4 Matching Annotations
  1. Jun 2019
    1. Despite their name, rare-earth elements are – with the exception of the radioactive promethium – relatively plentiful in Earth's crust, with cerium being the 25th most abundant element at 68 parts per million, more abundant than copper. However, because of their geochemical properties, rare-earth elements are typically dispersed and not often found concentrated in rare-earth minerals; as a result economically exploitable ore deposits are less common.[4] The first rare-earth mineral discovered (1787) was gadolinite, a mineral composed of cerium, yttrium, iron, silicon, and other elements. This mineral was extracted from a mine in the village of Ytterby in Sweden; four of the rare-earth elements bear names derived from this single location.
    2. The 17 rare-earth elements are cerium (Ce), dysprosium (Dy), erbium (Er), europium (Eu), gadolinium (Gd), holmium (Ho), lanthanum (La), lutetium (Lu), neodymium (Nd), praseodymium (Pr), promethium (Pm), samarium (Sm), scandium (Sc), terbium (Tb), thulium (Tm), ytterbium (Yb), and yttrium (Y).
  2. Apr 2017
    1. Fort Chipewyan

      Fort Chipewyan is located on the northwest shore of Lake Athabasca. Fort Chipewyan was founded in 1788 by the Northwest Trading Company and is the oldest settlement in Alberta (Regional Municipality of Wood Buffalo). The North West Company and Hudson Bay companies established the first fur trading post at Fort Chipewyan because of its proximity to three rivers (Alberta Museum Association). These rivers provided easy opportunity for trade. Today, Fort Chipewyan has 1,261 residents made up of Mikisew Cree First Nation, Athabasca Chipewyan First Nation, and Metis ethnic groups. Trapping and fishing are popular resident activities, which continue Fort Chipewyan’s longstanding tradition that was established by the original trading post. Lake Chipewyan is a tourist destination that gives opportunity for visitors to enjoy the outdoors and visit a professional sized synthetic ice rink (Regional Municipality of Wood Buffalo). Fort Chipewyan is isolated by water and can only be reached by visitors in a plane or boat during the summer months. In the winter, an ice road can be used to access Fort Chipewyan. In 2009, a recreation center was created with an ice rink, fitness center, youth center, playground, and office space, which led to increased community involvement (Fort Chipewyan Aquatic Centre). In 2016, an aquatic center, including pools and a water park, was opened for community use. Since it’s original establishment, Fort Chipewyan has created community development and fostered tradition.

      "Fort Chipewyan." Regional Municipality of Wood Buffalo. Accessed April 06, 2017. http://www.rmwb.ca/living/Communities/Fort-Chipewyan.htm.

      "Fort Chipewyan Aquatic Centre." Fort Chipewyan Aquatic Centre | Regional Recreation Corporation of Wood Buffalo. Accessed April 06, 2017. http://www.rrcwb.ca/fort-chip-aquatic.

      "Fort Chipewyan Bicentennial Museum." Alberta Museum Association - Museums. Accessed April 06, 2017. http://public.museums.ab.ca/museums.cfm?ItemID=46

  3. Mar 2017
    1. oil and gas and mineral wealth,

      The Arctic is home to a plethora of resources; it currently produces one tenth of the world’s oil and one fourth of its natural gas. Commercial extraction of oil started in the 1920s in Canada’s northwest territories. In the 1960s, large hydrocarbon fields were found in Russia, Alaska, and the Mackenzie Delta in Canada. The last several decades have produced billions of cubic meters of gas and oil in these countries in addition to Norway. The Canadian Arctic holds 49 gas and oil fields in the Mackenzie River Delta and 15 are located on the Canadian Arctic archipelago. There are also 11 offshore fossil fuel fields that were discovered in Barents Sea between Russia and Norway. North of the Arctic Circle, mostly in western Siberia, more than 400 onshore oil and gas fields have been found; roughly 60 of these fields are notably vast while a quarter of them are currently inoperable.

      In addition to fuel sources, there are also extensive deposits of minerals in the Arctic, predominantly in the most developed part of the region, the Russian Arctic. It contains copper, silver, zinc, molybdenum, gold, uranium, tungsten, tin, platinum, palladium, apatite, cobalt, titanium, rare metals, ceramic raw materials, mica, precious stones, and some of the largest known deposits of coal, gypsum, and diamonds. The North American Arctic, on the other hand, holds iron, nickel, copper, and uranium. It is important to note, however, that many of the known mineral reserves have not been extracted due to the high cost and their inaccessibility.

      "Natural Resources / Arctic." / Arctic. February 21, 2017. Accessed March 08, 2017. http://arctic.ru/resources/.