2,475 Matching Annotations
  1. Mar 2023
    1. Birds are thinkers who look at the big picture and survey the landscape from a great height. Frogs are thinkers who love playing around in the mud of specific problems, delighting in finding gems and then polishing them so that they become part of the superstructure that birds survey. Einstein was a bird, Hubble was a frog. Science needs both birds and frogs for its progress, but there are cases in which one kind of creature is more important than another.


    1. Yet few cities and companies currently have such targets.
      • Paraphrase
      • Few cities currently have science-based targets (SBT)
      • Only 22 of 500 top greenhouse gas emitting companies set targets in line with SBT (Bloomberg Terminal)
      • Only 110 of the top 200 cities with the highest emissions had "net zero" pledges aligned with Paris Agreement.
      • Numbers are lower or missing for biodversity or other ESBs.
      • Comment
      • Setting such SBTs for cities is in effect downscaling Planetary Boundaries.
  2. Feb 2023
    1. 1478-1518, Notebook of Leonardo da Vinci (''The Codex Arundel''). A collection of papers written in Italian by Leonardo da Vinci (b. 1452, d. 1519), in his characteristic left-handed mirror-writing (reading from right to left), including diagrams, drawings and brief texts, covering a broad range of topics in science and art, as well as personal notes. The core of the notebook is a collection of materials that Leonardo describes as ''a collection without order, drawn from many papers, which I have copied here, hoping to arrange them later each in its place according to the subjects of which they treat'' (f. 1r), a collection he began in the house of Piero di Braccio Martelli in Florence, in 1508. To this notebook has subsequently been added a number of other loose papers containing writing and diagrams produced by Leonardo throughout his career. Decoration: Numerous diagrams.

      • title = What can cognitive science bring to art and museums?

      • Comment = Maurice Benayoun has applied cognitive science, VR and AR too many at installations throughout his life.

    1. to guide you through this 00:06:24 model very quickly was first published in 2004 it's a lot cited in the field of empirical aesthetics it tries to explain how we process artworks by claiming that there are perceptual analyzers followed by 00:06:38 implicit memory integrations or familiarity aspects then explicit classifications where the perceiver in his perception perceives the style or the content 00:06:51 and then followed by later stages that we called cognitive mastering
      • Cognitive science model of what happens in the brain of a perceiver of art
      • The model was first published in 2004 it's cited often in the field of empirical aesthetics
      • it tries to explain how we process artworks by claiming that:
        • there are perceptual analyzers followed by
        • implicit memory integrations or familiarity aspects then
        • explicit classifications where the perceiver in his perception perceives the style or the content
        • followed by later stages that we called cognitive mastering
    2. cognitive scientists can also provide museums and artists with a specific understanding of how the interaction between artworks and viewers can operate 00:02:34 so to discuss potential applications of cognitive sciences to museums and art
      • cognitive science can provide museums and artists with a specific understanding
      • of how the interaction between artworks and viewers can operate
      • this meeting explores potential applications of cognitive sciences to museums and art
    1. One student’s rabbinical thesis, also completed that year,opened with the declaration: ‘We must not forget that History is a Science. Its facts cannever be doubted. One may indeed, differ as to the interpretation of facts but neverdispute the fact per se!’ (orig. emph., Holtzberg, 1916: Introduction).

      Interesting to see this quote in light of the work of Ernst Bernheim and historical method.

      At what point did history begin to be viewed as a science this way? (Did it predate Berheim?) Is it still?

    1. That's greater than taking all the humans who lived throughout time, multiplied by the number of grains of sand on Earth, multiplied by the number of atoms in the universe.

      Wow, this is an excellent statement to help people imagine large numbers

    1. the essay Of the Plurality of Worlds (1853), in which he argued against the probability of life on other planets
    2. His best-known works are two voluminous books that attempt to systematize the development of the sciences, History of the Inductive Sciences (1837) and The Philosophy of the Inductive Sciences, Founded Upon Their History (1840, 1847, 1858–60). While the History traced how each branch of the sciences had evolved since antiquity, Whewell viewed the Philosophy as the "Moral" of the previous work as it sought to extract a universal theory of knowledge through history. In the latter, he attempted to follow Francis Bacon's plan for discovery. He examined ideas ("explication of conceptions") and by the "colligation of facts" endeavored to unite these ideas with the facts and so construct science.[11] This colligation is an "act of thought", a mental operation consisting of bringing together a number of empirical facts by "superinducing" upon them a conception which unites the facts and renders them capable of being expressed in general laws.[22]
    3. He corresponded with many in his field and helped them come up with neologisms for their discoveries. Whewell coined, among other terms, scientist,[2] physicist, linguistics, consilience, catastrophism, uniformitarianism, and astigmatism;[3] he suggested to Michael Faraday the terms electrode, ion, dielectric, anode, and cathode.[4][5]
    1. maths historian George Joseph’s book The Crest of the Peacock: Non-European Roots of Mathematics (1991) and the ongoing encyclopaedic series Science Across Cultures, edited by Helaine Selin
  3. Jan 2023
    1. 3.1 Guest Lecture: Lauren Klein » Q&A on "What is Feminist Data Science?"<br /> https://www.complexityexplorer.org/courses/162-foundations-applications-of-humanities-analytics/segments/15631


      Theories of Power

      Patricia Hill Collins' matrix of domination - no hierarchy, thus the matrix format

      What are other broad theories of power? are there schools?

      Relationship to Mary Parker Follett's work?

      Bright, Liam Kofi, Daniel Malinsky, and Morgan Thompson. “Causally Interpreting Intersectionality Theory.” Philosophy of Science 83, no. 1 (January 2016): 60–81. https://doi.org/10.1086/684173.

      about Bayesian modeling for intersectionality

      Where is Foucault in all this? Klein may have references, as I've not got the context.

      How do words index action? —Laura Klein

      The power to shape discourse and choose words - relationship to soft power - linguistic memes

      Color Conventions Project

      20:15 Word embeddings as a method within her research

      General result (outside of the proximal research) discussed: women are more likely to change language... references for this?

      [[academic research skills]]: It's important to be aware of the current discussions within one's field. (LK)

      36:36 quantitative imperialism is not the goal of humanities analytics, lived experiences are incredibly important as well. (DK)

    1. https://www.complexityexplorer.org/courses/162-foundations-applications-of-humanities-analytics/segments/15630


      Seven Principles of Data Feminism

      • Examine power
      • Challenge power
      • Rethink binaries and hierarchies
      • Elevate emotion an embodiment
      • Embrace pluralism
      • Consider context
      • Make labor visible

      Abolitionist movement

      There are some interesting analogies to be drawn between the abolitionist movement in the 1800s and modern day movements like abolition of police and racial justice, etc.

      Topic modeling - What would topic modeling look like for corpuses of commonplace books? Over time?

      wrt article: Soni, Sandeep, Lauren F. Klein, and Jacob Eisenstein. “Abolitionist Networks: Modeling Language Change in Nineteenth-Century Activist Newspapers.” Journal of Cultural Analytics 6, no. 1 (January 18, 2021). https://doi.org/10.22148/001c.18841. - Brings to mind the difference in power and invisible labor between literate societies and oral societies. It's easier to erase oral cultures with the overwhelm available to literate cultures because the former are harder to see.

      How to find unbiased datasets to study these?

      aspirational abolitionism driven by African Americans in the 1800s over and above (basic) abolitionism

    1. https://web.archive.org/web/20230116221448/https://www.dailykos.com/stories/2023/1/16/2147067/-Are-we-living-in-the-last-days-of-the-Scientific-Age Discusses a recent Nature article looking at how increasing numbers of new patents (a rightly criticized indicator) deal with ideas of decreasing impact. Conclusion is though that the number of disruptive patents remains high, just that the overall number of patents rises. Meaning perhaps more the democratisation of patenting, or perhaps the end of the utility of patenting, than stalling scientific progress.

      Some points from a 1996 book mentioned vgl [[Evolutionair vlak van mogelijkheden 20200826185412]] wrt scientific progress / increasing niche-specification in the evolutionary plane of possibilities. The book suggests skating to a different place has prohibitive costs and maybe out of reach. Vgl local optimisation in complexity, and what breaking loose from a local optimum takes. Is the loss of the Scientific Age here discussed a needed path into chaos to be able to reach other peaks? Check comments on the Nature article to see if this type of aspect gets discussed.

    1. Selain itu, isolat virus RaTG13 memiliki nilai kekerabatan 96,1%. Virus ini ditemukan di Yunnan, Cina. Sedangkan isolat virus yang berasal dari tenggiling mempunyai nilai kekerabatan sekitar 91%. Adanya nilai kekerabatan yang tinggi ini dimungkinkan akibat dari evolusi yang telah terjadi dari nenek moyang yang sama.

      Untuk diperhatikan, artikel yang dikutip dengan judul "Probable Pangolin Origin of SARS-CoV-2 Associated with the COVID-19 Outbreak" sudah di erratum 3 tahun yang lalu (https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32315626/)

      Sehingga masuk dalam jangkauan diskusi PubPeer dengan komentar sebagai berikut:

      Readers should become aware of a preprint (DOI: 10.1101/2020.05.07.077016) entitled "The SARS-CoV-2-like virus found in captive pangolins from Guangdong should be better sequenced" that provides critics to the quality of the sequence runs used in Liu et al. 2019 and also in this paper, to infer the genome sequence of Pangolin-CoV.

      This preprint states, in particular, that "I found the genome assemblies of GD/P virus of poor quality, having high levels of missing data. Additionally, unexpected reads in the Illumina sequencing data were identified. The GD/P2S dataset contains reads that are identical to SARS-CoV-2, suggesting either the coexistence of two SARS-CoV-2-like viruses in the same pangolin or contamination by the human virus".

      Penting bagi penulis untuk menambahkan informasi kebaharuan dan status riset dan temuan terbaru dari artikel yang dikutip. Semoga menjadi koreksi.


    1. A term recommended by Eve regarding an interdisciplinary approach that accounts for multiple feedback loops within complex systems. Need to confer complex systems science to see if ADHD is already addressed in that domain.

    1. https://www.zooniverse.org/

      The Zooniverse enables everyone to take part in real cutting edge research in many fields across the sciences, humanities, and more. The Zooniverse creates opportunities for you to unlock answers and contribute to real discoveries.

    1. We can have a machine learning model which gives more than 90% accuracy for classification tasks but fails to recognize some classes properly due to imbalanced data or the model is actually detecting features that do not make sense to be used to predict a particular class.

      Les mesures de qualite d'un modele de machine learning

  4. Dec 2022
    1. the Earth Commission's report will be used to underpin the development of science-based targets for business and cities by SBTN.

      !- relationship between : Earth Commission and Science-Based Targets Network (SBTN) - Earth Commission results will be used to develop Science-Based targets - for businesses and cities

    2. We distinguish between scientific Earth system targets, targets at the global or near-global scale that are generated primarily by scientific inquiry but may be informed by societal judgments about risks (Pickering & Persson, 2020), and science-based targets, targets for actors that are aligned with scientific evidence but which may involve negotiations based on responsibility and feasibility (Andersen et al., 2020).

      !- comparison : scientific earth system targets vs science-based targets

    1. Tackle wicked problems using a systems-thinking approach that considers the political roles, interests, and perspectives of stakeholders. 2. Collaborate effectively with stakeholders and team members with diverse backgrounds, life experiences, and ways of knowing. 3. Communicate scientific research and ideas to diverse audiences and through different modalities. 4. Meet ethical, collegial, and professional expectations and standards in collaborative research and other professional endeavors. 5. Articulate a sense of purpose and develop competencies, skills, and habits that prepare them for life-long learning about and engaging with wicked problems.
    1. When writing history, there are rules to be followed and evidence to be respected. But no two histories will be the same, whereas the essence of scientific experiments is that they can be endlessly replicated.

      A subtle difference here between the (hard) sciences and the humanities. Every human will bring to bear a differently nuanced perspective.

    1. Critics have characterized lateral thinking as a pseudo-scientific concept, arguing de Bono's core ideas have never been rigorously tested or corroborated.[4]

      Melechi, Antonio (11 June 2020). Weintraub, Pam (ed.). "Lateral thinking is classic pseudoscience, derivative and untested". Aeon Essays. Aeon.co.

    1. The study of Egypt “before the pharaohs” was pioneered in the late 19th and early 20th centuries by a British archaeologist called William Matthew Flinders Petrie, familiar to generations of students as “the father of archaeological science.”
    1. important works like Galen’s On Demonstration, Theophrastus’ OnMines and Aristarchus’ treatise on heliocentric theory (which mighthave changed the course of astronomy dramatically if it hadsurvived) all slipped through the cracks of time.
    1. In this work, we develop the “Multi-Agent, Multi-Attitude” (MAMA) model which incorporates several key factors of attitude diffusion: (1) multiple, interacting attitudes; (2) social influence between individuals; and (3) media influence. All three components have strong support from the social science community.

      several key factors of attitude diffusion: 1. multiple, interacting attitudes 2. social influence between individuals 3. media influence

  5. Nov 2022
    1. In an Open Science context,  “infrastructure” -- the "structures and facilities" -- refers to the scholarly communication resources and services, including software, that we depend upon to enable the scientific and scholarly community to collect, store, organise, access, share, and assess research.
    1. Modern science is, to a large extent, a model-building activity. In the natural and engineering sciences as well as in the social sciences, models are constructed, tested and revised, they are compared with other models, applied, interpreted and sometimes rejected or replaced by a better model.
    1. Weaver distinguishes ‘three levels of communication problems’, beginning with the technical problem (A), which is concerned with the f idelity of symbol transmission and thus the level where Shannon’s mathematical def inition and measure of information are situated. But Weaver then also postulates a semantic problem (B) that refers to the transmission of meaning and an ef fectiveness problem (C) that asks

      Three levels of communication problems: technical problem, semantic problem, and effectiveness problem. (Shannon and Weaver. 1964. A Mathematical Theory of Communication)

    1. Creating video tutorials has been hard when things are so in flux. We've been reluctant to invest time - and especially volunteer time - in producing videos while our hybrid content and delivery strategy is still changing and developing. The past two years have been a time of experimentation and iteration. We're still prototyping!

      Have you thought about opening the project setting and the remixing to educators or even kids? That could create additional momentum.

      A few related resources you might want to check out for inspiration: Science Buddies, Seesaw, Exploratorium

    1. Dr. Miho Ohsaki re-examined workshe and her group had previously published and confirmed that the results are indeed meaningless in the sensedescribed in this work (Ohsaki et al., 2002). She has subsequently been able to redefine the clustering subroutine inher work to allow more meaningful pattern discovery (Ohsaki et al., 2003)

      Look into what Dr. Miho Ohsaki changed about the clustering subroutine in her work and how it allowed for "more meaningful pattern discovery"

    2. Eamonn Keogh is an assistant professor of Computer Science at the University ofCalifornia, Riverside. His research interests are in Data Mining, Machine Learning andInformation Retrieval. Several of his papers have won best paper awards, includingpapers at SIGKDD and SIGMOD. Dr. Keogh is the recipient of a 5-year NSF CareerAward for “Efficient Discovery of Previously Unknown Patterns and Relationships inMassive Time Series Databases”.

      Look into Eamonn Keogh's papers that won "best paper awards"

    1. “In order to talk to each other, we have to have words, and that’s all right. It’s a good idea to try to see the difference, and it’s a good idea to know when we are teaching the tools of science, such as words, and when we are teaching science itself,” Feynman said.

      Maths, Logic, Computer Science, Chess, Music, and Dance

      A similar observation could be made about mathematics, logic, and computer science. Sadly, public education in the states seems to lose sight that the formalisms in these domains are merely the tools of the trade and not the trade itself (ie, developing an understanding of the fundamental/foundational notions, their relationships, their instantiations, and cultivating how one can develop capacity to "move" in that space).

      Similarly, it's as if we encourage children that they need to merely memorize all the movements of chess pieces to appreciate the depth of the game.

      Or saying "Here, just memorize these disconnected contortions of the hand upon these strings along this piece of wood. Once you have that down, you've experienced all that guitar, (nay, music itself!) has to offer."

      Or "Yes, once, you internalize the words for these moves and recite them verbatim, you will have experienced all the depth and wonder that dance and movement have to offer."

      However, none of these examples are given so as to dismiss or ignore the necessity of (at least some level of) formalistic fluency within each of these domains of experience. Rather, their purpose is to highlight the parallels in other domains that may seem (at first) so disconnected from one's own experience, so far from one's fundamental way of feeling the world, that the only plausible reasons one can make to explain why people would waste their time engaging in such acts are 1. folly: they merely do not yet know their activities are absurd, but surely enough time will disabuse them of their foolish ways. 2. madness: they cannot ever know the absurdity of their acts, for "the absurd" and "the astute" are but two names for one and the same thing in their world of chaos. 3. apathy: they in fact do see the absurdity in their continuing of activities which give them no sense of meaning, yet their indifference insurmountably impedes them from changing their course of action. For how could one resist the path of least resistance, a road born of habit, when one must expend energy to do so but that energy can only come from one who cares?

      Or at least, these 3 reasons can surely seem like that's all there possibly could be to warrant someone continuing music, chess, dance, maths, logic, computer science, or any apparently alien craft. However, if one takes time to speak to someone who earnestly pursues such "alien crafts", then one may start to perceive intimations of something beyond their current impressions

      The contorted clutching of the strings now seems... coordinated. The pensive placement of the pawns now appears... purposeful. The frantic flailing of one's feet now feels... freeing. The movements of one's mind now feels... marvelous.

      So the very activity that once seemed so clearly absurd, becomes cognition and shapes perspectives beyond words

    1. Of course, despite what the "data is the new oil" vendors told you back in the day, you can’t just chuck raw data in and assume that magic will happen on it, but that’s a rant for another day ;-)

      Love this analogy - imagine chucking some crude into a black box and hoping for ethanol at the other end. Then, when you end up with diesel you have no idea what happened.

    2. Working with the raw data has lots of benefits, since at the point of ingest you don’t know all of the possible uses for the data. If you rationalise that data down to just the set of fields and/or aggregate it up to fit just a specific use case then you lose the fidelity of the data that could be useful elsewhere. This is one of the premises and benefits of a data lake done well.

      absolutely right - there's also a data provenance angle here - it is useful to be able to point to a data point that is 5 or 6 transformations from the raw input and be able to say "yes I know exactly where this came from, here are all the steps that came before"

    1. okay so remind you what is a sheath so a sheep is something that allows me to 00:05:37 translate between physical sources or physical realms of data and physical regions so these are various 00:05:49 open sets or translation between them by taking a look at restrictions overlaps 00:06:02 and then inferring

      Fixed typos in transcript:

      Just generally speaking, what can I do with this sheaf-theoretic data structure that I've got? Okay, [I'll] remind you what is a sheaf. A sheaf is something that allows me to translate between physical sources or physical realms of data [in the left diagram] and the data that are associated with those physical regions [in the right diagram]

      So these [on the left] are various open sets [an example being] simplices in a [simplicial complex which is an example of a] topological space.

      And these [on the right] are the data spaces and I'm able to make some translation between [the left and the right diagrams] by taking a look at restrictions of overlaps [a on the left] and inferring back to the union.

      So that's what a sheaf is [regarding data structures]. It's something that allows me to make an inference, an inferential machine.

    1. What does 'passing an argument' mean in programming?You have a grinder that will grind anything that you pass on to her. You give her Rice. She grind it. You give her wheat. She grind it. You give her a Justin Bieber song CD. She grind it. She grinds every thing that you hand over to her. In programming, we create function that does the stuff we need. Say add, subtract, multiply or print the stuff that you pass on to it. Then we pass on stuff upon which the function will operate and return us the results. This process of passing the 'stuff' to be processed is referred to as passing an 'argument' in programming. Thank You.
    1. An argument is a way for you to provide more information to a function. The function can then use that information as it runs, like a variable. Said differently, when you create a function, you can pass in data in the form of an argument, also called a parameter.

      argument and parameter

    1. Science and journalism are not alien cultures, for all that they can sometimes seem that way. They are built on the same foundation — the belief that conclusions require evidence; that the evidence should be open to everyone; and that everything is subject to question. Both groups are comprised of professional sceptics. And whether it's directed towards an experiment or a breaking news story, each can appreciate the other's critical eye.
    1. CEO, Mike Tung was on Data science podcast. Seems to be solving problem that Google search doesn't; how seriously should you take the results that come up? What confidence do you have in their truth or falsity?

  6. Oct 2022
    1. Thus Paxson was not content to limit historians to the immediateand the ascertainable. Historical truth must appear through some-thing short of scientific method, and in something other than scien-tific form, linked and geared to the unassimilable mass of facts.There was no standard technique suited to all persons and purposes,in note-taking or in composition. "The ordinary methods of his-torical narrative are ineffective before a theme that is in its essen-tials descriptive," he wrote of Archer B. Hulbert's Forty- Niners(1931) in 1932. "In some respects the story of the trails can notbe told until it is thrown into the form of epic poetry, or comes un-der the hand of the historical novelist." 42

      This statement makes it appear as if Paxson was aware of the movement in the late 1800s of the attempt to make history a more scientific endeavor by writers like Bernheim, Langlois/Seignobos, and others, but that Pomeroy is less so.

      How scientific can history be as an area of study? There is the descriptive from which we might draw conclusions, but how much can we know when there are not only so many potential variables, but we generally lack the ability to design and run discrete experiments on history itself?

      Recall Paxson's earlier comment that "in history you cannot prove an inference". https://hypothes.is/a/LIWSoFlLEe2zUtvMoEr0nQ

      Had enough time elapsed up to this writing in 1953, that the ideal of a scientific history from the late 1800s had been borne out not to be accomplished?

    1. Forbidden Fruits: The Political Economy of Science, Religion, and GrowthRoland Bénabou, Davide Ticchi, and Andrea VindigniNBER Working Paper No. 21105
    1. Helbig, Daniela K. “Life without Toothache: Hans Blumenberg’s Zettelkasten and History of Science as Theoretical Attitude.” Journal of the History of Ideas 80, no. 1 (2019): 91–112. https://doi.org/10.1353/jhi.2019.0005

    2. A historical perspective on the sciencesbrings into view controversies, and some beliefs and methodological con-victions that retrospectively turn out to be false—among Blumenberg’scharacteristically colorful picks are Augustine writing that “the stars werecreated for the consolation of people obliged to be active at night,” and“Linnaeus’s opinion that the song of the birds at the first light of morningwas instituted as consolation for the insomnia of the old.”84

      something poetic about these examples even if they're poor science...

    3. In “collaboration with his Zettelkasten,”61 Blumenberg worked to por-tray these tensions between different and changing historical meanings ofscientific inquiry.
    1. Manne Gerell, docent i kriminologi vid Malmö universitet, forskar bland annat kring gängvåld och utsatta områden och även kring polisens brottsförebyggande arbete.– Visitationszoner har införts i till exempel Danmark och England, men forskningen kring det visar att de inte gett någon större effekt på gängbrottsligheten. Inte heller har nämnvärt fler beslag av vapen och droger gjorts jämfört med tidigare, säger han.
    1. e called on his fellow rabbis to submitnotecards with details from their readings. He proposed that a central office gathermaterial into a ‘system’ of information about Jewish history, and he suggested theypublish the notes in the CCAR’s Yearbook.

      This sounds similar to the variety of calls to do collaborative card indexes for scientific efforts, particularly those found in the fall of 1899 in the journal Science.

      This is also very similar to Mortimer J. Adler et al's group collaboration to produce The Syntopicon as well as his work on Propædia and Encyclopædia Britannica.

      link to: https://hypothes.is/a/nvWZnuApEeuKR--5AeBv8w

    1. Cognitive-science research shows that people improve learning efficiency by practicing the set of specific cognitive tasks required for their area of expertise.11. K. A. Ericsson, R. T. Krampe, C. Tesch-Römer, Psych. Rev. 100, 363 (1993); https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.100.3.363A. Ericsson, R. Pool, Peak: Secrets from the New Science of Expertise, HarperOne (2017). Although that approach is based on learning research, it is uncoincidentally quite similar to the ideal master–apprentice method for traditionally teaching a craft (see figure 1).

      The master-apprentice model of teaching and learning in which the master breaks down a problem into a set of subskills which the apprentice solves and practices with regular feedback for improvement is broadly similar to best pathways shown in cognitive science research on improving learning efficiency for building expertise.