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  1. Last 7 days
    1. often the path to a good information architecture is better knowledge management

      Better KM -> better IA

    1. learning doesn’t happen from skimming through a book or remembering enough to pass a test.

      One of the biggest misconceptions is that learning occurs when we skim through a book or briefly just remember enough information for a test or exam. Changing our mindset from this way of thinking is the first step in the process of utilizing the Feynman technique

    1. With regret and second thoughts, they were finally compelled to admit that the order of knowledge does not necessarily mirror the order of nature.

      I'll need some more research into this idea.


      Early modern scholars were forced to admit that the order of knowledge doesn't mirror the order of nature.

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  2. Jan 2022
    1. Or, in Lallemant’s words: ‘I can say in truth that, asregards intelligence, they are in no wise inferior to Europeans and tothose who dwell in France. I would never have believed that, withoutinstruction, nature could have supplied a most ready and vigorouseloquence, which I have admired in many Hurons; or more clear-sightedness in public affairs, or a more discreet management inthings to which they are accustomed.’25

      How do we go from such varied statements from Jesuits which entered the popular discourse to the complete erasure of this knowledge in subsequent generations. Was the greed for land and power so great?

    2. Even finding terms totranslate concepts like ‘lord’, ‘commandment’ or ‘obedience’ intoindigenous languages was extremely difficult; explaining theunderlying theological concepts, well-nigh impossible.

      Example of the difficulty of translating words when the underlying concepts don't exist in a culture.

    1. https://www.goedel.io/p/tools-for-thought-but-not-for-search

      Searching for two ingredients in an effort to find a recipe that will allow their use should be de rigueur in a personal knowledge manager, sadly it doesn't appear to be the case.


      This sort of simple search not working in these tools is just silly.

      They should be able to search across blocks, pages, and even provide graph views to help in this process. Where are all the overlaps of these words within one's database?

    1. Michael Ashcroft@m_ashcroft

      Having a solid reason for "why" when beginning a personal knowledge management system is important.

  3. Dec 2021
    1. https://luhmann.surge.sh/learning-how-to-read

      Learning How to Read by Niklas Luhmann

      Not as dense as Mortimer J. Adler's advice, but differentiates reading technical material versus poetry and novels. Moves to the topic of some of the value of note taking as a means of progressive summarization which may have implications for better remembering material.

    1. But we often find such regional networks developinglargely for the sake of creating friendly mutual relations, or having anexcuse to visit one another from time to time;33 and there are plentyof other possibilities that in no way resemble ‘trade’.

      There is certainly social lubrication of visiting people from time to time which can help and advance societies, but this regular visiting can also be seen as a means of reinforcing one's oral cultural history through spaced repetition.

      It can be seen as "trade" but in a way that anthropologists have generally ignored for lack of imagination for what may have been actually happening.

    2. Already tens of thousands of years ago, one can find evidence ofobjects – very often precious stones, shells or other items ofadornment – being moved around over enormous distances. Oftenthese were just the sort of objects that anthropologists would laterfind being used as ‘primitive currencies’ all over the world.

      Is it also possible that these items may have served the purpose of mnemonic devices as a means of transporting (otherwise invisible) information from one area or culture to another?

      Can we build evidence for this from the archaeological record?

      Relate this to the idea of expanding the traditional "land, labor, capital" theory of economics to include "information" as a basic building block

    1. Discussion is led by an instructor, but the instructor’s job is not to give the students a more informed understanding of the texts, or to train them in methods of interpretation, which is what would happen in a typical literature- or philosophy-department course. The instructor’s job is to help the students relate the texts to their own lives.

      The format of many "great books" courses is to help students relate the texts to their own lives, not to have a better understanding of the books or to hone methods of interpreting them.

      This isn't too dissimilar to the way that many Protestants are taught to apply the Bible to their daily lives.

      Are students mis-applying the great books because they don't understand their original ideas and context the way many religious people do with the Bible?

    1. Simultaneously, there was a revival of the old art of excerpting and the use of commonplace books. Yet, the latter were perceived no longer as memory aids but as true secondary memo-ries. Scholars, in turn, became increasingly aware that to address the informa-tion overload produced by printing, the best solution was to train a card index instead of their own individual consciousness.

      Another reason for the downfall of older Western memory traditions is the increased emphasis and focus on the use of commonplaces and commonplace books in the late 1400s onward.

      Cross reference the popularity of manuals by Erasmus, Agricola, and Melanchthon.

    2. In short, the core hypothesis that I would like to explore is that there is nothing particularly surprising in the contemporary use of a card index as a surprise generator. Indeed, the question should be instead: how it is possible to explain the evolutionary improbability of the social use of ‘machines’ as secondary memories for knowledge management and reproduc-tion?

      The key question Alberto Cevolini is exploring here.

    3. The main hypothesis is that in the use of a card index as a surprise generator, there is nothing particularly surpris-ing if one considers the evolution of knowledge management in early modern Europe.

      This is what I have been arguing all along as I've been doing my research as well.

    1. Even more important is that all this isn’t about the software. It is about the system you set up. Some software nudges you, sometimes even pushes you, towards system design decisions. Take Wikis as an example. Most of them have two different modes: The reading mode. The editing mode. The reading mode is the default. But most of the time you should create, edit and re-edit the content. This default, this separation of reading and editing, is a small but significant barrier on producing content. You will behave differently. This is one reason I don’t like wikis for knowledge work. They are clumsy and work better for different purposes.

      Most wikis have a user interface problem between their read and edit modes. Switching between the two creates additional and unnecessary friction for placing content and new information into them.

    1. Gessner, however, examines every single book meticulously to gather complete specifi cations of format, title, authors (provided they are named or discoverable), place of publica-tion, and year of publication. 7 Then he appends a content description. Hence, Konrad Gessner can rightly count as the father of the modern bibliography.

      Having catalogued works in his Bibliotheca Universalis (1545, 1548) using author, title, format, place and year of publication, Konrad Gessner could be considered the father of modern bibliography.

  4. Nov 2021
    1. Structures created by infrastructures can be less visible in today’s information society

      And some knowledge infrastructures (like hypothesis) can be entirely invisible for the majority of people, unless they have installed a specific tool to see the infrastructure.

    1. Librari Networks: Should TheyDear With Containersor Contents of Knowledge

      "Library Networks: Should They Deal With Containers or Contents of Knowledge?"

      Searching around, it doesn't seem like the outside world (e.g. Google Scholar, bibliographers) are aware that this piece Licklider wrote even exists, despite it being digitized and sitting here in the open.

      This piece presages the Internet Archive and, given the juxtaposition of its lofty goals with the piece's own obscurity, there's a perverse irony here.

      Licklider writes in section 2:

      It is high time that librarians reach out into computer networks to create order and functionality out of what is now chaos. (The author would- estimate that 90 per cent of the computerized information in EDUCOM universities "trickles down" to back-up or dead storage tapes within two years and that less than one per cent ever "perks up" again.)

      "Perking up" is more than what I'm talking about here—again, I can't find evidence that this piece is even catalogued anywhere.

    1. In this proposed system, tags are full-fledged standalone files. They can be published and discussed just like any traditional heavyweight file can.

      Tags are first class

    2. The solution is to create a tag file that points to the original and edited photo, like DerivedWork(original=(some hash), derived=(some hash)).

      Relational tags

    1. There was no ancient poet called “Homer,” he argued. Nor were the poems attributed to him “written” by any single individual. Rather, they were the product of a centuries-long tradition of poet-performers.

      Are there possibly any physical artifacts in physical archaeology that may fit into the structure of the thesis made by Lynne Kelly in Knowledge and Power in Prehistoric Societies?

      What would we be looking for? Small mnemonic devices? Menhir? Standing stones? Wooden or stone circles? Other examples of extended ekphrasis similar to that of the shield of Achilles?

      cf: Expanding Ekphrasis to the Broader Field of Mnemotechny: or How the Shield of Achilles Relates to a Towel, Car, and Water Buffalo

    1. I do think that if you in fact have a losing ticket, then you know it. And if you have winning ticket then you can justifiably, but incorrectly, think you know you have a losing ticket.I think the only good way to deny knowledge in lottery cases is to demand infallibility from knowledge, which than loses us pretty much all ordinary knowledge.

      This is exactly my problem with "knowledge" and it's inherent vagueness. I think it's far better for us all to admit that we have virtually no knowledge and instead only have beliefs of varying strengths.

  5. Oct 2021
    1. In this world I think we have two kinds of knowledge: One is Planck knowledge, that of the people who really know. They’ve paid the dues, they have the aptitude. Then we’ve got chauffeur knowledge. They have learned to prattle the talk. They may have a big head of hair. They often have fine timbre in their voices. They make a big impression. But in the end what they’ve got is chauffeur knowledge masquerading as real knowledge.
    1. A new idea acts retrospectively; a torch throws its light behind as well as before. Materials that were laid aside take on a new aspect when they are classified by means of an idea. Then everything within us is reborn and animated with a new life. But for that to happen, the paths of light must be open, our thoughts must be in order and linked consecutively one with another.
    2. Among the works of St. Thomas there is a letter to a certain Brother John, in which are enumerated Sixteen Precepts for Acquiring the Treasure of Knowledge.t Th

      Reference to read.

      They are given in Latin and English, with a commentary, in a lecture by Fr. Victor White, O.P., published by Black- friars, Oxford, December 1944: St. Thomas Aquinas, De Modo Studendi, price 6d.

    1. Great teams have a plan to win when -- surprise, surprise -- they learn that a dozen other teams are pursuing their previously-thought-to-be-unique idea. They persevere when others (including us) tell them that ideas are cheap until they are brought to life. They both see themselves as unique and list many companies as their competitors.
    2. We believe more work in the future will look like that of software developers today (automating away tasks and harnessing the flexible power of computers to get work done)
    3. Soon we will see a one-person billion-dollar company, as many of the most talented individuals choose to work for themselves — as founders, in the creator economy, as freelancers, or in some other way.
    1. All of which can help with getting a grip on your personal knowledge mastery (pkm).

      Example of someone in the wild using PKM as Personal Knowledge Mastery instead of the more common Personal Knowledge Management.

    1. First Archive

      Lots of stuff to dig through here. (35 items that the Wayback Machine is describing with class iconochive-First.)

  6. www.literacyworldwide.org www.literacyworldwide.org
    1. For example, it is worth discussing the process of Wikipedia

      I know that Wikipedia should never be used in a school setting, but I am curious as to why everyone uses it on a daily basis, myself included. If the information has a higher chance of being wrong anyways, why do we all take it as fact? I had learned before that anyone can basically change wikipedia pages, which makes anything that you read potentially very wrong. However, it is still one of the first sites that show up whenever you are looking up something. I wonder how it gained so much popularity from being so wrong. Do you think it has to do with easy to read information and quick access? Because I feel like it reiterates the cycle of using it over and over again. It generally is the top link, and I tend to click on the top link, which helps the algorithm of it going back to the top for other users and for wikipedia to show up for me personally, but how did it gain popularity in the first place?

    2. habits of mind surrounding technologies

      When I first think about digital literacies, I definitely think of it as a proficiency. When you are talking about literacy in a language, you are talking about proficient they are. For example, I am half white and half chinese, I can speak cantonese, but I cannot read or write. I would say that I am illiterate. I don't consider my norms and habits around the culture of being Chinese, for example, I don't consider playing Mojang or celebrating the lunar new year as making me literate with the culture. It is definitely something to think about when you are considering other contexts.

  7. Sep 2021
    1. We know that “We all possess knowledge.” But knowledge puffs up while love builds up.

      There is a common theme that contrasts knowledge and love.

      “If I speak in the tongues of men and of angels, but have not love, I am only a resounding gong or a clanging cymbal.”

      This brings to mind the song by Switchfoot, Adding to the Noise.

    1. “The scroll is written in code, but its actual content is simple and well-known, and there was no reason to conceal it,” they write in the Journal of Biblical Literature. “This practice is also found in many places outside the land of Israel, where leaders write in secret code even when discussing universally known matters, as a reflection of their status. The custom was intended to show that the author was familiar with the code, while others were not.”

      Ancient scribes sometimes wrote in code even though the topics at hand were well known as a means of showing their status.

    1. Creating a community network ontology is therefore about much more than just knowledge representation. It also requires us to think about how this conceptual knowledge model affects real-world knowledge creation and application processes, in our case concerning participatory community network mapping. Its participatory nature means that we need to think hard about how to explicitly involve the community in the construction, evolution, and use of the ontology.
    1. We need more SCOSS-like experimentation. We need initiatives with short iterations of conceptualization and execution, a sort of trial-and-error mentality as we navigate this complex issue. We need research organisations and libraries to create budget lines for open infrastructures. We need funders to start supporting the maintenance of open infrastructures like the eLife Innovation Initiative or the Chan Zuckerberg Foundation.

    1. Knowledge Futures Group is a 501c3 nonprofit building open source technology and collaborating with communities of practice to design and build the public digital infrastructure needed for effective, equitable, and sustainable knowledge futures.
    1. When asked for his views on which classic works to include among the Great Books, the science historian George Sarton pronounced the exercise futile: “Newton’s achievement and personality are immortal; his book is dead except from the archaeological point of view.”

      How does one keep the spirit of these older books alive? Is it only by subsuming into and expanding upon a larger body of common knowledge?

      What do they still have to teach us?

    1. It will be argued here that the new configuration of three possible degrees of freedom—markets, governance, and knowledge production—can be modeled in terms of a triple helix of university-industry-government relations (Etzkowitz & Leydesdorff, 1997; Leydesdorff & Etzkowitz, 1998). Governance can be considered as the variable that instantiates and organizes systems in the geographical dimension of the model, while industry is the main carrier of economic production and exchange. Thirdly, academe can play a leading role in the organization of the knowledge production function (Godin & Gingras, 2000).

      university, government, and industry.

  8. Aug 2021
    1. by the eighteenth century, suchchapters were being expanded into sizeable books that functioned primarily as natural historybibliographies in their own right. An early example of this practice was Johann JakobScheuchzer’s Bibliotheca scriptorium(1716).
    2. The foregoing studies suggest two strands of commonplacing circa 1700. The first was thecollection of authoritative knowledge, usually in the form of quotations. The second was thecollection of personal or natural knowledge, with Francis Bacon’s lists, desiderata and apho-risms serving as early examples. While Moss has shown that the first strand was losing popular-ity by the 1680s, recent scholarship has shown that the second retained momentum through theeighteenth century,9especially in scientific dictionaries,10instructional cards,11catalogues,12

      loose-leaf manuscripts,13syllabi14and, most especially, notebooks.15

      There are two strands of commonplacing around 1700: one is the traditional collection of authoritative knowledge while the second was an emergent collection of more personal knowledge and exploration.

    1. Great writers become great by closely studying and copying other great writers. This is how cultural knowledge works. We learn the foundational skills from each other first, and then get all weird and experimental later on once the normal rules become boring.
    1. In 1963, Ted Nelson coined the terms 'hypertext' and 'hypermedia' as part of a model he developed for creating and using linked content (first published reference 1965).[7] He later worked with Andries van Dam to develop the Hypertext Editing System (text editing) in 1967 at Brown University.
    1. My process for collecting and synthesizing information used to be exactly that: make highlights, sync them to Roam, tag the articles’ pages, and the respective blocks/highlights. And when it was time to write I would think of applicable tags for drafting the outline of an article, open their linked references in the sidebar, drag relevant ones into the outline, and draft the manuscript.

      work flow of roambrain/Maarten van Doornm page, example of catch knowledge

  9. Jul 2021
    1. Flavell (1979) further divides metacognitive knowledge into three categories: Person variables: What one recognizes about his or her strengths and weaknesses in learning and processing information. Task variables: What one knows or can figure out about the nature of a task and the processing demands required to complete the task—for example, knowledge that it will take more time to read, comprehend, and remember a technical article than it will a similar-length passage from a novel. Strategy variables: The strategies a person has “at the ready” to apply in a flexible way to successfully accomplish a task; for example, knowing how to activate prior knowledge before reading a technical article, using a glossary to look up unfamiliar words, or recognizing that sometimes one has to reread a paragraph several times before it makes sense.
    2. Elements of Metacognition Researchers distinguish between metacognitive knowledge and metacognitive regulation (Flavell, 1979, 1987; Schraw & Dennison, 1994).

      metacognitive knowledge vs metacognitive regulation

      • Metacognitive knowledge refers to what individuals know about themselves as cognitive processors
      • Metacognitive regulation refers to adjustments individuals make to their processes to help control their learning, such as planning, information management strategies, comprehension monitoring, de-bugging strategies, and evaluation of progress and goal
    1. Hayek draws attention to the fact that the most relevant knowledge for economic decision-making is not the general knowledge of the economist or philosopher, but rather the dispersed, local, and often tacit knowledge of myriad individuals in an economy

      will big data change the situation? What used to be impossible now starts to seem likely.

    1. Blogging about your work hits both of those marks. It also means that you have to translate your work from academese to language that non-academics will understand (i.e. jargon) and also foreground the relevance of your work. You have to tell people why your work is important and what it adds to the world.

      This is such an important point. Donald Trump did such an excellent job speaking at a level a lay person could understand when downplaying the seriousness of the Covid-19 virus thus undermining the scientific and medical community voices, that many Americans are refusing to vaccinate. This puts the world at risk for future variants that might be much worse than the ones we have now. More academics simplifying knowledge will help stem the tide of fake news, political propaganda and truly harmful misinformation.

    1. On the difference for writing for one's self and for others. Of course there's also the need to be able to re-decifer one's notes again in the future. It may be best to keep more detailed for your future self as if you're writing for the public.

      I like the idea of distance in "communication space" which comes up in the comments. This is related to context collapse and shared contexts which are often too-important in our communication with regard to being understood in the far future.

      <small><cite class='h-cite via'> <span class='p-author h-card'>Matthias Melcher</span> in Commonplace Book | x28's new Blog (<time class='dt-published'>07/06/2021 11:13:34</time>)</cite></small>

    1. Forty years ago, Michel Foucault observed in a footnote that, curiously, historians had neglected the invention of the index card. The book was Discipline and Punish, which explores the relationship between knowledge and power. The index card was a turning point, Foucault believed, in the relationship between power and technology.

      This piece definitely makes an interesting point about the use of index cards (a knowledge management tool) and power.

      Things have only accelerated dramatically with the rise of computers and the creation of data lakes and the leverage of power over people by Facebook, Google, Amazon, et al.

  10. Jun 2021
    1. orchestrating knowledge construction

      While I don't disagree with the concept, it's interesting that the instructor has the agency here in what is often seen as a more horizontal activity.

    1. one of the beliefs that seems to be characteristic of the postmodernist mind set is the idea that politics and cleverness are the basis for all judgments about quality or truth, regardless of the subject matter or who is making the judgment

      hmmm...this needs to be unpacked...I might start by suggesting that critical theory does indeed often explore how judgements of quality and truth are shaped by politics, power, desire, knowledge, etc, but that's not a point against such work, but rather a recognition of part of its main practice.

      Cleverness is another matter...there's quite a bit of cleverness here in Morningstar's post, so should we judge it less worthy?

  11. May 2021
    1. And asking them if they think they know what they are doing will not help, because many people will overestimate their knowledge, making the support even more complicated as the tech guy may at first believe them and only find out later that they told wrong things because they do not actually know what they are pretending to know.
    1. Being opportunistic can be useful, but having a big positive impact often requires doing something unusual and on developing strong skills, which can take 10+ years.

      Academics (and other knowledge workers) tend not to focus too much attention on getting better. Skills development happens in an ad hoc way rather than a structured and focused approach to improvement.

    1. I had always assumed – without realising the assumption – that the ancient knowledge keepers would have progressed around the henge posts or stones much as I do around a memory palace. It hadn’t occurred to me that there may be experts on each topic, ‘owning’ each post or stone and the knowledge it represented. Is there any way the archaeology could ever tell us if this is the case?

      Personally, I had assumed from Kelly's work that individual knowledge keepers may have done this. Particularly in the cases of the most advanced and protected knowledge based on the private spaces she discussed.

      The question about archaeology being able to tell us is a very good one. Nothing immediately comes to mind, but it's worthwhile to look at this. Could some artifacts indicate different artists through their own craft be a way of differentiation?

    1. A fourth theme to emerge from the analysis of the data, is the highly relevant ‘cultural’ aspect to this memorization technique which students greatly appreciated. As one student notes: “I like the idea of connecting Indigenous culture with science learning…”. The theme of culture overlays learning and demonstrates the importance of conceptualising Australian Aboriginal ways of knowing or learning with or from rather than about Australian Aboriginal people and their knowledge systems. As Yunkaporta [2, p. 15] states, it is important not to examine Australian Aboriginal knowledge systems, but to explore the external systems “from an Indigenous knowledge perspective”.

      This is so heartwarming to me.

    2. Further, while the notion of ‘steps’ is often used in education as a way to scaffold knowledge, in the case of the Australian Aboriginal memory technique, there is also literal use of the term ‘steps’ as the following quote highlights: “[w]alking around and looking at the trees was a good visual tool to relate to corresponding steps in the cycle”. Kelly [1, p. 20] concurs and refers to the way Indigenous cultures use geography and landscape to create “memory spaces” and even “narrative landscapes”.

      Steps, diagrams, and other structures have been almost all that is left of potential mnemotechniques following educational reform in the late 1500s.

      Is there any research on these sorts of knowledge scaffolds in modern education?

      A classic example in Western culture can be seen in Eusebius' breaking the Bible down into smaller pieces using verses, though I don't think it was made canonical until during the Renaissance.

    3. Each student was assigned randomly to one of three study groups and assigned an individual study ID number.

      Were students queried as to their knowledge or experience with any of the techniques prior to the study?

    4. Systems for encoding, transmission, and protection of essential knowledge for group survival and cohesion were developed by multiple cultures long before the advent of alphabetic writing.

      Focusing in on the phrase:

      essential knowledge for group survival

      makes me wonder if we haven't evolutionarily primed ourselves to use knowledge and group knowledge in particular to create group cohesion and therefor survival?

      Cross reference: https://hyp.is/LWtjtLhjEeuTqHPwUUMUbA/threadreaderapp.com/thread/1381933685713289216.html and the paper https://www.academia.edu/46814693/The_Signaling_Function_of_Sharing_Fake_Stories

  12. commonplace.knowledgefutures.org commonplace.knowledgefutures.org
    1. This almost appears to be a small, community-based commonplace book.

      And apparently published on PubPub.

      <small><cite class='h-cite via'> <span class='p-author h-card'>Samuel Klein</span> in Samuel Klein on Twitter: "@flancian See also https://t.co/KMmU7pDuQx" / Twitter (<time class='dt-published'>05/18/2021 19:30:42</time>)</cite></small>

    1. “Monetising what we see as sacred knowledge, our way of being – driving, walking – is sacred knowledge and the only people who should have any purview over that is our community. … What if we look at what the data could do for our community and how to achieve that? … We are gathering our data because we love our people, we want a better future for the next generations. What if all data was gathered for those reasons? What would it look like?”

      A great quote and framing from Abigail Echo-Hawk.

      This reliance on going to community elders (primarily because they have more knowledge and wisdom) is similar to designing for the commons and working backward. Elders in many indigenous cultures represent the the commons.

      This isn't to say that we shouldn't continue to innovate and explore the evolutionary space for better answers, but going slow and fixing things is far more likely to be helpful than moving fast and breaking things as has been the mode for the last fifteen years. Who's watching the long horizon in these scenarios?

      This quote and set up deserves some additional thought into the ideas and power structures described by Lynne Kelly in Knowledge and Power in Prehistoric Societies Orality, Memory and the Transmission of Culture

    1. Darren Dahly. (2021, February 24). @SciBeh One thought is that we generally don’t ‘press’ strangers or even colleagues in face to face conversations, and when we do, it’s usually perceived as pretty aggressive. Not sure why anyone would expect it to work better on twitter. Https://t.co/r94i22mP9Q [Tweet]. @statsepi. https://twitter.com/statsepi/status/1364482411803906048

    1. ReconfigBehSci on Twitter: ‘the SciBeh initiative is about bringing knowledge to policy makers and the general public, but I have to say this advert I just came across worries me: Where are the preceding data integrity and data analysis classes? Https://t.co/5LwkC1SVyF’ / Twitter. (n.d.). Retrieved 18 February 2021, from https://twitter.com/SciBeh/status/1362344945697308674

    1. Dr Zoë Hyde. (2021, February 23). I don’t like to dwell on negatives, but something important happened recently that I’d like to make public. Shortly before Christmas, @mugecevik made a complaint to my university about me. When asked for details, she didn’t provide any. My employer took a dim view of the matter. [Tweet]. @DrZoeHyde. https://twitter.com/DrZoeHyde/status/1364184623262048259

  13. Apr 2021
    1. This post articulates a lot of what I've been thinking about for the past 18 months or so, but it adds the additional concept of community integration.

      Interestingly, this aligns with the early, tentative ideas around what the future of In Beta might look like as a learning community, rather than a repository of content.