      • comment

        • Inclusive transformation
          • Clearly, transforming the dirty fossil fuel industry into clean energy industry requires migrating as much of those 12 million dirty energy jobs as possible. We can't alienate the fossil fuel industry.
          • the barometer to measure this paradigm shift in fossil fuel industry narrative is their investment into clean energy. Over the years, majors have acted like politicians, promising significant clean energy investment, then backsliding. There is no more time for that.
    9. This new IEA report explores what oil and gas companies can do to accelerate net zero transitions and what this might mean for an industry which currently provides more than half of global energy supply and employs nearly 12 million workers worldwide.
      • for: stats - oil and gas industry - profit split, stats - oil and gas industry - reserves split

      • stats: oil and gas industry profit split

        • 50 % to governments
        • 40 % to investments
        • 10% to shareholders and debt
      • stats: oil and gas reserve splits

        • majors: 13 % production, 13 % reserves
        • National Oil Companies: 50% production, 60 % reserves
    10. Oil and gas projects currently produce slightly higher returns on investment, but those returns are less stable.
      • stats - oil and gas vs clean energy returns

      • stats: oil and gas vs clean energy returns between 2010 and 2022

        • 6 to 9 % for oil and gas
        • 6 % for clean energy
      • for: IEA 2023 report - exec summary - Fossil Fuel industry, IEA 2023 report - exec summary - Oil and Gas industry

      • summary

        • this is the IEA summary of the position of the Oil and Gas industry and what they must do in order to transition to a net zero world by 2050 and avert 1.5 Deg C global mean temperature.
        • it contains a lot of useful information and statistics
    11. To align with a 1.5 °C scenario, these emissions need to be cut by more than 60% by 2030 from today’s levels and the emissions intensity of global oil and gas operations must near zero by the early 2040s.
    12. The production, transport and processing of oil and gas results in just under 15% of global energy-related greenhouse gas emissions.

      for: stats - oil and gas industry, stats - fossil fuel industry

      • stats: oil and gas industry
      • stats: fossil fuel industry
        • The fossil fuel industry's production, transport and processing operations accounts for 15% of global energy-related greenhouse gas emissions.
    13. Oil and gas producers account for only 1% of total clean energy investment globally.
      • for: stats - oil and gas industry, stats - fossil fuel industry

      • stats - oil and gas industry

      • stats - fossil fuel industry
        • Oil and gas producers account for approximately 1% of total clean energy investment
        • 60 % of that comes from 4 companies
    14. industry which currently provides more than half of global energy supply and employs nearly 12 million workers worldwide.
      • for: stats - oil and gas industry, stats - fossil fuel industry

      • stats - oil and gas industry

      • stats - fossil fuel industry
        • supplies approximately 50% of all total global energy
        • employs 12 million people directly
        • Since 2018, annual revenues average 13 trillion USD
        • revenue split
          • 50 % to governments
          • 40% to investment
          • 10% to shareholders and debt
        • Major oil companies account for 13 % of all reserves
        • National Oil Companies (NOC) account for
          • over 50% of all production
          • close to 60% of all reserves
    1. Auf den Öl- und Gasfeldern der Vereinigten Arabischen Emirate, darunter vielen, die der staatlichen Gesellschaft Adnoc gehören, wurde in den vergangenen 20 Jahren in großem Umfang routinemäßig Gas abgefackelt, was zu hohen Methanemissionen führt. Die Emirate hatten sich verpflichtet, das Abfackeln schnell zu reduzieren. Die dieser Selbstverpflichtung krass widersprechende Praxis gilt bei NGO als weiterer Beleg dafür, dass Selbstverpflichtungen der Fossilindustrie nicht getraut werden kann. https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2023/nov/17/cop28-host-uae-breaking-its-own-ban-on-routine-gas-flaring-data-showsactor

    1. 16:00 "our grass is a solar panel"<br /> hell yeah. fuck these "made in china" hightech bullshit solar panels.<br /> future energy is based on wood gas, and synthetic diesel made from wood gas.<br /> but the depopulation agenda has priority...

    1. Der Artikel im Guardian stellt eine neue Studie dar, aus der hervorgeht, wie viel von der bereits existierenden Infrastruktur zur Förderung fossiler Brennstoff stillgelegt werden muss, um das 1,5° Ziel zu erreichen. Dabei geht die Autoren davon aus, dass man CO2 nicht realistisch wieder aus der Atmosphäre entfernen kann, und dass das 1,5° Ziel also nur zu erreichen ist, wenn nicht zu viel emittiert wird. Diese Studie fordert das Gegenteil der Planungen der fossilen Industrien, über der über die der Guardian gerade berichtet hatte. Der Artikel ist auch bemerkenswert, weil er auf eine Reihe weiterer wichtiger Studien zu fossilen Lagerstätten verweist.

  7. Oct 2023
    1. decade ago, these plants provided “low carbon” electricity in comparison to the grid at the time, but now in many cases, emit more carbon than local grids. Countries that already have decarbonized grids, France, Sweden, and Scotland, for example, will not benefit from a continuous system that uses natural gas to begin with.

      What would the green premium be for bio methane in this scenario? As in Methane from bio genie sources. Supply issues aside, obvs.

    1. SERVICIO TECNICO VALENCIA on Medium Advantages of Hiring a Professional Technical Service

      Professional technicians offer precise diagnostics and effective solutions. Additionally, using genuine spare parts and high-quality tools provides the reassurance of professional technical services' guarantees.

    1. Comment

      I just wanted to let Columbia Gas of Ohio and Amanda DePerro know that not only is it poor etiquette to disable comments on posts (they obstruct customer feedback), but it's also pointless because people can just use tools like Hypothes.is to respond regardless.

  8. Sep 2023
    1. Die österreichische Gasbranche startet - offenbar in Kooperation mit der Industriellenvereinigung - eine PR-Initiative gegen das Erneuerbare-Wärme-Gesetz. Dabei wird das Narrativ der der Technologie-Offenheit verwendet und mit Hinweisen auf Biomethan und Wasserstoff für den Erhalt der Gasheizungen argumentiert. Unkritische Widergabe einer APA-Meldung im Standard. https://www.derstandard.at/story/3000000188226/erneuerbare-waerme-gesetz-laesst-gasbranche-zittern

    1. Wind and solar are, of course, intermittent, but battery costs too are plummeting, to the extent that they often underbid so-called peaking plants burning natural gas

      Where would I look to find public evidence of this?

  9. Aug 2023
  10. Jul 2023
    1. This gas in the form of cow “burps” is increasingly the subject of attention for climate activists.
      • measuring methane and showing it is a problem
        • cow farts become an enemy
      • how do we cope with a rewilded world?
        • when all the other animals will also release methane?
  11. Jun 2023
  12. May 2023
    1. The Guardian recently revealed that Turkmenistan was the worst in the world for methane “super emitting” leaks. Separate research suggests a switch from the flaring of methane to venting may be behind some of these vast outpourings.Flaring is used to burn unwanted gas, putting CO2 into the atmosphere, but is easy to detect and has been increasingly frowned upon in recent years. Venting simply releases the invisible methane into the air unburned, which, until recent developments in satellite technology, had been hard to detect. Methane traps 80 times more heat than CO2 over 20 years, making venting far worse for the climate.

      This sort of implies that if you ban flaring, then unscrupulous companies will just vent it instead, causing much worse emissions, because detecting venting has been hard before, and enforcing a bans against rich and power entitites is will not be easy

  13. Apr 2023
  14. Mar 2023
    1. Ghana is on the brink of financial distress due to “take-or-pay” contracts that require the government to pay hundreds of millions of dollars each year for unused gas.
    1. 10.1038/s41558-022-01576-2

      Der Aufsatz und die ihm zugrundeliegende Publikation kritisieren, dass die 1,5°-pathways des IPCC den Kohleausstieg vor dem Öl- und Gassausstieg fordern. Damit tragen die ärmeren Länder die Hauptlast. Gerechter und besser umzusetzen wäre ein schnellerer Ausstieg aus Öl und Gas, der vom globalen Norden eine schnellere Transformation verlangen würde.

  15. Feb 2023
  16. Jan 2023
    1. you've had problems in your area where you tried to get legislation and the oil and gas industry came in and fought you right in my state same thing every piece 00:44:08 of pro-climate legislation at the national level the regional level the local level Municipal level the oil and gas industry and the coal industry they come in and fight it tooth and nail and 00:44:21 they use their legacy network of political influence and wealth to stop progress the rest of us have to reform these International institutions so that the people of this world and including 00:44:34 the young people of this world can say we are now in charge of our own destiny we're going to stop using the sky as an open sewer we're going to save the future and give people hope we can do it 00:44:47 and remember that political will is itself a renewable resource

      !- oil and gas legislation : industry lawyers at every level

    1. Algerien profitiert vom Bedarf an Öl und Gas nach den Angriff auf die Ukraine und hat seine Einnahmen um 70% gesteigert. Die Regierung nutzt die Abhängigkeit des Westens aus, um die Repression gegen Journalist:innen und Opposition zu verschärfen. Algerien hat mir dem Bau einer zweiten Gaspipeline nach Sizilien beginnen und will in Zukunft 25 bis 35 Milliarden m<sup>3</sup> nach Italien und darüber an den Rest Europas liefern.

  17. Dec 2022
  18. Aug 2022
  19. Jun 2022
    1. The world's demand for noble gases will likely concentrate on China, Sundqvist added, and the county will "get a good price for [its] product."

      ...and if the West sides with Taiwan if China decides to invade it, we will see a repeat of Putin's strategy of limiting export of vital noble gases. Team human doesn't work well when we cannot collaborate

    2. Moscow began restricting exports of inert, or "noble" gases, including neon, argon and helium to "unfriendly" countries at the end of May, according to a report by Russian state news agency TASS. All three gases are used to produce the tiny electronic chips found in a raft of consumer products, from smartphones to washing machines to cars, and which have been in critically short supply for months.

      Russia supplies 30% of the global chip industry with neon, argon and helium, necessary for chip manufacturing.

    1. Baby, I'm cookin' with gas

      A lyric from "I Can Cook Too" written by Leonard Bernstein which appears in the 1944 Broadway musical "On the Town" sung by Nancy Walker and later in the 1949 film.

      https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/On_the_Town_(musical)


      I heard it last night at the end of the final episode of Julia S1, E8 Chocolate Souffle (May 5, 2022).

      https://www.imdb.com/title/tt10975574/

    1. The phrase "now you're coking with gas" was coined by American Gas Association publicist Carroll Everard "Deke" Houlgate. Deke's son indicated that his father "planted it with Bob Hope's writers" and it was ultimately used in one of his radio shows. From there it turned into one of his catchphrases and it was adopted by others including The Jack Benny Program and Maxwell House Coffee Time.

      Incidentally, Houlgate was also a football journalist who devised the first college football rankings methodology that determined the national champions from 1929 to 1958.

      Is this the same Houlgate, or perhaps his son who played for USC Trojans in the 1931 and 1932 Rose Bowl games?

      References: (see also and check...) - A Way With Words co-host Martha Barnette https://soundcloud.com/waywordradio/now-youre-cooking-with-gas

    1. https://www.b98.tv/video/wise-quacking-duck/

      "Say. Now you're cooking with gas." Daffy Duck in an oven bathing himself in gravy.

      The Wise Quacking Duck Warner Bros. (1943)<br /> Looney Tunes cartoon directed by Bob Clampett. <br /> Released on May 1, 1943

  20. Mar 2022
    1. i 00:05:49 will tell you i mean you've got eighty percent german approval right now for spending two percent of gdp on defense that's astonishing i mean the anger of the german people at what the russians 00:06:01 have done is so far beyond the imagination of where you could have been a couple weeks ago five months ago two years ago and i do think there's a greater willingness to take hardship

      This could be a key moment in time to launch a global Bottom-up, rapid whole system change initiative.

    1. Russia has said it may close its main gas pipeline to Germany if the West goes ahead with a ban on Russian oil.

      This could be a blessing and a boon to climate change transition to a fossil fuel free world.

    2. Deputy Prime Minister Alexander Novak said a "rejection of Russian oil would lead to catastrophic consequences for the global market", causing prices to more than double to $300 a barrel.

      Could the world be convinced to payfor this price?

    3. Germany and the Netherlands

      What would convince them? We need rapid sensemaking!

    1. Because of the invasion in Ukraine, “people are reminded of the problem, but then they resort to sort of quick fixes, which are not really for the long term,” says Rolf Wüestenhagen, director of the Institute for Economy and the Environment at the University of St. Gallen in Switzerland.

      Tradeoff higher gas prices with accelerated climate change and sanctioning Putin.

    1. Actually asking people to do this would be something of a last resort, said Ben McWilliams, a climate and energy analyst at Bruegel.<img alt="These US cities tried to cut natural gas from new homes. Republicans and the gas lobby stepped in" class="media__image" src="//viahtml.hypothes.is/proxy/im_///cdn.cnn.com/cnnnext/dam/assets/220217094013-01-cities-fossil-fuel-emissions-large-169.jpg">These US cities tried to cut natural gas from new homes. Republicans and the gas lobby stepped in"But who knows? It's an unprecedented situation. I could imagine a kind of political campaign, a real push by European leaders saying, look, if you can help us by turning down 1 degree on your thermostat, it's going to help. And you can see people uniting behind this, against Russian gas," he told CNN. "But ultimately, you'll need much more than this in response."One approach would be to replace around half the gas from other sources, McWilliams said. The United States is already shipping Iiquefied natural gas (LNG) to Europe, and EU officials are also looking to countries like Azerbaijan and Qatar. The other half will need to come from cutting demand, McWilliams said, especially as Europe prepares for next winter.Heavy industries, like steelmaking and chemical production, will need to reduce their operations. Homeowners investing in solar panels and heat pumps could help take some pressure off heating systems.Tara Connolly, a campaigner with the international NGO Global Witness who specializes in gas, says that Europe must launch an emergency program to insulate homes, replace gas boilers with heat pumps and accelerate the transition to renewable energy."It is abundantly clear that Europe's gas dependence has provided Putin with the resources to engage in his bloody venture in Ukraine, whilst hampering Europe's response,"

      A feasibility study would be informative.

  21. Jan 2022
  22. Nov 2021
    1. Haute couture has taken a back seat in terms of popularity to the trendsetting fast-fashion retailers

      Popularity in our world can sometimes act as a reaction effect when the popularity of a product or a trend becomes viral. These quick changes in culture cause a large part of society to want to be a part of the latest trend and to consume fashion, compared to in the past when Haute couture was the highest class of fashion. The importance of velocity is what has caused the fast-fashion industry to rise so aggressively knocking out competition out of the park. However, these market demands have extreme consequences towards our environment, with one of the leading causes of atmospheric pollution being the carbon dioxide emission coming from textile factories. By mentioning the change caused onto the haute couture Lezden claims the popularity of fast-fashion caused haute couture to take a step back.

  23. Oct 2021
  24. Aug 2021
    1. “We need to find ways to meet our customers’ needs and ambitions of reducing emissions to remain relevant for them.

      Énergir can, and should, meet their customers' needs by helping them to end their use of gas and by accelerating a managed decapitalization of their existing gas assets. Énergir should "Pump Heat, Not Gas." By this I mean, they should refocus as a "thermal-utility," rather than as a gas-supplier and build a new business focused on the installation of heat pumps and the provision of geothermal district heating for their customers.

    2. will reduce overall natural-gas usage by about 70 percent in buildings that install them,

      Quebec's plan to encourage hybrid heating (electric + gas) will cause a dramatic increase in gas bills:

      Reducing the quantity of gas commodity consumed does not reduce the largely fixed costs of gas delivery. Thus, in order to ensure revenue neutrality and adequate utility cost recovery, a 70% reduction in the quantity of gas delivered will require a 333% increase in the per-unit cost of gas delivery. This increased cost will, of course, be offset by reduced expenditure on the gas commodity. However, If we make the reasonable assumption that today's costs are evenly split between commodity and delivery, a 70% reduction in gas consumption will require a new per-unit price of delivered gas which is at least 182% of the current price with a reduction to 8.25% of the commodity's share of costs. Gas consumers will be paying for pipes, not gas... (I'm not sure what todays cost split is in Quebec. If it's 60% delivery, the price will rise to 212% of today's cost. If it is only 40%, the price will rise to 151% of today's. )

      However, it is likely that if the per unit cost of gas increases by the amounts calculated above, a great many gas users will realize that the cost/kWh or BTU of heating with electric heat pumps is lower than that for gas. Thus, it is likely that gas abandonment will increase over the current rates. While environmentalists will welcome increased gas abandonment, it should be recognized that it will create additional pressure to increase the per-unit cost of gas delivery which will, of course, encourage even more abandonment. The result will be a gas death-spiral.

      The Quebec approach is unlikely to lead to good outcomes.

  25. May 2021
    1. This EO should be considered by gas utilities, and their capital sources, who continue to invest in gas infrastructure with cost recovery periods that go far beyond 2050. Such investments will largely end up producing stranded assets.

  26. Oct 2020
  27. Aug 2020
  28. May 2020
  29. Apr 2020
  30. Mar 2020
    1. Evaluation of Low-Cost Sensors for Ambient PM2.5 Monitoring

      This article discusses different low cost sensors, their effectiveness and different uses. There is also a table that lists different low cost sensors for particulate matter

  31. Jan 2020
    1. Mining can include extraction of metals and minerals, like coal, diamond, gold, silver, platinum, copper, tin and iron. Mining can also include other things like oil and natural gas.

      How do you mine gas?

  32. Aug 2019
  33. Mar 2019
    1. A greenhouse gas is any gaseous compound in the atmosphere that is capable of absorbing infrared radiation

      Definition of a greenhouse gas.

  34. Aug 2017
  35. May 2017
    1. Trans-Mountain oil pipeline

      This is a very controversial oil pipeline that runs from Edmonton to Vancouver. This pipeline was built in the 1950s by Kinder Morgan in order to bring oil from Alberta to British Columbia when large oil deposits were discovered. This pipeline had a lot of political drive behind not only from the Canadian government but also the United States who wanted easier oil access on the west coast. The United States was in the middle of the Korean War and wanted to have more secure oil contact. The pipeline had a lot of resistance from other environmentalist groups because it ran through areas that would later be named national parks. However today, there is another pipeline that is being proposed by Kinder Morgan that runs almost parallel to the pre-existing one. The intent of the new pipeline is to bring more oil to the west coast of Canada in order to keep up with the growing oil market in Asia. The new pipeline was approved by British Columbia in January 2017 but the decision immediately faced resistance from the public. Many people are skeptical of a new pipeline because of Kinder Morgan's track record with spills in the past. A journalists from Vancouver writes "British Columbians will continue to fight this decision in the courts and on the streets well past next spring's election." This pipeline is a good example compared to the Mackenzie Valley Pipeline that is in a similar situation right now. There has been a new pipeline proposed there as well that is supported by the oil companies but many citizens and environmental groups are resisting it. "British Columbia nod to pipeline expansion." Oil & Gas News, January 16, 2017. Global Reference on the Environment, Energy, and Natural Resources (accessed May 7, 2017). http://find.galegroup.com/grnr/infomark.do?&source=gale&idigest=6f8f4a3faafd67e66fa023866730b0a1&prodId=GRNR&userGroupName=bucknell_it&tabID=T004&docId=A477938750&type=retrieve&PDFRange=%5B%5D&contentSet=IAC-Documents&version=1.0. "Kinder Morgan - EHS - Pipeline Safety." HOUWWWP1. Accessed May 07, 2017. http://www.kindermorgan.com/pages/ehs/pipeline_safety/default.aspx.

    1. The Medvezhye pipeline

      The Medvezhye Pipeline is a pipeline built on the Medvezhye oil and gas field (Shabad). This naturally occurring gas field is located in Northern Siberia. Officials hoped the institution of the pipeline would provide industrial Russian communities with oil by the late 1970s. Siberia also signed contracts with Italy, France, and West Germany and agreed to provide natural gas in exchange for pipes. The pipeline was built in a sub-Arctic region with harsh weather and frozen ground and many worried that the pipeline would not be constructed according to schedule. The Medvezhye pipeline was constructed on warming, unstable permafrost. The pipeline was commissioned in 1972 and is Russia’s third most highly producing pipeline (Seligman). In 1977, a study was performed to measure pipe deformation due to warming permafrost conditions. No deformation was found due to the pipe’s thickness. As of 2011, the pipeline’s managers, Victoria Oil and Gas PLC, reported that the pipeline had 400 million barrels of oil in place (Victoria Oil and Gas). In continued monitoring and development of the pipeline, Victoria Oil and Gas also performed studies to determine possible new drilling and well sites, production infrastructure, and downstream hydrocarbon emissions effects. Victoria Oil and Gas also studied oil export from the pipeline to Siberia and other parts of Russia. Today, the pipeline is still a major source of oil and gas for Russia. A map of the Medvezhye oil and gas field can be found below. http://images.energy365dino.co.uk/standard/126082_7a87a50d3cd24d7da925.jpg

      References: Selgiman, Ben J. "Long-Term Variability of Pipeline±Permafrost Interactions in North-West Siberia." PERMAFROST AND PERIGLACIAL PROCESSES, 22nd ser., 11, no. 5 (2000). Accessed May 05, 2017.

      Shabad, Theodore. "Siberia Pipeline Crews Advance." The New York Times. September 21, 1971. Accessed May 06, 2017. http://www.nytimes.com/1971/09/21/archives/siberia-pipeline-crews-advance-western-europe-to-buy-gas-delays-are.html?_r=0.

      "Victoria Oil and Gas." West Medvezhye Operational Update | Victoria Oil and Gas. July 07, 2011. Accessed May 06, 2017. http://www.victoriaoilandgas.com/investors/news/west-medvezhye-operational-update.

      West Medvezhye and Surrounding Areas.

  36. Mar 2017
    1. oil and gas and mineral wealth,

      The Arctic is home to a plethora of resources; it currently produces one tenth of the world’s oil and one fourth of its natural gas. Commercial extraction of oil started in the 1920s in Canada’s northwest territories. In the 1960s, large hydrocarbon fields were found in Russia, Alaska, and the Mackenzie Delta in Canada. The last several decades have produced billions of cubic meters of gas and oil in these countries in addition to Norway. The Canadian Arctic holds 49 gas and oil fields in the Mackenzie River Delta and 15 are located on the Canadian Arctic archipelago. There are also 11 offshore fossil fuel fields that were discovered in Barents Sea between Russia and Norway. North of the Arctic Circle, mostly in western Siberia, more than 400 onshore oil and gas fields have been found; roughly 60 of these fields are notably vast while a quarter of them are currently inoperable.

      In addition to fuel sources, there are also extensive deposits of minerals in the Arctic, predominantly in the most developed part of the region, the Russian Arctic. It contains copper, silver, zinc, molybdenum, gold, uranium, tungsten, tin, platinum, palladium, apatite, cobalt, titanium, rare metals, ceramic raw materials, mica, precious stones, and some of the largest known deposits of coal, gypsum, and diamonds. The North American Arctic, on the other hand, holds iron, nickel, copper, and uranium. It is important to note, however, that many of the known mineral reserves have not been extracted due to the high cost and their inaccessibility.

      "Natural Resources / Arctic." / Arctic. February 21, 2017. Accessed March 08, 2017. http://arctic.ru/resources/.

    2. The native people have had some hard things to say about the government, about the oil and gas industry and about the white man and his institutions.

      It is no secret that there was a lot of tension between the oil and gas company and the indigenous people of Canada and Alaska. In the 1950's and 1960's there was extensive drilling in areas of Alaska and Canada. Almost all of these decisions were made without consulting with the native people living in these areas. The drilling and exploration of the oil and gas fields had severe impacts on the ecosystem in the region. These impacts included the destruction of habitats from marine and terrestrial wildlife. This created many problems for the Native people who relied on hunting and fishing for a living. The Native people felt slighted by the actions of the oil and gas companies who refused to recognize their claims to the areas. Much of this problem was related to the fact that the Canadian and American governments also did not recognize them as people with claims to the land. The "Inuit in Canada faced a federal government that developed some powers-- in this case, to the territorial rather than the state government-- but nevertheless disregarded Aboriginal rights in the pursuit of Northern development." This stance from the government without a doubt led to the same dismissive attitude from the big oil and gas companies. Eventually, in the 1960's the native groups began to take steps in getting themselves recognized by the government and oil industry. It was through the help of environmental agencies that the native people started to be known. Many environmental agencies made it clear that activities in the Arctic such as oil drilling is extremely detrimental to the ecosystem and that it should not be continued. Many native groups piggy-backed on this stance and made themselves heard on the topic. Through this act both the oil industry and government began to recognize them as a legitimate body.

      Stuhl, Andrew. Unfreezing the Arctic. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press, 2016.

    1. seismic exploration camps

      Seismic exploration camps are outposts of southern oil and gas exploration activities. They are constructed to shelter scientists during their surveys of the north in search of oil and gas resources. Geologists and related scientists set off explosions to induce waves underground. Theses waves 'echo' off the different layers of material allowing geologists to interpret if/where oil and/or gas could be located.

      Though it is considered a non-invasive way to see into the subsurface when compared to drilling test holes, creating the infrastructure to allow seismic exploration to take pace and setting off explosions takes a toll on arctic ecosystems. In his book Unfreezing the Arctic Andrew Stuhl "This method [seismic] required the use of several tracked vehicles in a caravan, setting off blasts and collecting the data from them, and gashing vast stretches of the Arctic landscape" (Stuhl 114).

      Legacy of this seismic exploration is felt today, as the scars Stuhl references still exist.

      For more information and photos visit: (https://www.fws.gov/refuge/arctic/seismic.html )

      Stuhl, Andrew. Unfreezing The Arctic. 1st ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Print.

  37. May 2015
    1. cannot be entirely explained by the Ideal Gas Law (or variations thereof) when applied to the most likely game conditions and circumstances

      How about when introducing a needle that registers .3-.45 below accurate. Start the ideal gas law tests at 12.05.