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  1. Last 7 days
    1. Smart Hard Hats in the Oil & Gas Industry

      The oil & gas industry will be one of the most affected sectors by IoT and other technologies. The smart hard hat has penetrated in multiple areas where safety and management is the prime concern.

  2. Sep 2019
    1. But sustained Saudi outage of several million daily barrels would rattle markets, because of the lack of other players big enough to step in and provide enough supply to cover the shortfall longer term. Even if Saudi officials were successful in restoring all or most of the lost production, the attack demonstrates a new vulnerability to supply lines across the oil-rich Gulf. Tankers have been paying sharply higher insurance premiums, while shipping rates have soared in the region after a series of maritime attacks on oil-laden vessels, which the U.S. has blamed on Iran.
  3. Aug 2019
  4. Jun 2019
    1. Smil notes that as of 2018, coal, oil, and natural gas still supply 90% of the world's primary energy. Despite decades of growth of renewable energy, the world uses more fossil fuels in 2018 than in 2000, by percentage.
  5. May 2019
    1. John Robert, a microbiologist in New Mexico did an experiment on whether the beard contained bacteria. Results from the experiment that beards contain a lot of bacteria as dirty as a toilet. That’s a lot of bacteria and it’s a bit unsettling. He advised men with a beard should wash hands frequently and wash beard if they want to have a clean and healthy beard. Also, take care not to get food on your beard when you eating. If you exercise outside for a long time under the hot weather, there will be massive secretion of oil and have a lot of dust in your beard. If you haven’t clean your beard in the time it’s very easy to damage your sink. In particular, the bacteria on the surface of the face will take advantage of this, causes folliculitis and sebaceous adenitis, even cause swelling of the lips and face.

      Is Growing A Beard Easy To Nourish Germ?

  6. Mar 2019
    1. You can use the essential oil inventory app by creating your own profile with shopping list, inventory, and recipes. You can search for the oils from name or brand and access all its details.

      The app has a very easy to understand user interface with a minimalist design so that users of any age can use this app effortlessly.

  7. Oct 2018
    1. To complete the requirement of daily vitamins for dogs, use Fidobuddy – Dog vitamins supplement. It rich in omega fatty acids and vitamins A, D3 and E. It is helpful to improve immunity, maintain good vision, reduce allergy and promote brain health.

  8. Sep 2018
    1. FidoBuddy is one of the products of Fidomate that consists of best in class pure salmon oil for dogs which is rich in omega fatty acids and essential Dogs Vitamins like vitamins A, D3 and E. Fidobuddy is vitamin supplement which fulfills the requirement of vitamins for dogs.

  9. Aug 2018
    1. She reached behind her to her bookshelf, which held about a dozen blue bottles of something called Real Water, which is not stripped of “valuable electrons,” which supposedly creates free radicals something something from the body’s cells.

      I question her credibility to market claims like this. I suspect she has no staff scientist or people with the sort of background to make such claims. Even snake oil salesmen like Dr. Oz are pointedly putting us in hands way too make a buck.

  10. Nov 2017
  11. 44uc8dkwa8q3f5b66w13vilg-wpengine.netdna-ssl.com 44uc8dkwa8q3f5b66w13vilg-wpengine.netdna-ssl.com
    1. I personally never seen it as a problem with my patients, but the only people I know who are taking like 20 grams of fish oil are in head trauma recovery programs. People say, "Oh, you should worry about bleeding or bruising." I haven't seen that as a significant problem.

      High doses Fish Oil. Omega 3

  12. Aug 2017
  13. wayback.archive-it.org wayback.archive-it.org
    1. Booms, busts and bitumen The economic implications of Canadian oilsands development Published Nov. 13, 2013 This report, jointly published by Equiterre and the Pembina Institute, examines how the rapid pace of oilsands development is creating economic risks and regional disparities that could have long-term implications for Canada's economic prosperity.  The report also provides pragmatic recommendations to address these concerns, such as improving the management of one-time resource wealth and eliminating preferential tax treatment for the oil and gas sector.

      This is the institute's major 2013 report on oil sands development, with recommendations to address concerns about the environment, the economy, and tax implications.

    1. Our Approach Leading the transition to a clean energy future is no small task, and it requires advancing solutions to today’s energy challenges from various angles. The Pembina Institute has spent close to three decades working to reduce the environmental impacts of Canada’s energy production and use in several key areas: driving down energy demand by encouraging energy efficiency and transportation powered with cleaner energy sources; promoting pragmatic policy approaches for governments to avoid dangerous climate change, such as increasing the amount of renewable energy plugged into our electricity grids; and — recognizing that the transition to clean energy will include fossil fuels for some time — advocating for responsible development of Canada’s oilsands and shale gas resources.

      Interesting mix of goals for the Pembina Institute. It would be interesting to see how they weight each approach - what kind of connections do they have to oil sands development?

    1. Community

      Interesting list of community connections here. I wonder how many actual links to these organizations they have, or if this is simply a link list.

  14. Jul 2017
    1. The Oil Sands Community Alliance (OSCA) has the mandate to pursue innovative solutions to build thriving communities and enable the responsible growth of Canada’s oil sands. The OSCA uses a collaborative approach that facilitates engagement, builds relationships, and creates measureable socio-economic benefits. Our name emphasizes a broader interest and a longer-term approach to thinking about socio-economic impacts on the community. Through our association, resource developers partner with local, provincial or federal government agencies, communities, and other industries to address mutual issues. OSCA’s structure encourages a more strategic use of funds and activities through a more highly co-ordinated approach across operations and geographic regions to address issues. We know that partnerships are the best way to facilitate local capacity building, mobilize resources more quickly, leverage investment and co-ordinate multiple activities to respond to complex issues. This OSCA identifies issues from the perspective of those potentially impacted by projects; predict and anticipate change; and develop strategies to proactively respond to the consequences of development. The advantages of this approach are significant: Identify issues early for better planning of social and physical infrastructure; Inform and involve internal and external stakeholders and  assist in building trust and mutually beneficial outcomes; Improve the quality of  life of employees and enhance the attraction and retention of skilled workers; Increase capacity of community organizations, by partnering and implementing innovative approaches; and Better meet community principles and standards. The OSCA is focused on four core areas: aboriginal, community well-being, infrastructure and workforce. Within these committees, key issues will be prioritized through baseline research and stakeholder consultation.

      None of this really addresses WHO they are, and what kind of activities they're working on.

    1. E&P: CEOs, COOs, VPs, Directors, Managers, Engineers & Team Leads Of     Production     Reservoir Engineering     Operations     Engineering     Resource Management     Unconventional Reserves     Geology & Geophysics     Strategy & Planning     Asset Development     Strategy     Technology     Completions     Technology     SAGD

      Industry conference for water treatment and re-use in oil sands development. Interestingly, site includes a list of suggested occupations to attend the conference.

  15. wayback.archive-it.org wayback.archive-it.org
    1. Our goal is to advance responsible oilsands development, which we define as: capping the impacts of oilsands development within the limits of what science shows the ecosystem can support; shrinking the environmental footprint of oilsands development for every barrel produced; and ensuring a meaningful portion of the benefits of oilsands development are used to support Canada's transition to a clean energy future.

      Goals of the organization, with regards to the oilsands. Interestingly, they are not anti-oil sands, but promoting responsible development.

    1. Commentary   Media Releases Feb. 25, 2014 OP-ED: More pieces to B.C.'s LNG puzzle than you think By Kevin Sauvé Feb. 25, 2014 OP-ED: Seeing the full picture on pipelines and the oilsands By Clare Demerse Feb. 24, 2014 BLOG: Calling all leaders in energy efficiency By Ed Whittingham Feb. 20, 2014 BLOG: Closing the downtown–suburban divide By Cherise Burda Feb. 20, 2014 BLOG: Piecing together B.C.’s LNG fiscal framework By Matt Horne

      Pembina has a highly-visible section for blog posts on its main page. Contributors are mainly directors and other staff members.

    1. Looking for rig work? Rig Tech Service Rig Drive Member Login E-mail * Password * Request new password

      Representation for Canadian oil drilling contractors. Provides services for works in oil industries, as well as major oil companies.

    1. Industries usually measure economic impact by approximating a dollar value to represent their purchasing power.The oil and gas industry measures economic impact by counting active rigs. A drilling rig requires many oilfield support services to drill a well. And after the well is complete, other oilfield services go to work to bring the well into production and to maintain it.

      One of the primary activities of the Canadian Association of Oilwell Drilling Contractors seems to be in counting oil rigs, a a measure of economic impact.

    1. Keystone XL Pipeline

      This is an American organization with publications and opinion pieces on the Aberta Keystone XL Pipeline and other oil sands development.

    1. Skip to content Events 2014 C-Suites Awards Gala – Feb 5 Human Resources Best Practices for Energy Services Companies – March 18 C-Suite Awards The 2014 C-Suites Gala 2014 Award Winners 2013 Award Winners 2012 Award Winners 2011 Award Winners The 100 & Energy Service 50 Apply Event Articles Magazine Current Issue Columns Promoted Content Back Issues Media Releases Subscriber Address Change About Comment Policy Contact Us Where to get Alberta Oil Advertise Jobs Follow Alberta Oil On:

      Trade magazine on Alberta oil industry. Articles have named authors.

  16. wayback.archive-it.org wayback.archive-it.org
    1. Who we are The Alberta Energy Regulator ensures the safe, efficient, orderly, and environmentally responsible development of hydrocarbon resources over their entire life cycle. This includes allocating and conserving water resources, managing public lands, and protecting the environment while providing economic benefits for all Albertans. The Alberta Energy Regulator (AER) succeeds the Energy Resources Conservation Board and will take on regulatory functions from the Ministry of Environment and Sustainable Resource Development that relate to public lands, water, and the environment. In this way, the AER will provide full-lifecycle regulatory oversight of energy resource development in Alberta - from application and construction to abandonment and reclamation, and everything in between. For 75 years, Alberta’s oil and gas regulator has adapted to meet innovations in technology, new industry activity, and changing social expectations. The Alberta Energy Regulator builds on this foundation and prepares the province to take on the next era in energy regulation.

      Alberta government regulatory body.

    1. What’s the Problem with the Tar Sands?

      No information about who is writing these articles. Sadly, the crawl did not capture the "About" page, and this website no longer exists.

    1. OSFC is supported by a broad coalition of organizations and interests. We may represent many interests, but when it comes to getting the facts out about the promise and potential of responsible oil sands development – about the jobs it makes possible, and the footprint that continues to shrink by the day – well, that’s something every one of us can get behind.

      This is clearly a pro-oil development resource, which is rather vague about who is actually providing the information. Not many citations, either.

  17. May 2017
    1. Trans-Mountain oil pipeline

      This is a very controversial oil pipeline that runs from Edmonton to Vancouver. This pipeline was built in the 1950s by Kinder Morgan in order to bring oil from Alberta to British Columbia when large oil deposits were discovered. This pipeline had a lot of political drive behind not only from the Canadian government but also the United States who wanted easier oil access on the west coast. The United States was in the middle of the Korean War and wanted to have more secure oil contact. The pipeline had a lot of resistance from other environmentalist groups because it ran through areas that would later be named national parks. However today, there is another pipeline that is being proposed by Kinder Morgan that runs almost parallel to the pre-existing one. The intent of the new pipeline is to bring more oil to the west coast of Canada in order to keep up with the growing oil market in Asia. The new pipeline was approved by British Columbia in January 2017 but the decision immediately faced resistance from the public. Many people are skeptical of a new pipeline because of Kinder Morgan's track record with spills in the past. A journalists from Vancouver writes "British Columbians will continue to fight this decision in the courts and on the streets well past next spring's election." This pipeline is a good example compared to the Mackenzie Valley Pipeline that is in a similar situation right now. There has been a new pipeline proposed there as well that is supported by the oil companies but many citizens and environmental groups are resisting it. "British Columbia nod to pipeline expansion." Oil & Gas News, January 16, 2017. Global Reference on the Environment, Energy, and Natural Resources (accessed May 7, 2017). http://find.galegroup.com/grnr/infomark.do?&source=gale&idigest=6f8f4a3faafd67e66fa023866730b0a1&prodId=GRNR&userGroupName=bucknell_it&tabID=T004&docId=A477938750&type=retrieve&PDFRange=%5B%5D&contentSet=IAC-Documents&version=1.0. "Kinder Morgan - EHS - Pipeline Safety." HOUWWWP1. Accessed May 07, 2017. http://www.kindermorgan.com/pages/ehs/pipeline_safety/default.aspx.

    1. Alyeska oil pipeline
      The oil discovered in the Prudhoe Bay oil field in the North Slope region of Alaska in 1968 was the “largest oil field discovered in North America.” In 1969, a Trans-Alaska pipeline to transport oil from the North Slope was proposed by the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System. The Trans-Alaska Pipeline System was comprised of three major oil corporations. Despite many other ideas and suggestions to transport this oil, the oil industry reached a consensus in favor of the pipeline proposal of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (Busenberg, 2013). Construction of the Alyeska oil pipeline, also known as the Alaska pipeline or trans-Alaska pipeline, began in 1975. This pipeline was built by the Alyeska Pipeline Service Company, a group that was made up of seven different oil companies. In certain regions, the pipeline is buried underground, but where there is permafrost, the pipeline is constructed above the ground. The pipeline crosses over 800 river and streams and passes through three mountain ranges. The first oil was delivered from Prudhoe Bay to Valdez on June 20, 1977. This oil had to travel through the 789 mile long pipeline to reach its destination (Alaska Public Lands Information Centers, n.d.). See below for a link to “Pipeline! The story of the building of the trans-Alaska pipeline” video posted on YouTube by the Alaska National Parks service. 
      

      https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WmO6loYsm4Q

      References

      Alaska Public Lands Information Centers. (n.d.). The Trans-Alaska Pipeline. Retrieved from Alaska Public Lands Information Centers: https://www.alaskacenters.gov/the-alyeska-pipeline.cfm

      Busenberg, G. J. (2013). The Trans-Alaska Pipeline System. In G. J. Busenburg, Oil and Wilderness in Alaska (pp. 11-43). Georgetown University Press.

    2. The Medvezhye pipeline

      The Medvezhye Pipeline is a pipeline built on the Medvezhye oil and gas field (Shabad). This naturally occurring gas field is located in Northern Siberia. Officials hoped the institution of the pipeline would provide industrial Russian communities with oil by the late 1970s. Siberia also signed contracts with Italy, France, and West Germany and agreed to provide natural gas in exchange for pipes. The pipeline was built in a sub-Arctic region with harsh weather and frozen ground and many worried that the pipeline would not be constructed according to schedule. The Medvezhye pipeline was constructed on warming, unstable permafrost. The pipeline was commissioned in 1972 and is Russia’s third most highly producing pipeline (Seligman). In 1977, a study was performed to measure pipe deformation due to warming permafrost conditions. No deformation was found due to the pipe’s thickness. As of 2011, the pipeline’s managers, Victoria Oil and Gas PLC, reported that the pipeline had 400 million barrels of oil in place (Victoria Oil and Gas). In continued monitoring and development of the pipeline, Victoria Oil and Gas also performed studies to determine possible new drilling and well sites, production infrastructure, and downstream hydrocarbon emissions effects. Victoria Oil and Gas also studied oil export from the pipeline to Siberia and other parts of Russia. Today, the pipeline is still a major source of oil and gas for Russia. A map of the Medvezhye oil and gas field can be found below. http://images.energy365dino.co.uk/standard/126082_7a87a50d3cd24d7da925.jpg

      References: Selgiman, Ben J. "Long-Term Variability of Pipeline±Permafrost Interactions in North-West Siberia." PERMAFROST AND PERIGLACIAL PROCESSES, 22nd ser., 11, no. 5 (2000). Accessed May 05, 2017.

      Shabad, Theodore. "Siberia Pipeline Crews Advance." The New York Times. September 21, 1971. Accessed May 06, 2017. http://www.nytimes.com/1971/09/21/archives/siberia-pipeline-crews-advance-western-europe-to-buy-gas-delays-are.html?_r=0.

      "Victoria Oil and Gas." West Medvezhye Operational Update | Victoria Oil and Gas. July 07, 2011. Accessed May 06, 2017. http://www.victoriaoilandgas.com/investors/news/west-medvezhye-operational-update.

      West Medvezhye and Surrounding Areas.

    3. trans-Alaska pipeline

      The Trans-Alaska Pipeline Project began construction on March 27, 1975. The pipeline was constructed in response to the discovery of oil under the Purdhoe Bay (Alaska Public Lands Information Centers). The project was controversial because environmentalists worried about earthquakes and the effects on elk migrations (Wells). The pipeline is almost 800 miles long and includes pumping stations that connected other pipelines. The pipeline was constructed by the Alyeska Pipeline Service Company, which was created by seven oil companies (Wells, Alaska Public Lands Information Centers). The pipeline is mostly below ground, except in areas of permafrost. The sections of pipe that were built above ground were built in a zigzag pattern to account for expansion due to temperature changes (Wells). In unseasonably warm areas, the pipeline is supported by two thicker “heat pipes.” The pipeline was completed on May 31, 1977 (Alaska Public Lands Information Centers). The pipeline first contained oil on June 20, 1977. The pipeline carries about 1.8 million barrels of oil per day. In March of 1989, an oil tanker leaked over 260,000 barrels of oil into the Prince William Sound. This was the second largest oil spill in the United States. The spill covered 1300 miles of land and 11,000 miles of ocean. Images of the pipeline can be seen below. http://aoghs.org/transportation/trans-alaska-pipeline/

      References:

      "Trans-Alaska Pipeline History." American Oil & Gas Historical Society. June 21, 2016. Accessed May 05, 2017. http://aoghs.org/transportation/trans-alaska-pipeline/.

      "The Trans-Alaska Pipeline." The Trans-Alaska Pipeline. Accessed May 05, 2017. https://www.alaskacenters.gov/the-alyeska-pipeline.cfm.

    4. Norman Wells

      Norman Wells is a small trading community located along the Mackenzie River in the Northwest Territories (Life in Norman Wells). Norman Wells was founded due to its natural resources. The oil seepages observed at the riverbank by Alexander Mackenzie were assumed to be oil spills; however, these oil deposits were an example of a non-renewable resource in Norman Wells. Reefs and sediments that once were in the ocean create oil, which seeps to the surface of riverbanks. Alexander Mackenzie first noticed the oil seepages in the 1700s, and three land claims were staked in 1914. The town of Norman Wells prospered after this discovery and Imperial Oil staked land claims in 1918 and drilled for oil. The oil production was small, but enough to supply local towns with oil. Today, Imperial Oil and the Canadian Government share ownership of the Norman Wells oil field and employ about 90 people from Norman Wells (Quenneville). In 1994, a Sahtu Land Claim Agreement was signed, giving the Hare, Sahtu Dene, Mountain Dene, and Metis ethnic groups ownership of some land parcels in Norman Wells (Life in Norman Wells). Today, Norman Wells contains two oil pipelines and is an area of commerce and tourism with a population of roughly 800 people. Norman Wells contains its own airstrip with flights that leave daily. Tourists visit Norman Wells to experience its diverse wildlife, including birds, moose, caribou, Dall’s sheep, grizzly bears, and a variety of fish. Images of Norman Wells can be found below: http://www.normanwells.com/lifestyle/gallery/canada-day-2010

      References: "Life in Norman Wells." Normanwells. 2010. Accessed May 03, 2017. http://www.normanwells.com/lifestyle/life-norman-wells.

      Quenneville, Guy. "Imperial Oil to suspend Norman Wells production due to continuing pipeline shutdown." CBCnews. January 26, 2017. Accessed May 03, 2017. http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/north/imperial-oil-norman-wells-suspend-production-pipeline-1.3954051.

  18. enst31501sp2017.courses.bucknell.edu enst31501sp2017.courses.bucknell.edu
    1. spills

      In 1989, a transport tanker ship called Exxon Valdez hit the shore and spilled over 250,000 barrels of crude oil, causing the worst-ever oil spill in Alaska. This resulted in the death of 5,000 otters, 300 harbor seals, 200,000 birds of nintey different species, and hundreds of fish and other animals. Additionally, it caused a dramatic demise in multiple plant and marine species and ecosystems. Cleanup efforts of the oil spill cost Exxon around $2 billion, which is a small price to pay for an event that altered an entire ecosystem for years to come. For something that is considered necessary for the United States oil supply and economy, the resulting consequences have the potential to obliterate the Alaskan environment and change the Arctic Ocean ecosystems forever. Major oil spills such as this are one of the major concerns for extracting oil in the ANWR.

      Environmental Issues: Essential Primary Sources. "DOI Trans-Alaska Pipeline Authorization Act." GREENR. http://find.galegroup.com/grnr/infomark.do?&source=gale&idigest=6f8f4a3faafd67e66fa023866730b0a1&prodId=GRNR&userGroupName=bucknell_it&tabID=T016&docId=CX3456400114&type=retrieve&contentSet=EBKS&version=1.0.

  19. Apr 2017
  20. enst31501sp2017.courses.bucknell.edu enst31501sp2017.courses.bucknell.edu
    1. no longer allowed

      Further reading on the updated technology and tactics used in modern day drilling, graphs and figures included.

      Pelley, Janet. "Will Drilling for Oil Disrupt the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge?" Environmental Science & Technology 35, no. 11 (June 1, 2001). Accessed March 26, 2017. doi:10.1021/es0123756. http://pubs.acs.org/doi/pdf/10.1021/es0123756

    2. William Cunningham,

      William Cunningham is an Emeritus Professor at the University of Minnesota where he taught for 36 years in the Departments of Botany and Genetics and Cell Biology as well as the Conservation Biology Program, the Institute for Social, Economic, and Ecological Sustainability, the Center for Environmental Learning and Leadership, and the McArthur Program in Global Change. He received his Ph.D. in Botany from the University of Texas in 1963 and spent two years at Purdue University as a postdoctoral fellow. At various times, he has been a visiting scholar in Sweden, Norway, Indonesia, and China, as well as several universities and research institutions in the United States. Dr. Cunningham has devoted himself to education and teaching development at the undergraduate level in biology. He began his educational career in structural biology but for the last 10-15 years has concentrated on environmental science, teaching courses such as Social Uses of Biology; Garbage, Government, and the Globe; Environmental Ethics; and Conservation History. Within the past four years, he has received both of the two highest teaching honors that the University of Minnesota bestows: The Distinguished Teaching Award and a $15,000 Amoco Alumni Award. He has served as a Faculty Mentor for younger faculty at the university, sharing the knowledge and teaching skills that he has gained during his distinguished career.

      Cunningham, William. "Arctic National Wildlife Refuge." Environmental Encyclopedia 1 (2011). Accessed March 26, 2017.

    3. economic opportunity

      This article claims that it would take several decades to extract the oil in the ANWR, where at its peak in 2025 would account for 3% of domestic oil consumption. The benefit of drilling in the ANWR would be to sell the oil for a total of ~$613 billion, which experts claim this number could dramatically increase. Kotchen and Burger argue that the profit could be used for funding for renewable energy technology, but also acknowledge the fact that to allow this drilling would just satisfy our addiction to oil. This provides a non-environmentalist perspective on the benefits of drilling in the ANWR.

      Kotchen, Matt J., and Nicolas Burger. "Oil and the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge." Resources for the Future, October 6, 2008. Accessed March 23, 2017. http://www.rff.org/blog/2008/oil-and-arctic-national-wildlife-refuge

    4. foreign oi

      This article considers other ongoing world events (specifically, the Gulf War) in order to pressure Congress’s pending approval of drilling in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. At this point in time, there had been a joint drilling executed by BP and Chevron, but the results were declared a corporate secret and were not released to policy makers, other oil companies, or the public. A major reason why the drilling was being pushed was to have a lesser reliance on foreign oil.

      Balzar, John. "Arctic Wildlife Refuge may be Casualty of Persian Gulf Crisis." Los Angeles Times (1923-Current File), Aug 26, 1990. Accessed March 25, 2017. https://search.proquest.com/docview/1461028582?accountid=9784

  21. Mar 2017
    1. Sachs Harbour

      Sachs Harbour is located in the Inuvik region of the Northwest Territories, Canada and is situated on the southwestern coast of Banks Island in the Inuvialuit Settlement Region. According to the 2011 census, the population was 112 people. The principle languages spoken in the town are Inuvialuktan and English. The economy is primarily based upon hunting and trapping, but tourism also plays a small role. Residents also engage in ice fishing- harvesting fish from the Amundsen Gulf and Beaufort Sea. Banks Island is ecologically significant for being home to the largest goose colony in North America and is home to three quarters of the world’s population of muskoxen. Barren-ground caribou and polar bears are also seen on the island. On April 26, 2006, the world’s first documented wild-born grizzly-polar bear hybrid was shot near the town. The town has a Visitor Reception Centre that presents the Aulavik National Park and Inuvialuit culture to visitors to the Banks island and serves as a center for community activities. The town is of historical significance for a number of ships sent out to the Arctic Bay by the British Admiralty to find the lost expedition of James Franklin that became trapped in the ice for three years and was abandoned by its crew. One ships primary investigator and captain was Robert McClure who was able to identify the fabled North West Passage- a waterway across the top of North America that would allow passage to Asia from Banks Island. Only few have made this passage since due to icy and dangerous waters, but as the earth warms there may be a day when this passage becomes common. Sachs Harbour is in the Arctic tundra climate zone, which is characterized by long and extremely cold winters. Since many of the activities of the residents in the community revolve aroundfishing hunting,and travel, many residents have considerable knowledge of weather conditions, permafrost, and erosion patterns. Because of climate changes in recent years, many local residents fear that their knowledge of weather patterns may not be as useful as the weather becomes harder to predict. Since the climate has been changing, the sea ice is breaking up earlier than usual taking seals farther south in the summer. Seals are a main food source for the town. Climate change is bringing many other changes to the island’s ecology as well; salmon appeared for the first time in nearby waters between 1999 and 2001, new species of birds are migrating- including robins and barn swallows, and more flies and mosquitos have been appearing. Additionally, there is estimated to be 4 to 12 billion barrels of commercially recoverable oil in the Beaufort Sea and between 13 and 63 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. As the climate continues to warm it will be easier to access these resources, which could potentially damage the ecology of the island if not managed properly.

      Citations Babaluk , John A., James D. Reist, James D. Johnson, and Lionel Johnson. " First Records of Sockeye (Oncorhynchus nerka) and Pink Salmon (O. gorbuscha) from Banks Island and Other Records of Pacific Salmon in Northwest Territories, Canada." Http://pubs.aina.ucalgary.ca. June 2000. Accessed March 9, 2017. http://pubs.aina.ucalgary.ca/arctic/Arctic53-2-161.pdf.

      Callow, Lin. "Oil and Gas Exploration & Development Activity Forecast." Http://www.beaufortrea.ca. March 2013. Accessed March 2017. http://www.beaufortrea.ca/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/NCR-5358624-v4-BREA_-_FINAL_UPDATE_-_EXPLORATION_AND_ACTIVITY_FORECAST-__MAY_2013.pdf.

      Canada, Government Of Canada Statistics. "Census Profile." Census Program. May 31, 2016. Accessed March 09, 2017. http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2011/dp-pd/prof/details/page.cfm?Lang=E&Geo1=CSD&Code1=6101041&Geo2=PR&Code2=61&Data=Count&SearchText=Sachs Harbour&SearchType=Begins&SearchPR=01&B1=All&GeoLevel=PR&GeoCode=6101041&TABID=1.

      "Observed Climate Change Impacts in Sachs Harbour, Canada." Observed Climate Change Impacts in Sachs Harbour, Canada. Accessed March 09, 2017. http://www.greenfacts.org/en/arctic-climate-change/toolboxes/observed-climate-change-impacts.htm.

    2. The importance of fuel spills should not be underestimated, particularly if the fuel gets into water.
      Oil spills are potentially catastrophic events for the local environment. Published in 1977, Mr. Berger would have recently seen Alaska’s decision to reverse its ruling on drilling in the Kachemak Bay after a relatively minor spill.1 Oil spills on land, such as those from a pipeline, can be tremendously damaging and kills all currently growing tissue.2 Across water, the potential for the spill to spread is greatly increased, and any damage is exacerbated by the Arctic climate, where its slow rate of degradation would allow it to remain for as long as 50 years.3 The spills are most dangerous on the surface, where they prove especially deadly to birds, and there is concern that a spill could quickly diffuse over a large area, increasing the radiation absorbed and greatly facilitating ice melt. Given the event of a catastrophic failure, the pipeline would have the potential to leak tens of thousands of barrels, not including smaller leaks and the time necessary to detect and repair them. Furthermore, attempts to prevent the spill from reaching the water using temperate containment techniques may be more damaging than helpful due to the use of heavy equipment and the risk this poses to the permafrost.4 In 1967, the Torrey Canyon Oil Spill illustrated the dangers posed by a spill. A supertanker ran aground off the coast of England, spilling between 857,600 and 872,300 barrels of oil, contaminating 300 miles of coastline and killing 25,000 birds as well as various seals and other marine life.5 Therefore, any spill is detrimental to the environment, and if it allowed to reach water, these effects will only be compounded.
      
      1. Panitch, Mark. "Kachemak Bay: Oil Spill Leads Alaska to Reverse Drilling OK." Science 193, no. 4248 (1976): 131. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1743047.
      2. Wein, Ross W., and L. C. Bliss. "Experimental Crude Oil Spills on Arctic Plant Communities." Journal of Applied Ecology 10, no. 3 (1973): 671-82. doi:10.2307/2401861.
      3. Campbell, W. J., and S. Martin. "Oil and Ice in the Arctic Ocean: Possible Large-Scale Interactions." Science 181, no. 4094 (1973): 56-58. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1735934.
      4. Shelton, R. G. J. "Effects of Oil and Oil Dispersants on the Marine Environment." Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences 177, no. 1048 (1971): 411-22. http://www.jstor.org/stable/75994.
      5. "Torrey Canyon." Joye Research Group. Accessed March 5, 2017. http://www.joyeresearchgroup.uga.edu/public-outreach/marine-oil-spills/other-spills/torrey-canyon.
    3. seismic exploration camps

      Seismic exploration camps are outposts of southern oil and gas exploration activities. They are constructed to shelter scientists during their surveys of the north in search of oil and gas resources. Geologists and related scientists set off explosions to induce waves underground. Theses waves 'echo' off the different layers of material allowing geologists to interpret if/where oil and/or gas could be located.

      Though it is considered a non-invasive way to see into the subsurface when compared to drilling test holes, creating the infrastructure to allow seismic exploration to take pace and setting off explosions takes a toll on arctic ecosystems. In his book Unfreezing the Arctic Andrew Stuhl "This method [seismic] required the use of several tracked vehicles in a caravan, setting off blasts and collecting the data from them, and gashing vast stretches of the Arctic landscape" (Stuhl 114).

      Legacy of this seismic exploration is felt today, as the scars Stuhl references still exist.

      For more information and photos visit: (https://www.fws.gov/refuge/arctic/seismic.html )

      Stuhl, Andrew. Unfreezing The Arctic. 1st ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Print.

    4. [F19127ff.]

      Attached is a pdf scan of the full report on prepared by Snow and Rosenberg. Characterizing the effect of oil and oil-product spills on surrounding life is an ongoing area of research. Other annotations more adequately cover this topic. [(http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/Library/14960.pdf)]

    1. the Beaufort Sea

      (https://www.google.com/maps/place/Beaufort+Sea/@70.8553171,-158.2142268,4z/data=!3m1!4b1!4m5!3m4!1s0x51743798efc593cb:0x41234bfebcaad073!8m2!3d72.8431409!4d-145.5684843)

      The Beaufort Sea is a division of the Atlantic Ocean in northwest Canada and northwest Alaska. It is where the Mackenzie River empties into the Canadian side of the sea. This area of the Arctic is known to be a major source of oil and petroleum. It has been the target of pipeline and drilling projects both in the past and presently.

      Not much has changed for the Beaufort Sea when it comes to oil extraction. Recently, new oil and gas drilling has been suspended for the next five years in the Beaufort Sea in order for the US and Canada to evaluate the environmental impacts drilling would have on the area. In the 1970’s when this article was written, the same caution was taken by both governments in order to understand the impacts that the pipeline would have on the area and it’s inhabitants. Currently, although the Beaufort Sea is a major reserve for gas and petroleum, it is still dangerous to drill. The landscape of the arctic is much different of that in the Gulf of Mexico, making it more difficult and more dangerous to drill. Even after three decades, this area is still facing the same challenges with its reserves.

      Annotation taken from Amman, Jordan Canada cancel extension of the existing Arctic offshore oil exploration licenses. (Energy Monitor Worldwide, 2017)

    2. five times as much energy

      Here, Maurice Strong states what was a shocking fact. The world was rapidly using more and more energy every year and it seemed that development of Arctic oil was the only answer to the growing demand. In 1976 the United States used 15.5 quadrillion Btu (Ramsey). That is more than many developed nations use today, however, in that time we were the leading consumers of energy. In contrast to those numbers, in 2014, China alone used 119.5 quadrillion Btu and the United States trailed, consuming 98.3 quadrillion Btu. For the United States, that is over six times as much energy as we were using 1976. A Btu or “British thermal unit is a measure of the heat content of fuels. It is the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 pound of liquid water by 1 degree Fahrenheit at the temperature that water has its greatest density (approximately 39 degrees F)” (Ramsey). These numbers have drastically increased worldwide and a pipeline through North American is still part of the equation and is largely controversial. As the world becomes more consumer oriented, we need more energy and if we are able to safely and cleanly transport it, we will still depend on oil.

      To view an interactive map of consumption by country go to: https://www.eia.gov/beta/international/data/browser/#/?pa=000000001&c=ruvvvvvfvtvnvv1urvvvvfvvvvvvfvvvou20evvvvvvvvvnvvuvo&ct=0&vs=INTL.44-2-AFG-QBTU.A&vo=0&v=H&start=1980&end=2014

      Ramsey, William J. U.S. ENERGY FLOW IN 1976 . Report no. 17443. United States Energy Research & Development Administration. 1977.

    3. Petro Canada

      The Canadian government established Petro-Canada as a state owned Crown Corporation to manage oil resources in the country. This decision was aided by a variety of international pressures, mainly the OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries) embargo in which the oil rich Middle Eastern countries prohibited the sale of oil to the U.S., Canada, U.K., Netherlands, and Japan due to U.S. support of Israel during the 1973 Yom Kippur war. This oil embargo sparked a world shortage which spiked prices and caused Canada to look at moving towards more domestic sources of oil independence. With a new government, under the leadership of Trudeau, they adopted a more nationalist focus to their energy independence emphasizing the importance of Canadian industry. The Canadian government looked to reduce the influence of U.S. multinational oil companies in their own abundant oil fields in Alberta. Additionally, as a Crown Corporation, Petro-Canada was tasked to perform many tasks that wouldn’t be expected of privately owned companies. For example, the Canadian Government expected that Petro-Canada would explore the frontier for various, harder to access, resources like tar sands, heavy oil, or areas that would be difficult to develop transport chains. This charge from the state made it so Petro-Canada was more invested than private companies in exploring difficult to reach areas like the Mackenzie Delta in the mid 1970’s. The duties of the Crown Corporation were beyond simply providing energy for the nation, but also ensuring a sustainable future of energy independence.

      Annotation drawn from Fossum, John Erik. Oil, the State, and Federalism: The Rise and Demise of Petro-Canada as a Statist Impulse. Vol. 2. University of Toronto Press, 1997.

    4. oil and gas and mineral wealth,

      The Arctic is home to a plethora of resources; it currently produces one tenth of the world’s oil and one fourth of its natural gas. Commercial extraction of oil started in the 1920s in Canada’s northwest territories. In the 1960s, large hydrocarbon fields were found in Russia, Alaska, and the Mackenzie Delta in Canada. The last several decades have produced billions of cubic meters of gas and oil in these countries in addition to Norway. The Canadian Arctic holds 49 gas and oil fields in the Mackenzie River Delta and 15 are located on the Canadian Arctic archipelago. There are also 11 offshore fossil fuel fields that were discovered in Barents Sea between Russia and Norway. North of the Arctic Circle, mostly in western Siberia, more than 400 onshore oil and gas fields have been found; roughly 60 of these fields are notably vast while a quarter of them are currently inoperable.

      In addition to fuel sources, there are also extensive deposits of minerals in the Arctic, predominantly in the most developed part of the region, the Russian Arctic. It contains copper, silver, zinc, molybdenum, gold, uranium, tungsten, tin, platinum, palladium, apatite, cobalt, titanium, rare metals, ceramic raw materials, mica, precious stones, and some of the largest known deposits of coal, gypsum, and diamonds. The North American Arctic, on the other hand, holds iron, nickel, copper, and uranium. It is important to note, however, that many of the known mineral reserves have not been extracted due to the high cost and their inaccessibility.

      "Natural Resources / Arctic." / Arctic. February 21, 2017. Accessed March 08, 2017. http://arctic.ru/resources/.

    5. The native people have had some hard things to say about the government, about the oil and gas industry and about the white man and his institutions.

      It is no secret that there was a lot of tension between the oil and gas company and the indigenous people of Canada and Alaska. In the 1950's and 1960's there was extensive drilling in areas of Alaska and Canada. Almost all of these decisions were made without consulting with the native people living in these areas. The drilling and exploration of the oil and gas fields had severe impacts on the ecosystem in the region. These impacts included the destruction of habitats from marine and terrestrial wildlife. This created many problems for the Native people who relied on hunting and fishing for a living. The Native people felt slighted by the actions of the oil and gas companies who refused to recognize their claims to the areas. Much of this problem was related to the fact that the Canadian and American governments also did not recognize them as people with claims to the land. The "Inuit in Canada faced a federal government that developed some powers-- in this case, to the territorial rather than the state government-- but nevertheless disregarded Aboriginal rights in the pursuit of Northern development." This stance from the government without a doubt led to the same dismissive attitude from the big oil and gas companies. Eventually, in the 1960's the native groups began to take steps in getting themselves recognized by the government and oil industry. It was through the help of environmental agencies that the native people started to be known. Many environmental agencies made it clear that activities in the Arctic such as oil drilling is extremely detrimental to the ecosystem and that it should not be continued. Many native groups piggy-backed on this stance and made themselves heard on the topic. Through this act both the oil industry and government began to recognize them as a legitimate body.

      Stuhl, Andrew. Unfreezing the Arctic. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press, 2016.

    1. fantastic oil, some of the finest oil in the world. who has the oil? isis. do we blockade it, bomb it, do anything? no. isis is making a fortune now in libya
  22. Oct 2016
    1. President Obama's plan to restrict drilling in the Arctic has hit a nerve in Alaska.

      why they are mad

    2. "Our fiscal situation is that we’re in a $3.5 billion deficit this year.

      bill walker says one economy of alaska

    3. You know, over half the conservation land in America is in Alaska, so we have more set aside in Alaska than the entire rest of the country combined, and we’re trying to make a living here, we’re trying to live here, we’re trying to have an economy here, and we’re doing it environmentally responsibly.

      bill walker

    4. "I’m not going to allow geopolitics to be resolved on the backs of Alaskans.

      bill walker

    5. It’s an area that we certainly want to protect, we will protect, but my goodness, you know, the area we want to explore is equivalent to a quarter, a 25 cent piece, on a football field.

      bill walker

    6. All the arguments that I’m hearing now are identical to arguments I heard then, it just hasn't proved out to be the case.

      Bill walker

    1. President Obama’s proposal to open vast expanses of American coastlines to oil and natural gas drilling drew criticism from both sides in the drilling debate.

      obama propose

    2. Interior Secretary Ken Salazar developed the offshore drilling plan after conducting four public meetings over the past year in Alaska, California, Louisiana and New Jersey. The Interior Department received more than 500,000 public comments on the issue. Mr. Salazar has said that he hoped to rebalance the nation’s oil and gas policy to find a middle ground between the “drill here drill now” advocacy of many oil industry advocates and the preservationist impulse to block oil exploration beneath virtually all public lands and waters. He has called the offshore drilling plan a new chapter in the nation’s search for a comprehensive energy policy that can open new areas to oil and gas development “in the right way and in the right places,” according to an aide.

      supporting person

    3. The eastern Gulf area is believed to contain as much as 3.5 billion barrels of oil and 17 trillion cubic feet of gas, the richest single tract that would be open to drilling under the Obama plan.

      yeah

    4. Mr. Obama said several times during his presidential campaign that he supported expanded offshore drilling.

      obama ethos

    5. Mr. Obama’s proposal would put Bristol Bay, home to major Alaskan commercial fisheries and populations of endangered whales, off limits to oil rigs.

      obama says

    6. he said, “and that for the sake of the planet and our energy independence, we need to begin the transition to cleaner fuels now.”

      obama said

    7. Mr. Obama also tried to answer oil industry officials and Republicans in Congress who would claim that the president did not go far enough. “They’d deny the fact that with less than 2 percent of oil reserves, but more than 20 percent of world consumption, drilling alone cannot come close to meeting our long-term energy needs,”

      obama

    8. Mr. Obama said in his remarks: “There will be those who strongly disagree with this decision, including those who say we should not open any new areas to drilling, But what I want to emphasize is that this announcement is part of a broader strategy that will move us from an economy that runs on fossil fuels and foreign oil to one that relies more on homegrown fuels and clean energy. And the only way this transition will succeed is if it strengthens our economy in the short term and long term. To fail to recognize this reality would be a mistake.”

      obama said

    9. The environmentally sensitive Bristol Bay in southwestern Alaska would be protected and no drilling would be allowed under the plan, officials said.

      hey

    1. For lower-income Alaskans and those living in high-cost rural areas, the dividend can be an important source of income.

      cause

    2. “that we need to do something and we need to do something major.” What that ends up being remains unclear.

      effect on the people

    3. The major debate at this point appears to be around using earnings from the Alaska Permanent Fund, what tax bills to pass, if any, and how far to push changes to oil taxes and credits.

      what will be done

    4. Bills to reinstitute a personal state income tax for the first time since 1980 and proposals from Mr. Walker to raise taxes on motor fuels and on various industries, including oil, fishing and mining.

      what they will have to do

    5. The governor has warned that legislators could face a special session if they do not come up with a fiscal plan before the regular session ends on April 17.
    6. Gunnar Knapp, an economics professor, has told lawmakers that Alaska is probably facing a recession and that the economy will take a hit no matter what they do.

      person

    7. state political leaders are struggling to get on the same page, with legislators split on options like taxes, the depth of budget cuts and tinkering with the annual dividend most Alaskans receive for living here.
    8. The collapse in oil prices has left oil-reliant Alaska with a multibillion-dollar budget deficit and few palatable options for digging its way out.
  23. Sep 2015
    1. Gov't to review bill on Peru's largest oil field, president says Published September 21, 2015EFE The Council of Ministers will review a bill approved by Congress that would allow state-owned Petroperu to operate Lot 192, the largest oil field in Peru, President Ollanta Humala said.

      "We're within the timeframe and we're going to resolve this once we have the reports and, given how delicate this matter is, it's going to be looked at by the Council of Ministers," the president said in an interview with state-owned TV Peru.

      The government opposed the approval of the bill by Congress on Sept. 4, arguing that the move would require the spending of public funds and that Canada's Pacific Stratus Energy had already received a two-year concession for Lot 192.

      Argentina's Pluspetrol operated the field from 2001 until July, but the company was the target of frequent criticism from residents, who claimed land had been polluted and the oil company failed to carry out environmental remediation work it had agreed to.

      "We have to strengthen Petroperu, but not try to destroy it. So, we have to give it the opportunity to gradually take on greater responsibilities," Humala said.

      The environmental and land claims made by Indian communities around Lot 192, located in the northern Amazonian region of Loreto, are "legitimate," the president said.

      Lot 192, located near the Peruvian-Ecuadorian border, accounts for 17 percent of Peru's oil production.

      About 11,000 barrels per day (bpd) of crude are pumped from 16 wells in Lot 192. EFE

  24. Aug 2015
    1. American dysfunction and government negligence

      "Bush doesn't care about Black people," made clear the neglect that we felt immediately, but it was only later the I became aware of the years of incompetence and broken systems that led to the storm surge doing so much damage. Immediately -- and for me to this day -- New Orleans was a symbol of carbon corporate power. Where is BP in this sentence in the Times?

  25. Apr 2015
    1. You won't get sick immediately from eating old cooking oil, but having oil that has been sitting around for a while means the oil has very likely gone rancid.