556 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
    1. ions. The stationary continuance of the functioning of certain social institutions is easily regarded as desirable when those institutions are "explained" in terms of the-possibly vital-functions they are performing in the existing s
    1. parents are being asked to somehow work and entertain housebound children

      How big of a problem is taking care of really young children vs entertaining children > 10 y age?

    1. then it takes on any given value between f(a) and f(b) at some point within the interval

      What is the definition of 'any' given value. Is it any value in the co-domain or the range?

      I'm wondering in the context of a function that is defined on rational numbers -> real numbers. Where certain values of real numbers are not possible because the domain is restricted.

      Specific example of \(x^2 - 2\), not taking 0 because domain is restricted to rational numbers discussed here

    1. Using the median, the case fatality rate for India drops to 0.4 deaths per 100 patients, nearly ten times.

      It is unclear what the median is for. Is it statewide data within india or data for different countries?

    1. Cool ideas as extensions to this paper Can this be done in vivo - in the sand filter? - Zach Has anyone analysed cells with plasmid vs cell expressing the genes? - Zach Analyzing a mobilizable vs a conjugative plasmid simultaneously (or even independently) in the same community

      - The two plasmids should be identical except for the removal of self mobilizing features (that will be present on a helper plasmid or integrated into the donor)

      Does permissivity change if in a biofilm - assuming sand filters are housing biofilms?

      What are the goals of spreading a catabolic gene inside a native community?

      1. Long term residence in the community
      2. Target to organisms capable of high expression or function
      3. Residence in high abundance and highly active community members

      To maximize all these goals, we can develop a blanket strategy that combines best aspects of all Create a combinatorial library of all plasmid origins, all host organisms, transposons with your payload in it This will enable the widest possible dissemination of the desired function in the community at the expense of understanding

    1. Instead of letting the faucet run while you’re shaving so you can clean off the razor, fill up your sink with some water

      It us better to have a small container filled with water than filling up a whole sink

  2. Mar 2020
    1. we must abide by the voluntary quarantine rules verbatim

      Why is this quarantine voluntary? What purpose does this achieve compared to a legally enforced quarantine?

    2. Turkey’s government says it is not disclosing the location of cases to prevent the risk of increasing transmission rates by encouraging people to move from areas with high rates to places where there are no or few cases.

      I'm amused as to how many possible reasons governments come up with to not disclose data.

      I do not understand how likely people are to move between areas, do people have more than 1 housing options?

      There is an obvious conflict of interest in a government hiding information that is bound to invite questions or make their performance look poor in contrast to other countries etc.

    1. demonstrate that adapting a strain to the intended growth condition increases fitness and in turn improves the stability of the engineered function over hundreds of generations

      Does this imply that an organism taken from a native environment, modified with a plasmid and re-introduced is likely to be stable?

    2. selected after transformation and used to inoculate liquid cultures

      Would the variability be the same if the colonies were picked from a streaked plate (from glycerol stock) instead of a transformation plate?

      I would expect the glycerol stock method to have more variability, but it would be good to test

    3. While encoding the function did not measurably affect host fitness

      Could the fitness difference be finite but undetectable? In which case we can think of a multi-day competition experiment to enhance the fitness differences.

    1. There is no discussion about the presence or titres of SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater and the sensitivity of detection of the assays.

      • Considering that it is a respiratory pathogen, which rarely enters the enteric system and feaces, how much of the viral load do we expect to find in the wastewater?
      • What is the detection limit of the paper based assays in the presence of other matter from wastewater?

      Given the lack of this critical points, the article does very little to answer the question raised in the title except educate us about paper based diagnostics

      Can a Paper-Based Device Trace COVID-19 Sources with Wastewater-Based Epidemiology?

    1. but the nature of that relationship remains unstated)

      This is where icons come in handy

    2. Sentences can express many more relationships

      The assumption is that the readers have enough time to read everything

    1. the start-up (achieving 70% TN removal) was shortened from 21 days to 5 days when Anammox sludge concentration increased from 0.02 g VSS L−1 to 0.2 g VSS L−1 with 2 g VSS L−1 AS as inoculum
    1. Hydrazine addition resulted in much higher anammox biomass enrichment observed as higher nitrogen removal rate [0.512 kgN (m3 d)−1 with hydrazine versus 0.256 kgN (m3 d)−1 without reagent]
    1. less than the most commonly used

      sentence is incomplete

    2. matrix effect, assessed based on the use of an internal standard, was associated with an underestimation that ranged 0.1–0.9 log gene copy number mL−1 of sample

      Who reports differences in terms of fold logs? It is very confusing what this means

    1. neutral theory contends that high diversity is because all species within the same functional group are equivalent in their competitive ability

      What is functional group?

    2. Nannochloropsis started to decline

      What is the explanation for this decline, cell death?

    3. highly artificial environments

      Should point out the exact differences between the artificial environment and the North sea

    4. one multispecies competition experiment and two pairwise competition experiments

      Do the multispecies experiments run parallel to the pairwise experiments?

      Is it possible that presence of other species affect the growth rates and R* values of the two species in the pairwise study by unknown interactions (symbiosis?) with other species in the mixed community? .

    5. Moreover, even though the P‐limited competition experiments started from very different initial species abundances, they ultimately led to the same equilibrium outcome

      They don't seem the same. The nanochloropsis differs by ~10 fold it looks like from figure 4

    6. neutral theory assumes that species abundances change by chance

      Implies that species composition upon nutrient fluctuation is not predictable

      • Does this theory also imply that there is no steady state in time?
    1. Thanks to ggforce, you can enhance almost any ggplot by highlighting data groupings, and focusing attention on interesting features of the plot
    1. has shown that the mean duration of viral shedding in patients suffering from COVID-19 in China was 20 days

      should definitely include the sample size of this study here.

      There were 191 patients in total

    1. Vero E6 cells were infected with 2019-nCoV

      Interesting to know that the virus has a tropism that extends beyond the lung epithelial cells into kidney epithelial cells

    1. draconian manner

      This report hints at this point multiple times without elaborating how the measures were draconian. This is unfair to the subject and takes away from neutrality of reporting

    2. infected people rarely spread the virus to anyone but members of their own household

      How did an infected household get groceries?

    1. provided by a plasmid lacking a functional oriT

      Does the mobilized plasmid need to have a Mob relaxase along with the OriT?

    1. oriT mimic, minimally contains a 126-bp region encompassing three overlapping inverted-repeat sequences (IR1-3), at least one copy of an accessory repeat (AR) and a defined relaxase core region
    2. recently documented “relaxase-in trans” mechanism of conjugative mobilization facilitated by conjugative plasmids

      in Staphylococcus aureus

    1. Mobilizable plasmids carry only the relaxosomal components oriT, a relaxase gene, and one or more nicking auxiliary proteins
    1. Although several studies have been made onthe isolation of bacteria with conjugative plasmids fromenvironmental samples, few have compared the distri-bution and characteristics of plasmid mobilizers in vari-ous environments

      Is there any reason to assume all conjugative plasmids are not mobilizers?

    1. IncP plasmids are considered mobilizing plasmids and may transfer other nonconjugative plasmids into new hosts

      Aren't all conjugative plasmids capable of mobilizing? According to the paper -

      IncP, IncN, and IncW are conjugative plasmids that transfer and can be maintained in a diverse array of bacterial hosts

    1. IncP-1beta plasmids

      Is a minimal origin for IncP-1beta plasmids known?

    1. bacterium proved to be an efficient nitrogen-fixing biofertilizer in itself by increasing the root mass storage of radishes by up to 1440%

      Why would anybody represent such a high number as a %? increases by 14 fold is a much better way to represent this

    1. children often experience respiratory infections (e.g., respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)) in winter, and may have higher levels of antibody against virus than adults

      Is it known that antibodies against a virus are able to protect against infection from a different family of virus?

    1. therefore does not secrete glucose

      Is the glucose secretion low or zero? Does it secrete galactose?

    1. Establishment Democrats are desperately hoping to avoid a reprise of 2016, when Mr. Sanders battled to the bitter end against Hillary Clinton; his posture enraged some in the party who later blamed him for stoking division among Democrats that led to her loss to Mr. Trump.

      Wow! It is the height of foolishness from the establishment democrats if they can still not understand that their moderate-centrist policies are unable to connect with the bulk of the populace, increasingly disillusioned with status quo.

      Unfortunately Bernie wasn't able to do much to broaden the party base as he was tasked to do since 2016. But there was no doubt of his intentions to unite the party when he endorsed Hillary after losing the primary as he said he would this time too. It is just plain undemocratic for the establishment to continue this attitude and blaming any outsiders bringing in new ideas, trying to connect with people (think Ralph Nader) when it is increasingly clear that they are no longer representing priorities important to the electorate.

    1. it is only after the other side has had a chance to put testimony to the test, through cross-examination, that it can be given the status of “evidence”

      Similar to peer review process in science? (probably applicable more so to post-publication review)

    1. The app, which was developed in partnership with a contractor, will run on iPhone 8 devices provided by the bureau

      Why not invest in an android app as well? I would assume it would lead to more widespread use on personal devices

    1. essential functions

      Essentially might not be easily and universally agreed upon

    2. basic infrastructure

      Each and every word of this can be debated upon.

      What comes under basic infrastructure?

      • I presume everyone thinks about high investment hard infrastructure like roads, rail networks, fibre optic and electric lines, airports etc.

      • Are public schools and colleges included?

      • Are medicare and social safety nets counted as basic infrastructure?
      • Is defining criteria of intellectual property and granting patents counted?
      • What about public transportation?
      • Funding early scientific research?

      Or do we expect all of these to be funded through charity?

    1. physically present within the Schengen Area during the 14-day period preceding their entry or attempted entry into the United States.

      Does this include transit through airports on the EU of aliens originating travel from nom-EU locations?

    1. PAM-independent loci were targeted using degenerate codons, thereby making it possible to modify any site in the genome

      From the paper -

      we identified a PAM site in the closest proximity (within the 70 bp coverage of the MAGE oligo) and we introduced a secondary silent mutation that disrupts the nearby PAM sequence while coding for the same amino acid

    1. due to resource constraints, community-level tradeoffs exist between growth yield and resource acquisition, and that nutrient limitation affects community metabolism and reduces growth yield.

      Why should the community come into picture? Individual cell metabolism can also explain reduced growth yield right?

    1. Subsurface drip irrigation provides the ultimate in water use efficiency for open-field agriculture, often resulting in water savings of 25-50% compared to flood irrigation
    1. trace contaminants such as heavy metals in the upper horizons may be accumulated, which may eventually lead to deterioration of soil and groundwater quality and affect the sustainability of land-based disposal of effluent
    1. Eggplant yield under treated effluent was twice the average eggplant production under fresh water irrigation using conventional fertiliser application in Jordan
    1. included bacteria belonging to the Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and Gammaproteobacteria classes of proteobacteria

      Does the proteobacterial specificity arise from the RP4 or from the donor being Psuedomonas?

    2. zygotically inducible

      Indicates that expression will occur after conjugation. This term comes from developmental biology field for genes expressed in the zygote - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maternal_to_zygotic_transition

    1. In situ probes using fluorescence and infrared spectroscopy are also available on the market and have been extensively studied

      Good references for bio-monitoring in situ

      • Purely analytical methods, not biosensors

      Other points from the same paper

      • capable of monitoring the chemical properties of fermentation broths such as biomass, glucose, and protein concentration.
      • infrared spectroscopy can have problems with sensitivity, for low abundance products such as protein products or substrates such as glycerol or glucose.
      • fermentation broths are extremely complex and hence there might be interference?
    1. it is assumed that the decay modifies the growth multiplicatively as a function of the time

      1st order decay

    1. Typically, double terminators are used to stop transcription. Because these parts can be up to ∼168 bp of DNA, this use of double terminators can lead to homologous recombination when used at multiple locations in a design

      double terminators

      Did you test the double terminator strength against your library?

    2. In E. coli, homologous recombination occurs most frequently when there is a contiguous stretch of sequence >25 bp
    1. Exposure to short chain-length AHLs resulted in a decrease in the abundance of different taxa than exposure to higher molecular weight AHLs

      Is there any discussion on how these AHLs are affecting gram positive vs gram negative bacteria?

      • AHLs are linked more often to gram negative bacteria in both production and response, so do they find these connections as well?
  3. Feb 2020
    1. cognizable offence

      What is the definition of a 'cognizable' offense? Are the police allowed to interpret the definition of this term and refuse to file an FIR as we hear in the news on multiple occasions?

      I found a definition and some useful information here - https://www.humanrightsinitiative.org/publications/police/fir.pdf

    1. Don't see the graphic above? Click here.

      What is the connection of these countries to China?

      • Travel?
      • Trade?

      Or is it just a case of random chance?

    1. One return New York-to-London transatlantic flight delivers roughly the same exposure (0.16 mSv) as a nuclear power worker receives in a year (0.18 mSv)

      This is a very interesting fact. Anyone know different sources for this fact?

    1. only

      Only is a strong word, we do not know alternate scenarios

    2. hydro-electric dams are one of the cheapest ways that poor nations can gain access to reliable electricity

      Cheapest way might not be the best or long lasting way

    3. opponents of hydro-electric dams and flood control claim those technologies

      There are lot of shortcomings of large dams - most importantly mass migration of people

    4. not the first time those who are most alarmist about an environmental problem have been most opposed to solving it.

      Maybe the specific olutions you are talking about are being opposed for a reason. This statement is wrong.

      A problem does not have unique solution and opposing bad solutions is as important as finding good solutions or adapting the bad ones to be better

    5. large dams,

      These have a whole slew of problems - especially on overpopulated areas. Look at Narmada river in India

    6. nuclear weapons have contributed to the Long Peace since World War II,

      This is a contentious link between weapons of mass restrictions and peace. Is there wide agreement about this?

    1. produced from abiotic photochemical reduction of Fe(III)-OM, thus closing a cryptic iron cycle under photic conditions

      Is this a significant pathway in a possible cycle in the environment? The photochemical reduction seems quite slow compared to the oxidation, there may be a much faster biotic reduction in the actual envirnoment right. Comments?

    2. Fe(II) concentrations and cell abundances in R. ferrooxidans SW2 growth experiments

      Is this really a cycle? The timescales seem very different

      Fe(2) -> Fe(3) complete in 8 days and growth almost stalls after 14 days. Maybe 8-14 days growth requires the Fe(3) -> Fe(2) step and that's why its a cycle?

    3. Abiotic photochemical reduction of Fe(III).

      Timescales of this reduction are very slow compared to bacterial oxidation

    4. Fe(II) concentrations were determined anoxically using the ferrozine assay

      Can Fe(3) also be determined easily? Would have been good supplementary information to prove that Fe(2) is being converted to Fe(3)

    5. were placed horizontally under a 40-W incandescent light bulb

      Why do you need light for the bacteria to oxidize Fe(2)?

      • Isn't there simultaneous photochemical reduction of Fe(3) happening in this experiment?
    6. 2 mM FeCl2

      Why is this higher than the previous experiment?

      • Previous one was 0.1 mM, this is 2 mM of Fe ions
    7. Oxidation of Fe(II) by R. ferrooxidans SW2

      Does it make sense to fit enzyme kinetics curves to these reactions rather than join the data points?

      • Might be complicated since there are multiple steps involved - Substrate import into cells, Enzymatic degratation

      Also dotted lines are distracting

      • Why didn't you measure Fe(3) concentrations?
    8. guarantees that cells are actively metabolizing but no cell growth is possible, and that therefore, changing cell numbers does not influence the quantification of metabolic rates.

      This will miss any Fe compound induced gene activation a which might give higher rates to the redox reactions.

      • Gene transcription and translation is not as efficient in stationary phase for most growth associated genes
    1. there was no Fe(II) oxidation in the abiotic controls

      This should have been reported for 54 h like the Fe(3) reduction experiment in Fig.2

    1. Commerce follows theland and sea routes of the earth, going to whatever country hasany thing to exchange, be it a monarchy or a republic. Let us bein union with the whole world and not with just a part of it, notwith one part against another.
    1. After many generations in the lab, mice from the desert consumed significantly less water than mice from other localities, indicating that this difference has a genetic basis.

      This could also be explained by epigenetic inheritance. Basically something hereditary - either genetic or epigenetic

    1. all the polling evidence says that America is basically a center-left nation

      But unfortunately Democratic party is dead centre, and does not represent the people as much as it could

    2. is someone who plays right into that strategy, by declaring that he is indeed a socialist.

      Bernie Sanders is championing the causes of the working class and had has always been consistent in his track record. It is justified to fear the ill effects of general perception of 'socialism' but it is high time the americans stop vilifying 'isms' and looking at policies for what they are, the details.

      This column does a very bad job at recognizing working class issues, the same issues that got the republicans into power and Bernie Sanders had the exact mandate to really connect the democratic party with the masses, which I unfortunately think has not been successfully done

    1. But were big banks really at the heart of the financial crisis, and would breaking them up protect us from future crises?

      Yes, keeping investment banking and consumer banking separate is a good idea. Glass Stegall act is a good regulation to do so.

      I heard economists argue on both sides of the spectrum but the main question is why is this article so motivated to paint the Sanders campaign as bad?

    1. same workers in Spain are less equipped to compete for Manufacturing jobs

      But a few highly skilled among them have the possibility of emigrating to Germany?

    2. you might as well get the most productive workers for your “buck”, right?

      I am curious as to why German workers are more productive? Can the other EU nations implement any policies to improve their human resources likewise?

    3. Don’t hate corporations for playing to win — they don’t make the rules, you do.

      Well articulated!

      That reference to computer games is awesome but the problem comes down the the fact that winners of the corporate game are influencing the rules - the corporate tax law, regulations etc.

      Now this is also another problem with how the rulemakers are chosen or how the rules are made. So maybe the solution is to rectify the few rules that influence many other rules being made!

    4. you can’t ever stop because one correction will undo all your spending

      "It is like riding a white tiger" - Byrraju Ramalingaraju. Former chairman of Satyam, convicted of corporate account fudging (a similar game of artificially upholding the value of an entity - except, in this case it was illegal) Source: outlook India

    1. wouldn't you be a fool for not using that move?

      Maybe the game is not exciting anymore if everyone always 'had' to play that move

    1. The researchers from the earlier, statistically significant, study


    1. The host range for three of the plasmids (pBF1, pB7, and pB9) was further investigated by the GFP method described above

      Does the host range of transfer go wider than the population where GFP is observed?

      This is my idea of distinctive overlapping categories of host range as venn diagrams.

    2. Consequently, the plasmid donor cells do not express gfp

      Does the leaky expression not hinder the detecting and quantification of transconjugants in epifluorescence microscopy?

    1. VLPs were discriminated from bacteria or detritus based on pixel dimensions: the pixel area of the smallest known bacterium was established as a maximum cutoff; all objects smaller than this were counted as VLPs.

      Viruses are in size range of 100-500 nm. This is very close to the diffraction limit of light. How is the assumption that anything smaller than bacteria is a virus like particle justified and quantitatively accurate in this regard?

    1. Modeled trends of soil bacterial carrying capacity and diversity are compared to empirical observations

      Isn't this circular logic? The testing empirical data is the same as the data used to build the model

    2. soil becomes sufficiently dry, almost all aqueous habitats are physically isolated and might contain only a few species

      Why is this?

    1. teach science to a general audience

      Aren't most comics based on cultural references like hollywood that are not universal across different cultures and languages. What is a good way to relate to wider general audience?

    1. hypothesized that any single quorum-sensing signal should only induce prophages within a small subset of closely related host bacteria

      This seems like the new thing here compared to Ref 22

    1. Cells are aliquoted into chilled tubes

      Aliquot size? 50 ul or 100 ul?

    2. Vmax@SGIDNA.com

      Is the genotype of Vmax proprietary? I could not locate any references in the SGI website as well

    3. plated out on warm agar plates

      It is unclear if the plates contain V2 salts or not

    4. electroporation buffer (680 mM sucrose, 7 mM K2HPO4, pH 7)

      Why not 10% glycerol?

    1. scientific laboratories create an amazing amount of plastic waste, consume large amounts of water, create risks from hazardous chemicals and use significantly more energy
    1. Vibrio natriegens strain containing a major extracellular nuclease knockout and insertion of an IPTG-inducible T7 RNA polymerase cassette for expression of genes under a T7 promoter.
    1. in a pure socialist world everything would be needed to be controlled by the government

      Is this true? I don't know if there is a precise and widely accepted definition of socialism but I would think that socialism is about community ownership of means of production. (I see a complex definition of socialism and capitalism here - https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/socialism/)

      Community can mean the elected government, but in a local sense, it could also be adapted to mean the community that owns, operates, works-in and is frequently served by a given industry. I can think of a simple example of a coffee shop or restaurant in a small town.

    1. Most socialists, however, tend to find the profit motive problematic.

      Is it worthwhile to envision a society where people's motives are pre-anticipated or controllable?

      I think social systems should be robust enough to account for stable functioning of society, independent of the motives and only depending on actions.

      Only actions can be observed, and hence only actions can be regulated in any form of organized society and highly so in capitalism.

    1. socialists do not support capitalism, meaning they want workers to control the means of production

      Workers controlling the means of production sounds like co-operative industries. This paradigm is not antithetical to 'capitalism' in the sense that there is still private ownership of the means of production. I disagree with the statement that democratic socialists do not support capitalism.

      A good debate on this topic here - https://politics.stackexchange.com/questions/323/are-worker-cooperatives-socialist-capitalist-or-their-own-category

    1. whether shared systems of signalling synthesis and degradation

      Do you mean the same organism able to simultaneously perform or switch between the two functions of synthesis and degradation? Or does this mean sharing within the community?

    1. a single-tube, single-step PCR, performed in <2 hours from setup to transformation

      How does the efficiency compare with Gibson assembly and other in vitro methods? Specifically

      • # of colonies
      • Fraction of successful assemblies among the colonies
    1. Rice alumni with accounts on the Alumni Portal are automatically allowed to access a few of the university's licensed electronic resources through the EZproxy server

      Which resources?

    1. Bloom filter
    2. if applied to raw sequence data they would only find matches completely contained within a single read.

      How does the BIGSI method address this concern?

      • Do the k-mers span between reads or
      • Do you make k smaller if there is partial match at the edges of reads?
    3. our use case, where each new microbial dataset brings new variation

      Unlike natural language where vocabulory does not change as new content is added

    4. input data

      The search database - would be a better term

  4. Jan 2020
    1. Transmitting the same power using a higher voltage and lower current loses less of power over the length of the cable. This is more efficient and why the main power grid is hundreds of volts and not 5V.

      A good clarification here on stackexchange - https://electronics.stackexchange.com/a/25571

    1. obtained transcriptional measurements from mid-exponential-phase cultures

      Could be repeated for stationary phase expression?

    1. mobilizable plasmids, possess their own transfer origin and encode a relaxase but need the help of a conjugative plasmid for their transfer from a donor to a recipient

      Why do mobilizable plasmids encode the mob gene? Can't it be provided in trans by the mobilizing helper strain?

    2. Plasmid pBBR1 thus appears to be a new member of this group, even though it resides in gram-negative bacteria and does not replicate via a rolling-circle mechanism
    1. bind the transposon DNA at the flanking inverted repeat sequences, excise the transposon, and paste it into a random TA dinucleotide on a target DNA
    1. 2-25 ug/mL

      100 ug/ml Carb worked for pUC19 transformants in BHI+V2 media

    2. Vmax has a low-level natural resistance to kanamycin but is more susceptible to other antibiotics. When selecting on Kan plates, Vmax with KanR will simply grow faster than Vmax without KanR. Larger colonies=KanR. Other antibiotics select against Vmax but must have a dosage change compared to E. coli.
    1. To prepare V. natriegens cells for −80 °C storage, an overnight culture of V. natriegens was washed in fresh medium before storage in glycerol
    1. we successfully demonstrated challenging clonings such as Gibson Assembly with 5 and Aquacloning with 3 fragments as well as 8 part golden-gate reactions.
    1. stationary-phase cultures grown in rich medium could be refrigerated for more than 1 month without substantial loss of viability

      Barick lab discourages storage at 4C, instead recommending room temperature storage for 2-3 days due to concerns of ROS production. This recommendation was for both plates and liquid cultures


    2. transformation efficiencies were sufficient for routine construction of plasmids from multiple fragments

      How many fragments?

    3. Four inducible promoters were found to function in V. natriegens

      Lac, Pbad (arabinose), lambda promoter

    4. Plasmids with the RK2 replicon could also replicate but were successfully delivered only via conjugation

      Interesting, I wonder why electroporation doesn't work. Does it have something to do with methylation state or other restriction based mechanisms that allow DNA coming in through legitimate means rather than forced means!?

    1. A spacer could compensate for any steric hindrance effect on recruiting the transcriptional machinery at the promoter of the next module in the assembly line; such an effect could be induced by the supercoiling that results when the transcription of the previous module is taking place. However, there is no direct evidence that this may cause a problem, and therefore the argument in favor of using a spacer remains speculative.
    1. As his ideas have permeated the rest of the field, Sanders’s own candidacy appears less radical—or at least less exceptional.

      This is a significant achievement in itself.- Politics is an organized, institutionalized form of conversation and the Bernie 2016 campaign has started the most important conversations in the USA!

    1. . If you are agreeable, you care about your family, your community, society, your country, more than you care about yourself. And if you are disagreeable, then you are a little bit more egotistical.

      This is an interesting categorization. I would assume most people would have some fluidity where people oscillate between these modes according to their life experiences with triggers from the world around them.

    1. do: deregulate, and fast

      deregulation in what aspects? - not all of them are good, certain regulation is necessary and is better for the economy in the long term.This is easier said than done

    2. Gujarat often produced growth faster than the national average, fewer regulations, better infrastructure and less corruption
    1. We are taught that we should be defined by the things other people find impressive, not by the things that bring us joy

      Good point

    1. Get good at knowing what your friends and fans like to see and interact with

      This is just stupid advice. I intend to have an audience in order to read what I write, not the other way around - like Ayn Rand's quote.

    2. he rarely posts status updates and I post pretty frequently and often get good conversations going in the comments.

      Shouldn't rare posts be given higher precedence like twitter does, because rare commodities are more valuable? People who take more time and effort to post valuable content for discussion are bound to post more rarely compared to daily personal updates of what I eat, do etc.

      Twitter notifies me - look at this post, this person has posted something after a long time.

    1. Calling out Uncle Bot’s past vote for Trump threatens his ego and encourages him to double down on his support for the president. Self-esteem is a fundamental human need. If you want people to change their opinion, bolster their ego and help them save face
    2. Fully explore the other person’s perspective before sharing your own to ensure you understand where they are coming from. As with all questions, follow-up inquiries should be nonjudgmental, open-ended and curious.
    1. The concentration of GFP in the sample had been measured using a nanodrop and was ~120μM

      How was the protein quantified? I assume UV absorption or Bradford assay was used.

    1. The fundamental issue surrounding bacterial culture growth measurements is that an absorbance spectrophotometer is being asked to determine light scattering caused by particulates in suspension. In this case, transmittance is not related to absorbance in the classical sense. Under normal true absorbance conditions, spectrophotometers can be comparable to one another because the sample actually absorbs electromagnetic energy. In the case of a reduction of transmittance caused by light scattering, readings are very dependent on the optics of a specific spectrophotometer as well as the cell type in suspension
    2. generally accepted extinction coefficients for nucleic acids are: • Double-stranded DNA: 50 • Single-stranded DNA: 33 • RNA: 40
    1. After all, the rise in antibiotic resistance doesn’t mean that we shouldn’t have invented antibiotics at all.

      It does mean though, that we should try to forsee unintended consequences and not dismiss skeptics without judging the merit of their skepticism with sound scientific discussions. It is famed that Alexander Fleming who discovered the first antibiotic - penicillin, mentioned the observation of resistant bacteria and advised caution in antibiotic usage. This caution went unheeded in the subsequent golden era of antibiotics where all alternatives like phage therapy were shelved from research and development. This is the real lesson we should learn

    2. If a corporation wants to use a gene drive to “cancel out” the herbicide resistance that some weeds have now developed, would that really benefit the planet — or just the corporation that can now sell more of the herbicide that caused the problem in the first place?

      If evolution has any lesson from the development of resistance to the herbicide, it is that some way or other, maybe slower than herbicide resistance, surely the weeds will find a way to subvert any gene drive

    3. With its ability to create powerful changes invisibly, genetic engineering can feel eerie to even the most rational of us

      When things as fundamental as genomes are being modified and amplified through generations, the unforseen consequences have likelihood of being essentially anything. The most rational might be skeptical because of this. Positive feedback system with added noise blows up to infinity or zero; it's an unstable system mathematically