76 Matching Annotations
  1. Feb 2021
    1. Dr Nisreen Alwan 🌻. (2021, January 18). Scientists don’t have total objectivity. We have beliefs, experiences & feelings that make us subjective & shape our interpretation of facts just like other humans. I trust the scientists who admit this more than the ones who pretend they’re above it. Best u can do is to be open. [Tweet]. @Dr2NisreenAlwan. https://twitter.com/Dr2NisreenAlwan/status/1351074354629668866

    1. The press release also quoted a UA assistant provost for institutional research who explained that while the swipes of student ID cards were not used in the current student retention analytics, about 800 other data points were

      The research in questions was not currently being used by the institution to improve rention, but other student data was already being used for that purpose

    2. The researcher noted that the data she had used had been anonymized before she was given access to it—however, she added that if/when her research might inform the ongoing efforts to improve student retention, the student’s personal details would be “shared” with the students' academic advisers.

      The data was anonymized before she was given access, but she admitted that there might be interest in sharing students' personal details with academic advisors

    3. She then used that data to create large networks mapping which students interacted with one another and how often.

      The researcher sought to track the personal interactions of students with one another

    4. On the university’s website, a press release

      The university share the finding of the research after the fact

    5. At the University of Arizona, for example, a researcher analyzed the swipes of student ID cards at locations across campus, “to see what they reveal about students' routines and relationships, and what that means for their likelihood of returning to campus after their freshman year.”

      Fact. Student ID Cards Collect Data Fact. A researcher was given access to this data for her own purposes.

    1. Maersk reports being responsible for 20% of global shipping capacity.  Roughly translated, that means a Maersk ship is entering a port somewhere in the world every 15 minutes, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, 365 days a year.
  2. Jan 2021
    1. They may skim books for what they’ll “need to know.” They’re less likely to wonder, say, “How can we be sure that’s true?” than to ask “Is this going to be on the test?”

      This is completely true! As a student we honestly do not care about anything, as long as our grade is an A. I hate that it is true, because sometimes as a student, I just want to really learn for a second. Although it is nearly impossible when pressured is applied based on a letter grade that may or may not affect one's life. This class is really helping realize that it is not me, is that pressure kills the beauty of learning.

  3. Nov 2020
    1. And please stop saying that there are bugs everywhere except your code, we are both developers and may make a mistake in our code, so I prefer to investigate firstly and then say where the problem is.
  4. May 2020
  5. Feb 2020
  6. Jan 2020
    1. Amazing Facts about Logo Design that Might Shock YouSushmachoudharyJan 7 · 4 min readGraphic Design is one of the best methods for getting your brand recognized all over the world. Many startups and businesses invest heavily in their graphic design to ensure that they get the best graphics.A single design has a potential of conveying unspoken words, which makes it one of the most prominent way that brand uses to market their business. Since, Logo design is an essential element of branding therefore, it becomes important to know the facts about logo design and the famous logos.Pepsi paid $1 Million for Getting a Golden Ratio LogoPepsi hired designers and spent an estimated amount of $1 million dollar in designing their logo. It took around 5 months time to redesign the icon. Pepsi spent several million dollars to change their custom logo design from billboard, vehicle wrap, and other advertising campaigns.The reason for changing Pepsi logo to match the golden ratio proportion is because golden ratio proportion is considered to be the most attractive and harmonious designs to look at.Nike Logo Swoosh is Actually an Goddess’s FeatherNike is named after the Goddess with the same name Nike. The goddess personified victory and often portrayed with wings. These wings became the inspiration for Nike, Inc. Nike logo is one the most recognized logos in the world with an estimated worth of $26 Billion alone.In 1983, the designer Carolyn Davidson, also known as “The Logo Lady” was gifted with a golden Swoosh ring with an embedded diamond and 500 shares (Worth $1,000,000 as of 2015) of Nike stock to express his gratitude.Starbucks Logo Takes Inspiration from Greek MythologyStarbuck logo represents a mermaid holding two tails. She was a siren in Greek mythology that lured the sailors. Alternatively, she was connected with European folktale Melusine, who married a human. The logo of Starbucks was changed throughout the years. The most recent version of the logo is more friendly and recognizableBaskin Robbins Has “31” Masked in their LogoBaskin Robbins is an ice cream and cake chain company having various branches throughout the world. The company began its operation in 1945 with 31 flavors of ice cream. You can find the number “31” concealed in their logo.Apple LogoThe Apple logo was created back in 1977 with analogous tools, therefore, needed an update. It took $50K to digitize the apple logo.McDonald's Logo Has a Hidden MeaningMcDonalds Logo does not just represent the word “M” but resembles female breasts. In 1962, the logo for McDonald's was re-designed. They hired a psychologist named Louis Cheskin who suggested them to use golden arcs making an “M” which would make them remind them of their childhood.BMW Logo Is Not a PropellerThe BMW logo is not a propeller it was popularly known for, but represents the flag of Bavaria.BMW LogoBavaria FlagTwitter LogoTwitter logo was bought for just $15 when the company was launched. The designers of the twitter logo, Simon Oxley received just $6 for selling the logo. Later, Twitter hired renowned designers to redesign the same bird logo.If you are a business and want to get your logo, organizing a graphic design contest is the best option.MGM Logo used 7 different LionsMGM logo uses 7 different lions for their iconic logo. The Lions were trained to roar on cue to get the right mascot logo.An image was circulated on the internet depicting the lion being ill treated for getting the right logo but, it's fake, the image was photoshopped and the lion was going through an MRI scan.

      These are 10 amazing Facts about logo design that will help you learn about your favorite brand.

  7. Nov 2019
  8. Oct 2019
    1. This being the City of Ryde, political vendettas are never far from the surface.

      That would have to include the vendetta that prompted the call to The Hasbeen, resulting in your misguided story drawing on incomplete facts and coverage dating back to 2014.

      Mental note: This is the type of story that will be perfect for robot journalists when The Hasbeen boosts its editorial quality by replacing its newsroom with robots.

    2. For the uninitiated, Granny Smith was Maria Ann Smith, a resident of the area who in 1868 "accidentally" grew the first batch of green apples that now bear her name.

      Yes, good thinking. Throw in a truthful fact or two. Impressive!

  9. May 2019
  10. Apr 2019
    1. There is no question that technology is becoming a part of our lives more every day. What we have to take a closer look at is the increasing dependency that children have on smart devices, which is taking over all other normal childhood activities, an important occurrence because it is interfering with normal childhood development and negatively impacting relationships between parents and children. Smartphones give young adults access to almost unlimited information and almost unlimited content that they may not yet be equipped to navigate. Every parent wants to know what is going on in their child's life, but with smartphones, this is highly suggested just to make sure the internet has not led them down a dark path. For example, an astonishing study found that 19% of young adults ages 13-19 sent sexually suggestive content online, and 31% had received this type of content. Smartphones make exposure to these things at an early age much easier, and preventing the exposure much harder. There are many restrictions and blocks that can be put in place to help guide children in the right parts of the internet, but there is still the issue of time management on devices. Smartphones and other smart devides have taken the place of activities that should be prioitized for a healthy lifestyle, such as homework and exercise. One aspect that has drawn many children into overuse of technology is online gaming. Online games often have interactions with other online players, which allows children to feel as if they are socializing without actually interacting with friends, especially for children who struggle with in person interaction.

      ​While this may be beneficial for short term socializing or motor skills, in the long-run, the children are choosing to sit and stare at a screen instead of interacting with people around them, or doing productive things such as homework, so the short-term benefits are outweighed by long-term consequences.

  11. Mar 2019
    1. he question arises as to what kind of individuals benefitfrom the introduction of ridesharing.Smith(2016) provides some survey evidence on this issue. In 2015, the Pew Research Center surveyed 4,787 adult Americans on issues related to the digital economy. Part of the survey was focused on ridesharing. The survey found three interesting statistics:(i) about 15% of Americans use ridesharing apps, but one-third do not know about these services; (ii)the use of ridesharing platforms is more popular among young adults who live in urban areas who are well educated; and (iii) frequent users of ridesharing services are less likely

      statistics that divide users of ride sharing services into different categories

    2. They estimate that Uber’s basic ride service (UberX) generated about $2.9 billion in consumer surplus for New York, Chicago, Los Angeles and San Francisco in 2015(in 2015 dollars). Extended to the country as a whole, the authors estimate that consumer surplus gains would be about $6.8 billion. This consumer surplus value is larger than the current annual revenues of Uber worldwide, anddoes not include the benefits

      evidence with facts and figures.

    3. Uber has attracted dramatically increased the number of new “driver-partners” for the basic ridesharing service, from fewer than 1,000 in January 2013 to almost 40,000 new drivers starting in December 2014 (Hall and Krueger, 2015).5Currently, more than half of American adults have heard of ridesharing apps like Uber and Lyft, with 15% actuallyusingthe services (Smith, 2016). In China, Didi facilitates 7 million rides per day (Floyd, 2016)

      facts and figures

  12. Dec 2018
  13. Sep 2018
    1. we may well be reading more today than we did in the 1970s or 1980s, when television was our medium

      This caught by attention because adults now a days try to say our generation does not read as much. However, this argument implies that we are still reading just as much but it primarily done through a screen.

    1. predictive analysis

      Predictive analytics encompasses a variety of statistical techniques from data mining, predictive modelling, and machine learning, that analyze current and historical facts to make predictions about future or otherwise unknown events.

  14. Jul 2018
    1. The fact that stimuli that have high association values are easily learned and remembered means that it is easier to learn new meanings for stimuli that already have multiple meanings;

      this fact is unbelievably true !

    2. it is much easier to remember places, objects, or rooms in a building by name than by number, because names have higher association values than numbers.

      a clear proof of the importance of association in learning process.

  15. Jan 2018
    1. We now have influential partisan media outlets that help people believe what they want to believe, irrespective of factual accuracy. Inconvenient facts are labeled “fake news” and disregarded. In a nutshell, we no longer inhabit a shared reality, and as a result, major problems are going unaddressed because a segment of Americans rejects inconvenient truths

      This is such an incredible statement about the situation we are in--like saying we have gone through the looking glass...

    1. there will come a generation that had got beyond facts, beyond impressions, a generation absolutely colourless, a generation seraphically free From taint of personality,

      This sounds like where we are now with alt-facts...

  16. Jul 2017
    1. When he read the Web address, http://pubweb.northwestern.edu/~abutz/di/intro.html, he assumed that the domain name “northwestern.edu” automatically meant it was a credible source. He did not understand that the “~” character, inserted after the domain name, should be read as a personal Web page and not an official document of the university.

      Even though I consider myself web literate enough to tell the difference between a personal and academic page, I honestly didn't know that the "~" denoted that. I really need to get better about thinking of web addresses and code as a language (which they are).

  17. Jun 2017
  18. May 2017
    1. But let's properly define the problem. History and experience tell me it's not a post-truth era: Facts have always been hard to separate from falsehoods, and political partisans have always made it harder. It's better to call this a post-trust era.

      We are not post-truth, we're post-trust.

      Kind of. A lot of people "trusted" the Denver Guardian because it fit within their pre-existing narrative framework. Maybe we are "post-trust" with the institutions and organizations that got us this far: traditional mainstream media, higher ed, researchers and scientists.

  19. Apr 2017
    1. But six of the cases got their measles-mumps-rubella vaccine—the MMR shot—and still managed to get infected.

      brought focus to the key facts

  20. Mar 2017
    1. as long as you are willingto pay extra, someone will offer you an option to enjoy an extra

      falschfalschfalsch: Sicherheit und Anonymität gibt es nicht für Geld, denn das setzt Vertrauen voraus in einen Geschäftspartner, der wiederum den Zwänge von Konkurrenz und Wachstum unterworfen ist. Wie kann ich da vertrauen, wenn möglicherweise immer wer kommt, der besser zahlt und sich somit der Vertragsbruch mit mir lohnt (und da helfen auch Vertragsstrafen nichts. Die heben nur den Preis für den Dritten.)

      Einzig Freie Software, die von lebendigen Communities betreut wird und die benutzerseitig vernünftig gewartet wird, garantiert das aktuell je mögliche Maximum an Sicherheit und Privatheit. Die Wartungsarbeit lässt sich tatsächlich arbeitsteilig organisieren: Aber sicherer ist es wiederum, wenn Grundlage dieser Arbeitsteilung ein politisches oder soziales Verhältnis ist und nicht ein Vertragsverhältnis zwischen Martkteilnehmern. In dieser Nische operieren Community Service Provider wie so36.net, riseup.org etc.

      Und in einem Kapitelfazit wie hier ist so ein unbedacht dahingeschriebener Satz (denn ich weiĂź, dass ers besser weiĂź! Aber warum schreibt er dann sowas?!) fatal.

    2. producing

      Die Daten werden im Alltag von Menschen und Maschinen produziert. Was hier gemeint ist, ist "accumulating": Wer in der Lage ist, die meisten Daten zu sammeln, zusammenzukaufen oder eben produzieren zu lassen, der ...

      In dieser anderen Sichtweise fällt dann nämlich die Möglichkeit des "Datenstreiks" auf: Wenn wir uns der Arbeit des Daten-Produzierens entziehen, dann haben die Datenkonzerne auch kein Futter mehr für ihre AI. Wir müssen zwar - so ist die Realität beschaffen -, um zu überleben, bestimmte Datenspuren legen, aber wir können uns darin organisieren, streiken und unsere Position so verbessern.

      Nicht anders hat es die alte Arbeiterbewegung mit ihrer Arbeit auch gemacht, obwohl sie "von ihr" auch leben musste. Datenproduktion ist Arbeit. Die Smart City ist die Fabrik der Datenindustrie, das Smarte Home die Produktionseinheit und das Smarte Self ist der/die Arbeiter*in. Hat nur noch kaum wer realisiert...

    3. e likes of Airbnb do not want to share data th

      Ist ja so alleine technisch schon nicht richtig. Um ihren Service anzubieten, müssen sie ja Daten veröffentlichen: alle Angebote mit den Angebotsdetails auf ihrer Webseite. Die lassen sich systematisch und automatisch abfragen, in eine eigene Datenbank legen und dann auswerten. Dass das die AGB nicht erlauben, steht auf einem anderen Blatt. In sozialen Auseinandersetzungen ist u.a. umkämpft, was erlaubt ist und was nicht.

      Gemacht haben das der Tagesspiegel und eine unabhängige Datenjournalistengruppe für Berlin: Häuserkampf Airbnbvsberlin wollten explizit die größten Anbieter rausfinden und haben das einzig mit den öffentlich zugänglichen Daten geschafft.

      Im folgenden fordert der Text dann also etwas durchaus richtiges (Aufbau eigener Infrastruktur) aus einer falschen Argumentation heraus.

    4. etition. Customers, as long as they are promised low rates, do not seem to mind.

      Die Absätze hier sind geprägt von so einem untergründigen "alles wird billiger und deshalb machen alle mit".

      Erstens stimmt der erste Teil nicht (Kosten werden externalisiert) und zweitens der zweite auch nicht (nur eine bestimmte Klientel macht mit).

      Da der Text aber Smart Self ausklammert, kann er diesen Feinheiten nicht auf die Spur kommen. Dass das dann zu verkehrten Schlussfolgerungen fĂĽhrt (die non-neoliberal city im "double bind", S. 17), ist das dramatische an der Sache.

    5. into the genealogy of the term point

      Warum er hier so entschieden strategische Entscheidungen großer Konzerne als "Ursprung" der Entwicklung ausmacht, leuchtet mir nicht ein. Feedbackschleifen erfunden hat IBM jedenfalls nicht. Das waren die Kybernetiker und Ingenieure der Flugabwehroptimierung im zweiten Weltkrieg. Die "Smartheit" hat ihren Ursprung im Militärisch-industriellen Komplex in den USA mitte des 20. Jahrhunderts. Da war IBM sicher Teil davon. Aber nur IBM zu nennen und eine strategische Umorientierung auf Dienstleistungen, greift zu kurz und führt in die Irre.

  21. Feb 2017
    1. the liar, whom no one trusts and everyone excludes.

      I wonder what Nietzsche would think about the Trump Administration's rise to power. The "success" of D. Trump and his cronies (Spicer, Conway, etc.), who lie time and time again, seems to contradict this comment?

    2. hus "truth" is u rhetorical construction arising from the creative use of lan-guage to make an effective social arrangement.

    1. however, seem not so much to have disagreed in their conceptions of the nature of the same thing, as lo have had dif-ferent things in view while they employed the same term.

      ...could we also use this distinction to support the existence of alternative facts?

    1. being

      This word is key in allowing Douglas to personify the idea of a "brand new fact." And yet this polish is short lived, as Collins will ask for "just the facts."

      As if Fred found himself to be a brand new word in the dictionary; rather than ask his place in a sentence, Collins wants the scientific, dictionary definition of this fact... surely that will tell him all he needs to know!

      Well as a matter of fact...

    1. “kernel of truth”

      Nay, even in those performances where truth, in regard to the individual facts related, is neither sought nor expected...truth still is an object to the mind, the general truths regarding character, manners, and incidents. When these are preserved, the piece may justly be denominated true, considered as a picture of life; though false, considered as a narrative of particular events. -Campbell (906)

    1. Rather, taste is the basis of judgments not only about what is beautiful (or personally pleasing) but also about what is virtuous.

      A curious conflation of opinion, virtue, and beauty. I like this understanding of "taste" as I think it expresses the attitude that opinion is equivalent to fact that has emerged in the past few years with the rise of social media.

    1. applies the words of any language to ideas different from those to which the common use of that country applies them, however his own understanding may be filled with truth and light, will not by such words be able to convey much of it to others, without defining his terms.

      The greatest rhetorical challenge of the Trump Era?

      What is a Fact?

  22. Jan 2017
    1. He explained millennials grew up in an environment where 'every child wins a prize' only to find the 'real world' after school is much different.

      Do the first several sentences cover all the basic facts of the story: Who, what, when, where, why, how. How are the first several sentences attempting to manipulate the reader?

  23. Dec 2016
    1. al telephone.

      Helen Keller was associates with important such as Alexander Graham bell and President Roosevelt.

    1. Helen Keller became a member of the Socialist Pary in 1909 and by 1912, she had become a national voice for socialism and working class solidarity.

      Helen Keller was a main voice for socialism and suppurated it very much so.

  24. Sep 2016
    1. I am not religious. I do not believe that personhood is conferred upon conception. But I also do not believe that a human embryo is the moral equivalent of a hangnail and deserves no more respect than an appendix. Moreover, given the protean power of embryonic manipulation, the temptation it presents to science, and the well-recorded human propensity for evil even in the pursuit of good, lines must be drawn. I suggested the bright line prohibiting the deliberate creation of human embryos solely for the instrumental purpose of research -- a clear violation of the categorical imperative not to make a human life (even if only a potential human life) a means rather than an end.

      The key information is the author believes that a human embryo is something we should consider that exists and there should be boundaries to this type of resaerch

  25. Aug 2016
    1. Credibull score = 9.77 / 10

      To provide feedback on the score fill in the form available here

      What is Credibull? getcredibull.com

  26. Dec 2015
    1. facts, which are simply “path equivalences” in an olog. It isthe notion of path equivalences that make category theory so powerful.Apathin an olog is a head-to-tail sequence of arrows
  27. Mar 2015
    1. Python is in fact compiled to bytecode
    2. A now-famous early usage of Python was in 1996: Google’s first successful web crawler.

      It is interesting to know that this fact on Python!

  28. Feb 2014
    1. A woman was denied an abortion by a doctor afraid to violate a Texas criminal statute prohibiting abortions except "for the purpose of saving the life of the mother." The Federal District Court ruled the statute unconstitutional; there was a direct appeal by Texas to the U.S. Supreme Court.
    1. Facts: Pinpoint the determinative facts of a case, i.e., those that make a difference in the outcome. Your goal here is to be able to tell the story of the case without missing any pertinent information but also not including too many extraneous facts either; it takes some practice to pick out the determinative facts, so don’t get discouraged if you miss the mark the first few times. Above all, make sure you have clearly marked the parties’ names and positions in the case (Plaintiff/Defendant or Appellee/Appellant).
    1. MINTURN, J. The plaintiff occupied the position of a special police officer, in Atlantic City, and incidentally was identified with the work of the prosecutor of the pleas of the county. He possessed knowledge concerning the theft of certain diamonds and jewelry from the possession of the defendant, who had advertised a reward for the recovery of the property. In this situation he claims to have entered into a verbal contract with defendant, whereby she agreed to pay him $500 if he could procure for her the names and addresses of the thieves. As a result of his meditation with the police authorities the diamonds and jewelry were recovered, and plaintiff brought this suit to recover the promised reward.
      • Plaintiff makes a verbal contract with defendant. In return for $500, plaintiff will find defendant's stolen jewels.
      • Plaintiff had knowledge of whereabouts of jewels at contract formation.
      • Plaintiff is a special police officer and has dealings with prosecutor's office.
      • Defendant published advertisement for reward.
      • Plaintiff finds stolen goods and arranges return.
    1. antive issue : A substantive statement of the issue consists of two parts -- i. the point of law in dispute ii. the key facts of the case re lating to that point of law in dispute (legally relevant facts) You must include the key facts from the case so that the issue is specific to that case. Typically, the disputed issue involves how the court applied some element of the pertinent rule to the facts of the specific case. Resolving the issue will determine the court’s disposition of the case.
      • the point of law in dispute
      • the key facts of the case relating to that point of law in dispute (legally relevant facts)
    2. b. Identify legally relevant facts, t hat is, those facts that tend to prove or disprove an issue before the court. The relevant facts tell what happened before the parties enter ed the judicial system. c. Identify procedurally significant facts. You should set out (1) the cause of action (C/A) (the law the plaintiff claimed was broken), (2) relief the plaintiff requested, (3) defenses, if any, the defendant raised.
    3. Identify the relationship/status of the parties (Note: Do not merely refer to the parties as the plai ntiff/defendant or appellant/appellee; be sure to also include more descr iptive generic terms to identify the relationship/status at issue, e.g., buyer/seller, employer/employee, landlord/tenant, etc.)

      Identify the factual relationship of the parties, not just the procedural relationship.

      Examples of procedural:

      • plaintiff/defendant
      • appellant/appellee

      Examples of factual:

      • buyer/seller
      • employer/employee
      • landlord/tenant
    1. F a c t u a l c o m p i l a t i o n s , o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , m a y p o s s e s s t h e r e q u i s i t e o r i g i n a l i t y .

      Factual compilations may possess the requisite originality and so may be copyrightable.

    2. C e n s u s t a k e r s , f o r e x a m p l e , d o n o t " c r e a t e " t h e p o p u l a t i o n f i g u r e s t h a t e m e r g e f r o m t h e i r e f f o r t s ; i n a s e n s e , t h e y c o p y t h e s e f i g u r e s f r o m t h e w o r l d a r o u n d t h e m . D e n i c o l a , C o p y r i g h t i n C o l l e c t i o n s o f F a c t s : A T h e o r y f o r t h e P r o t e c t i o n o f N o n f i c t i o n L i t e r a r y W o r k s , 8 1 C o l u m . L . R e v . 5 1 6 , 5 2 5 ( 1 9 8 1 ) ( h e r e i n a f t e r D e n i c o l a ) . C e n s u s d a t a t h e r e f o r e d o n o t t r i g g e r c o p y r i g h t b e c a u s e t h e s e d a t a a r e n o t " o r i g i n a l " i n t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l s e n s e . N i m m e r § 2 . 0 3 [ E ] . T h e s a m e i s t r u e o f a l l f a c t s — s c i e n t i f i c , h i s t o r i c a l , b i o g r a p h i c a l , a n d n e w s o f t h e d a y . " [ T ] h e y m a y n o t b e c o p y r i g h t e d a n d a r e p a r t o f t h e p u b l i c d o m a i n a v a i l a b l e t o e v e r y p e r s o n . " M i l l e r , s u p r a , a t 1 3 6 9 .

      Census takers do not create; they merely copy the figured from the world around them. All facts-- scientific, historical, biographical, and news of the day-- may not be copyrighted and are part of the public domain.

    3. I t i s t h i s b e d r o c k p r i n c i p l e o f c o p y r i g h t t h a t m a n d a t e s t h e l a w ' s s e e m i n g l y d i s p a r a t e t r e a t m e n t o f f a c t s a n d f a c t u a l c o m p i l a t i o n s . " N o o n e m a y c l a i m o r i g i n a l i t y a s t o f a c t s . " I d . , § 2 . 1 1 [ A ] , p . 2 - 1 5 7 . T h i s i s b e c a u s e f a c t s d o n o t o w e t h e i r o r i g i n t o a n a c t o f a u t h o r s h i p . T h e d i s t i n c t i o n i s o n e b e t w e e n c r e a t i o n a n d d i s c o v e r y : T h e f i r s t p e r s o n t o f i n d a n d r e p o r t a p a r t i c u l a r f a c t h a s n o t c r e a t e d t h e f a c t ; h e o r s h e h a s m e r e l y d i s c o v e r e d i t s e x i s t e n c e . T o b o r r o w f r o m B u r r o w - G i l e s , o n e w h o d i s c o v e r s a f a c t i s n o t i t s " m a k e r " o r " o r i g i n a t o r . " 1 1 1 U . S . , a t 5 8 . " T h e d i s c o v e r e r m e r e l y f i n d s a n d r e c o r d s . " N i m m e r § 2 . 0 3 [ E ] .

      No one may claim originality to facts because facts do not owe their origin to an act of authorship. The distinction is one between creation vs discovery.

    4. T h e r e i s a n u n d e n i a b l e t e n s i o n b e t w e e n t h e s e t w o p r o p o s i t i o n s . M a n y c o m p i l a t i o n s c o n s i s t o f n o t h i n g b u t r a w d a t a — i . e . , w h o l l y f a c t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n n o t a c c o m p a n i e d b y a n y o r i g i n a l w r i t t e n e x p r e s s i o n . O n w h a t b a s i s m a y o n e c l a i m a c o p y r i g h t i n s u c h a w o r k ? C o m m o n s e n s e t e l l s u s t h a t 1 0 0 u n c o p y r i g h t a b l e f a c t s d o n o t m a g i c a l l y c h a n g e t h e i r s t a t u s w h e n g a t h e r e d t o g e t h e r i n o n e p l a c e . Y e t c o p y r i g h t l a w s e e m s t o c o n t e m p l a t e t h a t c o m p i l a t i o n s t h a t c o n s i s t e x c l u s i v e l y o f f a c t s a r e p o t e n t i a l l y w i t h i n i t s s c o p e
    5. i t i s b e y o n d d i s p u t e t h a t c o m p i l a t i o n s o f f a c t s a r e w i t h i n t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r o f c o p y r i g h t . C o m p i l a t i o n s w e r e e x p r e s s l y m e n t i o n e d i n t h e C o p y r i g h t A c t o f 1 9 0 9 , a n d a g a i n i n t h e C o p y r i g h t A c t o f 1 9 7 6
    6. T h i s c a s e c o n c e r n s t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f t w o w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d p r o p o s i t i o n s . T h e f i r s t i s t h a t f a c t s a r e n o t c o p y r i g h t a b l e ; t h e o t h e r , t h a t c o m p i l a t i o n s o f f a c t s g e n e r a l l y a r e . E a c h o f t h e s e p r o p o s i t i o n s p o s s e s s e s a n i m p e c c a b l e p e d i g r e e . T h a t t h e r e c a n b e n o v a l i d c o p y r i g h t i n f a c t s i s u n i v e r s a l l y u n d e r s t o o d . T h e m o s t f u n d a m e n t a l a x i o m o f c o p y r i g h t l a w i s t h a t " [ n ] o a u t h o r m a y c o p y r i g h t h i s i d e a s o r t h e f a c t s h e n a r r a t e s . " H a r p e r & R o w , P u b l i s h e r s , I n c . v . N a t i o n E n t e r p r i s e s , 4 7 1 U . S . 5 3 9 , 5 5 6 ( 1 9 8 5 ) .

      The most fundamental axiom of copyright law is that "no author may copyright his ideas or the facts he narrates." Harper & Row, Publishers, Inc. v. Nation Enterprises, 471U. S.539,556 (1985).

  29. Oct 2013
    1. how persuasion can be produced from the facts themselves.

      first form of persuasion is to determine how compelling or persuasive are the facts, and how the facts will be perceived by the audience.

    2. The second is how to set these facts out in language.

      with consideration to audience and purpose

    1. We are not to make long narrations, just as we are not to make long introductions or long arguments. Here, again, rightness does not consist either in rapidity or in conciseness, but in the happy mean; that is, in saying just so much as will make the facts plain, [1417a] or will lead the hearer to believe that the thing has happened, or that the man has caused injury or wrong to some one, or that the facts are really as important as you wish them to be thought: or the opposite facts to establish the opposite arguments.

      Narratives need to be long enough to say what you need to but not too long.

    1. Enthymemes are based upon one or other of four kinds of alleged fact: (1) Probabilities, (2) Examples, (3) Infallible Signs, (4) Ordinary Signs.

      types of facts. I didn't know about these.