109 Matching Annotations
  1. Feb 2024
    1. first hypothesis
    2. The purpose of this study is to build on this ongoing research trajectory and help provide the sort of empirical evidence on the relative efficacy of narratives versus nonnarratives required to propel narratives into mainstream health campaigns and messaging.
    3. must first address scientifically the question of whether narratives are, “indeed more effective than nonnarrative communication for overcoming resistance, facilitating information processing, providing social connections, and representing emotional and existential issues”
    4. This research investigates the relative efficacy of changing health-related knowledge, attitudes, and behavioral intentions using a fictional narrative compared to a more traditional nonfictional nonnarrative format.

      Introduction of research study

  2. Jan 2024
  3. Oct 2023
    1. phosphenes

      A ring or spot of light produced by pressure on the eyeball or direct stimulation of the visual system other than by light.

    2. .

      In the cross-activation model, it takes years for the brain to change its structure to facilitate synesthesia. In the disinhibited-feedback model, it takes minutes for the brain to change its structure to facilitate synesthesia. The current study attempts to support the disinhibited-feedback model by demonstrating that non-synesthetes can experience synesthesia under mild sensory deprivation.

    3. Conversely, the disinhibited-feedback model proposes that everyone possesses the potential to experience synesthesia, mani-festing only when the balance of activity across the senses has been altered (Grossenbacher & Lovelace, 2001). According to this view,the anatomical structure of the brains of synesthetes and non-synesthetes is generally similar, but there are differences in howeffectively one sense can evoke activity in a second modality, potentially due to weaker inhibition of feedback projections thatconnect the sensory systems (Grossenbacher & Lovelace, 2001). For example, instead of abnormal connections enabling sounds toevoke conscious visual experiences in synesthetes (as in the cross-activation model), this model argues that these connections arepresent in all individuals and that synesthetes have less inhibition restricting how strongly sounds modulate visual activity.
    4. If all individuals possess the ability for one sensory system to modulate activity in another, why do only a minority of individualsexperience synesthesia? The cross-activation model reconciles this discrepancy by arguing that synesthesia arises from anatomicalpathways that are either weak or absent in non-synesthetes, providing a direct link through which one sensory modality can stimulateanother modality (Hubbard, Arman, Ramachandran, & Boynton, 2005; Hubbard, Brang, & Ramachandran, 2011; Ramachandran andHubbard, 2001a, 2001b, 2003).
    5. .

      Sounds can evoke conscious visual experiences in individuals with sound-color synesthesia (genetic predisposition). Synesthesia is when stimulation of one sensory modality elicits conscious experiences in a second sensory modality. There is no evidence of a mechanistic relationship between synesthesia and non-synesthetic multi-sensory interactions.

    6. .

      The auditory and visual systems of the brain are interconnected, such that activity in the visual system is capable of altering activity in the auditory system, and vice versa. While sounds can modulate activity in visual areas in the absence of visual stimuli, it is generally the case that sounds cannot evoke conscious visual sensations in the absence of visual stimuli.

    1. mesocircuit


    2. prerolandic

      Analogous to "precentral."

    3. .

      It is clinically and scientifically imperative that we develop a more comprehensive understanding of the neural correlates of consciousness. Many scholars believe that the frontal areas of the cerebral cortex are most crucial for supporting consciousness. This article proposes that both the "front" and "back" regions of the cerebral cortex play an important role in this function. The presence or absence of consciousness when other brain areas are damaged or nonfunctional is also discussed.

  4. Sep 2023
    1. .

      Power and connectivity in the delta frequency band increase during unconsciousness, possibly because thalamocortical neurons rapidly alternate between increased and decreased activity at that time. Functional connectivity of the brain may become less complex during unconsciousness due to this rapid alternation.

    2. .

      The current study evaluated the effects of TMS perturbation on functional connectivity during consciousness and unconsciousness. It was predicted that synchronization of oscillatory activity would be higher in consciousness than in unconsciousness (because of coordinated bistability being higher), and that local aspects of functional segregation would happen strongly during unconsciousness.

    3. delta (1–4 Hz) frequency band

      A range of frequencies which appear on EEG recordings and which denote the occurrence of NREM sleep (deep, dreamless sleep).

    4. negative EEG peak amplitude

      EEG recording of the brain exhibiting a downward deflection/decrease in electrical activity when compared to baseline.

    5. coordinated bistability

      The ability of neuronal networks to coordinate activity between two stable states, e.g., between high activity (high rate of depolarization) and low activity (high rate of hyperpolarization).

    6. Using this approach,a recent study found that spectral power in the delta band in posterior cortex was higher during reported uncon-sciousness than during reported consciousness 23 . Furthermore, using a within-state design in NREM sleep, ithas been found that TMS triggers a larger negative EEG peak amplitude during reported unconsciousness thanduring reported consciousness, indicating that differences in consciousness within the same physiological stateare related to local alterations in the cortical bistability of posterior brain regions 21.
    7. Previous studies have mostly compared wakefulness with sleep or anesthesia to evaluate features associatedwith the level of consciousness in healthy individuals 14,18,19 . However, such studies are confounded by otherchanges that occur across global state shifts, such as changes in the cardiovascular, respiratory, and neuromus-cular systems 20 . To address this issue, recent studies have measured the presence or absence of consciousnesswithin the same physiologically categorized state using a within-state paradigm21–23.
    8. spectral power

      The intensity/magnitude of electrical activity at specific frequencies (in this case, the delta band) within a neural signal measured using EEG.

    9. .

      TMS can effectively probe functional connectivity differences between conscious and unconscious brain states. EEG studies have demonstrated that functional connectivity breaks down in unconscious states by showing that brain responses to TMS are less complex during said states.

  5. Apr 2023
    1. We aimed to investigate the risk of substance use-relatedproblems in ASD. We also tested if any association betweenASD and substance use-related problems could be related tocomorbidity with ADHD or intellectual disability (ID). Toelucidate if shared familial factors underlie both ASD andsubstance use-related problems, we examined the pattern ofsubstance use-related problems also among unaffected rela-tives of individuals with ASD.



  6. Feb 2023
    1. .

      It is additionally important to investigate reasons for wanting to stop substance use and resources used to attain abstinence in dually-diagnosed individuals, for the purpose of designing more effective interventions in this population. However, this area of study has also been under-researched.

    2. .

      While the biological and pharmacological factors impacting dual diagnosis have been well investigated, the psychosocial factors impacting it (including substance users' stated reasons for substance use) have not. Following Fishbein's theory of reasoned action, it has been proposed that substance users' personal beliefs about why they use substances may largely determine their substance use behaviors. In particular, dually-diagnosed peoples' perception of the interplay between SMI and SUD may play a major role in their substance use, but this area of study is under-researched.

    3. 1. to examine stated reasons for initiation of andrelapse to substance use,2. to examine reasons and strategies used for quit-ting, and3. to explore the perceived association betweensubstance use and mental illness among a largesample of persons with co-occurring SMI andSUD.
    4. The aims of this articleare
    5. Fishbein’s(1980) theory of reasoned action postulates that be-havior is based on attitudes that, in turn, are based onpersonal beliefs. Beliefs rest in large part on what islearnt and experienced; in particular, beliefs that arebased on personal experience have been found tohave a stronger influence in the formation of attitudesthan information gained in other ways and to betterpredict later behavior (Fazio & Zanna, 1981).
    6. The supersensitivity model, wherebybiological vulnerability due to psychiatric disorderresults in sensitivity to small amounts of alcoholand drugs, leading to substance misuse, has alsoreceived some support (e.g., Lieberman, Kane, &Alvir, 1987).
    7. .

      It is important to better understand causes of substance use in individuals with co-occurring SUDs and SMIs, as the reasons for which they use substances may radically differ from the reasons for which individuals with only SUDs use substances. Increasing our understanding in this area will be important for increasing the effectiveness of therapeutic interventions.

    8. .

      SUDs have a high rate of co-occurrence with SMIs (severe mental illnesses). Individuals with co-occurring SUD and SMI have a heightened vulnerability to medical, legal, social, and financial problems. Such problems tend to decrease when said individuals attain abstinence and engage in treatment interventions.

    1. .

      Although substance use is thought to be rare in people with ASD, it has been documented in a significant percentage of that population (19-30%). This may be because there is a high rate of comorbidity between ASD and ADHD, which is linked to substance use. While older studies of clinical populations suggest that ADHD is the risk factor underlying increased substance use in people with ASD, newer studies of non-clinical populations suggest that ASD alone could be a risk factor for increased substance use.



    1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q2zY7l2tzoQ

      Ugh... another short mediocre introduction. Repeats the origin myth.

      Seems to take a very Ahrens' based framing, but screws up a few pieces. More focus on "hub notes" and completely misses the idea of an index somehow?!?

      The last section of 2+ minutes really goes off the rails and recommends converting notes from other places and muddles about "Favorite problems" (ostensibly a reference to Feynman's 12 Favorite Problems, but isn't direct about it?).

      Also encourages the "Feynman technique"...

  7. Jan 2023
    1. H

      Begin by reading the Introduction rather than the abstract. Start reading here.

    2. .

      The guidelines for report writing state:

      The introduction should give a short account of the background or theory behind the experiments. It should give an outline of the scientific purpose(s) or objectives of the experiment and place the work in context, with supporting references where appropriate.

      Q. Identify whether the Introduction to this paper provides a brief account of the background to the experiment......

  8. Dec 2022
  9. www.janeausten.pludhlab.org www.janeausten.pludhlab.org
    1. handsome, clever, and rich

      This starts like a fairytale and Emma is the princess. But who is telling us this tale? Is this how Emma sees herself? How her society sees her? We learn as we go into the novel that Emma isn't as perfect as she's percieved.

  10. Sep 2022
  11. Aug 2022
  12. www.janeausten.pludhlab.org www.janeausten.pludhlab.org
    1. she was only Anne.

      We are hearing the echo of Sir Walter and Elizabeth's opinions/words. This is a strange introduction for the main character, she is ignored and secondary. Chapter 1 focuses on Sir Walter and then the family context, Chapters 2 and 3 are a group setting (and people finally speak). A first time reader may not identify Anne as the main character till chapter 4 when the text pivots to focus on her. In chapter 1 we hear of Elizabeth's disappointment with Mr Elliot but the history with Wentworth is hidden till Anne is alone. Modern texts tend to have more active, vibrant main characters (like Lizzy Bennet) who have agency and push the story forward through their choices and actions. Fanny Price in Mansfield Park is another good example of the sort of main character modern readers struggle with.

  13. May 2022
    1. "I didn't fully understand it at the time, but throughout my time as a freshman at Boston College I've realized that I have the power to alter myself for the better and broaden my perspective on life. For most of my high school experience, I was holding to antiquated thoughts that had an impact on the majority of my daily interactions. Throughout my life, growing up as a single child has affected the way am in social interactions. This was evident in high school class discussions, as I did not yet have the confidence to be talkative and participate even up until the spring term of my senior year."

  14. Mar 2022
  15. Sep 2021
    1. WriterGoodwritingbeginswithgoodreading

      basically in order to become a good writer you must understand how to read and what you are reading.

  16. May 2021
  17. Mar 2021
    1. These robots are here to merge purchase orders into columns J and K of next quarter’s revenue forecast, and transfer customer data from the invoicing software to the Oracle database.

      [site something thatbots are doing in rhetcomp that might mean the beginning of the end

    2. The robots are coming.

      The chatbots are coming for me and my job.

  18. Feb 2021
  19. Dec 2020
    1. We were like strangers on a train, the passengers and I, hurtling through the night, revealing intimacies

      This is interesting.university of Tsing Hua

  20. Oct 2020
    1. Hooks save timeIt gets even better.When hooks are the first part of your article, you have a critical opportunity to ask others for feedback: “After reading my intro, do you want to keep reading?”If they say no, you saved yourself from writing an article no one cares about.If they say yes, you'll have confidence you've found an interesting perspective.
    2. How to generate hooksYou create hooks by finding questions you want answers to:Ask yourself, “If someone else wrote my intro, what are the most captivating questions they could pose to make me excited to read this?”Write those questions down. Even if you lack the answers. Rank your questions by how much they interest you.The top questions become your hooks: Pose them in your intro and don't reveal their answers.You and your audience evolved the same storytelling machinery in your heads, so questions that hook you will hook most of them too. When generating hooks, you discover what both you and your audience genuinely care to learn about.
    3. What exactly is a hook?A hook is any half-told story:Questions — Pose an intriguing question, but don’t give the answer.Narratives — Share the beginning of a narrative, but withhold the conclusion.Discoveries — Highlight new findings, but only a portion.Arguments — Present your case, but not how you arrived at it.Hooks tease your best talking points. They urge readers to keep reading by triggering the storytelling machinery in their heads.
    4. Your real objective is to hook readers into reading more. It doesn’t matter how you hook them, so long as you later fulfill your hook. A hook is not a gimmick. It’s a fundamental psychological principle: A great intro — like an electrifying opening to a film — buys goodwill with your audience.
    5. First, choose your topicThe best topic to write about is the one you can’t not write about. It’s the idea bouncing around your head that urges you to get to the bottom of it.You can trigger this state of mind with a two-part trick. First, choose an objective for your article:Open people’s eyes by proving the status quo wrong.Articulate something everyone’s thinking about but no one is saying. Cut through the noise.Identify key trends on a topic. Use them to predict the future.Contribute original insights through research and experimentation.Distill an overwhelming topic into something approachable. (This guide.)Share a solution to a tough problem.Tell a suspenseful and emotional story that imparts a lesson.Now pair that objective with a motivation:Does writing this article get something off your chest?Does it help reason through a nagging, unsolved problem you have?Does it persuade others to do something you believe is important?Do you obsess over the topic and want others to geek out over it too?That’s all that's needed: Pair an objective with a motivation. Now you have something to talk about.
  21. Aug 2020
  22. Jul 2020
  23. Jun 2020
  24. May 2020
  25. Apr 2020
  26. Feb 2020
    1. Introduction

      The first two sentences briefly summarise the scenario; the last sentence of the paragraph highlights the problem -- the topic to be elaborated in the subsequent section.

  27. Nov 2019
    1. In Philadelphia, a small group of transit riders sat down to talk about what sucks about the bus. “What is it about the bus?” the interviewer said, and they were off.“They got to stop at every corner,” one rider said. “That’s going to be an inconvenience if you are trying to get someplace fast.”“They don’t come,” said another. “Like, you will just wait at the corner and they don’t come. And sometimes the bus will come but it will just go right by you, so you have to wait for the next one. It happens way too much for me.”If you’ve ever depended on the bus to get to work or school or really anywhere, those complaints might sound familiar. But according to a new report from transportation research and advocacy organization TransitCenter, riders are even less enthused about public transit than they were two years ago. The group’s biennial census of transit riders convened six focus groups (including the Philadelphia one) and solicited survey results from more than 1,700 riders in the New York, Chicago, Denver, New Orleans, Los Angeles, Pittsburgh, and Seattle metro areas.


  28. Oct 2019
    1. Analogies compare something that your audience knows and understands with something new and different.

      See Brian Clark's distinction between metaphors, similes and analogies.

    2. According to the Center for Disease Control, in the United States 26.6 million adults have heart disease. This would be about 12% of adults, or three people in this room.

      Always try to relate statistics in terms that the audience will understand. Otherwise, statistics by themselves become bland and miss the intended effect.

  29. Sep 2019
    1. Introduction

      Introduction is a bit longer summary of the entire paper. This is where researchers describe and justify their research questions and briefly discuss what is to come. Typically, introduction is about 500 -- 1000 words.

      Please identify and highlight a research question(s).

  30. Jul 2019
    1. In a simple linear regression model, we model the relationship between both variables by a straight line, formally

      It would be better to start in the following way: "To build simple linear regression model, we hypothesize that the relationship between dependent and independent variable is linear, formally:"

      By saying that, In a simple linear regression model, we model the relationship between both variables by straight line is strictly speaking wrong. Strictly speaking, by straight line we model the relationship between regressors the expected value of the dependent variable given the value of the regressors.

      Then later, you point out that the relationship is not exact because not all points fall on the straight line and because of that you come up with an error terms and you continue in this way util you arrive to the final formulation of the Simple Linear Regression Model. (Which you do well later).

  31. May 2019
    1. Hey all, this is Michael – I am writing to test out this platform and to begin to build something in this document. I realize it’s slightly obscure at the moment how this pad will come to be useful during Publishing Sphere – I believe this will be come clearer in the coming days as we begin to roll out some of the sites, info, and programming for the gathering.

      Danny and I will be meeting tomorrow (Thursday, the 2nd of May) to discuss the publishing apparatus we have been discussing, and will begin to introduce it to the group as something to work off, develop in new directions, or to create publication systems concurrent to this one. Once we have this initial formulation mapped out, I’ll let him introduce it to you all to begin to discuss and edit.

      Shortly, I’ll post some info that I think is relevant to the gathering more generally, and then some additional information about you all so that you might begin to become more aware of the other members of the group. I’m truly looking forward to witnessing how you might all begin to work with one another.

      More soonest~


  32. Apr 2019
    1. Sayako came out of the changing room in Sloane Street1 wear­ing this season's suit, as featured on the cover of English Vogue.2 Last season's suit lay on the changing room floor in an untidy heap. She surveyed herself in the full-length mirror. The manageress, svelte in black, stood behind her.

      In Introduction Sayako tried on cloths.

  33. Mar 2019
    1. Supermarkets are much the same the world over — especially the queues at check-out points. What extraordinary things other people are buying! There are odd snatches of overheard conversa­tion too. But what if one is living alone, 'Shopping for one'?

      In the introduction, the author tells us that the stores are the same all over the world: the same queues everywhere, people by the same things and so on.

    2. Supermarkets are much the same the world over — especially the queues at check-out points. What extraordinary things other people are buying! There are odd snatches of overheard conversa­tion too. But what if one is living alone, 'Shopping for one'?

      introduction The odd snatches of overheard conversation too, but what if one is living alone, shopping for one?

    3. Supermarkets are much the same the world over — especially the queues at check-out points. What extraordinary things other people are buying! There are odd snatches of overheard conversa­tion too. But what if one is living alone, 'Shopping for one'?

      Supermarkerts are the same all over the world - especially the queues at check-out points.

    4. Supermarkets are much the same the world over — especially the queues at check-out points. What extraordinary things other people are buying! There are odd snatches of overheard conversa­tion too. But what if one is living alone, 'Shopping for one'?

      This story about shopping for one person

    5. Supermarkets are much the same the world over — especially the queues at check-out points. What extraordinary things other people are buying! There are odd snatches of overheard conversa­tion too. But what if one is living alone, 'Shopping for one'?
    6. Supermarkets are much the same the world over — especially the queues at check-out points. What extraordinary things other people are buying! There are odd snatches of overheard conversa­tion too. But what if one is living alone, 'Shopping for one'?


  34. Feb 2019
    1. Hey there. If you are seeing this for the first time, let me give you an introduction. This is Hypothes.is Here you can comment on any part of my webpage or annotate it publicly. Good luck.

  35. Nov 2018
    1. Hospital medicine is the fastest growing specialty in the United States. In 2016, this specialty celebrated the 20th anniversary of the term “hospitalist”.1,2 Current estimates put the number of hospitalists at over 50,000.2 Generalist training including internal medicine, family medicine, medicine-pediatrics, and pediatrics formed the basis of most hospitalist programs during the initial 15 years of the specialty; however, today, several subspecialties are involved in hospitalist programs.3 An interesting aspect of the rapid expansion of hospital medicine is the growth of the field beyond the United States. The Society of Hospital Medicine (SHM) reports more than 15,000 North American members and an additional 126 international hospitalist members (Ethan Gray, Vice President of Membership, SHM, personal communication, August 30, 2017).4 Although the health care systems, regulations, and cultural norms in these nations differ, some of the reasons for the development of hospital medicine internationally are the same as in the United States.1,5 In this article, we focus on adult hospital medicine. We describe some of the drivers for expansion of this field beyond the United States and the challenges faced by these groups. We also speculate on the future of hospital medicine internationally and discuss the role that the United States could play in the continued growth of this specialty beyond its borders.
  36. Jul 2018
    1. ALEX

      Thank you for choosing IKEA for your furniture needs. This is a guide on how to assemble the ALEX desk you purchased. Please follow each step of the installation guide carefully, as improper handling may cause injuries.



  37. Mar 2018
    1. Homestuck

      Hello from the Homestuck History annotation project, focusing on specialist knowledge and old fandom jokes (excluding anything that is directly answered later by the text itself, basically)- it's been moved to a private hypothes.is group, please email seagullteacups at gmail for the access link to read or contribute.

      If anyone else gets started on different annotation projects and wants extra hands on deck, let me know too!

    1. A very important note for writing the introduction of a journal article, and I think it is useful for any article for that matter. Essentially four or five points:

      • Start with a compelling question, story, data, quote
      • Layout the map of the rest of the paper right there in the introduction leading to the next section
      • Spell out the main argument in the introduction section, this helps to lay out the rest of the map of the paper together
      • Use simple language.
      • Use one of the two approaches or horses for courses - either write a rough sketch in the beginning and then rewrite, or write the perfect story right from the beginning. I like the former approach.



  38. Dec 2017
    1. TBD

      INTRODUCTION The divergence in allozymes, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), and reproductive compatibility for seven shallow water transisthmian snapping shrimp (Alpheus) was studied to test the accuracy of molecular clocks. In order to interpret inconsistencies and estimate differences the relationship among species in divergence rates there must be an increase in the number of taxa and characters studied. This research will provide information on transisthmian pairs of sister taxa in snapping shrimp genus Alpheus. These shrimp are close enough to be studied at the same time, but are completely separated by a physical barrier. How will genetic and geological factors play a role in the divergence of these organisms? What is the minimum time required for speciations or divergence to occur?


  39. Nov 2017
    1. Editor's Introduction

      Depending on which sugars are fed to Drosophila, the Wolbachia oocytes may change in size and concentration. The wMel Wolbachia used in this experiment shares a parasitic relationship with the Drosophila.

      What does this mean for the growth of Drosophila fed these sweet tastants? What would the effects of an increased Wolbachia titer in the Drosophila be? How does this occur? What are the longterm effects of the Wolbachia invasion in the Drosophila.

    2. Dietary saccharides and sweet tastants have differential effects on colonization of Drosophila oocytes by Wolbachia endosymbionts

      How Wolbachia proliferation in Drosophila oocytes changes depending on a variety of dietary sucrose tastants


    1. Invertebrates have long served as model organisms, providing insights into fundamental mechanisms of development, neurobiology, genetics, species diversification, and genome evolution. Two invertebrates—the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster (Adams et al. 2000) and the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans Sequencing Consortium 1998)—were the first animal species targeted for complete genome sequencing, setting the stage for other invertebrate-based studies such as i5K for insects (Robinson et al. 2011) and the 959 Nematode Genome program (Kumar et al. 2012), which target up to several thousand whole-genome sequencing projects.

      The researchers organized requirements of what an organism should have to use in a genome sequence experiment. The organisms that have already been investigated are a fruit fly and a nematode. The fruit fly and nematode were used to sequence genomes. The reason for the report was to learn more about invertebrate genomes since researchers have concluded there are a lot of invertebrate genomes among different organisms. The aim was to collect enough data to create appropriate tools to use in the future for these different genomes. The strategy was to create a guideline on what an organism should have. The purpose of this was to help advance the understanding of the diverse genomes of invertebrates. (NJ)

    1. TBD

      INTRODUCTION The divergence in allozymes, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), and reproductive compatibility for seven shallow water transisthmian snapping shrimp (Alpheus) was studied to test the accuracy of molecular clocks. In order to interpret inconsistencies and estimate differences the relationship among species in divergence rates there must be an increase in the number of taxa and characters studied. This research will provide information on transisthmian pairs of sister taxa in snapping shrimp genus Alpheus. These shrimp are close enough to be studied at the same time, but are completely separated by a physical barrier. How will genetic and geological factors play a role in the divergence of these organisms? What is the minimum time required for speciations or divergence to occur?


  40. Sep 2017
    1. The solution is to focus not onwhois greatenough to exert influence, or strong enough to grapple with the‘‘anxiety’’oftheir literary inheritance, but rather onhowinfluence operates. What we canlook to, then, are instances of‘‘misreading’’,‘‘misinterpretation’’,‘‘carica-ture’’,‘‘distortion’’and‘‘wilful revisionism’’for what they reveal. Austen isnot the only writer whose works must benefit from such an analysis, but she,perhaps more than any other writer, unrelentingly demands it of her readers.Austen insists that her readers follow her in deliberately, playfully misreadingand reconceiving a broad range of literature, both‘‘high’’and‘‘low’’.Mimicking her misprision in our response to Romantic theories of influence,we can at last recognize how such influence operates on writers whom thecanon ignores or marginalizes: women and novelists, certainly, but alsothose whose influential moment was fleeting, rather than historicallytranscendent

      This seems like the article's thesis to me. Here, the author argues that we should not seek to identify which authors/works are seemingly "worthy" of having an influence on other authors/works. Rather, we should explore on how literary influence is actually functioning in related works.Readers must look to different methods of influence, such as "distortion" and "misinterpretation" in their study of the topic. In the demands that she places upon her readers to be well-informed and attentive, Austen invites us to be a part of a complicated and ongoing literary conversation. Additionally, through studying Austen's works, we can observe the influence of those traditionally left out by the canon.

      This argument does seem relevant and original to me. In my admittedly brief study of literary influence, the discussion is usually exclusively related to the canon. Murphy asks us to consider influence in a broader sense. However, the main question that I have after reading this article relates to computational literary study. Franco Moretti, Matthew Jockers, and other such scholars have made significant strides in the application of computational tools in the study of literary influence. I am very curious as to how this article's premises and main argument would hold up when subjected to such tools. This seems like a weakness to me. Even after my brief study of computational literary analysis, it seems that any conversation of literary influence is incomplete without actually looking at the data.

    2. This formation renders literary influence almost as arbitrarily unjustand misogynistic as the actual system of patrilineal inheritance which, havingbeen consolidated in the eighteenth century, formed the backbone of theBritish economy and its law, and provided the historical background to theplots of Austen’s novels.

      In this section of the introduction, the author explicates Harold Bloom's concept of literary influence, which "involves two strong, authentic poets" who are "inevitably dead, white, middle-class men" (Murphy 101). In other words, models of literary influence presuppose masculine writers who belong to the restrictive literary canon. This also implies that influence beyond such a canon is undesirable.

    1. ******

      The different theses Moe presents to her reader are all an original take on reading Charlotte and Elizabeth's argument, and Charlotte's individual views, especially considering the extensive description of the typical reading of these characters which Moe provides us with.

      This introduction, though at times distracted from the main point through inclusion of so many outside theories and readings of Elizabeth/Charlotte/Austen, definitely engages the reader, provides grounding for Moe's argument, and makes this subject appear significant in understanding the conflict of modern viewpoints in Pride and Prejudice, as well as to better understand Charlotte as a character and her decisions.

    2. Charlotte embodies the precariousness of self-realization and well being in a world with limited goods.7

      Moe uses strong secondary sources (especially Perry and Woloch) to help support her reading of the primary source. This consistent reiteration of ideas, through various quotes, help affirm her argument and strengthen her introduction.

    3. Because of Charlotte’s disgraceful attitude toward marriage, “all the comfort of intimacy was over” for the two women (P, 174).

      Moe does an excellent job at providing pivotal quotes from the text to support her characterization of Elizabeth and Charlotte's vastly different opinions on marriage. For an introduction, Moe's explanation of their different views to ground her eventual argument is effective, as it draws the reader in, and establishes the validity of her eventual assertions.

  41. Apr 2017
    1. have continued to be eloquent pub-lic speakers, as they were in the nineteenth century,

      Uh, this is a very uncomfortable sentence. There are two possibilities, here, regarding the function of this sentence. 1) The Technically True but Terribly Vague: This is a category of opening sentence that is grammatically and intellectually fine, but also very boring. It's a cousin of "since the dawn of time," and I don't let my Rhetoric students use either type of opening line, as they are both lazy rhetoric. However, the second possibility is much more troubling: 2) This also sounds a lot like the extremely racist "black people can be very articulate."

      I know we are to the point of just beating the crap out of the editors, now, but come on. This could have been easily avoided.

  42. Mar 2017
  43. awjin.github.io awjin.github.io
    1. Dynamic Programming

      Here's another article, with a different point-of-view on this subject.

  44. Feb 2017
    1. Editor's Introduction

      The symptoms of autism vary in intensity along a spectrum. Unsurprisingly, the genetics of autistic patients also vary greatly, making it difficult to figure out what genes contribute to the disorder. Despite this, geneticists are still working toward decoding the genetics of autism. What kinds of mutations are present in autistic patients? How many are there? How can we improve methods to detect these errors? In this article, the authors present findings that move us closer to answering these questions.

  45. Nov 2016
    1. Zika virus impairs growth in human neurospheres and brain organoids. Garcez et al.

      Zika: growing infection, shrinking neurons

      The Zika virus is a contagious virus that can spread from a pregnant mother to her fetus, leading to a reduction in the size of the brain called microcephaly. This can cause mental disabilities in the child. The present study shows the effects of the Zika virus on the formation of neurons. The authors found a relationship between infection by the virus and reduced growth of neurons. It still remains to discover the consequences of Zika infection for each stage of fetal development.

  46. Sep 2016
    1. Editor's Introduction 

      Electric Eels; one of nature's many fascinating creations have long been known for their ability to produce electricity and harvest it to defend themselves against predators as well as catch their dinner. Electric Eels' are famous for their capacity to freeze the movement of their prey through electric discharges, but the magic behind this trick is still unknown. In this paper, Kenneth Catania explores this "Eelectric" phenomenon and tries to understand and unveil the mechanism behind it. What is the Electric Eel's secret you ask? Read on and be prepared to be shocked!



      Do skin appendages like hair in mammals, feathers in birds, and scales in reptiles come from the same origin? Due to substantial differences in their look and some differences in the genes they express, this question has confused scientists for long time. This article tries to settle this controversy by its new findings in the development of scales in reptiles, and shows that we may all be more closely related than we thought.

  47. Jun 2016
    1. Hey everyone, feel free to annotate, highlight and comment as you wish! Happy reading, writing, exploring, whatever? -Renee

  48. Jan 2016
    1. Native Americans passed stories down through the millennia that tell of their creation and reveal the contours of indigenous belief.

      Native Americans were the first group of people to be in North America, long before Columbus and the Europeans came. How could they take credit for finding this land first?

  49. Jul 2015
    1. Influenza A virus uses the aggresome processing machinery for host cell entry

      Fighting the influenza A virus (IAV) still remains a great challenge, and there is a real and urgent need for developing new antiviral medicines. Until now, scientists did not know how the virus was able to release its viral genetic material, which is well protected inside a shell, the capsid. A group of scientists discovered that IAV uses the waste disposal system of the host cell for breaking apart the capsid. The presence of a protein, ubiquitin, on the surface of the capsid makes the host cell perceive the IAV as an aggregate of proteins to waste. Then, a histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6)-dependent pathway, along with cellular transport factors such as dynein and myosin 10, come into play for disposing the virus. The final result is the opening of the capsid followed by the host cell infection. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying IAV infection could lead to advances in medicine. HDAC6, as well as other proteins, were suggested as potential targets for the development of new antiviral therapeutics.

  50. Jun 2015
    1. The preservation and protection of the wetlands and watercourses from random, unnecessary, undesirable and unregulated uses, disturbance or destruction is in the public interest and is essential to the health, welfare and safety of the citizens of the state. It is, therefore, the purpose of sections 22a-36 to 22a-45, inclusive, to protect the citizens of the state by making provisions for the protection, preservation, maintenance and use of the inland wetlands and watercourses by minimizing their disturbance and pollution; maintaining and improving water quality in accordance with the highest standards set by federal, state or local authority; preventing damage from erosion, turbidity or siltation; preventing loss of fish and other beneficial aquatic organisms, wildlife and vegetation and the destruction of the natural habitats thereof; deterring and inhibiting the danger of flood and pollution; protecting the quality of wetlands and watercourses for their conservation, economic, aesthetic, recreational and other public and private uses and values; and protecting the state's potable fresh water supplies from the dangers of drought, overdraft, pollution, misuse and mismanagement by providing an orderly process to balance the need for the economic growth of the state and the use of its land with the need to protect its environment and ecology in order to forever guarantee to the people of the state, the safety of such natural resources for their benefit and enjoyment and for the benefit and enjoyment of generations yet unborn.

      Purpose of the Inland Wetland agency.

      A. minimizing disturbance and pollution

      B. maintaining/improving water quality

      C. prevention of erosion, turbidity (soil in water), and siltation.

      D. prevention of loss of beneficial aquatic life/habitat.

      E. deterring/inhibiting floods and pollution

      F.protection for economic,aesthetic, and recreational use.

      G. protecting water resources from drought, overdraft, pollution, misuse, and mismanagement.

      H. balance between need for economic growth and protection of environment.

  51. May 2015
    1. Dr. Lamport received a doctorate in mathematics from Brandeis University, with a dissertation on singularities in analytic partial differential equations. This, together with a complete lack of education in computer science, prepared him for a career as a computer scientist at Massachusetts Computer Associates, SRI, Digital, and Compaq. He claims that it is through no fault of his that of those four corporations, only the one that was supposed to be non-profit still exists. He joined Microsoft in 2001, but that company has not yet succumbed. Dr. Lamport's initial research in concurrent algorithms made him well-known as the author of LaTeX, a document formatting system for the ever-diminishing class of people who write formulas instead of drawing pictures. He is also known for writing A distributed system is one in which the failure of a computer you didn't even know existed can render your own computer unusable. which established him as an expert on distributed systems. His interest in Mediterranean history, including research on Byzantine generals and the mythical Greek island of Paxos, led to his receiving five honorary doctorates from European universities, and to the IEEE sending him to Italy to receive its 2004 Piore Award and to Quebec to receive its 2008 von Neumann medal. However, he has always returned to his home in California. This display of patriotism was rewarded with membership in the National Academy of Engineering, the National Academy of Sciences, and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. More recently, Dr. Lamport has been annoying computer scientists and engineers by urging them to understand an algorithm or system before implementing it, and scaring them by saying they should use mathematics. In an attempt to get him to talk about other things, the ACM gave him the 2013 Turing Award.

      Talk about badass introductions

  52. Nov 2014
    1. I'm doing a collaborative annotation of this page to see if a) people want to give feedback on the utility of these instructions and b) to see if anyone wants to collaboratively annotate a document.

  53. Oct 2013
    1. It follows, then, that the only necessary parts of a speech are the Statement and the Argument. These are the essential features of a speech; and it cannot in any case have more than Introduction, Statement, Argument, and Epilogue.

      Parts of speech