206 Matching Annotations
  1. Nov 2018
    1. Creating KGs is not trivial.

      This applies to universal KG in particular. Domain specific KGs can have any level of complexity - can they still be called knowledge graphs then?



    1. Instructional Design Strategies for Intensive Online Courses: An Objectivist-Constructivist Blended Approach

      This was an excellent article Chen (2007) in defining and laying out how a blended learning approach of objectivist and constructivist instructional strategies work well in online instruction and the use of an actual online course as a study example.

      RATING: 4/5 (rating based upon a score system 1 to 5, 1= lowest 5=highest in terms of content, veracity, easiness of use etc.)

    1. At the intersection of technology and pedagogy:considering styles of learning and teaching

      When examining the pedagogy of learning, teacher and student centered approaches, there is additional evidence supporting a model moving more towards technology-based learning. This articles considers the question of technology in the classroom and its' advantages/disadvantages.

      RATING: 4/5 (rating based upon a score system 1 to 5, 1= lowest 5=highest in terms of content, veracity, easiness of use etc.)

    1. Distance Education Trends: Integrating new technologies to foster student interaction and collaboration

      This article explores the interaction of student based learner-centered used of technology tools such as wikis, blogs and podcasts as new and emerging technology tools. With distance learning programs becoming more and more popular, software applications such as Writeboard, InstaCol and Imeem may become less of the software of choice. The article looks closely at the influence of technology and outcomes.

      RATING: 4/5 (rating based upon a score system 1 to 5, 1= lowest 5=highest in terms of content, veracity, easiness of use etc.)

  2. Oct 2018
  3. cloud.degrowth.net cloud.degrowth.net
    1. One of the proposals would be togenerate more spaces for sharing knowledges. Eg providing virtual spaces, eg I have done this, what has and hasn ́t worked. I admire what you do in Unitierra, and the Zapatista, and my context is very different, so we need to change the way of looking atthings.

      There is a thing which we call Federated Wiki, that challenges how we produce knowledge : http://federated.wiki/federated-wiki-introduction.html

    2. To document this confluence, and in which way we are building this knowledge—not only logical, but emotional and relational. Putting much more the tools of knowledge building.
  4. Sep 2018
    1. cash crops

      A cash crop or profit crop is an agricultural crop which is grown to sell for profit. It is typically purchased by parties separate from a farm. The term is used to differentiate marketed crops from subsistence crops, which are those fed to the producer's own livestock or grown as food for the producer's family.

    1. Another big takeaway from decades of scientific research is that, while we use our eyes to read, the starting point for reading is sound. What a child must do to become a reader is to figure out how the words she hears and knows how to say connect to letters on the page. Writing is a code humans invented to represent speech sounds. Kids have to crack that code to become readers.
    2. The basic assumption that underlies typical reading instruction in many schools is that learning to read is a natural process, much like learning to talk. But decades of scientific research has revealed that reading doesn't come naturally. The human brain isn't wired to read. Kids must be explicitly taught how to connect sounds with letters — phonics.
  5. Aug 2018
    1. Rationality and transparency are the values of classical liberalism. Rationality and transparency are supposed to be what make free markets and democratic elections work. People understand how the system functions, and that allows them to make rational choices.

      But economically, we know there isn't perfect knowledge or perfect rationality (see Tversky and Khaneman). There is rarely every perfect transparency either which makes things much harder, especially in a post-truth society apparenlty.

    1. Far from ‘competition’ supposedly driving ‘innovation’, Connell (2013) argues that it does the reverse. In the first instance, what a neo-liberal conception of the university produces, is the ‘reproduction of global dependency’ (p. 2)—through a ‘neocolonial dependence...built into performativity through international rankings of journals, depart-ment and universities’, whereby local intellectual cultures are under-mined and obliterated through an unhealthy reliance on ‘impact factors and ‘citations’ (p. 2). Secondly, the ‘entrenchment of social hierarchies in knowledge production and circulation’ (p. 2), act to further sediment privilege in the already advantaged—institutionally, in Australia in the older so-called ‘sandstone’ universities, and individually in the scions of the privileged who attend them.

      The neocolonial nature of the research performativity regime and its epistemological dominance.

    2. Transformed in this process is the very nature of knowledge:Neoliberalization replaces education aimed at deepening and broadening intelligence and sensibilities, developing historical consciousness and her-meneutic adroitness, acquiring diverse knowledge and literacies, becom-ing theoretically capacious and politically and socially perspicacious, with [forms of] education aimed at honing technically-skilled entrepreneurial actors adept at gaming any system. (p. 123)

      neoliberalism and the transformation of knowledge and knowledge work

    1. Other foundational accounts, like Moglen (1999) and Weber (2004),attended to the emergence of informal hierarchies and governance arrange-ments within communities.

      Other early work focused on organizational attributes, like how information goods were produced with flat/informal hierarchies, community values/norms, and governance structures.

    2. Peer productioncould, Benkler argued, outperform traditional organizational forms underconditions of widespread access to networked communications technologies,a multitude of motivations driving contributions, and non-rival informationcapable of being broken down into granular, modular, and easy-to-integrate

      Benkler's early work studied "the role of non-exclusive property regimes and more permeable organizational boundaries" for knowledge products.

    1. 6 key principles of experts' knowledge

      1. experts notice features and manful patterns of info
      2. experts have abilities to make sense of the content based on prior knowledge that is organized in some ways
      3. experts' knowledge is not isolated and it related to context.
      4. experts have abilities to flexibly retrieve important aspects of their knowledge.
      5. experts may not have abilities to teach others
      6. experts have flexibilities in their approach to apply to new situations.
  6. Jul 2018
    1. Part of the reason is because an undergraduate education doesn't really train a person to think like a scientist. Instead, undergraduates focus on learning the large amount of foundational material in a field. It really isn't until graduate school (or after several years at the bench) that a person is taught how to generate new knowledge in the field. Once you can generate new knowledge in the field, then you call yourself a scientist.

      So if you don't generate new knowledge in the field you aren't a scientist? What that mean for the earlier paragraph about the PhD and completion of a block of instruction/training to call yourself a scientist?

    2. Actually, no, it hasn't, no matter what the Bunny's sign says. The scientific method is designed specifically to root out bias and false assumptions, including political ones. Sure, individual scientists can be political, but the scientific method is not. Its ideological agnosticism is why it works so well. In fact, the self-correcting nature of science means it is the best source of secular knowledge that humankind possesses.
  7. Jun 2018
    1. And the fourth concerns the idea of the adjacent possible. It just may be the case that biospheres on average keep expanding into the adjacent possible. By doing so they increase the diversity of what can happen next. It may be that biospheres, as a secular trend, maximize the rate of exploration of the adjacent possible.

      For biospheres (as autonomous agents): expanding into the adjacent possible, at a maximized but secure rate, will put them in an advantage in evolution.

      For an idea (in Popperian World 3): knowing its 'genes' and the boundary it operates within leads to the exploration of the adjacent possible. This is before it can start 'evolving' in the complex game of idea development.

  8. May 2018
    1. We are met at the very threshold of that realm with a statement which is calculated to check our steps for the moment, and if we approach with a sense of knowing or possessing anything already, with a sense of contentment, of personal satisfaction, or with any sense other than that of needing to know everything, then this word should bring us to a standstill at once: "...no one knoweth the Son, save the Father..." Maybe we thought we knew something about the Lord Jesus, and that we had ability to know; that study, and listening, and various other forms of our own application and activity could bring us to a knowledge, but at the outset we are told that "...no one knoweth the Son, save the Father..." All that the Son is, is locked up with the Father, and He alone knows.

      The utter solitariness of Christ is reminded here. All external human efforts can only teach and talk about Christ objectively, that too only to a certain limit; they can only tell about him in a mere mental and propositional way, not an inch more. All true knowledge of Christ and any subjective comprehension can only be initiated by God himself by the work of the Holy Spirit ; through the means of the Word of God. This is revelation, revealed truth.

  9. Apr 2018
    1. Hyper Knowledge is a software company which develops a range of software for various applications. Based in Castle Park, Castle Pk, Hyper Knowledge is a software development company.

      Hyper Knowledge

  10. Feb 2018
    1. Center of Excellence

      Join the Center of Excellence. It is designed to help you improve your practice of Integrated PM through:

      • Collaboration
      • Training
      • Shared Assets
      • Knowledge Management
      • While helping you overcome change adoption hurdles


    1. Use information gained from illustrations (e.g., maps, photographs) and the words in a text to demonstrate understanding of the text (e.g., where, when, why, and how key events occur).

      when, where, why, how- what they mean and how to find them

      key events

    2. Use illustrations and details in a story to describe its characters, setting, or events.

      definitions of character, setting, and event differentiation between story elements

    3. Distinguish their own point of view from that of the narrator or those of the characters.

      It is important for student to be able to formulate their own opinions about the text but also to know how those opinions differentiate from the narrator and also the characters in the story.

    4. Compare and contrast a firsthand and secondhand account of the same event or topic; describe the differences in focus and the information provided

      The students must have the skill to compare and contrast. The knowledge comes in when the student has to know the information that is needed to compare and contrast.

    5. Describe the overall structure of a story

      Knowledge--a student must be able to understand the story in order to describe the structure of a story.

    6. ask and answer questions about key details in a text

      the knowledge comes from being able to understand key details in a text while the skill comes from being able to ask questions and answer questions using the knowledge they have.

    7. between books that tell stories and books that give information, drawing on a wide reading of a range of text types

      To highlight the differences you could compare an encyclopedia on arachnids to a fable about Anansi the African trickster spider character.

    8. Explain major differences between books that tell stories and books that give information, drawing on a wide reading of a range of text types.

      This requires students to have knowledge of various elements of narrative texts and informational texts.

  11. Dec 2017
    1. Eyeing the forbidden fruit, I trod lightly on the sacred ground, and dared to speak only in whispers, until we had gone many paces from it

      When ever any lottery work to me. mentions the fording fruit, I always pay careful attention to the context and scene it pertains to. Forbidden fruit is a highly connotative term that draws in instant allusion to Adam and eve in the Bible. I found its use in this scene to be very interesting and narrative, the forbidden fruit in this case seems to be knowledge/information/stories. Sometimes knowing to much can be bad, knowledge can awaken one as much as it can lead one to damnation.

  12. Nov 2017
    1. the ever-changing digital landscape

      I think of myself as a Moffett guy, in that early on in my teaching I found the notion of "Teaching the Universe of Discourse" and exciting and clear map for building curriculum and for assessing my students' progress at any moment. I learned to focus on a balance of the different kinds of writing in the UNIVERSE of discourse. When I began to think about what it meant to teach digital writing, I returned to Moffett's notion of looking at the range of possibility. And as the words here, "ever-changing" and "landscape," suggest, we can constantly be thinking about what to include in our digital curriculum. Snapchat? Instagram? Is blogging still an important part of the landscape? What does it mean to have more characters available on Twitter? Do my students need more time in something like a Google community with short, interactive online conversation or do they need to slow down a bit and create a web page? It's exciting to be playing in this field, and it's even more exciting when youth recognize that they can choose where they want to play and make a difference digitally as well -- and what they need to learn to have an impact digitally.

    1. Education, in like manner engrafts a new man on the native stock, & improves what in his nature was vicious & perverse, into qualities of virtue and social worth; and it cannot be but that each generation succeeding to the knowledge acquired by all those who preceded it, adding to it their own acquisitions & discoveries, and handing the mass down for successive & constant accumulation, must advance the knowledge & well-being of mankind: not infinitely, as some have said, but indefinitely, and to a term which no one can fix or foresee.

      In my engagement "Individual and Society", we center our discussions around the importance of one over the other and its pros and cons. With this phrase, it is definitely obvious that the importance of unification is crucial to our human existence. We cannot survive off of merely being here but rather incorporating the values and teachings of those who come before us. Granted we use current knowledge and beliefs to tweak these ideologies and we often times make them our own. But it is imperative that we give credit to those who set the foundation for us to discuss and challenge what we hold as human truths. - Kayla Thomas

  13. Sep 2017
    1. it cannot be but that each generation succeeding to the knowledge acquired by all those who preceded it, adding to it their own acquisitions & discoveries, and handing the mass down for successive & constant accumulation, must advance the knowledge & well-being of mankind: not infinitely, as some have said, but indefinitely, and to a term which no one can fix or foresee.

      Education is highly valued for the founders of the University. Their belief that each generation will pass increasingly more amount of knowledge to the next is still evident in today's societies. However, their use of "indefinitely" is highly doubtful as they limit their extent of knowledge by restricting access to the University to only men. Today, knowledge is also evidently lost as humanity reduces the diversity in human society as well as the natural world. In order to fully emerge in an indefinite scale of acquiring knowledge, boundaries cannot be set as the writers of this report did, and acceptance of all forms of resources is necessary. -Yuki Zheng

    1. mphasize its normative, shared,inter-generationally transmitted characteristics rather than itsheterogeneity, emergence, and practical application.

      I wonder about weak vs strong ties. This strikes me as a difference, i.e. heterogeneity. I also wonder about knowledge network analysis...maybe this is about how knowledge travels.

    1. ccording to this blog,

      When I read this blog, I thought about how knowledge comes to mature academics. When we are junior, we spend a great deal of time reading the specifics of articles and texts. Do we do the same as senior academics? Or does knowledge come to us via our networks? We talk to people at conferences or exchange ideas via email or other digital means? Just wondering if knowledge networks change over the life course of an academic?

    1. entify words and phrases in stories or poems that suggest feelings or appeal to the sen

      I owuld consider this knowledge becuaseif studetns are able to indeitfy feelings in books and literature they will beb able to make connections to their own lives and how they feel.

  14. Jul 2017
    1. this knowledge would include knowledge of concepts, theories, ideas, organizational frameworks, knowledge of evidence and proof, as well as established practices and approaches toward developing such knowledge

      content knowledge

    2. A teacher with deep pedagogical knowledge understands how students construct knowledge and acquire skills and how they develop habits of mind and positive dispositions toward learning

      Important fact about educators with deep pedagogical knowledge.

  15. May 2017
    1. To augment collaborative human and ecosystem capacity to perceive and to wisely address complex local and global issues. In all deliberations, consider onto the 7th generation.

      The TopicQuests Mission

  16. Apr 2017
    1. A promising option for integrating theory with practice in K-12 open learning is the Tech-nological Pedagogical Content Knowledge framewor

      Knowledge Building and networked knowledge ecologies would be more updated and current examples of open learning?

      Scardamalia & BEreiter (2014) http://ikit.org/fulltext/2014-KBandKC-Published.pdf

      Knowledge ecology: http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download;jsessionid=8D310E62BF5DC284DA14B5A6CE9F762E?doi=

    1. Two monks were arguing about a flag. One said, “The flag is moving.” The othersaid, “The wind is moving.” The sixth patriarch, Zeno, happened to be passingby. He told them, “Not the wind, not the flag; mind is moving.”—Douglas R. Hofstadter, Gödel, Escher, Bach

      How does quote fit the idea of knowledge commons. We are the individual monks and the commons is the mind moving? Not just your mind, not just my mind, but 'all mind'?

  17. Mar 2017
    1. Conversely, western pedagogy continues to deal with content predominantly in the abstract form, in spite of attempts to contextualise subject matter.

      This jumps out at me as a major difference between the two systems of learning. Indigenous: highly contextualised with a strong sense of place versus Western: pedagogy deals with content in the abstract in spite of attempts to contextualise. What do you think?

  18. Feb 2017
    1. With scientific claims, the only definitive answer is to reexamine the original research data and repeat the experiments and analysis. But no one has the time or the expertise to examine the original research literature on every topic, let alone repeat the research. As such, it is important to have some guidelines for deciding which theories are plausible enough to merit serious examination.

      "The superiority of Scientific Evidence Reexamined":

      "Allow me now to ask, Will he be so perfectly satisfied on the first trial as not to think it of importance to make a second, perhaps u third, and a fourth? Whence arises this diffidence'! Purely from the consciousness of the fallibility of his own faculties. But to what purpose, it may be said, the reiterations of the at-tempt, since it is impossible for him, by any efforts, to shake off his dependence on the accuracy of his attention and fidelity of his memory? Or, what can he have more than reiterated testimonies of his memory, in support of the truth of its for-mer testimony? I acknowledge, that after a hundred attempts he can have no more. But even this is a great deal. We learn from experience, that the mistakes or oversights committed by the mind in one operation. arc sometime!-., on a review, corrected on the second, or perhaps on a third. Besides, the repetition, when no error is discovered, enlivens the remembrance, and so strengthens the conviction. But, for this conviction. it is plain that we are in a great measure indebted to memory. and in some measure even to experience." (Campbell 922)

    1. Another remark on this article that deserves our notice is, that the less improved in knowl-edge and discernment the hearers are, the easier it is for the speaker to work upon their passions, and by working on their passions, to obtain his end.

      This is a persistent view both since Campbell and preceding Campbell. Of course, it is predicated upon Campbell's previous divisions concerning imagination, passion, understanding.

    2. knowledge,

      Again, one of these words that fits in with the "black box terminology" category. Though Campbell believes that history is dignified by "knowledge," the reality is that what we (I suppose both individually and collectively) "know"about history is completely dependent on who we are, where we are, and when. In fact, understanding history requires as much conjecture, if not more, than trying to understand the future. While we may "know" supposedly objective facts (i.e. dates, names, places, etc.), it's rather impossible to truly comprehend or empathize with the motivations, opinions, interactions, and social/cultural/political/economic mechanisms that drove individuals, groups, and the course of history. And so it would seem that hindsight is anything but 20/20.

    3. It is precisely in the same manner, and with the same success, that you might train a dog, or accus-tom a child to expect food on your calling to him in one tone of voice, and to dread your resentment when you use another.

      The comparison of a dog and a child is a very useful way to explain, not only the notion of experience and how we come to adapt to the world, but also in saying that without experiencing human interaction being given to us, we truly are no different than beasts. Feral children and all that jazz.

    1. hat among the learned it has long been a contested, and remains still an undecided point, whether nature or art confer most towards excelling in writing and discourse.

      Couldn't it be a combination of both? One has to be naturally comfortable speaking in front of others, but it is also necessary that they be trained in how to best do this.

    1. Use linking words and phrases (e.g., also, another, and, more, but) to connect ideas within categories of information

      Using linking words makes a students writing much more fluid. An idea that comes to mind when thinking about fun ways to teach linking words is to play a game with the entire class. As the teacher, come up with the beginning sentence of a story. Then, have students popcorn continuing it on by using the linking words and phrases. This way they can have a fun creative way to learn something that may otherwise seem boring.

    2. ecoding words.

      Decoding words is an essential skill. When a student has difficulties with decoding, they have issues with accuracy and comprehension in reading. These problems can relay over into math when it comes to word problems too.

    3. Determine the meaning of general academic and domain-specific words and phrases

      This is important because it allows for them to use their current knowledge of vocabulary and context clues to determine the meanings of new words.

    1. knew.much stiJI unknown to us

      Really think upon this: if knowledge is in some sense contextual and historical, think of what we do not know. That is, imagine that there is an inaccessible library somewhere filling up in equal measure and at the same rate as the library we can access.

    1. Knowledge itself is independent of language

      Makes me think of the Jungle Book. One of our brilliant teacher's rants: How the hell does Mowgli know/understand the concept of language?

  19. Jan 2017
    1. With-out language, says Vico, the human knower i!-. lost

      Just wanted to point out what Nathaniel said in class about how parents do not acknowledge a child saying "dog" as learning until the child can point to a dog while they say the word. I think that was an excellent, and very simple, way to explain how language in important to knowledge.

    1. He held to Locke's principle that our ideas come only from sense impressions and our men-tal operations upon them. He further argued that genuine knowledge can come only by this path and not from pure reasoning, testimony, or revelation.

      I find myself questioning the use of the word "Knowledge" in this passage. Whenever I come across the word knowledge or its cousin wisdom, I immediately think of the saying, "Knowledge is knowing that a tomato is a fruit, wisdom is knowing not to put it in a fruit salad." It seems to me that sense impressions would lean more on the side of wisdom than knowledge. Would this distinction make a difference?

    1. The key is know that the curse exists.  To be able to recognize the challenge before you.

      As a Software Engineer, I can only say: Been there, done that!

      Indeed, knowing about it helps a lot! Awareness is the key.

    1. Children are indoctrinated into this cultural logic early, even as their parents restrict their mobility and limit their access to social situations. But when it comes to information, they are taught that they are the sole proprietors of knowledge. All they have to do is “do the research” for themselves and they will know better than anyone what is real. Combine this with a deep distrust of media sources. If the media is reporting on something, and you don’t trust the media, then it is your responsibility to question their authority, to doubt the information you are being given. If they expend tremendous effort bringing on “experts” to argue that something is false, there must be something there to investigate.
  20. Dec 2016
    1. when you say, "I create my reality," what you are saying is that you are creating an interpretation of what you can experience. If you can only experience this much of life, and it is all your interpretation, then you see your range of perception is very limited. But your Knowledge, which you carry within yourself, is capable of opening your perception completely. Without so much incessant thinking, wondering, asking, pondering, manipulating, planning and scheming, and so forth, the greater part of your mind, your Knowledge, can begin to show you things. It is not difficult to have direct experience. You simply must not be doing anything else.
    2. The Greater Community Way of Knowledge
    3. Knowledge is not only your ability to perceive the truth and to resonate with the truth, it also contains the memory of your life beyond this world and your reason for coming here.
    4. Knowledge takes you back to God while you are in the world, but it does so in a very specific way because its emphasis is practical, not magical. It is not about metaphysics, learning all about the sixteen million levels and the cosmology of all of the universes. That is for people who think and do nothing. The person of Knowledge is not concerned with these things unless they have a specific relevance to his or her function in life, and even then they are a temporary expedient and nothing else. If you want to know about mystical cosmology, then perhaps a teacher will tell you about these things to get your attention while he or she gives you something far greater. Mystical cosmology does not get you through the day. It does not attend to you when you are alone and miserable in your thoughts. It is simply a broader range of speculation. It may be a reprieve from your personal difficulties, but it is not the key to your freedom.
    5. There are things you must apply yourself to very specifically because there are two aspects to life: There are concrete accomplishments and there is Mystery. You must approach both. Mystery opens you to a greater assistance than you could provide for yourself and saves you from condemning circumstances. Applying yourself to tangible things enables you to reclaim your self-respect and to build a foundation that is sound and firm. That is what personal growth is for-to build a foundation for Knowledge. What other value does it have? The person you are attempting to improve will be shed like a garment when you leave. As you become stable, then you can represent something greater. Without Knowledge, you are still profoundly confused and subject to miseries. Without purpose, meaning and direction, your life is still a desperate event.
    6. to be a student of Knowledge, allow your life to have its mysteries. Do not try to explain everything and justify everything. Knowledge will emerge within you once you have chosen that this be your life. You will become less certain about particulars and more certain about your purpose, meaning and direction. Then you will begin to find freedom from anxiety and ambivalence, and that is the greatest gift of all because a life without anxiety or ambivalence is completely rendered into the world.
    7. to be happy and to have meaning in the world, you must concentrate on developing Knowledge and allow it to contribute itself where it knows it can be of the greatest benefit. This will fulfill your need for relationship and community.
    8. This has a very important spiritual meaning because you are at work reclaiming Knowledge for a long time, in time.
    9. Developing Knowledge is a major theme in all of our discussions. Knowledge, relationships and communication permeate all true activity, true development and true progress. They give rise to your spiritual nature and destiny.

      Living The Way of Knowledge is the New Message Teaching on how to bring the grace, the guidance and the power of Knowledge into the Four Pillars of your life: The Pillar of Relationships, The Pillar of Work, The Pillar of Health and The Pillar of Spiritual Development. Like the four legs of a table, the Four Pillars provide the stable foundation for building a greater life in an unstable and uncertain world. Living The Way of Knowledge presents one of the great practices in learning and living the New Message from God. By building the Four Pillars of your life, you develop a true foundation and a greater certainty, stability and direction in your experience. It is the great wisdom in Living The Way of Knowledge that will provide the day-to-day insight needed as you pass through the great thresholds on the journey of discovering and following Knowledge.

      What is Knowledge?

      What is The Greater Community Way of Knowledge?

    1. In terms of Bloom’s revised taxonomy (2001), this means that students are doing the lower levels of cognitive work (gaining knowledge and comprehension) outside of class, and focusing on the higher forms of cognitive work (application, analysis, synthesis, and/or evaluation) in class, where they have the support of their peers and instructor. This model contrasts from the traditional model in which “first exposure” occurs via lecture in class, with students assimilating knowledge through homework; thus the term “flipped classroom.”
  21. Nov 2016
  22. Oct 2016
    1. t is protecting you and guiding you even now, like a great force that you cannot see but you can certainly feel. In times of distress or great difficulty it will manifest itself more sharply to you, and you will know that there is a guiding Presence in your life. As you become closer to it, you will start to feel it every day-unifying you, keeping you from error, orienting you towards people and situations that are truly nourishing and beneficial for you, bringing helpful change and making your encounters with others truly meaningful.

      "Though your senses will perceive the form of things, your heart will experience the essence of things, and this is how things will become known. Once they are known, you will realize how you are to participate with them. Thus, all your faculties of mind will be utilized for one great purpose, for Knowledge will utilize all your faculties and the faculties of the world for the redemption of the world, which is the redemption of Knowledge within the world."

      Steps to Knowledge, Step 273 http://stepstoknowledge.com/steps/Step273-My-Teachers-hold-the-memory-of-my-Ancient-Home-for-me.htm

  23. Sep 2016
    1. it’s easy to argue by induction

      It may be easy to argue by induction, but what is actually going on?

      Let's take a group of three children for a larger example: Abe, Ben and Cindy. Let's denote the situation "Abe has a clear forehead and Ben and Cindy have muddy foreheads" as [OXX], and so on.

      Before the teacher tells them anything, Abe knows that either [XXX] or [OXX] (because he sees the mud on Ben's and Cindy's foreheads). If [OXX] were the case, Ben would know that either [OXX] or [OOX]. If [OOX] were the case, Cindy would know that either [OOX] or [OOO].

      This picture demonstrates the situation.

      The teacher's announcement makes it common knowledge that [OOO] is not possible. Then if Abe supposed [OXX] and provided that Ben supposed [OOX], Cindy would be sure that [OOX] (meaning she has mud on her forehead). After the first call, she doesn't stand up so we know that if Abe supposed [OXX], in that idea Ben could no longer suppose [OOX] and would be instead sure that [OXX] (meaning he has mud on his forehead).

      This example suggests that the children don't need the general notion of common knowledge to efficiently reason whether they have muddy foreheads. It suffices to use any chain "Abe considers possible that Ben considers possible that Cindy considers possible etc.". that visits every child exactly once in an arbitrary order.

    2. “would you like to come up for some intercourse?”

      Incidentally, this straightforward approach is taken by Phoebe towards Chandler in the episode 5x14 titled "The One Where Everyone Finds Out" of the TV show Friends:

      I'm really looking forward to you and me having sexual intercourse.

      As pointed out by James Miller in his video introducing the concept common knowledge, this episode contains a nice informal demonstration of the concept.

    1. Although cultural knowledge is hidden from view, it is of fundamental impor-tance because we all use it constantly to generate behavior and interpret our expe-rience

      Cultural knowledge is a very broad topic hidden from the view, but is also very important because we use it constantly to generate behavior and interpret our experience

    2. Our culture has a large body of shared knowledge that people learn and use to engage in this behavior called reading and make proper use of the artifacts connected with it

      Cultural knowledge – what people know (ex. Grammatical rules for a language, meaning of space, lines and columns, how to feel when reading jokes, etc.)

    3. When ethnographers study other cultures, they must deal with three fundamental aspects of human experience: what people do, what people know, and the things peo-ple make and use

      Ethnographers deal with three fundamental aspects of the human experience : cultural behavior, cultural knowledge, and cultural artifacts

    4. cultural knowledge.

      cultural knowledge

    5. cultural behavior: reading.

      Acquired knowledge people use to interpret experience and generate behavior

  24. Aug 2016
    1. Page 10

      Borgman on the relationship of knowledge mobilization scholarship, similarities and differences:

      once collections of information resources are online, they become available to multiple communities. Researchers can partner across disciplines, asking new questions using each other's data. Data collected for policy purposes can be used for research and vice versa. Descriptions of museum objects created for curatorial research purposes are interesting to museum visitors. Any of these resources may also be useful for learning and instruction. nevertheless, making content that was created for one audience useful to another is a complex problem. Each field that is on vocabulary, data structures, and research practices. People ask questions in different ways, starting with familiar terminology. Repurpose sing of research data for teaching can be especially challenging. Scholars goals are to produce knowledge for their community, while student schools are to learn the concepts and tools of a given field. These two groups have different levels of expertise in both disciplinary knowledge in the use of data and information resources. Different descriptions, tools, and services may be required to share content between audiences.

  25. Jul 2016
    1. Great quote here on how scholarship and knowledge mobilisation have difficulties interacting.

      never the less, making content that was created for one audience useful to another is a complex problem. Each field has its own vocabulary, data structures, and research practices. People ask questions and different ways, starting with the mill your terminology. The repurposing of research data for teaching can be especially challenging. Scholars goals are to produce knowledge for their Community, while students goals are to learn from the concepts and tools of a given field. These two groups have different levels of expertise in both disciplinary knowledge and the use of data and information resources. Different descriptions tools and services may be required to share content between audiences.

    2. Page 10

      descriptions of Museum objects created for curatorial and research purposes are interesting to museum visitors.

      Borgman on the intersection of popular Outreach / knowledge mobilisation and scholarship.

    1. a handful in a few major world languages

      One might think that those other languages are well-represented. People connected with the Open Knowledge Foundation are currently tackling this very issue. Here, Open Education isn’t just about content.

  26. Jun 2016
    1. VIA EFF

      Open access: All human knowledge is there—so why can’t everybody access it? (Ars Techica)

      Excellent report on the state of academic publishing— and why so much of it is still locked down.


      if we can Not access the works we fund, we can Neither annotate all knowledge.

      And this case, it may pertain the most crucial body of all our knowledge — the knowledge upon what we are to found our own futures for us all. What is to be recognized as "the Human knowledge", whilst yet unknown by almost everyone us Humans ourselves.>

    1. ConclusionsThis paper finds that the effort grade affects theknowledge grade positively and significantly across allspecifications. This is strong evidence that more studenteffort does lead to increase learning

      Paper concludes that effort affects the knowledge grade positively and significantly across all specifications. This is evidence that more student effort does lead to increased learning.

  27. May 2016
    1. And finally the necessity of Desire casting its complete spell over You (Humanity), that YourCelestial or Impersonal nature might be kept deep in sleep; until, in your Dream, by the free butignorant use of My Will, You could taste and fully eat of the fruit of the so-called Tree ofKnowledge of Good and Evil, and through the eating could learn properly to discriminate andknow its fruit for what it really is; and thus acquire the strength to use the knowledge thus gainedwisely and perfectly in the expression of My Idea onl

      Humanity entered full forgetfulness to learn "and know its fruit for what it really is" to develop the strength so as to use the knowledge as a perfect expression of God...

    2. This Knowledge, this Realization, will not come at once. It may not come for years. It may cometomorrow.It depends upon no one but You;Not upon your personality, with its human desires and human understanding;But upon the I AM of you -- God, within.Who is it that causes the bud to open into the blossom?Who causes the chick to burst its shell?Who decides the day and the hour?It is the conscious, natural act of the Intelligence within, My Intelligence, directed by My Will,bringing to fruition My Idea and expressing it in the blossom and in the chick.But did the blossom and the chick have anything to do with it?No, only as they submitted or united their will with Mine and allowed Me and My Wisdom todetermine the hour and the ripeness for action, and then only as they obeyed the impulse of MyWill to make the effort, could they step forth into the New Life

      The timing of the fruition of realisation of this Knowledge comes from my True Self, God within............. true Intelligence, Gods Idea... expressing and birthing the conscious awareness of the aspect of God, Me.........

    1. p. 4 makes a distinction between knowledge and information and seems to understand information as being organisation of knowledge (actually is maybe confused a little about the distinction)

      Information is not the same thing as knowledge, though the two concepts overlap. Knowledge refers to ideas and facts that a human mind has internalizedand understood: how to fix a flat tire, the names of a really good dentist, speaking French. Acquiring knowledge means absorbing a lot of information--for example, how to use French irregular verbs correctly. Often the mind acquires and organizes such information in a spontaneous and even subconscious fashion, the way a child learns to speak or a taxi driver knows her way around town. At other times, the acquisition of knowledge requires studying, a slow and difficult process. The amount of knowledge that a human mind can possess is truly extraordinary, but it is not infinite, nor is the mind reliable. Hence the need for information. As society becomes more complex and its interactions speed up, access to information becomes increasingly important. Education was once focused on learning, that is, on acquiring knowledge; it now stresses research skills. What matters is not knowing the answer, but knowing where to look it up. And that means the information is (one hopes) out there, readily accessible.

    1. Therein lies the power of mistakes as a vehicle for, as Rilke famously put it, “living the questions” and thus advancing knowledge in a way that certainty cannot — for, as Richard Feynman memorably noted, the scientist’s job is to remain unsure, and so seems the philosopher’s. Dennett writes:
  28. Mar 2016
    1. But I see some promising changes that align with the emphasis in the Framework on creating rather than consuming, on understanding systems of information rather than how to find stuff, on context and making critical judgments that go beyond making convenient consumer choices. If we think about information as something communities create in conversation within a social and economic context rather than as a consumer good, we may put less emphasis on being local franchises for big information conglomerates and put more time, resources, and creativity into supporting local creativity and discovery. We may begin to do better at working across boundaries to support and fund open access to research rather than focusing most of our efforts on paying the rent and maintaining the security of our walled gardens. And as we make this shift, we may be able to stop teaching students how to shop efficiently for information that won’t be available once they graduate. We may help them think more critically about where knowledge comes from and how they can participate in making sense of things.


    1. Describe how reasons support specific points the author makes in a text

      This standard requires students to be able to describe how reasons support specific points the author makes in a text by determining the key details in text. Also, they students should be able to describe the author's purpose and how it supports comprehension.

    2. how the speaker in a poem reflects upon a topic; summarize the text

      This standard requires students to know how to explain the speaker's reflection on a topic and how that impacts the theme. Also, the students should be able to write a summary by using details from the text.

    3. With prompting and support, describe the relationship between illustrations and the text in which they appear (

      This standard requires students to know what an illustration is and how they are different from the words in a text. The skill required of students is making connections between the illustrations they see and the story that is being told. A good book for this standard would be No David! The story in this book is mostly told through pictures while the words on the page say things like "No, David!"

    4. Identify the main purpose of a text, including what the author wants to answer, explain, or describe

      This standard requires students to know how to read and to know the role of the author of a text. The skill required is students having to find a meaning in the text that is not worded on the pages. This standard requires students to think deeply about the text in order to find the author's purpose in writing it. A good text to use for this standard would be Green Eggs and Ham. Students would have to think about how the green eggs and ham could relate to their own lives. The main point of this story is fairly easy to understand, it is that you should try food before you say you don't like it, something many elementary students may be able to relate to.

    5. With prompting and support, identify basic similarities in and differences between two texts on the same topic (e.g., in

      This standard requires students to know and remember what happens in two different texts. The skill is that students must compare the two texts and talk about them together rather than individually. Two books that would be good for this standard are Brown Bear, Brown Bear and Polar Bear, Polar Bear. Though these books are different it is fairly easy to see their similarities. While Brown Bear, Brown Bear, focuses on colors and animals, Polar Bear, Polar Bear focuses on sounds and animals.

    6. ntify the main topic and retell key details of a te

      In order for students to accomplish this standard they must know what happened in the story and remember specific details. The skill this standard requires is to think about the text as a whole in order to figure out it's main topic. A good book for this would be "brown bear brown bear." Students would have to figure out what is reoccurring in the novel in order to find it's topic. The repeated topics are colors and animals.

  29. Feb 2016
    1. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including those that allude to significant characters found in mythology (e.g., Herculean).

      Grade 4 students must be able to pull information from both the text and from their existing knowledge to figure out the meaning of new words and phrases.

    2. Recount stories, including fables, folktales, and myths from diverse cultures; determine the central message, lesson, or moral and explain how it is conveyed through key details in the text.

      This common core standard for literacy for third graders reflects their knowledge on not only recounting and recalling several variations of stories, but also using what they know about different cultural practices to identify a central message or moral.

    3. With prompting and support, retell familiar stories, including key details

      With the use of scaffolding teachers help kindergarteners further develop both their knowledge in stories kindergarteners have previously heard/read as well as their skills in retelling the key details of the familiar story. Recalling a story's major events, characters, settings, sequential details, etc. require kindergarten students to tap into their prior knowledge and skill sets in accurately retelling a story.

    4. characters, setting, or events

      First graders must know the definitions and understand the terms character, setting and event.

    5. Grade 1 students must know the definitions of characters, settings and major events.

    6. Analyze how visual and multimedia elements contribute to the meaning, tone, or beauty of a text

      This is knowledge because the students have to know what the meaning, tone and beauty of a text means and it is also a skill because then they have to be able to write about it

    7. Determine a theme of a story, drama, or poem from details in the text; summarize the text.

      This is both knowledge and a skill because it is knowledge because the children have to know what summarize means and it is a skill because they have to be able to summarize the story or poem.

    8. Describe characters in a story (e.g., their traits, motivations, or feelings) and

      This is knowledge because they need to know different traits and feelings of people and it is also a skill because they need to remember the trait and be able to write about it.

    9. ecount stories, including fables and folktales from diverse cultures,

      This would be a knowledge because the students need to know about different cultures and what their traditions are like

    10. Determine a theme of a story, drama, or poem from details in the text; summarize the text

      Fourth grade students must have knowledge about what a theme is. They must be able to use this knowledge to identify the themes of multiple pieces of literature.

      They must also have the skill to pull out key details of texts in order to summarize story-lines.

    11. Describe how a narrator’s or speaker’s point of view influences how events are described.

      Fifth grade students must know the definition of third-person point of view omniscient, third-person point of view limited, first person point of view, and second person point of view.

      Students must also have the skill set that allows them to understand how these different points of view effect the way a particular text is told.

    12. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, distinguishing literal from nonliteral language.

      A third grade students must have the skill to understand that some words have multiple meanings. They must also have the skill to use a dictionary so that they can look up the definitions of words.

      These students also need the knowledge that allows them to understand that things are not always meant literally.

    13. Describe how characters in a story respond to major events and challenges.

      A second grade student must know the definition of characters, challenges, and major events.

      They must have knowledge about reactions and how events play a role in how characters develop throughout a story.

      They must have the skill to identify the actions of characters and what events or challenges occurred in a story.

      A good lesson to go along with this standard would be to read a book and then make a cause and effect chart as a class. This can help students identify the reactions of a character and what caused them to react this way.

    14. Identify who is telling the story at various points in a text

      This would require that students have the knowledge of different points of view in a text and how to identify when the point of view changes.

      A good story to help practice this skill is Me First by Helen Lester. Most of this story is told by the narrator, but there are parts of the story that switch and are told from Pinkerton's and the Sandwitch's point of view. The classroom teacher can have students identify when the story changes point of view and how they knew that this was happening.

    15. With prompting and support, ask and answer questions about key details in a text.

      In younger grades it is very important for teachers to pause periodically while reading a story so that students have an opportunity to ask questions that they may have or make predictions about what they think may happen and what details in the story make them think this. Teachers can help students to come up with predictions by asking them questions about things that have already happened in the story. This helps students to stay engaged in and will also help them to answer questions that the teacher asks after the story is over.

      In order to do this skill students must have knowledge about what key details are. Without this knowledge, students may try to retell the story using details that are not important to the plot.

      A good story to exercise this skill is Goldilocks and the Three Bears because there are three key details that lead to the bears discovering Goldilocks in their bedroom. As the story is being read, the teacher can pause after Goldilocks tries all of their oatmeal and have students predict what might happen next. The teacher can also have students talk about how they would feel if they were the bears and discovered that someone had been in their home.

      After the story is over, the teacher can ask the class to describe the three things that Goldilocks did in the bears' home.

    16. With prompting and support, retell familiar stories, including key details.

      Kindergartners must be able to retell a story that has been read to them in the past that includes key details.

      To help students exercise this skill, teachers can read two books from the same series. For example, "Mrs. Bindergarten Gets Ready for Kindergarten" and "Mrs. Bindergarten and the 100th Day of School." These books would be read at separate times, but after the second book is read, the teacher can ask students what Mrs. Bindergarten did in the first book, and then have them explain what she did in the second book. I believe these books would be useful for this skill because they share the same character which will help to spark the students' memories.

      In order for students to master this skill they must have knowledge of different stories so that they can retell them. They also must have the knowledge of what it means to retell a story.

    17. Describe the overall structure of a story

      When students are able to understand the difference between the beginning and end of the story, they know the beginning introduces the story and prepares the reader for what is to follow. Students know that the end of the story concludes the action.

    18. Describe characters, settings, and major events in a story, using key details.

      1st Grade students must have the knowledge of what makes a character different than a setting. Knowledge of these definitions and parts of a text is crucial to being able to describe what is going on.

      Looking at a Strega Nona book that has many elaborate characters and scenes could be very helpful. Ask students who is the character on this page? What is the setting on this page?

    19. Acknowledge differences in the points of view of characters,

      Like in life, characters In texts have different perspectives and teaching this is crucial! 2nd grade student must be able to look at individual characters and where they are coming from. A good example to use would be the text My Mouth is A Volcano because the teachers view of the boy is different that the classes view of the boy, and the boys perceptions of what he is feeling.

    20. Describe in depth a character, setting, or event in a story or drama,

      Fourth graders must be able to remember the character, setting and events in the story as well as specific details

    21. Describe how words and phrases (e.g., regular beats, alliteration, rhymes, repeated lines)

      Second graders must be able to recognize patterns like rhyme and repeated lines and alliteration.

    22. Describe characters in a story (e.g., their traits, motivations, or feelings)

      Third graders must know who the characters are in the story and what unique characteristics they each have.

    23. Ask and answer questions to demonstrate understanding of a text

      Third graders must understand what happened in the text and remember specific examples.

    24. Retell stories, including key details

      First graders must understand and remember what happened in the story.

    25. Ask and answer such questions as who, what, where, when, why, and how to demonstrate understanding of key details in a text.

      Second graders must know the characters, settings and events in the story.

    26. Distinguish their own point of view from that of the narrator or those of the characters

      This is when the students understand the difference between the author of the story and the narrator. The students know that the narrator is the story teller, which is the voice of the story in which the story is told. The students also know that the author of the book is the person who wrote the book.

    27. name the author and illustrator of a story

      A kindergarten student needs to be able to identify who wrote the book and who drew the pictures. This would be knowledge.

    28. illustrations

      A kindergarten student must know the definition of a illustration.

    29. Explain how specific aspects of a text’s illustrations contribute to what is conveyed by the words in a story (e.g., create mood, emphasize aspects of a character or setting).

      This idea of third grade students being able to explain how illustrations helps the author make his or her points apparent to readers is knowledge. The students should be able to make inferences and create understanding with reasonable explanation and support for their ideas.

    30. With prompting and support, compare and contrast the adventures and experiences of characters in familiar stories.9.Compare and contrast the adventures and experiences of characters in stories

      These two standards show the difference in skill and knowledge that a student should have from the end of kindergarten to the end of first grade. In kindergarten the student should be able to compare and contrast elements of familiar stories with prompting, but by the end of first grade students should be able to do this with all stories by only illustrations, and without any prompting. This is a good example of how the expectations work on the same skill, but become a more difficult task as the students progress through each grade.

    31. understanding of

      In order to fulfill this, second graders must demonstrate knowledge of characters, setting, and/or plot to be able to show their understanding of it.

    32. Refer to parts of stories, dramas, and poems when writing or speaking about a text, using terms such as chapter, scene, and stanza; describe how each successive part builds on earlier sections

      A third grade student must be able to refer certain parts of a text using specific terms.

    33. identify characters

      A kindergarten student must know a definition of a character

    1. The viewer should be able to obtain a complete understand from various levels and mediums of information. One way to effectively convey information to the patron is through the use of technology

      Multiple senses should be activated in a museum environment

    1. A coalition of some of the world’s key scholarly publishers, platforms, libraries, and technology organizations

      Important that academia is in this space. It's also important that annotations and connections can be open as this is how knowledge spreads and grows.

  30. Jan 2016
  31. Dec 2015
    1. Currently, USDA allows these beef products to contain up to 15 percent lean finely textured beef without labeling requirements, but last year the department said it would allow voluntary labeling.

      Schools are really concerned about the cash rather than the children they raise money for pink slime!

  32. Nov 2015
    1. The algorithmic assessment of information, then, represents a particular knowledge logic, one built on specific presumptions about what knowledge is and how one should identify its most relevant components.
  33. Oct 2015
    1. Our conversation right now is not the result of a thinking process at all. When you stand at the Door as the Door, the Wisdom, the Truth, the Knowledge that flows through and as your conscious experience of Being, is not the result of thought processes, nor of reasoning. Because It continues to flow on past you, It truly does not become a stored body of knowledge from which you may draw in the future. Standing as the Door means that, in this so-called “future,” whatever Knowledge and Understanding is applicable to the unfolding at that time will be there in exactly the same manner that It is here right now.

      Again from previous sharing he comes back to supporting Paul to understand that this type of communication is in 4d, not 3d.... I hear Raj say that when we stand at the Door, in our Conscious Being, this is where Wisdom, Truth and Knowledge flow from and this isn't stored in our thinking mind yet is available to us always if we are Conscious.

    1. For example, Susan, who has less information, neverhesitates to ask poignant questions that cause the children to think

      I love that they recognize Susan as an attribute to the FoK even though they acknowledge her lack of historical content.

    2. For example, becauseof the nature of men's jobs in the labor market, knowledge aboutcar repairs is ample in this population.

      Trades can be very much culturally shaped; for example many of my Albanian relatives are in the restaurant business- allowing me access to knowledge about the hospitality world that someone else may not know. Interesting to think about how these trades become apart of a persons "funds of knowledge".

    3. Families mustalso depend on their social relationships, especially with kin, to gainaccess to or exchange resources on either side of the border.

      It's interesting to think of the parents' "funds of knowledge" being dependent on their children in some instances such as the government visits mentioned above. While these children may be gaining a different piece of knowledge (legalities, policies) parents are learning that their children are a form of resource. However can this crutch of children as resources limit the parents interconnectedness with their new environments?

  34. Sep 2015
    1. funds of knowledge

      These funds of knowledge are helpful in understanding the community which is being studied and reflect ..."a comprehensive understanding involving the whole person or people that rather than receiving this information it is based on activity with the world..." similar to page 33.