620 Matching Annotations
  1. Apr 2022
    1. Seeing examples of outstanding work motivates students by givingthem a vision of the possible. How can we expect students to produce first-ratework, he asks, when they have no idea what first-rate work looks like?

      Showing students examples of work and processes that they can imitate will fuel their imaginations and capabilities rather than stifle them.

    2. three steps required to solve the all-importantcorrespondence problem. Step one, according to Shenkar: specify one’s ownproblem and identify an analogous problem that has been solved successfully.Step two: rigorously analyze why the solution is successful. Jobs and hisengineers at Apple’s headquarters in Cupertino, California, immediately got towork deconstructing the marvels they’d seen at the Xerox facility. Soon theywere on to the third and most challenging step: identify how one’s owncircumstances differ, then figure out how to adapt the original solution to thenew setting.

      Oded Shenkar's three step process for effective problem solving using imitation: - Step 1. Specify your problem and identify an analogous problem that has been successfully solved. - Step 2. Analyze why the solution was successful. - Step 3. Identify how your problem and circumstances differ from the example problem and figure out how to best and most appropriately adapt the original solution to the new context.

      The last step may be the most difficult.


      The IndieWeb broadly uses the idea of imitation to work on and solve a variety of different web design problems. By focusing on imitation they dramatically decrease the work and effort involved in building a website. The work involved in creating new innovative solutions even in their space has been much harder, but there, they imitate others in breaking the problems down into the smallest constituent parts and getting things working there.


      Link this to the idea of "leading by example".

      Link to "reinventing the wheel" -- the difficulty of innovation can be more clearly seen in the process of people reinventing the wheel for themselves when they might have simply imitated a more refined idea. Searching the state space of potential solutions can be an arduous task.

      Link to "paving cow paths", which is a part of formalizing or crystalizing pre-tested solutions.

    1. if Rails.application.config.reloading_enabled? Rails.autoloaders.main.on_unload("Country") do |klass, _abspath| klass.expire_redis_cache end end
    1. input (32x32x3)max activation: 0.5, min: -0.5max gradient: 1.08696, min: -1.53051Activations:Activation Gradients:Weights:Weight Gradients:conv (32x32x16)filter size 5x5x3, stride 1max activation: 3.75919, min: -4.48241max gradient: 0.36571, min: -0.33032parameters: 16x5x5x3+16 = 1216

      The dimensions of these first two layers are explained here

    1. SELECT lateral_subquery.* FROM posts JOIN LATERAL ( SELECT comments.* FROM comments WHERE (comments.post_id = posts.id) LIMIT 3 ) lateral_subquery ON true WHERE posts.id
    1. Why not add one more category — Personal Wiki — tied to nothing specific, that I can reuse wherever I see fit?

      This is insufficiently explained.

    1. Let's say the user is in the process of selecting some files. The names don't indicate anything. So she has to listen and select.
  2. Mar 2022
    1. his serves as a good example of apt-gets stability. In apt, the name was changed to be more user friendly, while in apt-get the name remains unchanged so as not to break compatibility with old scripts.
  3. Feb 2022
    1. Rather than describing where to go on the Marriott site and what information to plug into the form when I got there, Brian composed a URL that encapsulated that data and transported me into Marriott's app in the right context.
    1. spurred cheating to take on new and different forms.

      Students had the freedom to cheat in the exams, as there was no supervision. It's the courage they get when they have to do their exams online and in their homes.

  4. Jan 2022
    1. export const fibonacci = function (n, initialData) { return readable( { loading: true, error: null, data: initialData, }, (set) => { let controller = new AbortController(); (async () => { try { let result = await fibonacciWorker.calculate(n, { signal: controller.signal }); set({ loading: false, error: null, data: result, }); } catch (err) { // Ignore AbortErrors, they're not unexpected but a feature. // In case of abortion we just keep the loading state because another request is on its way anyway. if (err.name !== 'AbortError') { set({ loading: false, error: err, data: initialData, }); } } })(); return () => { controller.abort(); }; } ); };
    2. <script> import { fibonacci } from './math.js'; $: result = fibonacci(n, 0); </script> <input type=number bind:value={n}> <p>The {n}th Fibonacci number is {$result.data}</p> {#if $result.loading} <p>Show a spinner, add class or whatever you need.</p> <p>You are not limited to the syntax of an #await block. You are free to do whatever you want.</p> {/if}
    1. The most obvious time you'd encounter a 401 error, on the other hand, is when you have not logged in at all, or have provided the incorrect password.
    2. As mentioned in the previous article, the 403 error can result when a user has logged in but they don't have sufficient privileges to access the requested resource. For example, a generic user may be attempting to load an 'admin' route.
    1. You’d like to delete the user, but you’re authenticated as a regular user, not as an admin. The server doesn’t allow regular users to perform such requests, so in the result, the server will send you a 403 error. Re-authentication won’t make any difference.
    1. For example, given a website's normal communication method is the internet, out-of-band communication may be by a voice call.
  5. Dec 2021
    1. For example, one respondent explained that being involvedin a national campaign is beneficial among local members, across the state withother organizations, and with their congressional members who see the organi-zation connected to a larger movement.

      use of an example to explain the operation of a concept.

    2. The field of public health also offers insight aboutthe effectiveness of community-based coalitions for service delivery and theimprovement of health outcomes.

      from public health

    3. “Advocacy Coalition Framework”

      example

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  6. Nov 2021
    1. Fixing with containIf we give each article the contain property with a value of content, when new elements are inserted the browser understands it only needs to recalculate the containing element's subtree, and not anything outside it:
    1. Abstract the whole queryCommandState / execCommand system into a store (or some wrapper that also holds a store) that has state like isBold and canMakeBold and a makeBold() function.
    1. The consumer component will barely change from our last example. The only difference is the way we'll get a reference to our store (since now the store is exported from the JS module):
    2. In order to use this, we need to use a little more advanced readable store. Here's your example updated for this:
    3. // our temperature is now a store with initial value 0 const temperature = writable(0); // now we don't need to change this function, the change will be propaged // by the store itself const getTemperature = () => { return temperature; }
    4. Here's how we would rewrite our callback example with a store instead:
    1. For example, if we had a room of tall people wearing hats, and another room of Spanish speakers wearing hats, after combining those rooms, the only thing we know about every person is that they must be wearing a hat.
    1. Viewedthrough Fraser’s justice framework, more subtle powerimbalances come into view. The initiative was framedlargely by and through a scientific and technical lens.Participants were not provided with opportunities toreframe issues to fit their own needs and circumstancesbut were asked to work within existing frameworks setout by the United Nations Framework Convention onClimate Change. Opportunities for response were sig-nificantly circumscribed by closed, voting-style ques-tions.

      Critize of WWWViews through Fraser lens

    2. orld Wide Views (WWViews) is a timelyexperiment in forging global spaces for public dialoguethat simultaneously works within as well as transcendsnational borders (Blue, 2015). WWViews marks animportant innovation in scaling up formal publicengagement by connecting people from variousnation-states to discuss issues of global importancesuch as climate change.

      First example is of a multinational forum of organized participation and collective decision-making.

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  7. Oct 2021
    1. const str = 'mañana mañana' const strReverse = str.split('').reverse().join('') // => "anãnam anañam" // notice how the first word has an ã rather ñ
    1. Another option is the use the functional library Ramda, while the syntax may be a bit different from the Ruby and Pure JS version, I find it to be more declarive: list = [null, "say", "kenglish", "co", null] R.reject(R.isNil, list) // return new array [ 'say', 'kenglish', 'co' ]
    1. const fetchWithJSONHeaders = applyDefaults(fetch, { headers: { "Content-Type": "application/json" } }); const fetchWithTextHeaders = applyDefaults(fetch, { headers: { "Content-Type": "application/text" } }); // Fetch JSON content const response = await fetchWithJSONHeaders("/users", { method: "GET" });
    1. For instance, the application could define a class method PaymentGateway.impl whose definition depends on the environment; or could define PaymentGateway to have a parent class or mixin that depends on the environment
  8. Sep 2021
    1. Democracy Collaborative contributes another framework

      Dëmocracy Collaborative framework - Measure and interpret impact on community - esp in area of low-income households. : Indicators: equity, econ dev, new biz, affordable housing, arts and culture, financial security of families, education of youth, better health and safety.

    2. action agenda’

      Action Agenda os Initiative for a Competitive Inner City - university as driver of economic prosperity for urban areas... with a socio-economic benfit (7 roles identified: Institution roles Economic roles Physical roles Public purpose Roles.

    3. The settlement house movement offers a prime example

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    1. The neighborhood outside of the PAS is characterized by continued decline—median household incomes fell by 30% between 1990 and 2010 and its poverty rate exceeded the city’s, as well as the PAS area’s, by approximately 10% in 2010. The overall trends for University City, discussed previously, mask the observed socioeconomic divergence between the areas inside and outside of the catchment zone. In fact, it appears that the PAS area served as the bright spot in University City during the WPI years, while the remainder of the neighborhood experienced continued eco-nomic decline.Housing tre

      PAS catchment better. Outside in decline.

    2. wealth front, Philadelphia’s poverty rate steadily increased

      more poverty study black declined pop with influx of asia and small flight of whites. Home values doubled while occupancy increased.

      But inside the PAS catchment area, whites increase, blacks decreased and asians doubled. More rental, less vacancy... Less owner occupied. - signs of gentrification. Lower poverty.

    3. For example, the Ohio State University emphasized increased beautification and public safety initiatives, homeownership incen-tive programs, and mixed-use development projects to catalyze new private investment. The University of Cincinnati spurred revitalization by providing funds to and serving on the boards of five neighborhood community develop-ment corporations (CDCs), one for each of its adjacent neighborhoods. This strategy moves the institution into a partnership role with the neighborhood, rather than a leadership role. Several other books, articles, and reports empha-size other approaches universities are taking as urban property owners and real estate developers, economic engines, neighborhood partners, and civic leaders (e.g., Bunnell and Lawson 2006; Guinan, McKinley, and Yi 2013; Martin, Smith, and Phillips 2005; Maurrasse 2001; Mayfield and Lucas 2000; Perry, Wiewel, and Menendez 2009; Sungu-Eryilmaz 2009)

      Various case studies and their weaknesses.

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    1. Under the rubric of business incentives, we include bothtax instruments—property tax abatements, tax incrementfinancing, sales tax exemptions and credits, and corporateincome tax exemptions and credits for investment or jobs—and non-tax incentives such as business grants, loans,and loan guarantees. In all cases, the firm, not the workeror work seeker, is the initial recipient of the incentive

      Examples of types of incentive included in their definition.

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    1. y. In the Santa Barbara antigrowth movements, for example, much support is provided by professionals from research and electronics firms, as well as branch managers of small "high-technology" corporation

      Example of where anti-growth worked and evidence

    2. s the claim that growth "makes jo
    3. ocalities grow in population not simply as a function of migration but also because of the fecundity of the existing population. Some means are obvi- ously needed to provide jobs and housing to accommodate such growth- either in the immediate area or at some distant lo

      birth rates create growth. creating environmentla and budgetary stresses.

    4. s, growth benefits only a small proportion of local residents. Growth almost always brings with it the obvious problems of increased air and water pollution, traffic congestion, and overtaxing of natural a

      Growth has costs the affect many but benefit few.

    5. 49).4 In- creased utility and government costs caused by new development should be borne (and they usually are-see, e.g., Ann Arbor City Planning De- partment [1972]) by the public at large, rather than by those responsible for the "excess" demand on the urban infrast

      The public pays for these costs of extending land use.

    6. es; decisions made by private corporations also have major impac

      Private entities also seek to maximize use. And use gvt. as a tool to maximize use of land by reducing costs (through incentives).

    7. g way: an at- tempt is made to use government to gain those resources which will enhance the growth potential of the area unit in ques

      Gvts are interested in land use that enhances growth potential.

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    1. leader of a community project, sponsored by a voluntary society, on a c

      Community-based research

    2. Dampness and mould growth were also a feature of some houses on the Whiteway and Twerton council

      dampness of homes in council estates in Bath. research for community advocacy. Collective action example.

    3. s. This study originated from the desire of tenants to obtain reliable data which they could use for their cause. They did not carry out the study but they were consulted so that its form would serve their needs. They subsequently made use of the findings to argue their case both to the media and to the local authori

      The study had benefit for the communities.

    4. Damp ho

      Damp rental homes creating health issues in Scotland.

    5. Brighton where the SSD had created o

      Brighton social services patch teams.

    1. config: path.resolve(__dirname, '../config'), vue: 'vue/dist/vue.js', src: path.resolve(__dirname, '../src'), store: path.resolve(__dirname, '../src/store'), assets: path.resolve(__dirname, '../src/assets'), components: path.resolve(__dirname, '../src/components'), '@': path.resolve(__dirname, '../src'),
    2. alias: { _self: path.join(__dirname, 'src/web'), _shared: path.join(__dirname, 'src/shared'), _components: path.join(__dirname, 'src/web/components'), _helpers: path.join(__dirname, 'src/web/helpers'), _layers: path.join(__dirname, 'src/web/layers'), _mutations: path.join(__dirname, 'src/web/mutations'), _routes: path.join(__dirname, 'src/web/routes') }
    3. alias: { '@components': path.join(srcDir, 'components'), '@modules': path.join(srcDir, 'modules'), '@store': path.join(srcDir, 'store') }
    4. alias: { '@shared': path.dirname(require.resolve('app')), '~': path.join(fs.realpathSync(process.cwd()), 'app'), },
    5. In this example, @shared is the package, ~ is the project. I wouldn't do it this way in the future, but I know this configuration works.
    1. alias: { Library: path.resolve(__dirname, "root/library/"), Single: path.resolve(__dirname, "root/test.js"), },
    2. alias: { Single$: path.resolve(__dirname, "root/test.js"), },
    1. Analytics modules that run in the background, monitor user interaction, and send the data to a server.
    2. Many jQuery plugins attach themselves to the global jQuery object.
    3. A polyfill for example, might not do anything, because it finds that the feature that it enables is already supported by the browser.
    1. Some would argue that the phrase ''survival of the fittest'' is tautological, in that the fittest are defined as those that survive to reproduce.
    1. One good use for /dev/tty is if you're trying to call an editor in a pipeline (e.g., with xargs). Since the standard input of xargs is some list of files rather than your terminal, just doing, e.g., | xargs emacs will screw up your terminal. Instead you can use | xargs sh -c 'emacs "$@" </dev/tty' emacs to connect the editor to your terminal even though the input of xargs is coming from elsewhere.
  9. Aug 2021
    1. Some details of my example were originally poorly chosen i.e. the example was constructed in a way that developer would probably have done a null check rather than a typeof comparison. I've addressed that now. My apologies to anyone who read this before-hand and thought the example seemed a bit too "fabricated".
    1. Using a flag to disable prettier for a line, the next line or until I activate it again (ESLint like syntax). // prettier-disable border: { sep: "║", topLeft: "╔", topMid: "╦", top: "═", topRight: "╗", midLeft: "╠", midMid: "╬", mid: "═", midRight: "╣", botLeft: "╚", botMid: "╩", bot: "═", botRight: "╝" }, // prettier-enable
    1. Here is one of the most confusing cases: def foo(x, **kwargs) p [x, kwargs] end def bar(x=1, **kwargs) p [x, kwargs] end foo({}) #=> [{}, {}] bar({}) #=> [1, {}] bar({}, **{}) #=> expected: [{}, {}], actual: [1, {}]
    2. If you extend a method to accept keyword arguments, the method may have incompatibility as follows: # If a method accepts rest argument and no `**nil` def foo(*args) p args end # Passing keywords are converted to a Hash object (even in Ruby 3.0) foo(k: 1) #=> [{:k=>1}] # If the method is extended to accept a keyword def foo(*args, mode: false) p args end # The existing call may break foo(k: 1) #=> ArgumentError: unknown keyword k
    1. Ronald Reagan also kept a similar system that apparently very few people knew about until he died. In his system, he used 3×5 notecards and kept them in a photo binder by theme. These note cards–which were mostly filled with quotes–have actually been turned into a book edited by the historian Douglas Brinkley. These were not only responsible for many of his speeches as president, but before office Reagan delivered hundreds of talks as part of his role at General Electric. There are about 50 years of practical wisdom in these cards. Far more than anything I’ve assembled–whatever you think of the guy. I highly recommend at least looking at it.

      Ronald Reagan kept a commonplace in the form of index cards which he kept in a photo binder and categorized according to theme. Douglas Brinkley edited them into the book The Notes: Ronald Reagan's Private Collection of Stories and Wisdom.

  10. Jun 2021
    1. SELECT base.nr, multiples.multiple FROM (SELECT generate_series(1,10) AS nr) base, LATERAL ( SELECT multiples.multiple FROM ( SELECT generate_series(1,10) AS b_nr, base.nr * 2 AS multiple ) multiples WHERE multiples.b_nr = base.nr ) multiples;
    1. Critical to the acceptance of the position of the script subtag was the inclusion of information in the registry to make clear the need to avoid script subtags except where they add useful distinguishing information. Thus, the registry entry for the language subtag "en" (English) has a field called "Suppress-Script" indicating that the script subtag "Latn" should be avoided with that language, since virtually all English documents use the Latin script.
      • not worth saying
      • not necessary to say/write
      • useless information

      Suppress-Script

    2. Language Range ... matches ... does not match de de, de-CH, de-AT, de-DE, de-1901, de-AT-1901 en, fr-CH
    1. SELECT * FROM ( -- build virtual table of all hours between -- a date range SELECT start_ts, start_ts + interval '1 hour' AS end_ts FROM generate_series( '2017-03-01'::date, '2017-03-03'::timestamp - interval '1 hour', interval '1 hour' ) AS t(start_ts) ) AS cal LEFT JOIN ( -- build virtual table of uptimes SELECT * FROM ( VALUES ('2017-03-01 01:15:00-06'::timestamp, '2017-03-01 02:15:00-06'::timestamp), ('2017-03-01 08:00:00-06', '2017-03-01 20:00:00-06'), ('2017-03-02 19:00:00-06', null) ) AS t(start_ts, end_ts) ) AS uptime ON cal.end_ts > uptime.start_ts AND cal.start_ts <= coalesce(uptime.end_ts, current_timestamp)
    1. export function get(req, res) { if (req.headers.authorization) { res.writeHead(200); res.end(JSON.stringify({ message: req.headers.authorization })); } else { res.writeHead(200); res.end(JSON.stringify({ message: 'unauthorized' })); } }
  11. May 2021
    1. Your brain is a leaky bucket. If you're dedicated to filling it with knowledge, you should be equally dedicated to sealing the leak. Here's how.

      way better for the opening of an article

    1. Cross-site request forgery is an example of a confused deputy attack against a web browser because the web browser is tricked into submitting a forged request by a less privileged attacker.
    1. Pill can ruin sex drive permanentlyLast updated at 10:17 26 May 2005

      這就是andy field 在演講中談到的,誤解統計的新聞報導例子。他用改的寫的方式來修正這篇的內容。 資料來源:這裡

    1. Now you have the extension up and running. It's time to start annotating some documents.

      This is the example of annotation

    1. Use cases: Volumes are most useful when you need more storage space but don’t need the additional processing power or memory that a larger Droplet would provide, like: As the document root or media upload directory for a web server To house database files for a database server As a target location for backups As expanded storage for personal file hosting platforms like ownCloud As components for building more advanced storage solutions, like RAID arrays
    1. An escalator is a great example of progressive enhancement and graceful degradation in real life. The late comedian Mitch Hedberg joked, “An escalator can never break: it can only become stairs. You should never see an Escalator Temporarily Out Of Order sign, just Escalator Temporarily Stairs. Sorry for the convenience.” Regardless of its environment, an escalator maintains its functionality.
  12. Apr 2021
    1. the double bind faced by every politician: responding to scurrilous charges only gives them unwarranted publicity; not responding to such charges is often interpreted as an admission of guilt
    1. Adding another Steven Wright gem: "24 hour banking? I don't have time for that."
    2. Comedian Henny Youngman was famous for one-liners delivered in a deadpan manner. Much of his humor was both wry and dry. For example, his most famous line: Take my wife ... please. If you never saw the delivery, "Take my wife" was said as if he was using his wife as an example to set up a situation, as in "Take my wife [for example]." After a brief pause, the "please" turned it into a request.
    3. I'm sorry I hurt your feelings when I called you stupid. I really thought you already knew.
    4. Inside every older person is a younger person wondering what the hell happened.
    5. I swear; if my memory was any worse, I could plan my own surprise party.
    1. British HumorDry humor is particularly associated with British humor. Fawlty Towers, a British television comedy that aired from 1975 to 1979 is considered an unusually good example of dry humor. The series is set in a family run seaside hotel operated by a cynical and snobbish man, played by John Cleese, who finds himself in constant conflict with hotel guests. No matter how outlandishly silly each episode becomes, there is never any sense that the characters are trying to be funny.
    1. Of course you must not use plain-text passwords and place them directly into scripts. You even must not use telnet protocol at all. And avoid ftp, too. I needn’t say why you should use ssh, instead, need I? And you also must not plug your fingers into 220 voltage AC-output. Telnet was chosen for examples as less harmless alternative, because it’s getting rare in real life, but it can show all basic functions of expect-like tools, even abilities to send passwords. BUT, you can use “Expect and Co” to do other things, I just show the direction.
    1. If you want to pipe it into something interactive, like less -R, where terminal input goes to less -R, then you need some extra trickery. For example, I wanted a colourful version of git status | less. You need to pass -R to less in order that it respect the colours, and you need to use script to get git status to output colour. But we don't want script to keep ownership of the keyboard, we want this to go to less. So I use this now and it works well: 0<&- script -qfc "git status" /dev/null | less -R . Those first few characters close stdin for this one commmand.

      Just git status | less -R worked for me without any additional trickery, but I see now that's because I told it to "always" use color in my .gitconfig:

      .[color]
        ui = always
        status = always
      

      I tried disabling that and then trying the

      0<&- script -qfc "git status" /dev/null | less -R
      

      trick, but it didn't work for me. It didn't show any output and I couldn't exit out with Ctrl-C or anything I tried. Had to force kill from another terminal.

      But it's a good example of the related but different problems:

      1. forcing less to respect colors (easy)
      2. force/trick git status to think it has a terminal
      3. force/trick it so you can control keyboard with less
    1. Incredible Mandy is a great example of design by subtraction, focusing on puzzle-solving and atmosphere and eschewing mechanics which do not contribute to the developer’s singular vision.
    1. An example of this would be a button that looks clickable but isn’t, underlined text that doesn’t contain a link, or a TV remote that turns on your lights but not the TV. False affordances are often present by mistake or occur due to lack of effective design techniques.
    2. For instance, when you see a door handle, you assume its function is to open a door. When you see a light switch, you assume it can be flicked to turn on a light. When looking at a chair, you know it can be sat in. All of these are affordances. Don Norman refers to affordances as relationships in his book The Design of Everyday Things. He goes on to say that, “when affordances are taken advantage of, the user knows what to do just by looking: no picture, label, or instruction needed.”
    1. He frequently interrupted his narrative with amusing asides.

      Aside seems to imply that it is somewhat related, even though not directly related.

  13. Mar 2021
    1. A business with a low barrier to entry would be those people in poor countries who “wash” your windscreen at traffic lights. A bucket, a cloth, some water and you are in business. A business with a high barrier to entry might be airlines: planes are expensive, staff with the right skills hard to find, the necessary permits to fly hard to obtain.
    1. בזמן שבאירופה ובאזורים נוספים בעולם ממשיכים להתמודד עם התפרצויות קשות של נגיף הקורונה והווריאנטים השונים שלו, ומטילים בשל כך הגבלות חדשות, באנגליה הורשו היום (ב') מיליוני תושבים לצאת מהבתים, במסגרת גל הקלות בסגר שהוטל שם בתחילת השנה. במסגרת גל ההקלות מורשים תושבי אנגליה לצאת בחופשיות מהבתים שלהם ולהתקהל במקומות פתוחים בקבוצות של עד שישה אנשים, משני בתי אב שונים. גם פעילויות ספורט במקומות פתוחים אפשריים כעת.

      sdjk bkjsdgkbgjk

    1. In the simple biology example, dog is a hypernym and Fido is one of its hyponyms. A word can be both a hyponym and a hypernym. For example, dog is a hyponym of mammal and also a hypernym of Fido.

      I wish they hadn't used tokens/objects in this example. Wouldn't it be just as clear or clearer if they had stuck to only comparing types/classes?

      It may be okay to mix them like that in some contexts, but in other cases it seems like this would be suffering from ignoring/conflating/[better word?] the Type–token distinction.

      Does linguistics just not make the https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Type%E2%80%93token_distinction ?

      This statement seems to reinforce that idea:

      words that are examples of categories are hyponyms

      because an example of a category/class/type could be either a sub-class or an instance of that category/class/type, right?

    1. The sentence "they drive the same car" is ambiguous. Do they drive the same type of car (the same model) or the same instance of a car type (a single vehicle)?
    1. For example within nouns there are two sub classes, concrete nouns and abstract nouns.
    2. The concrete nouns include people, plants, animals, materials and objects while the abstract nouns refer to concepts such as qualities, actions, and processes.
    3. Semantic classes may intersect. The intersection of female and young can be girl.

      More examples are given at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Semantic_feature:

      • 'female' + 'performer' = 'actress'
    1. For instance English has a domain ‘Rain’, which includes words such as rain, drizzle, downpour, raindrop, puddle.

      "rain" seems more like a semantic field — a group of very related or nearly synonymous words — than a semantic field.

      Esp. when you consider the later example of basketball (https://hyp.is/ynKbXI1BEeuEheME3sLYrQ/en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Semantic_domain) and coffee shop, which are more like the sense of "field" that means (academic/scientific/etc.) discipline.

    2. For instance, in basketball there are many words that are specific to the sport. Free throw, court, half court, three pointer, and point guard are all terms that are specific to the sport of basketball. These words make very little sense when used outside of the semantic domain of basketball.

      But this example seems so different than the first example they gave, "rain", which seems more like a semantic field — a group of very related or nearly synonymous words.

    1. The English word "man" used to mean "human being" exclusively, while today it predominantly means "adult male," but its semantic field still extends in some uses to the generic "human"
    1. Every woman talked to a student. This has two interpretations. Under one reading, every woman talked to the same student (the class president, for example), and here the noun phrase a student is specific. Under the second reading, various students were talked to. In this case, a student is non-specific.
    1. endpoint Diagram::Operation::Create do |ctx, **| redirect_to diagram_path(ctx[:diagram].id) end.Or do |ctx, **| render :form end
    1. Suppose an administrator creates a forum using open source forum software, and then heavily modifies it by adding new features and options. This process requires extensive modifications to existing code and deviation from the original functionality of that software.
    2. cannot be run on any modern day computer or computer simulator, as it was developed during the days when LISP and PLANNER were still in development stage, and thus uses non-standard macros and software libraries which do not exist anymore
    1. Or perhaps there was no printed manual, only a link to a web page - that has since disappeared (because the provider went bust, or just changed their web content manageme