8 Matching Annotations
  1. Mar 2019
    1. A greenhouse gas is any gaseous compound in the atmosphere that is capable of absorbing infrared radiation

      Definition of a greenhouse gas.

  2. Aug 2017
  3. May 2017
    1. Trans-Mountain oil pipeline

      This is a very controversial oil pipeline that runs from Edmonton to Vancouver. This pipeline was built in the 1950s by Kinder Morgan in order to bring oil from Alberta to British Columbia when large oil deposits were discovered. This pipeline had a lot of political drive behind not only from the Canadian government but also the United States who wanted easier oil access on the west coast. The United States was in the middle of the Korean War and wanted to have more secure oil contact. The pipeline had a lot of resistance from other environmentalist groups because it ran through areas that would later be named national parks. However today, there is another pipeline that is being proposed by Kinder Morgan that runs almost parallel to the pre-existing one. The intent of the new pipeline is to bring more oil to the west coast of Canada in order to keep up with the growing oil market in Asia. The new pipeline was approved by British Columbia in January 2017 but the decision immediately faced resistance from the public. Many people are skeptical of a new pipeline because of Kinder Morgan's track record with spills in the past. A journalists from Vancouver writes "British Columbians will continue to fight this decision in the courts and on the streets well past next spring's election." This pipeline is a good example compared to the Mackenzie Valley Pipeline that is in a similar situation right now. There has been a new pipeline proposed there as well that is supported by the oil companies but many citizens and environmental groups are resisting it. "British Columbia nod to pipeline expansion." Oil & Gas News, January 16, 2017. Global Reference on the Environment, Energy, and Natural Resources (accessed May 7, 2017). http://find.galegroup.com/grnr/infomark.do?&source=gale&idigest=6f8f4a3faafd67e66fa023866730b0a1&prodId=GRNR&userGroupName=bucknell_it&tabID=T004&docId=A477938750&type=retrieve&PDFRange=%5B%5D&contentSet=IAC-Documents&version=1.0. "Kinder Morgan - EHS - Pipeline Safety." HOUWWWP1. Accessed May 07, 2017. http://www.kindermorgan.com/pages/ehs/pipeline_safety/default.aspx.

    1. The Medvezhye pipeline

      The Medvezhye Pipeline is a pipeline built on the Medvezhye oil and gas field (Shabad). This naturally occurring gas field is located in Northern Siberia. Officials hoped the institution of the pipeline would provide industrial Russian communities with oil by the late 1970s. Siberia also signed contracts with Italy, France, and West Germany and agreed to provide natural gas in exchange for pipes. The pipeline was built in a sub-Arctic region with harsh weather and frozen ground and many worried that the pipeline would not be constructed according to schedule. The Medvezhye pipeline was constructed on warming, unstable permafrost. The pipeline was commissioned in 1972 and is Russia’s third most highly producing pipeline (Seligman). In 1977, a study was performed to measure pipe deformation due to warming permafrost conditions. No deformation was found due to the pipe’s thickness. As of 2011, the pipeline’s managers, Victoria Oil and Gas PLC, reported that the pipeline had 400 million barrels of oil in place (Victoria Oil and Gas). In continued monitoring and development of the pipeline, Victoria Oil and Gas also performed studies to determine possible new drilling and well sites, production infrastructure, and downstream hydrocarbon emissions effects. Victoria Oil and Gas also studied oil export from the pipeline to Siberia and other parts of Russia. Today, the pipeline is still a major source of oil and gas for Russia. A map of the Medvezhye oil and gas field can be found below. http://images.energy365dino.co.uk/standard/126082_7a87a50d3cd24d7da925.jpg

      References: Selgiman, Ben J. "Long-Term Variability of Pipeline±Permafrost Interactions in North-West Siberia." PERMAFROST AND PERIGLACIAL PROCESSES, 22nd ser., 11, no. 5 (2000). Accessed May 05, 2017.

      Shabad, Theodore. "Siberia Pipeline Crews Advance." The New York Times. September 21, 1971. Accessed May 06, 2017. http://www.nytimes.com/1971/09/21/archives/siberia-pipeline-crews-advance-western-europe-to-buy-gas-delays-are.html?_r=0.

      "Victoria Oil and Gas." West Medvezhye Operational Update | Victoria Oil and Gas. July 07, 2011. Accessed May 06, 2017. http://www.victoriaoilandgas.com/investors/news/west-medvezhye-operational-update.

      West Medvezhye and Surrounding Areas.

  4. Mar 2017
    1. oil and gas and mineral wealth,

      The Arctic is home to a plethora of resources; it currently produces one tenth of the world’s oil and one fourth of its natural gas. Commercial extraction of oil started in the 1920s in Canada’s northwest territories. In the 1960s, large hydrocarbon fields were found in Russia, Alaska, and the Mackenzie Delta in Canada. The last several decades have produced billions of cubic meters of gas and oil in these countries in addition to Norway. The Canadian Arctic holds 49 gas and oil fields in the Mackenzie River Delta and 15 are located on the Canadian Arctic archipelago. There are also 11 offshore fossil fuel fields that were discovered in Barents Sea between Russia and Norway. North of the Arctic Circle, mostly in western Siberia, more than 400 onshore oil and gas fields have been found; roughly 60 of these fields are notably vast while a quarter of them are currently inoperable.

      In addition to fuel sources, there are also extensive deposits of minerals in the Arctic, predominantly in the most developed part of the region, the Russian Arctic. It contains copper, silver, zinc, molybdenum, gold, uranium, tungsten, tin, platinum, palladium, apatite, cobalt, titanium, rare metals, ceramic raw materials, mica, precious stones, and some of the largest known deposits of coal, gypsum, and diamonds. The North American Arctic, on the other hand, holds iron, nickel, copper, and uranium. It is important to note, however, that many of the known mineral reserves have not been extracted due to the high cost and their inaccessibility.

      "Natural Resources / Arctic." / Arctic. February 21, 2017. Accessed March 08, 2017. http://arctic.ru/resources/.

    2. The native people have had some hard things to say about the government, about the oil and gas industry and about the white man and his institutions.

      It is no secret that there was a lot of tension between the oil and gas company and the indigenous people of Canada and Alaska. In the 1950's and 1960's there was extensive drilling in areas of Alaska and Canada. Almost all of these decisions were made without consulting with the native people living in these areas. The drilling and exploration of the oil and gas fields had severe impacts on the ecosystem in the region. These impacts included the destruction of habitats from marine and terrestrial wildlife. This created many problems for the Native people who relied on hunting and fishing for a living. The Native people felt slighted by the actions of the oil and gas companies who refused to recognize their claims to the areas. Much of this problem was related to the fact that the Canadian and American governments also did not recognize them as people with claims to the land. The "Inuit in Canada faced a federal government that developed some powers-- in this case, to the territorial rather than the state government-- but nevertheless disregarded Aboriginal rights in the pursuit of Northern development." This stance from the government without a doubt led to the same dismissive attitude from the big oil and gas companies. Eventually, in the 1960's the native groups began to take steps in getting themselves recognized by the government and oil industry. It was through the help of environmental agencies that the native people started to be known. Many environmental agencies made it clear that activities in the Arctic such as oil drilling is extremely detrimental to the ecosystem and that it should not be continued. Many native groups piggy-backed on this stance and made themselves heard on the topic. Through this act both the oil industry and government began to recognize them as a legitimate body.

      Stuhl, Andrew. Unfreezing the Arctic. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press, 2016.

    1. seismic exploration camps

      Seismic exploration camps are outposts of southern oil and gas exploration activities. They are constructed to shelter scientists during their surveys of the north in search of oil and gas resources. Geologists and related scientists set off explosions to induce waves underground. Theses waves 'echo' off the different layers of material allowing geologists to interpret if/where oil and/or gas could be located.

      Though it is considered a non-invasive way to see into the subsurface when compared to drilling test holes, creating the infrastructure to allow seismic exploration to take pace and setting off explosions takes a toll on arctic ecosystems. In his book Unfreezing the Arctic Andrew Stuhl "This method [seismic] required the use of several tracked vehicles in a caravan, setting off blasts and collecting the data from them, and gashing vast stretches of the Arctic landscape" (Stuhl 114).

      Legacy of this seismic exploration is felt today, as the scars Stuhl references still exist.

      For more information and photos visit: (https://www.fws.gov/refuge/arctic/seismic.html )

      Stuhl, Andrew. Unfreezing The Arctic. 1st ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Print.

  5. May 2015
    1. cannot be entirely explained by the Ideal Gas Law (or variations thereof) when applied to the most likely game conditions and circumstances

      How about when introducing a needle that registers .3-.45 below accurate. Start the ideal gas law tests at 12.05.