- May 2017
The Mackenzie River is a major river system in northwestern North America. It is exceeded only in basin size by the Mississippi-Missouri system. The entire Mackenzie River system is 2,635 miles long and passes through many lakes before emptying into the Beaufort Sea of the Arctic Ocean. The Mackenzie River alone is 1,025 miles long when measured from Great Slave Lake. It begins at Great Slave Lake where the elevation is 512 feet above sea level. Great Slave Lake can be as deep as 2,000 feet in certain places. It is filled with clear water on the eastern side and shallow, murky water on the western side. The headwaters of the Mackenzie River include numerous large rivers. The drainage basins of the Mackenzie River include the Liard River, Peace River, and Athabasca River. The ice that forms on the Mackenzie River over the winter months begins the break up in early to mid-May in the southern sections. Ice covering some portions of the Mackenzie River can break up as late as the end of May. The Mackenzie River basin is home to a very small and sparse population despite the natural resources available in this area. This area is home to muskrat, marten, beaver, lynx, and fox. Pulpwood and other small conifer trees can be found here. Petroleum and natural gas are usually the underlying reason larger settlements have formed in this area (Robinson 1999).
Robinson, J. Lewis. 1999. Mackenzie River. July 26. Accessed May 2017, 2017. https://www.britannica.com/place/Mackenzie-River#ref466063.
Newfoundland and Labrador is a province of Canada composed of the island of Newfoundland and Labrador to the northwest of Newfoundland. Newfoundland is the larger mainland sector of the province. It is the youngest province of the ten provinces making up the country of Canada. It joined the confederation in 1949. In 2001, its name was officially changed to Newfoundland and Labrador. Newfoundland was originally called “newfoundelande,” or New Found Land, by late 15th century explorers. The island of Newfoundland is separated from Labrador by the Strait of Belle Isle and from Novia Scotia by Cabot Strait. Due to its position as the most easterly land of North America, it has been important in defense, transportation, and communications. The economy, culture, and history of Newfoundland and Labrador has been shaped greatly by the fishing communities on the coastline which stretch along about 14,400 miles of the coast. The most plentiful mammals of Newfoundland are the moose, which were introduced to the area in the early 20th century. Labrador, however, has more caribou than moose. Other species that can be found in Newfoundland and Labrador are black bears, polar bears, arctic foxes, red foxes, beavers, lynx, harp seals, hooded seals, whales, and some small fur-bearing animals. The capital of Newfoundland and Labrador is St. John’s. The population in 2011 was approximately 514,536. The total area of Newfoundland and Labrador is 156,453 square miles, with Newfoundland being 42,031 square miles and Labrador being 113,641 square miles (Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc. 2017).
Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc. . 2017. Newfoundland and Labrador. Accessed May 8, 2017. https://www.britannica.com/place/Newfoundland-and-Labrador.
National Research Council
The National Research Council (NRC) is an organization within the Government of Canada dedicated to research and development. Today, the NRC works with members of the Canadian industry to provide meaningful research and development for many different types of products. The areas of research and development that the NRC participates in include aerospace, aquatic and crop resource development, automotive and surface transportation, construction, energy, mining, and environment, human health therapeutics, information and communications technologies, measurement science standards, medical devices, astronomy and astrophysics, ocean, coastal, and river engineering, and security and disruptive technologies. The NRC employs scientists, engineers, and business experts. The mission of the NRC is as follows: “Working with clients and partners, we provide innovation support, strategic research, scientific and technical services to develop and deploy solutions to meet Canada's current and future industrial and societal needs.” The main values of the NRC include impact, accountability, leadership, integrity, and collaboration. The most recent success stories of the NRC include research regarding “green buildings,” math games, mechanical insulation, and many more (Government of Canada 2017). Here is a link to their achievement page where these stories and more are posted: http://www.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/eng/achievements/index.html. Here is a link to the NRC webpage: http://www.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/eng/index.html.
Government of Canada. 2017. National Research Council Canada. May 5. Accessed May 8, 2017. http://www.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/eng/index.html.
Fort Simpson was originally established by the Hudson’s Bay Company at a location on the north shore of the Nass River estuary. In the summer of 1834, the Hudson’s Bay Company moved its fort to a site on the Tsimshian peninsula at McLoughlin Bay, which is now called Port Simpson, British Columbia (Patterson 1994). In 1858 and 1894, Roman Catholic missionaries reached Fort Simpson and permanently resided there. The Roman Catholic Mission provided many resources for the community, such as St. Margaret’s Hospital built in 1916 and a school in St. Margaret’s Hall built in 1917. St. Margaret’s Hall was replaced by the Federal Day School in 1974 and was run by the Federal Government. Fort Simpson is still inhabited today and is a quite popular tourist destination. It is the only village in the Northwest Territories with a population of approximately 1,250. Some people of Fort Simpson still identify as Dene. Fort Simpson is accessible via airplane or highway. The Liard Trail Highway leads to Fort Simpson from British Columbia and the Mackenzie Highway reaches Fort Simpson from Alberta. Since both of these highways pass through expanses of nature, it is possible to see black bear, moose, woodland caribou, lynx, wolves, and bison alongside the highways (Fort Simpson Chamber of Commerce n.d.).
Fort Simpson Chamber of Commerce. n.d. Fort Simpson Nortwest Territories Canada. Accessed May 8, 2017. http://www.fortsimpson.com.
Patterson, E. Palmer. 1994. ""The Indians Stationary Here": Continuity and Change in the Origins of the Fort Simpson Tsimshian." Anthropologica 181-203.
Hay River is a town in the Northwest Territories, Canada that was incorporated at a town in 1963. It is located on the south shore of Great Slave Lake, at the mouth of the Hay River. This town is located 201 air kilometers southwest of Yellowknife. The town was permanently settled in 1868 by the Hudson’s Bay Company to establish a trading post with Anglican and Catholic missions. The Catholic church built during the late 1800s in Hay River is still being used today in the Hay River Reserve. The Hay River Reserve is home to about 300 K’atlodeechee First Nation and was created in 1974. Before the arrival of the Hudson’s Bay Company, the area was used by the Slavey Dene people. The town had a population of approximately 3,606 in 2011. Most members of the current Hay River community have ties to the postwar construction of the Mackenzie Highway. Due to its important transportation and communication amenities and abilities, Hay River earned the nickname “the hub of the north.” This town houses the staging point for shipping up the Mackenzie River and the commercial fisheries of Great Slave Lake. The economy of Hay River today relies heavily on private enterprise (The Canadian Encyclopedia, n.d.).
The Canadian Encyclopedia. (n.d.). Hay River. Retrieved from Historica Canada: http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/hay-river/
A ditching machine is used for digging ditches or trenches of a specified depth and width. These ditches are often used for irrigation, drainage, or pipe-laying. They could also be used to build fences or fortifications. These machines can also be used to excavate for any other purpose (Edwards, 1888). Within the Berger Inquiry, the Banister Model 710 and Model 812 wheel ditchers are discussed. This machine was designed and built by Banister Pipelines of Edmonton, Alberta. Banister Pipelines built their first ditcher, the Model 508, in 1965. The Model 508 was designed to “cut through frozen ground.” Banister Pipelines was later able to “develop the technology in the 1970s that led to some of the largest ditchers ever built.” They designed a prototype of the Model 710 in 1972 which was tested to cut through frozen ground. This machine weighs 115 tons and can dig a ditch 7 feet wide and 10 feet deep. It is powered by two Caterpillar diesel engines which produce 1,120 horsepower. This machine is so powerful that in thawed ground it can reach a production rate of up to 20 feet of trench per minute. A few years later, in 1978, Banister Pipelines built a larger ditching machine, the Model 812, which is almost twice the size of the Model 710. This machine can dig 12 feet deep. The Model 710 and Model 812 by Banister Pipelines are still in use today (Haddock, 1998).
Edwards, C. C. (1888, December 18). Ditching-Machine. Retrieved from The Portal to Texas History: https://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth171924/ Haddock, K. (1998). Giant Earthmovers: An Illustrated History. Osceola: MBI.
In Alaska specifically, the term berm is used to describe various types of long, low ridge structures constructed from dirt, gravel, snow, or forest vegetation. This term can be interchangeable with berm pile, burn pile, berm row, and snow berm. It is believed that the word berm is of Dutch decent. The term first appeared in written English in the eighteenth century regarding the military construction of “a space of ground from 3 to 8 feet wide, sometimes left between the ditch and the base of the parapet.” In more recent times, the term has used to describe “a narrow shelf, edge, or path typically at the bottom or top of a slope or along a bank” (Tabbert, 1985). These berms can be made of gravel, stone, forest vegetation, dirt, or snow (Society for Science & the Public, 1972) In “Reactions of Large Groups of Caribou to a Pipeline Corridor on the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska,” Walter T. Smith and Raymond D. Cameron discuss the problems Caribou have with navigating around pipelines and their possible causes. They found that caribou were more successful crossing sections of buried pipeline compare to elevated pipeline. Smith and Cameron speculate that this could be a result of the berm dimensions- height and width (Smith & Cameron, 1985).
Smith, W. T., & Cameron, R. D. (1985). Reactions of Large Groups of Caribou to a Pipeline Corridor on the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska. Arctic, 53-57.
Society for Science & the Public. (1972). The Big Pipeline: Focus on Impact. Science News, 199.
Tabbert, R. (1985). Berm in Alaskan English. American Speech, 93-94.
heat trace (heating cable)
Heat trace or heating cable is used to warm or heat underground structures, storage tanks, vessels, and instrumentation in order to maintain a specified temperature or eliminate the possibility of freezing. Heat trace or heating cable accomplish this task by adding the amount of heat energy to the process fluid that is lost from the process fluid. It is desirable to maintain a certain temperature since higher temperatures reduce viscosity, enhance combustion, and prevent freezing or crystallization of the fluid. Within the oil and gas industry, elevated temperatures are required to separate the crude oil or raw natural gas to the surface and freeze protection is required to allow refining and distribution of the fluid (Thermon South Africa (Pty.) Ltd. ). Heat trace or heating cable often utilizes resistance wire to provide a medium for voltage to pass through. Due to the resistance of the wire, the heat trace or heating cable becomes warmer and is able to use this heat to warm the underground structures that it surrounds. One material used in resistance wires is nickel-chromium (Peterjohn, Melillo, Bowles, & Steudler, 1993). Heat trace has been used since the early 1900s to ensure the proper flow of petroleum, tar, and wax through pipelines. Since then, certain products within the petroleum and chemical industries needed to be kept between specific temperatures to ensure their quality. Today, the most commonly used heat trace medium is steam (Thermon South Africa (Pty.) Ltd. ).
Peterjohn, W. T., Melillo, J. M., Bowles, F. P., & Steudler, P. A. (1993). Soil Warming and Trace Gas Fluxes: Experimental Design and Preliminary Flux Results. Oecologia, 18-24.
Thermon South Africa (Pty.) Ltd. . (n.d.). Heat Tracing Technologies. Retrieved from Thermon South Africa (Pty.) Ltd. : file:///H:/Users/rrs020.BUCKNELL.000/Downloads/thermon-sa_heat-trace-technologies_energy-savings.pdf
Hugh M. French, a member of the department of geography at the University of Ottawa, states that “nowhere has the frost heave problem been more critical than in the recent design of proposed chilled buried gas pipelines in Arctic regions” in his article entitled “Periglacial Geomorphology in North America: Current Research and Future Trends.” These chilled buried gas pipelines must function under extremely harsh conditions. They will be exposed to sub-zero temperatures in Arctic regions. Any water and vapor will “migrate towards the pipe” causing a frost bulb to form. This frost bulb will lead to the formation of an ice lens or numerous ice lenses which will cause frost heave around the chilled buried pipe (French, 1987). There are currently many techniques to attempt to predict the behavior of a buried pipeline that experiences frost heave. One such attempt to describe this phenomenon was proposed by Selvadurai and Shinde, both members of the American Society of Civil Engineers, in which they describe a detailed model of a frost heave zone caused by its associate frost bulb. They base their model off of the “heave of a frost bulb zone that develops around the pipeline as it transmits its contents such as chilled natural gas” (Selvadurai & Shinde, 1993).
French, H. M. (1987). Periglacial Geomorphology in North America: Current Research and Future Trends. Ecological Bulletins, 5-16. Selvadurai, A. P., & Shinde, S. (1993). Frost Heave Induced Mechanics of Buried Pipelines. American Society of Civil Engineers, 1929-1951.
Before the understanding of frost heave, there was a widely held belief that rocks and stones could grow and multiply. Stones were believe to grow from small pebbles. These stones then rose to the surface of the ground. Another belief was that stones were the offspring of “mother-stones” or “breeding-stones.” Today, it is known that this motion of stones moving upwards toward the surface of the ground is due to frost heave. Frost heave occurs when water in soil or rock freezes and thaws in a cyclic process. This causes an upward movement of the surface of the ground due to the freezing of water underneath. Geologist Stephen Taber from the University of South Carolina proved through extensive research that “it was not expansion, but rather the formation of ice lenses by segregation of water from the soil as the ground freezes that is the principal cause of frost heave.” He also showed that liquids other than water can also cause frost heave. The direction of heave is governed by the growth of ice lenses. Ice lenses form perpendicular to the direction of heat flow, so it is not always the case that frost heave occurs in the path of least resistance (Manz, 2011).
Manz, L. (2011). Frost Heave. Geo News, 18-23.
Alyeska oil pipeline
The oil discovered in the Prudhoe Bay oil field in the North Slope region of Alaska in 1968 was the “largest oil field discovered in North America.” In 1969, a Trans-Alaska pipeline to transport oil from the North Slope was proposed by the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System. The Trans-Alaska Pipeline System was comprised of three major oil corporations. Despite many other ideas and suggestions to transport this oil, the oil industry reached a consensus in favor of the pipeline proposal of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (Busenberg, 2013). Construction of the Alyeska oil pipeline, also known as the Alaska pipeline or trans-Alaska pipeline, began in 1975. This pipeline was built by the Alyeska Pipeline Service Company, a group that was made up of seven different oil companies. In certain regions, the pipeline is buried underground, but where there is permafrost, the pipeline is constructed above the ground. The pipeline crosses over 800 river and streams and passes through three mountain ranges. The first oil was delivered from Prudhoe Bay to Valdez on June 20, 1977. This oil had to travel through the 789 mile long pipeline to reach its destination (Alaska Public Lands Information Centers, n.d.). See below for a link to “Pipeline! The story of the building of the trans-Alaska pipeline” video posted on YouTube by the Alaska National Parks service.
Alaska Public Lands Information Centers. (n.d.). The Trans-Alaska Pipeline. Retrieved from Alaska Public Lands Information Centers: https://www.alaskacenters.gov/the-alyeska-pipeline.cfm
Busenberg, G. J. (2013). The Trans-Alaska Pipeline System. In G. J. Busenburg, Oil and Wilderness in Alaska (pp. 11-43). Georgetown University Press.
Designed during the first months of World War II, the Canol Pipeline brought oil from Norman Wells near the Mackenzie River to Whitehorse, Yukon Territory. Once the oil was refined, it would be sent to Alaska via pipeline to ensure that the Japanese navy could not intercept any transport. The oil deposits at Norman Wells were discovered by the explorer Alexander Mackenzie during the 18th century. In January of 1942, Lieutenant General Brehon Somervell, commanding general of the Army Service Forces, ordered James H. Graham, former dean of engineering at the University of Kentucky, to investigate the possibility of harvesting oil from Norman Wells. On April 29, 1942, General Somervell immediately approved the recommendation of Dean Graham to implement a pipeline from Norman Wells to Whitehorse (O'Brien, 1970). The construction began in 1942 and was completed in 1944 by the United States Army. A road was also constructed alongside the Canol pipeline during this time. In 1945, soon after the completion of the Canol Pipeline, the volume of crude oil that was able to be transported compared to the cost of operating the pipeline could not be justified. The Canol Pipeline was shut down and abandoned in 1945 (Wilson, 1991).
O'Brien, C. F. (1970). The Canol Project: A Study in Emergency Military Planning. The Pacific Northwest Quarterly, 101-108.
Wilson, W. H. (1991). Review: A Walk on teh Canol Road: Exploring the First Major Northern Pipeline. The Pacific Northwest Quarterly, 114.
James Bay hydro-electric project
The James Bay hydroelectric project proposed to construct watersheds along the eastern shores of the Hudson Bay from James Bay to Ungava Bay in Canada. This distance is approximately 750 miles. It would alter nineteen waterways and create 27 reservoirs (Linton, 1991). The first phase of construction, called La Grande River phase, was planned to generate more than ten megawatts, which is the equivalent of roughly ten nuclear power plants. This portion of the project would require large impoundment reservoirs, comparable to the size of the state of Connecticut. The James Bay hydroelectric project was the first “mega-scale hydroelectric project to be built in the sub-Arctic.” The project was proposed in the early 1970s, at a time when “physical and social environmental effects were not taken into significant consideration” (Hornig, 2000). Due to its timing and lack of environmental assessment and research, the James Bay hydroelectric project was compared to the Mackenzie Valley pipeline proposals of Arctic Gas and Foothills within the Berger Inquiry. At the time, during the 1970s, there were few people who actively opposed the construction of the James Bay hydroelectric plant. They included the Cree inhabitants of the area and some environmental activists. However, during the 1980s, after the completion of the La Grande River phase, opposition became more frequent and more apparent as concerns about environmental impacts became more well-known.
Hornig, J. F. (2000). Review: Social and Environmental Impacts of teh James Bay Hydroelectric Project. Natural Resources & Environment, 121.
Linton, J. I. (1991). Guest Editorial: The James Bay Hydroelectric Project -- Issue of the Century. Arctic, iii-iv.
Churchill Falls hydro-electric project
The Churchill Falls hydro-electric project was inaugurated by Pierre Trudeau, the Canadian Prime Minister, on June 16, 1972. This hydro-electric plant was constructed between 1967 and 1975 and completed one year ahead of the predicted schedule. At the height of its construction, approximately 6,300 workers were present in the summer of 1970. The majority of construction occurred in the summer months, although construction continued year-round despite harsh conditions in Labrador where temperatures dipped to -21°C with a mean annual snowfall of 406 centimeters. The Churchill Falls power station is located in southern Labrador about 1,100 kilometers from an urban area. The Churchill Falls hydro-electric project was the largest hydro-electric project at the time, capable of generating 5,225 mW of electricity. It creates this energy by utilizing the water of the Churchill and Naskaupi Rivers which have a total catchment area of about 67,340 km2 combined. The underground power station is about 305 meters below ground. It uses eleven generators with a combined capacity of 5,225,000 kW. In order to utilize this harvested energy, large power lines capable of handling voltages up to 735 kV were put in place to transmit the energy from Churchill Falls to the Hydro-Quebec transmission system in the Manicouagan-Outardes hydro complex. The distance between these two stations is 606 kilometers. The energy from Churchill Falls was also transmitted via power lines to the Labrador City-Wabush area (Crabb, 1973).
Crabb, P. (1973). Churchill Falls- The Costs and Benefits of a Hydro-Electric Development Project. Geography, 330-335.
The Mackenzie Highway is the longest in the Northwest Territories. It begins at the Northwest Territory and Alberta border and ends at Wrigley, Northwest Territory. It is approximately 690 kilometers or 429 miles long. About 280 kilometers are paved while the rest of the highway is covered with gravel (Government of Northwest Territories, n.d.). The construction of this highway was ongoing between the 1940s and 1970s. In 1945, the Canadian federal government and the government of Alberta signed an agreement to build an all-weather road that would replace the existing Caterpillar tractor trails from Grimshaw to the Great Slave Lake of Hay River (Prince of Wales Northern Heritage Center, n.d.). As time passed and focus shifted to fossil fuel collection, the motivation behind further construction of the Mackenzie Highway was in “anticipation of a major oil pipeline development along the Mackenzie River valley” (Pomeroy, 1985). The intended use of the highway was to enable the pipeline developers to haul construction materials throughout the area. During its construction, many chiefs of the Indian Brotherhood opposed the completion of the Mackenzie Highway. There was additional opposition voiced from the people of Wrigley who also did not support further construction of the Mackenzie Highway (Cox, 1975).
Cox, B. (1975). Changing Perceptions of Industrial Development in the North. Human Organization, 27-33.
Government of Northwest Territories. (n.d.). Transportation Highway 1. Retrieved from Government of Northwest Territories: http://www.dot.gov.nt.ca/Highways/Highway_System/NWTHwy1
Pomeroy, J. (1985). An Identification of Environmental Disturbances from Road Developments in Subarctic Muskeg. Arctic, 104-111.
Prince of Wales Northern Heritage Center. (n.d.). Historical Timeline of the Northwest Territories. Retrieved from Prince of Wales Northern Heritage Center: http://www.nwttimeline.ca/1925/1948_MackenzieHighway.htm
Denison Ice Road
The Denison Ice Road was constructed by John Denison, an ice road engineer, and his crew. He drove a Caterpillar tractor which pull freight sleighs in harsh environments like those found in Alaska. His experiences with these long drives between mines sparked his interest in designing a road that could support regular transport trucks and vehicles (Princes of Wales Nothern Heritage Center n.d.). The construction of the Denison Ice Road began in the late 1950s. This road was planned to connect Yellowknife through the Arctic Circle to the Great Bear Lake silver mine. This distance totaled about 530 kilometers or 323 miles. John Denison and his crew worked with Byers Transport to complete the construction of Denison Ice Road. Byers Transport was a company that was at the forefront of ice road construction in the North. The construction of the Denison Ice Road was built through some of the most isolated terrain in the sub-arctic region. In 1988, John Denison received the Order of Canada for his successful construction of and ingenuity in building winter roads (Yellowknifer 2001). A detailed account of the experiences of John Denison and his crew during the construction of the Denison Ice Road can be found in “Denison’s Ice Road” by Edith Iglauer. A copy of “Denison’s Ice Road” can be found by following this link: http://www.barnesandnoble.com/w/denisons-ice-road-edith-iglauer/1100112712?ean=9781550170412.
After completing the Denison Ice Road project, John Denison worked on the construction of a road to Tundra Mine and Discovery Mine. John Denison was married to Hannah with whom he had four kids. His family resided in Edmonton, Alberta and then Kelowna, British Columbia (Yellowknifer 2001).
Princes of Wales Nothern Heritage Center. n.d. Historical Timeline of the Northwest Territories. Accessed May 7, 2017. http://www.nwttimeline.ca/1950/1959_Denison.htm.
Yellowknifer. 2001. Articles on John Denison. January 10. Accessed April 9, 2017. http://www.harbourpublishing.com/excerpt/DenisonsIceRoad/webonly/109.
Walter Parker was born in Spokane, Washington on August, 11, 1926. He served in World War II and later married Patricia Ertman. In 1946, they moved together to Alaska and Walter Parker began working for the Civil Aeronautics Administration and the Federal Field Committee for Development Planning. During this time, he was responsible for developing air transportation routes, including providing air support to Prudhoe Bay (Dunham 2016). In addition to his professional career in industry, Walter Parker also worked within academia teaching classes in political science and urban and regional planning at the University of Alaska in 1971. Around 1971, Walter Parker and his wife, Patricia, founded Parker and Associates, Inc., which was a consulting firm focused on transportation and telecommunication issues. Between 1971 and 1974, Walter Parker was elected to and served the Greater Anchorage Area Borough Assembly as the environmental consultant to the state. While holding this position, he orchestrated the construction of the Dalton Highway. Walter Parker then became the Commissioner of Highways for the State of Alaska, which was the position he held during the Mackenzie Valley Pipeline Inquiry. While the Commissioner of Highways, Walter Parker formed the Department of Transportation for the state of Alaska. Walter Parker continued his career serving the state of Alaska by holding positions within organizations such as the Joint Federal/State Land Use Planning Commission for Alaska, Alaska Oil Tanker Task Force, Pacific Oil and Ports Group, Alaska Telecommunications Task Force, Alaska Oil Spill Commission, Arctic Research Commission, Northern Forum, Institute of the North, Prince William Sound Regional Citizens’ Advisory Council, Bering Sea Forum, Anchorage Citizens Coalition, Anchorage Trails and Greenways Coalition, board of the Prince William Sound Science Center, board of the Oil Spill Recovery Institute, North Pacific Research Board, and the Alaska Moving Image Preservation Association (Archives & Special Collections Department n.d.).
Archives & Special Collections Department. n.d. Guide to the Walter Parker papers circa 1940-2014. Accessed April 9, 2017. https://consortiumlibrary.org/archives/FindingAids/hmc-1180.html.
Dunham, Mike. 2016. Alaska Dispatch Publishing. May 31. Accessed May 7, 2017. https://www.adn.com/alaska-news/article/longtime-alaska-resources-and-transportation-adviser-walter-parker-dead-87-0/2014/06/26/.
- Alexander Mackenzie
- North Slope
- Ungava Bay
- Mackenzie River
- Port Simpson
- Federal Day School
- Canol Pipeline
- Alaska Pipeline
- power station
- freeze protection
- New Found Land
- berm pile
- Nass River
- frost bulb
- Great Bear Lake
- heating cable
- Hay River Reserve
- Walter Parker
- Normal Wells
- ice road engineer
- frost heave
- Alyeska Oil Pipeline
- Hugh French
- Novia Scotia
- La Grande River phase
- Stephen Taber
- National Research Council Canada
- snow berm
- ice lens
- Great Slave Lake
- burn pile
- Trans-Alaska Pipeline System
- ditching machine
- Denison Ice Road
- St. Margaret's Hospital
- Liard River
- Model 508
- berm row
- resistance wire
- James Bay
- ice road
- St. Margaret's Hall
- World War II
- hydro-electric plant
- Dalton Highway
- Northwest Territory
- Peace River
- Northwest Territories
- Mackenzie Highway
- all-weather road
- Arctic Ocean
- Hudson's Bay Company
- James Bay hydroelectric project
- Hudson Bay
- Banister Pipelines
- John Denison
- Beaufort Sea
- Churchill River
- Naskaupi River
- Prudhoe Bay
- Newfoundland and Labrador
- Hay River
- heat flow
- Parker and Associates Inc.
- Churchill Falls
- Trans-Alaska Pipeline
- Commissioner of Highways
- National Research Council
- Lieutenant General Brehon Somervell
- James H. Graham
- Alyeska Pipeline Service Company
- Cabot Strait
- heat trace
- Model 710
- Mackenzie River system
- Strait of Belle Isle
- St. John's
- McLoughlin Bay
- Fort Simpson
- Model 812
- Indian Brotherhood
- hydro-electric project
- Athabasca River
- Apr 2017
Dr. Ken Adam
Dr. Kenneth Adam, who worked on the Environment Protection board during the Mackenzie Valley Pipeline Inquiry, spent the majority of his career working as a professional engineer with numerous engineering companies and private consulting firms. Some of his experiences included working for Templeton Engineering (for additional information, see the annotation for Carson Templeton), I.D. Engineering, Sentar Consultants, and Earth Tech Canada. In addition to working in industry, Dr. Ken Adam had a highly successful career in academia. He was an associate professor at the University of Manitoba working in the Department of Civil Engineering from 1972 to 1976. Dr. Ken Adam specialized in the construction of winter roads, specifically in the Canadian North. Due to his expertise, he was able to publish several articles on the construction of winter roads. The topics of his papers included the environmental impact of snow and ice roads, the development of improved snow blowers and pavers, and much more. His journal article entitled “Snow and Ice Roads: Ability to Support Traffic and Effects on Vegetation” was published in March of 1977 in the Arctic journal Volume 30 Number 1 (Adam and Hernandez 1977). He had another journal article published in the Journal (Water Pollution Control Federation) Volume 46 Number 12 entitled “Hydraulic Analysis of Winnipeg Sump Inlets” in December of 1974 (Adam and Brandson 1974). These are just two of many articles Dr. Ken Adam has published. These papers were researched and published for the government and private business. His clients included the Department of External Affairs, Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, the Izok project, the Environment Protection Board, and others. Currently, Dr. Ken Adam resides in Winnipeg, Manitoba (Elves 2009).
Adam, Kenneth M., and Normal B. Brandson. "Hydraulic Analysis of Winnipeg Sump Inlets." Water Environment Federation, 1974: 2755-2763.
Adam, Kenneth, and Helios Hernandez. "Snow and Ice Roads: Ability to Support Traffic and Effects on Vegetation." Arctic, 1977: 13-27.
Elves, Daniel. Libraries of the University of Manitoba. January 2009. https://umanitoba.ca/libraries/units/archives/collections/complete_holdings/ead/html/Adam.shtml#tag_bioghist (accessed April 9, 2017).
Carson H. Templeton was born in Wainwright, Alberta. He earned a diploma studying Mining Engineering at the Southern Alberta Institute of Technology (SAIT) in Calgary, Alberta. He worked at the Madsen Red Lake Mine in Northwest Ontario as an Assistant Assayer, Boat Boy, and Post Office Manager. He attended the University of Alberta to continue his studies of Mining Engineering and graduated with a Bachelor of Science. During World War II, Templeton worked on the Canol Pipeline Project. He then helped construct airports alongside the Alaska Highway for military use. In 1948, Templeton was appointed Assistant Chief Engineer of the Fraser Valley Dyking Board. In 1950, Templeton was appointed Chief Engineer of the Greater Winnipeg Dyking Board. In 1955, Templeton founded a consulting engineering firm which he named the Templeton Engineering Company. Before the Unicity Amalgamation of Winnipeg in 1972, his company worked as the City Engineer for several small cities in Canada. His company performed engineering estimates for the Royal Commission on Flood Cost-Benefits. These calculations led to the construction of the Winnipeg Floodway. Additionally, Carson Templeton’s consulting engineering firm conducted research that supported the writing of “Snow and Ice Roads: Ability to Support Traffic and Effects on Vegetation” by Kenneth Adam and Helios Hernandez (Adam and Hernandez 1977). In 1966, his company merged with Montreal Engineering and Shawinigan Engineering to form Teshmont Consultants Ltd. Teshmont Consultants Ltd. has completed over 50 percent of the world’s high-voltage, direct current projects. Templeton served as the Chairman of the Alaska Highway Pipeline Panel and Chairman of the Environmental Protection Board during the 1970s. As the Chairman of the Environmental Protection Board, Templeton orchestrated the hearing process for the Environmental Impact Assessments for the Mackenzie Valley Pipeline Inquiry (Winnipeg Free Press 2004).
Adam, Kenneth, and Helios Hernandez. "Snow and Ice Roads: Ability to Support Traffic and Effects on Vegetation." Arctic, 1977: 13-27.
Winnipeg Free Press. Carson Templeton OC. October 10, 2004. http://passages.winnipegfreepress.com/passage-details/id-89334/Carson_Templeton_#/ (accessed April 8, 2017).
The Alaska Highway was originally constructed for and used by the military during World War II which lasted from 1939 to 1945. It was opened in November of 1942. Its length reached nearly 1,525 miles. When Richard Bucksar wrote his article The Alaska Highway Development published in the journal Arctic Volume 27, Number 1 in 1974, the Alaska Highway had not been paved in its entirety despite many proposals to do so. In 1974, it remained mostly a gravel road described as “rough and uneven” (Bucksar 1974, 74). About 400 of the 1,525 miles were paved. Since the Alaska Highway passes through Canadian territory to connect the continental United States to Alaska, both country’s governments had to be consulted regarding improvements to the Alaska Highway. The Canadian Parliament and United States Congress were presented with numerous proposals to improve the Alaska Highway including improving the road, developing railways, introducing new sea-routes, reconstructing, paving, etc. (Bucksar 1974, 74-75). Mostly all of these propositions were not passed since alternate “adequate modes of transportation were developing and that the expected traffic on the [Alaska] Highway did not warrant reconstruction and paving at that time” (Bucksar 1974, 78). The Alaska Highway was the only land-based link between Alaska and the continental United States. Some towns, cities, and other landmarks that the Alaska Highway passes through include Dawson Creek, Fort Saint John, Fort Nelson, Muncho Lake Provincial Park, Liard River Hotsprings Provincial Park, Watson Lake, Teslin, Whitehorse, Halnes Junction, Beaver Creek, Delta Junction, North Pole, Fairbanks, and many more. A detailed current map of the Alaska Highway is displayed below.
The Milepost. Alaska Highway. 2016. https://www.themilepost.com/highway-info/highways/alaska-highway (accessed April 4, 2017).
Bucksar, Richard G. "The Alaska Highway Development." Arctic 27, no. 1 (1974): 74-80. http://www.jstor.org.ezproxy.bucknell.edu/stable/40508483.
- Alaska Highway
- Environment Protection Board
- World War II
- Carson Templeton
- Ken Adam
- Canol Pipeline Project
- Environmental Protection Board
- Mining Engineering
- Teshmont Consultants Ltd.
- Templeton Engineering Company
- Mar 2017
Porcupine caribou herd
The Porcupine caribou herd is one of the largest migratory barren-ground caribou herds found in North America. The range of the herd spans over 250,000 square kilometers in the northern tundra. In the spring, the herd migrates between Alaska and Yukon’s arctic coast. In the winter, the herd ventures into Yukon’s Ogilvie Mountains. Although the majority of the land in the range of the herd is undeveloped, there are certain key areas which have been industrialized. Oil and gas exploration in the Eagle Plains basin interrupts the winter range of the Porcupine caribou herd. Also affecting the herd’s winter range are the Dempster Highway and mineral exploration in the Peel River watershed. The Dempster Highway connects Inuvik to Dawson City (Porcupine Caribou Management Board).
Regarding population size of the Porcupine caribou herd, according to the Arctic journal, “migratory wild reindeer and caribou numbers have dropped by about one-third since populations peaked in the 1990s and early 2000s”. There are natural periods of abundance and scarcity among migratory tundra caribou herds. These increases and decreases in population size are likely results of “continental climate switches” (Gunn et al. 2009, iii). Since the first population survey in the early 1970s, the Porcupine Caribou Management Board has conducted a survey every two years and reports that the population size has fluctuated between 100,000 and 200,000 animals (Porcupine Caribou Management Board). A detailed graph estimating the size of the population of the Porcupine caribou herd is shown below.
For further information, please consider the following link to The Porcupine Caribou Management Board (PCMB) webpage: http://www.pcmb.ca/.
Gunn, Anne, Don Russell, Robert G. White, and Gary Kofinas. "Facing a Future of Change: Wild Migratory Caribou and Reindeer." Arctic 62, no. 3 (2009): Iii-Vi. http://www.jstor.org/stable/40513303.
Porcupine Caribou Management Board. "The Porcupine Caribou Management Board (PCMB)." Porcupine Caribou Management Board. Accessed March 08, 2017. http://www.pcmb.ca/.
Dr. Max Dunbar
Dr. Maxwell John Dunbar, mentioned later in the text as the author of Environment and Common Sense which was published in 1971, began his “lifelong involvement with the Arctic” in August 1935 during an expedition to map the western Greenland coast (Grainger 1995, 306). Dunbar was born in Edinburgh, Scotland, attended the Merchiston Preparatory School followed by the Dalhousie Castle School, and finally, Fettes College. In 1933, Dunbar began attending the Trinity College in Oxford, England to study zoology where he met ecologist Charles Elton. After meeting Elton, Dunbar was introduced to the Oxford University Exploration Club. Through this club, Dunbar was invited to join the expedition in Greenland. He received a B.A. in 1937 and subsequently attended Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut on a Henry Fellowship (for more information on the Henry Fellowship see Yale University’s webpage https://yale.communityforce.com/Funds/FundDetails.aspx?4438534B376C50326C63483341496C39582F4435696B6F6554694364593150486764566B344156473663736768494B34585863553574432B646D5868384E6275). While studying at Yale University, Dunbar was able to take a trip to explore the glaciers of Alaska. He returned to Oxford, England, when Elton offered him the opportunity to join the 1939 eastern Canadian Arctic patrol. After accepting Elton’s offer, Dunbar enrolled at McGill University in Montreal, Canada as a graduate student. During his time at McGill University, Dunbar experienced the Canadian arctic for the first time by joining the R.M.S Nascopie. Dunbar began serving as the consular representative of the Canadian consulate in Greenland in 1942, and again in 1946. After leaving Greenland, Dunbar was employed by McGill University in the Department of Zoology. After beginning research for the Fisheries Research Board of Canada, he designed the first Canadian arctic research vessel Calanus. In 1947, Dunbar founded the Eastern Arctic Investigations laboratory at McGill University. His active involvement with McGill University continued until he retired and was appointed Professor Emeritus in 1982. He continued his quest for knowledge after “retiring” and published at least 32 articles after 1982 (Grainger 1995, 306-307).
Grainger, E. H. "Maxwell John Dunbar (1914-1995)." Arctic 48, no. 3 (1995): 306-07. http://www.jstor.org/stable/40511670.
Canadian Wildlife Service
The Canadian Wildlife Service organization was originally founded under the name of the Dominion Wildlife Service in November 1947. There were about thirty staff members of the organization at this time. In 1950, the organization’s name was changed to its current title of the Canadian Wildlife Service. The three main focuses of the Canadian Wildlife Service have been and continue to be the management of migratory birds, the management of game and furbearing mammals, and the enforcement of international treaties to ensure conservation of species. In order to accomplish these tasks, the Canadian Wildlife Service has conducted extensive research regarding population, population ecology, survival factors, migration patterns, limnological studies, environmental toxicology, and endangered species evaluation and protection of several species of the Arctic. Examples of these species include elk, moose, bison, caribou, muskoxen, polar bears, wolves, arctic foxes, geese, ducks, songbirds, seabirds, trumpeter swans, whooping cranes, and peregrine falcons. Additionally, the Canadian Wildlife Service has been tasked with the management of National Parks and the creation of public education programs (Burnett et al. 1999).
During the 1970s, the Canadian Wildlife Service researched and reported on the reproductive success of the black-crowned night heron on Pigeon Island of Lake Ontario (Price 1978), biology of the Kaminuriak population of barren-ground caribou (Arctic 1977), hunting of and attacks by polar bears along the Manitoba coast of Hudson Bay (Jonkel et al. 1976), biology and management of bears (Bears: Their Biology and Management 1976), and many other environmental and biological concerns regarding the wildlife of the Arctic.
Additional information and the current contact information of the Canadian Wildlife Service can be found at: https://www.ec.gc.ca/paom-itmb/default.asp?lang=En&n=5f569149-1.
"Books Received." Arctic 30, no. 1 (1977): 67-68.<br> http://www.jstor.org/stable/40508780.
Burnett, J. A., and Canadian Wildlife Service. 1999. A Passion for Wildlife: A History of the Canadian Wildlife Service, 1947-1997 and Selected Publications from Work by the Canadian Wildlife Service. Canadian field-naturalist, v. 113, no. 1; Canadian field-naturalist, v. 113, no. 1.
Jonkel, Charles, Ian Stirling, and Richard Robertson. "The Popular Bears of Cape Churchill." Bears: Their Biology and Management 3 (1976): 301-02. doi:10.2307/3872777.
"Preface." Bears: Their Biology and Management 3 (1976): 7. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3872749.
Price, Iola. "Black-Crowned Night Heron Reproductive Success on Pigeon Island, Lake Ontario 1972- 1977 (Abstract Only)." Proceedings of the Colonial Waterbird Group 1 (1978): 166. doi:10.2307/1520916.
Bluenose caribou herd
Many of the same concerns regarding the well-being of the Bluenose caribou herd in the Berger Inquiry are still being discussed today due to continued industrial exploration, specifically regarding oil and gas, in the Northwest Territories and the Arctic. Since oil and gas are still valued resources in our current societies, exploration continues in the North, as described by Anne Dunn and her colleagues in the 2009 Arctic publication. These concerns include changes of habitat due to the introduction or industrial development such as roads, oilfields, mines, etc. The attraction of job opportunity to areas surrounding the Bluenose caribou herd could potentially cause an increase in demand of caribou meat. Increased income as a result of employment for industrial exploration allows for the advancement of hunting methods regarding the locating of caribou and utilization of year-round roads implemented originally for industrial exploration. The concerns regarding the Bluenose East and Bluenose West caribou herds of the Northwest Territories result specifically from oil and gas exploration (Gunn et al. 2009, iii).
Besides industrial exploration, there are concerns about the population and survival of the Bluenose caribou herd surrounding climate trends. Specifically, warmer temperatures will affect the environmental conditions in which the caribou rely on for sustenance. An increased temperature in the wintertime could correspond to more freeze-thaw cycles (Gunn et al. 2009, iii).
Regarding population size, according to the Arctic journal, “migratory wild reindeer and caribou numbers have dropped by about one-third since populations peaked in the 1990s and early 2000s”. There are natural periods of abundance and scarcity among migratory tundra caribou herds. These increases and decreases in population size are likely results of “continental climate switches” (Gunn et al. 2009, iii). According to the Northwest Territories Environment and Natural Resources division, the Bluenose West caribou herd was estimated to have population of 112,000 in 1992. In 2015, its population was estimated to be approximately 15,000. The Bluenose East caribou herd was estimated to have a population of 104,000 in 2000. In 2015, its population was estimated to be between 35,000 and 40,000 (Northwest Territories).
Gunn, Anne, Don Russell, Robert G. White, and Gary<br> Kofinas. "Facing a Future of Change: Wild<br> Migratory Caribou and Reindeer." Arctic 62, no. 3 (2009): Iii-Vi. http://www.jstor.org/stable/40513303.
Northwest Territories: Environment and Natural Resources. "Barren-ground Caribou: Northern Herds." Environment and Natural Resources. Accessed March 08, 2017. http://www.enr.gov.nt.ca/node/2979.
- Ogilvie Mountains
- industrial exploration
- Environment and Common Sense
- Porcupine caribou herd
- Bluenose East caribou
- Canadian Wildlife Service
- Bluenose West caribou
- Max Dunbar
- Bluenose caribou herd
- management of game
- Eagle Plains
- Dominion Wildlife Service
- Dempster Highway
- Maxwell John Dunbar
- Dawson City