7 Matching Annotations
  1. Jun 2019
    1. Despite their name, rare-earth elements are – with the exception of the radioactive promethium – relatively plentiful in Earth's crust, with cerium being the 25th most abundant element at 68 parts per million, more abundant than copper. However, because of their geochemical properties, rare-earth elements are typically dispersed and not often found concentrated in rare-earth minerals; as a result economically exploitable ore deposits are less common.[4] The first rare-earth mineral discovered (1787) was gadolinite, a mineral composed of cerium, yttrium, iron, silicon, and other elements. This mineral was extracted from a mine in the village of Ytterby in Sweden; four of the rare-earth elements bear names derived from this single location.
    2. The 17 rare-earth elements are cerium (Ce), dysprosium (Dy), erbium (Er), europium (Eu), gadolinium (Gd), holmium (Ho), lanthanum (La), lutetium (Lu), neodymium (Nd), praseodymium (Pr), promethium (Pm), samarium (Sm), scandium (Sc), terbium (Tb), thulium (Tm), ytterbium (Yb), and yttrium (Y).
    1. Chemical elements with a sufficiently high neutron capture cross-section include silver, indium and cadmium. Other candidate elements include boron, cobalt, hafnium, samarium, europium, gadolinium, terbium, dysprosium, holmium, erbium, thulium, ytterbium and lutetium.[1] Alloys or compounds may also be used, such as high-boron steel,[2] silver-indium-cadmium alloy, boron carbide, zirconium diboride, titanium diboride, hafnium diboride, gadolinium nitrate,[3] gadolinium titanate, dysprosium titanate and boron carbide - europium hexaboride composite.[4]
  2. Apr 2019
    1. Although ostensibly inert, like Chernobyl’s ‘undead’ isotopes, plastics are in fact intensely lively, leaching endocrine-disrupting chemicals.
  3. Oct 2018
    1. Another innovation is the use of enzymes at room temperature to build esters, chemical compounds used to make cosmetic ingredients such as emollients, which soften skin, and emulsifiers, which bind oily and watery components into a homogeneous mix.

      4th Principle: Designing Safer Chemicals By designing safer chemicals the beauty industry can still solve the beauty concerns consumers want to address while keeping the toxicity to the environment as the first priority of the product production

  4. Sep 2018
    1. Sorry, but your soul just died . . .

      It's interesting the use of the word "soul" here as a means to define the unquantifiable part of what makes us human taken from the article mentioned previously. Much of the author's argument has thus far been biotech based and "soul" is at first what the author describes as the chemicals that makes us feel, whereas "soul" is traditionally used as the essence of who we are while our body is just a vessel for that "soul" to live through.

  5. Feb 2018
    1. Some bacteria will swim toward chemicals that suggest a potential reward, such as food.

      Interesting that we could influence the behavior of bacteria.