623 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
    1. axation, it is said, does not necessarily and unavoidably destroy. To carry it to the excess of destruction would be an abuse, to presume which would banish that confidence which is essential to all Government

      When they discuss taxation at first in the constitution were they hesitant of the idea because of the American Revolution?

    2. The men who drew and adopted this amendment had experienced the embarrassments resulting from the insertion of this word in the Articles of Confederation, and probably omitted it to avoid those embarrassments.

      This statement is confusing to me, I am not sure why the idea of amendment is an embarrassment?

    3. Of consequence, when they act, they act in their States. But the measures they adopt do not, on that account, cease to be the measures of the people themselves, or become the measures of the State governments

      What would America be like if we didn't separate into different states and all were under the same laws and regulations?

    1. Abstract

      Abstract is a sale's pitch, I would say. It summarizes the whole article, and helps the audiences like you and me, to determine whether/how this work might be relevant.

      In the following abstract, identify the research question, highlight it, and state it in your own words (because the authors ask something quite different from what they propose in the beginning).

    1. Size and region parameters given as percentages and the rotation parameter allow positive floating point number values

      The canonical size does not allow percentage values, does it?

  2. Oct 2019
  3. Sep 2019
    1. numerous studies have found individual differences in learners’engagement and achievement in MOOCs

      Is this why so many variables about students were used in the regression?

    1. understanding could be further enriched by integrating other temporal analysis methods.

      How to decide what methods or how many methods we can or should use to do a temporal analysis? The decision should be based on the research question or the norms in this field?

    2. ). A consideration of temporal order can include attention directly to which events commonly follow others (either directly or after some lag), rates of transition from one state to another, similarities in sequences, or the presence of higher level phases of activity.

      I was curious as whether if analyzing good teaching practices, can we reveal the principles that can guide novice teachers to become better at their teaching considering how to organize learning activity and when to transit?

    1. I'm wondering if this is still true, are most supreme court cases original jurisdiction?

    2. Does the president have to have a solid reason for removal of an officer? Is the president that only one with this power?

    3. Was this before checks and balances came into play? If so was this situation one that led to the concept of checks and balances?

    1. The five-paragraph theme, as such, is bland and formulaic; it doesn’t compel deep thinking.

      Why don't teachers in high school prepare students for writing college essays?

    1. They mention curriculum a few times being different in public schools and religious schools, I'm wondering what is the difference?

    2. Aside from religion, this statement makes me wonder what other controversial tax exemptions are there?

    3. This statement from Justice Elena Kagan makes me wonder how they would go about making certain money is not spent on religious activity? Does the government have a process in place to see that its funding is spent properly?

    1. Estimating the Effect of Asking About Citizenship on the U.S. Census March 21, 2019, 1:21 pm

      This is a really interesting article in so many ways; it speaks to a larger political issue of our time, it uses an innovative method (an experiment!), and it follows a very generic and general structure of a social science research paper. Think of this as an ideal or prototype of social science research.

    1. Regardless of which structure you choose, be sure to explain each element of the essay fully and completely.

      Is one way better than the other?

    1. stop, take a breath, and turn on your rational brain.

      Would it really be that easy?

    2. predisposed

      What does predisposed mean?

    3. boneheaded

      Is boneheaded really the best way that those kinds of mistakes can be described?

    4. In each case, the domino effect results from a deep-seated emotion: the need to help others.

      It it a need though or a passion?

    5. 2: The Domino Effect

      What do they mean by the Domino Effect

    1. A definition essay

      Is it typical to be used in addition with a exemplification essay. To take it above and beyond in its quality of writing?

    1. seizes their wealth

      What material wealth did the commoners have to seize? Was this a time of looting by government officials from the laboring classes? Does this tend to happen more often than not in times of crisis?

    1. Itcan explain why it is not rational for subjects in these cases to believetheir eyes—even though, to them, they are simply taking in what comestheir way, even when they are not in a position to understand what theepistemically best option is.

      Is it even vaguely possible to be aware of all the times we occupy this position in order to respond to it appropriately? It seems to me like we'll all be constantly failing to recognize that we aren't in a position to make these choices and thus making them anyway. In fact, will we ever occupy a position of rationality? (Perhaps so, going back to the mustard example from earlier.)

    2. Jill is not inany way accountable for her experience, and therefore could not speak tohow rational she i

      But why would rationality be essentially tied up with accountability for a phenomenon or control over it?

    3. First, merely having a perceptual experiencecan benefit or detract from the subject’s rational standing, and in thatmanner redound on the subject

      This is the big move. It adequately describes how I feel we should approach situations where we reasonably expect to encounter implicit bias even when it doesn't feel like we're being biased. I do wonder, though, precisely how often this would lead to a subject's inability to make a decision rationally? It may be shockingly often.

    4. there is nothingepistemically special about cases where the mind is insulated from realityby its own assumptions.

      Can we not distinguish some as epistemically special due to the nature of what kind of assumptions we're using to insulate ourselves from reality, or from where we got those assumptions?

    5. she has no indication that the experience is misleading

      But does she have no evidence? Is recognizing that she's already worried that he's angry enough to warn her that the experience could be misleading and she should put less trust in her perceptual experience?

    6. It is also possible for a prior outlook toproperly steer the processing that leads to perceptual experience orjudgment. It is properly steered when the prior outlook and perceptualinputs are both given their proper weight.

      What determines proper balance? Likely very contextualized. Is ever prior outlook in some way useful or are there some (like vanity, perhaps) which shouldn't ever be given any weight?

    7. oran inbuilt structural mismatch between our minds and reality, but fromour own individual prior outlook

      Are we sure it's not about the structural mismatch between our minds and reality? Obviously the mental states gained from prior experiences, etc. are necessary for the errors to occur, but I don't think it's possible to isolate the mistakes as not being the result of the way our brain processes this info.

    8. irrational perception. Influences on perception could come from beliefs,hypotheses, knowledge, desires, traits, and moods.1They could alsocome from evaluative states that psychologists call“attitudes.”

      Irrational perception seems to be a psychological phenomenon of misinterpretation on the part of the person doing the perceiving. Most of these causes seem to be related to or are themselves mental states, except for perhaps knowledge. What is it about these states that "get in the way" of an objective perception of the world?

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  4. Aug 2019
    1. dermal, vascular, and ground tissue

      Does each meristem site produce all three types of permanent tissues or are different tissues produced at the different places where meristems are located?

    2. are dead at functional maturity

      I do not understand this. Does this mean the Xylem stops working when the plant reaches maturity?

    3. Meristematic tissue cells

      Would it be safe to think of this as a plant version of stem cells since they are undifferentiated?

    1. Parents who want nothing more than to have their child earn their degree, yet are unwilling to share the tax information required for the student to do the FAFSA.

      How would / could we handle this situation? Would it be inappropriate to try and talk to parents ourselves?

    1. we are asking what the graph is doing around the point x=a

      Does this mean we are looking for a series of numbers?

    1. You have put in the long hours and finally finished making that killer product or service, but your work is not yet done

      Is he implying that identifying the market actualy happens after developing the product or the service ?

    1. As log-bilinear regression model for unsupervised learning of word representations, it combines the features of two model families, namely the global matrix factorization and local context window methods

      What does "log-bilinear regression" mean exactly?

  5. Jul 2019
    1. How will all educators and society have a deliberate coming together to envision equity as a guiding framework for the implementation of NGSS?

      question interrogates problem of... wow, hard for me to encapsulate in a sentence. How about: Us teachers and other stakeholders need to engage in dialogue/action around equity and NGSS in our own local connections yet be aware of and engage with other local dialogues and furthermore transform/be-transformed-by the emerging, higher level discourse. np

    1. Butterfingers

      a clumsy person, especially one who tends to drop things

    2. On bended knees

      Is dropping knees not uncommon in PH?

    3. Didn't mean to take you for granted

      Who are you talking to?

    4. Butterfingers

      When do Philipino couples bring Butterfingers, randomly or at a specific situation, like a birthday?

    5. Just our souls together

      Some kinda compromise or what?

    6. surrender

      surrender to what?

    7. Kismet

      Is kismet a common word in PH?

    1. Patience.

      I hope somebody can answer this question.

      This seems like to me the other story we read about a man going on the journey to death, and confronting his different parts along the way. Does anybody know the name of the story I am trying to think of?

  6. Jun 2019
    1. features (sparse)

      are these feature values or actual features?

    2. We argue that the CrossNet learns a special typeof high-order feature interactions, where each hidden layer in theCrossNet is a scalar multiple ofx0

      In that case CrossNet doesn't really learn anything?

    1. dives

      I couldn't find what this means. I thought it might be a location, but I was wrong. Does anybody know the answer to this topic?

    1. We therefore endorse the established principle that students and the state should share the cost of tertiary education. We support the income-contingent repayment approach as a means of delivering this fairly, with those benefitting the most making the greatest contribution.

      Student Contribution System = new name for students and the state sharing the cost of tertiary education, with an income-contingent repayment approach (those benefitting the most making the greatest contribution...[what does this mean?])

    2. Getting employers to pay for the whole system would put too much emphasis on economic value alone.

      I'm guessing education employers fund for their employees is excluded from the education this document considers?

    3. high return courses

      ? see if this is defined later Also, what's included in 'technical' training here?

    1. coexisting

      Why does he use the word sometimes?

    2. a Deity

      of what religion?

    3. If ignorance of nature gave birth to gods, knowledge of nature is made for their destruction.

      I dunno which mode of knowing he is talking about: a scientist or a sharman?

    4. the universe

      Is that the Biblical one?

    1. It is a sign Solomon settled on some while back,

      This is an interesting topic to me. Why did they bring up Solomon? Solomon was "the biblical king most famous for his wisdom. In 1 Kings he sacrificed to God, and God later appeared to him in a dream asking what Solomon wanted from God. Solomon asked for wisdom." Do the knights look up to Solomon as an example on how to act and be?

      https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solomon

  7. educatorinnovator.org educatorinnovator.org
    1. synthetic model of learning

      Question: could someone explain what this means? What is synthetic about the model?

  8. May 2019
    1. oignon

      est ce que tu fais référence à une structure en couches successives ? ou tu as juste oublié un mot ? sinon je propose la structure en poupées russes (plus élégante)

    2. architexte

      Dans quelle mesure il y a pas une veine genettienne ici ?

    3. formattation

      formatages ?

    4. Ces règles sont elles aussi des inscriptions : elles se manifestent en tant que littéracie - nous savons lire -

      imaginons que je ne sache pas lire, que donc mon rapport au texte est davantage du déchiffrement (une forme de lecture donc), peut-on encore parler de littéracie ? de texte ? même si mon rapport est un lisible fondé sur du visible, même si je me rapport au texte (ensemble) comme un tableau ?

    1. The country’s economy is completely dependent on mining. Many poor families are completely dependent on their children working the mines. That $9/day is hard for a child to reject

      its weird how people are able to exploit these people legally, and if not legally than how have people not made an effort to stop them?

    2. Walt describes how the multibillion-dollar industry, that has made some people outside Africa really really rich, is not known to workers like Lukasa. He just sells his haul to Chinese traders who have seen their profits increase 400% over the last two years.

      I wonder if the people at the top of the company even know that this is going on with there "employees"

    1. Open Grey

      I cannot understand what is meant by open gray?

    2. Tertiary interventions with a specific focus on work, such as exposure therapy and CBT-based and problem-focused return-to-work programmes, had a strong evidence base for improving symptomologyand a moderate evidence base for improving occupational outcomes.

      how does they made it?

    3. MSTAR assessment

      What is AMSTAR assessment? What is the URL where I can find the information?

    4. ystematic meta-review

      What is meant by systematic meta-review

    5. s absence and long-ter

      what is meant ?

  9. Apr 2019
    1. Closing Ceremony of COP21, Paris, France. UN Photo/Mark Garten

      Are they really helping the poorer countries who need help way more than they do?

  10. Mar 2019
    1. SHE

      "SHE is responsible" Is this BOLD repetition on the page related to oratorical style? It would be interesting to hear this document read aloud, incorporating all the emphases of the upper case letters and rhetorical breaks.

    1. 0xffff0 is 16 bytes before the end of the BIOS (0x100000). Therefore we shouldn't be surprised that the first thing that the BIOS does is jmp backwards to an earlier location in the BIOS; after all how much could it accomplish in just 16 bytes?

      This explains well why we need a long jump, however why not we just start from the place at the beginning of the BIOS?

    1. Review Questions

      Question: In which groups are bulimia nervosa most prevalent?

      A. African American women B. Hispanic Women C. Caucasian Women D. Hispanic and African American Women

      Answer: D

    2. Review Questions

      Question: What has been the most memorable or powerful ad campaign or public message that you have seen that was made for the purpose of de-stigmatizing mental illness?

      Answer: Many answers would work. Answers would include the world record egg on instagram, the NBA mental health advertisement and Make It Ok.

    3. Review Questions

      Question: By the time a child is in high school, how many of his classmates will have had a mental health issue? A. 2% B. 5% C. 10% D. 20% Answer: D

    4. Review Questions

      Question: Assuming that you had a mental illness, what would be the most important barrier that would prevent you from being treated? How could that barrier be lessened enough so that it isn't a factor in your decision?

      Answer: The answer can vary of course, but if their biggest barrier is fear of miscommunication, then the best answer would be having a copious amount of bilingual therapists. If their biggest barrier is the stigma, then the best answer would be educating better and making it so that people have no reason to be judgmental about someone who is treated for a mental illness. If their most important barrier is fear of legal issues, then the best answer would be not requiring documentation and advertising the fact that they don't.

    1. afterimage

      Imagine you are looking at a bright light and then you suddenly look away. A faint image of the light seems to follow your vision around. What is this phenomenon called?

      Answer: An afterimage

    2. the pupil will become dilated

      Imagine you're at an eye appointment, and as part of the many tests performed your pupils will become dilated. What condition(s) do your eyes need to be exposed to for this to happen? Potential answers: Low light levels. Emotional arousal. Exposure to certain drugs. Eye injuries.

    3. cornea

      What are two of the functions of the cornea? A: To be a barrier to protect the inner eye from the outside. B: To shield your eyes from the sun. C: To focus light waves entering the eye. D: To assist with night vision.

      Answers: A,C

    4. We are not consciously aware of our blind spots for two reasons:

      What are the two reasons that we are not consciously aware of our blind spot? A: The blind spot in each eye is different so they don't overlap. B: The blind spot is filled in by an approximation from our visual system. C: Our eyes are always moving and cover the blind spot. D: We just choose not to care.

      Answers: A,B

    1. The dotted black arrows represent the difference between individual willingness scores and the average willingness scores of all participants. Square, sum, and average them to get the overall variance. Take the square root of the variance to obtain the overall standard deviation.

      Is this about the average willingness as grand mean or within groups?

  11. Feb 2019
    1. [First published in 1726–7.]

      To: Philbert

      Example question: When was Gulliver's Travels first published? a) 1776 b) 1726 c) 1830 d) 1945

    1. Multiple Intelligences

      Which of the following is one of Howard Gardner's Intelligence Theories: A.) Athletic Intelligence B.) Quick Intelligence C.) Smart Intelligence D.) Spatial Intelligence

      Answer: D

    2. “street smarts.”

      Give an example of using practical intelligence in your own life.

      Answer: One time while traveling in Thailand with my family, my dad and I were out walking one day looking to get breakfast. As we walked along the street two sparsely dressed women appeared outside a massage parlor. Across the street they motioned for us to come inside while at the same time yelling cheap. Knowing we were in a tourist area, and that we also didn't look like the locals we demonstrated common sense and street smarts by not going into the "message parlor" filled with sparsely dressed women to get breakfast.

    3. Creative intelligence is marked by inventing or imagining a solution to a problem or situation.

      Give an example demonstrating a display of creative intelligence in your own life.

      Answer: In my fraternity house it became an issue that there was nowhere to sit during meals because all the chairs would get moved elsewhere throughout the house and would not get put back. To solve this issue we created large benches, like ones you would see in a middle school cafeteria. This worked because since the benches were so big there were no practical uses for them other than staying in the kitchen.

    4. how it can be measured.

      Intelligence has one distinct way it can be measured. True or false?

      Answer: False.

      False. Although recent technological advances have made it easier to quantify intelligence, there is still not a clear measurement of intelligence for a variety of reasons. It is also known that multiple things contribute to someone's intelligence so measuring it with a single unit would be challenging.

    5. least eight intelligences

      What are Howard Gardner's eight theories of intelligence? Briefly explain one of them.

      Answer: Linguistic Intelligence, Logical Mathematical Intelligence, Musical Intelligence, Bodily Kinesthetic Intelligence, Spatial Intelligence, Interpersonal Intelligence, Intrapersonal Intelligence, Naturalist Intelligence.

      Musical Intelligence: Someone who understands and appreciates rhythm, pitch and tone. Person who displays musical intelligence may play multiple instruments or perform as a vocalist.

    1. Finally, and for the encouragement of people troubled with accents that cut them off from all high employment,

      What's wrong with accents?

    2. But if the play makes the public aware that there are such people as phoneticians, and that they are among the most important people in England at present, it will serve its turn.

      Why are phoneticians the most important in England

    3. Pygmalion needs, not a preface, but a sequel,

      Why does pygmalion need a sequel?

    1. THEMOTHER.Howdoyouknowthatmyson'snameisFreddy,prayrTHEFLOWE

      Who is Freddy ?

    2. CoventGardenat11.15p.m.

      setting?

    3. Cabwhistlesblowijigfranticallyinalldirections.Pedes-triansrunningforshelterintothemarketandundertheporticoofSt.Paul'sChurch,wheretherearealreadyseveralpeople,

      Why where people going crazy ?

    4. CoventGardenat11.15p.m.Torrentsofheavysummerrain

      What type of weather and season took placed during Act 1

    5. Pygmalion:aRomanceinFiveActs:byBernardShaw

      Who is this play by ?

    6. Pygmalion:aRomanceinFiveActs:byBernardShaw

      What is the name of this Play ?

    1. one's moral values will rise to the corresponding level.

      This reminds me of the "Q" question, the assumption that just exposure to literature will inculcate an upstanding character: the banner model for humanities education.

  12. Jan 2019
    1. phoneext.get("kent") >>> phoneext.get("kent","NO ENTRY")

      ? what happened here? we give the key kent the value no entry, or is this output?

    2. Deletes the item in the ith position

      ? Different from pop(i) how? both delete? NOTE: read more about syntax elsewhere

    3. Modifies a list to be sorted

      ? Like modifies to be sorted, like what does that mean? Sorts it? by what criteria?

    1. it is most easily reviewed by simply looking at and describing interactive sessions

      ?? What does this mean? interpreted sequentially vs compiled in one go?

    1. estimate the (effective) number of individuals needed to maintain a species' long- term genetic fitness

      I wonder if there's a model built to tell this?

    1. Question

      My initial response to this title was to assume Muckelbauer's question was the same as Lanham's (the 'Q' question). Instead, he's tackling the "what is rhetoric?" question.

    1. Since emacsclient can handle long package loading time proerly, I really want to keep at least one emacs process, and most of the time only one emacs process, open as a background process and better hide GUI. Right now I defined the following function in .bashrc: emc () { if [[ $# -eq 0 ]]; then emacs --eval "(suspend-frame)" & return fi args=($*); setsid emacsclient -c -e "(find-file \"${args[*]}\")" } And also have the following line in .bashrc: emc So everytime I open up a shell, I will end up having a new emacs process. The problem is I will have many additional unnecessary emacs process after opening up many shells. However, I only want to maintain one single emacs process all the time from startup better hide GUI.
  13. Dec 2018
    1. A political cartoon can be better understood if we know the offices of state that the individuals held at the time of the cartoon, and here is where it helps to combine artwork data and political data on the same platform.
    1. NewsNightly NewsMeet the PressDatelineMSNBCTODAYSearchSponsored ByHalf of women in STEM have experienced gender discrimination at work, study finds Share this —U.S. newsHalf of women in STEM have experienced gender discrimination at work, study finds An Assistant Professor of Genetics and Developmental Biology works on stem cells.Spencer Platt / Getty Images filemps._execAd("interstitial");Breaking News EmailsGet breaking news alerts and special reports. The news and stories that matter, delivered weekday mornings.SUBSCRIBEJan. 9, 2018 / 2:26 PM CST / Updated Jan. 9, 2018 / 2:26 PM CSTBy Elizabeth ChuckHalf of all women working in science, technology, engineering and math have experienced gender discrimination at work, according to a new study released the day after a disgraced Google engineer filed a lawsuit claiming white conservative men are the true victims of Silicon Valley.James Damore was fired from Google after writing a 10-page memo citing women's "neuroticism" as a reason there are fewer female workers in high-stress jobs at the search giant. The lawsuit he filed Monday argues that Google was so overly concerned with filling gender and racial quotas that it was hurting male employees as well as potential male employees.Video Will Begin In...3Fired Google engineer James Damore defends his manifesto about diversityAug. 10, 201702:34But a study out on Tuesday from the Pew Research Center, which polled more than 4,900 workers in the U.S., found that in the traditionally male-dominated fields of science, technology, engineering and math (STEM), only 19 percent of men said they had experienced gender discrimination at work, versus 50 percent of women.mps._execAd("boxinline");In certain STEM subsets, the proportion of women reporting discrimination was even higher: 78 percent of those who work in majority-male workplaces reported gender discrimination, followed by 74 percent of those working in computer jobs.Even outside of STEM, the numbers were high, with 41 percent of women in non-STEM jobs saying they've dealt with discrimination, the Pew study found."The challenges that women in STEM face often echo the challenges of all working women," said Cary Funk, lead author of the report and Pew's director of science and society research. "What the study does is take a broad-based look at the issues facing the STEM workforce. I think they really speak to the complex issues surrounding diversity in the workplace."The Pew study, which was conducted last July and August, before Hollywood's sexual misconduct scandal led to a national reckoning, also polled women on sexual harassment. Both groups were equally likely to say they had experienced sexual harassment at work — 22 percent.mps._execAd("boxinline",0,1,false);Both groups were less likely than their male counterparts to think that women are "usually treated fairly" when it comes to opportunities for promotion and advancement.RecommendedVideo Will Begin In...3Penny Marshall, famed actress and comedian, dead at 75Video Will Begin In...3Actress Penny Marshall dead at 75Damore's viewpoint, both in and outside of Google, is disputed. Google faces a separate suit filed by three women who allege the company pays women less than men for similar work and gives them less opportunity for promotions, bonuses and raises — a claim Google denies.Stephanie Newby, the CEO of Crimson Hexagon, an artificial intelligence company that provides consumer insights based on publicly available data, said she was "not at all surprised" by Pew's findings.In 2004, Newby founded Golden Seeds, an investment firm that provides capital to women-led businesses. At Crimson Hexagon, she said she has made a point of hiring and promoting qualified female candidates after seeing first-hand the challenges that women entrepreneurs and women in male-oriented jobs face.mps._execAd("boxinline",0,2,false);"We need environments where women can thrive, not be cornered about how they look or have to think about the kinds of things that make them worry about being different or trying to prove themselves, because so much energy can be expended on that instead of getting the job done," she said. "I think it provides a competitive advantage for us that we have women in senior positions."by Taboolaby TaboolaSPONSORED STORIESNationLandlines Are Disappearing with This Increasingly Popular OptionNationUndoExperianWhat is Alternative Credit Data?ExperianUndoby Taboolaby TaboolaSPONSORED STORIESDroneX ProThis $99 Drone Might Be The Most Amazing Invention In 2018DroneX ProUndoMy Smart Gadgets19 Insanely Cool Gadgets That Are Going To Sell Out This YearMy Smart GadgetsUndoUSA TodayMilitary Dad Comes Home To Unexpected ReactionUSA TodayUndogo.gadgetspost.com23 Cool Products Flying Off Shelves These Holidaysgo.gadgetspost.comUndoMicrosoft AzureHere’s What Makes An Azure Free Account So Valuable...Microsoft AzureUndoGadgets PostThe 19 Best Products Of 2018 RankedGadgets PostUndoTactical WatchMilitary Watch Everybody in United States is Talking AboutTactical WatchUndoTact WatchFinally. The Smart Watch Every Man In United States Has Been Waiting For!Tact WatchUndoU.S. newsSenate passes sweeping criminal justice reform billThe House is expected to take up the Senate version of the bill at a later date before sending it to the president.Senate Majority Leader Republican Mitch McConnell speaks during a news conference on negotiations to avoid a partial shutdown of the federal government on Capitol Hill on Dec. 18, 2018.Michael Reynolds / EPABreaking News EmailsGet breaking news alerts and special reports. The news and stories that matter, delivered weekday mornings.SUBSCRIBEDec. 18, 2018 / 8:02 PM CST / Updated 8:38 PM CSTBy Rebecca Shabad and Phil HelselWASHINGTON — The Senate passed a huge criminal law reform bill on Tuesday night, seizing on bipartisan support for the broadest set of changes to federal crime statutes in a generation.A rare coalition of conservatives, liberals, activists, prosecutors and defense attorneys — spanning the political spectrum — pushed senators to pass the "First Step Act" by a final vote of 87-12.mps._execAd("boxinline",0,3,false);The House is expected to take up the Senate version of the bill at a later date. The House passed a similar version of the bill back in May by a wide margin, 360-59.President Donald Trump announced in November that he backs the legislation.Supporters of the bill claim that changes passed in the Senate would make America's criminal justice system fairer, reduce overcrowding and save taxpayer dollars — much to the benefit of drug and non-violent offenders.The bill would not affect state prisons. It only covers federal prisoners, who make up less than 10 percent of America's prison population.mps._execAd("boxinline",0,4,false);Trump quickly jumped on Twitter to hail the bill’s passage, and said "America is the greatest Country in the world and my job is to fight for ALL citizens, even those who have made mistakes.""This will keep our communities safer, and provide hope and a second chance, to those who earn it. In addition to everything else, billions of dollars will be saved. I look forward to signing this into law!” the president tweeted.Durbin: Kushner 'very important partner' in passing criminal justice reform billDec. 18, 201802:44The Senate bill overcame late obstacles by Sens. Tom Cotton, R-Ark., and John Kennedy, R-La.RecommendedSchool district police officer hit and run caught on cameraMcConnell convinced government shutdown won't happenCotton railed against the First Step Act as a "jailbreak" and said too many crimes were being included to allow prisoners consideration for early release.mps._execAd("boxinline",0,5,false);Sen. Chuck Grassley, R-Iowa, in urging senators to reject an amendment sponsored by Cotton, said “this law is centered towards those people that are the least violent people that are in prison already," and that “we’re only going to help low-level offenders.""Let's see if we can keep our bipartisan coalition together, to pass a bill that the president said that he is ready to sign," Grassley said. The amendment was defeated.A major provision of the bill gives judges more leeway to diverge from strict mandatory minimum sentences for nonviolent drug offenders with criminal histories.House Speaker Paul Ryan, R-Wisc., tweeted after the Senate vote: "Criminal justice reform is about giving more Americans a chance at redemption. The House looks forward to sending it to the president to become law."Rebecca ShabadRebecca Shabad is a congressional reporter for NBC News, based in Washington.Phil HelselPhil Helsel is a reporter for NBC News.David K. Li and Frank Thorp V contributed.MORE FROM newsAboutContactCareersPrivacy policyTerms of ServiceSiteMapAdvertiseAdChoices© 2018 NBC UNIVERSAL

      What is our praxis here? What do we advocate for here? The whole article is just stating problems.

    1. A female student taking a math test experiences an extra cognitive and emotional burden of worry related to the stereotype that women are not good at math.

      If this is part of the probl;em how do you solve it? why doesnt it effect other careers

  14. Nov 2018
    1. Have you ever thought about applying those ideas to your life? You should.

      What general priciples could you learn from that book?

    1. How do you feel about writing in books?

      Open Questions:

      1. What is your approach to leaving marks in the books you own?
      2. Is your approach any different when you're interacting with library books or other shared volumes?
      3. Do you ever type out notes to yourself when using e-readers or interacting with a digital pdf?

      Feel free to share your response to one or more of these questions by clicking the arrow button at the bottom right-hand side of this annotation.

    1. State-sponsored marijuana corporations say “Vape-Friendly!” when they mean “Shitty Weed That’s Actually Dangerous to Smoke!” and hope the public is stupid enough to feel empowered because they are invited to fill out a sleekly designed web survey.

      how is this weed different from weed you would smoke on a joint?

    2. Do they really not see that the Motley Crew has continued to exist in the shadows all along?

      What is the Motley Crew?

    3. Traditional marijuana workers also constitute the last remaining examples north of Mexico of self-organized small-scale agriculture and autonomous workers collectives, ones that organize group insurance schemes, like the “rider funds” that bike delivery guys often maintain in case anyone gets injured or has to deal with legal fees.

      Were Mexico the first ones to start these examples?

    4. Marijuana Commons.

      what are the Marijuana Commons?

    5. During the same period, the Drug Enforcement Agency attempted to criminalize Kratom—a plant that thousands of Americans have been ordering from Thailand in their efforts to kick government-approved pharmaceutical opiates.

      Why did the government try to criminalize Kratom?

    6. Cocaine was invented by American and German pharmaceutical companies, and when it was later made “illegal,” this simply meant that every coca grower in Peru should be conscripted into sweated labor for those companies.

      If it was only illegal in America and Germany, why did it effect people in Peru?

    7. The great love affair between imperial conquest and trade in intoxicating substances goes back at least as far as the sixteenth century

      what intoxicating substances were more popular back then?

    1. An uncountable number of letters have been sent from one person to another. They have been sent through the Internet in the years since 1969. They were sent on many different platforms.

      How did electronic messages look in 1969?

  15. Oct 2018
    1. By analysing the relationshipbetween development rate and growth rate, it can be determined whetherplasticity in life-history traits is caused by changed physiology or behaviour

      What is the difference between development rate and growth rate?

    1. Withthesemultiplebodiesgarneredfromdisabilityscholars,gendertheorists, andhistoriansofthe body, wecannowlookanewatthebodydepictedinLeonardo’sdrawing

      Taking into account different types of bodies that were not previously regarded creates a new image of Leonardo's Vitruvian man. Is the idea of the Vitruvian man even relevant, or has it faded as a range of different types of bodies has been brought up? Is there a way to combine the array of bodies to create a new "Vitruvian" man, or would a multitude of iterations be needed to account for the varying types of bodies?

    2. 16.SeeJohannaOksala,“FemaleFreedom:Can the LivedBodyBe Emancipated?/*inFeministInterpretationsofMauriceMerleau-Ponfyy209-28,andGayleSalamon,Jssumin^aBody:TransgenderandRhetoricsofMateriality(NewYork: ColumbiaUniversityPress, 2010).imaginethatLeonardopicturedaspecificmodeofembodiment, notanormative one

      Believing that Leonardo pictured a mode of embodiment from the male perspective, it is interesting to see if another artist has or will try to create a related mode of embodiment from the female or disabled perspective. Is there a new Vitruvian Man to connect all elements of the different types of people/bodies, or is the Vitruvian Man something that is just referred to in readings, and forgotten about when designing due to the one-perspective view it takes?

    3. Heclaimedthatxmderstandingtheembodimentofthedisabledbodygivesinsightinto theembodimentoftheabledbody

      While understanding the abled body throughout history has been the case, there are also been some attempts to understand the disabled body. While there are many different aspects that go into understanding the human body, it is important to understand more than just the abled/ideal body. When designing today, the abled body is still the body most designed for, while codes are the main elements that cater to the needs of disabled bodies. Is there a way in which the disabled body can be designed for further than just be paying attention to the code requirements?

    4. whichintroducefoodintothebodythroughtheanus,andemetics,whichexpelwastefromthe bodythroughthemouth.

      (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z_nKTwJGa8s)

      In all honesty, why? Perhaps an idea so radical is needed to change how we think about the body and architecture. In the link above, I connect a seen in the office I had though about when this subject was brought up in class. In the video, the office is trying to slow down the course of a woman going into the labor by doing the opposite of activities that speed up labor. One suggestion in this clip is to "stick spicy foods up her butt" as a means of inverting the suggestion to eat spicy food. But how would this relate to architecture? Are we so wound up in our perceptions around what the human body is, that we need to twist, turn, and invert these perceptions to think with a clear mind?

    5. wetoowhen btdldingshouldplacethemostimportantandprestigiouspartsinfìlliviewandthelessbeautifulinlocationsconcealedas farfromoureyesaspossible.

      (https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/698055)

      I wonder what would happen if Palladio and Foster sat in a room together? Palladio seems to admire the objective sense to architecture, that when we look at it, we can appreciate the beauty by what is seen on the skin of a building's body. However, if we look at the Pompidou, this building speaks to more of the truth behind the building. It is the complete opposite of Palladio's intention to conceal the "less prestigious". For Foster, the Pompidou reveals the veins of the building's body. It shows the HVAC, mechanical systems, etc. to expose the life of buildings. I feel as though these two would have a debate on what is shown. Do we a.) push forth for the objective beauty of a building, or b.) show the beauty in a truth revealed?

    1. Exposure accounts for 21 per cent of the variation in attitude towards smoking.

      Where can I find this in the SPSS output?

    1. Multiple sets of barley plants (Hordeum vulgare ‘Quench’) were hydroponically cultivated using three different treatments:

      Why barley?

    1. it will not try to start a failover if the master link was disconnected for more than the specified amount of time

      Why would it exhibit this behavior? Is it because a slave that's disconnected from the master for too long has stale data? Or is it because the slave made be failing as well?

    1. The thirty million Americans who are plugged into the Internet increasingly engage in virtual experiences enacting a division between the material body that exits on one side of the screen and the com-puter simulacra that seem to create a space inside the screen.

      Although technology is increasing, it is not always a positive attribute. Virtual experience can help to be able to make something more realistic, yet at the same time, it limits interacting with a spatial environment. The experience with something as straightforward as walking into a building is distorted due to technology. Rather than being able to truly experience a space in the present moment and become immersed in different characteristics, the ability to take pictures to be able to look at the space later on becomes the primary focus. While this might seem to help later on, it does not always, as it actually limits the ability to truly interact with and experience a space. Is there a happy-medium in which the users can physically experience a space while also being able to pull up images or videos and be able to mentally revisit the space and explore the environment to the same extent as when they were actually in the environment?

    2. In the face of such a powerful dream, it can be a shock to remember that for information to exist, it must always be instantiated in a medium,

      Information is always recorded somewhere, either physical or digital. No information is ever new, it has just been transformed from previous information. Similar to conversations in thesis classes where no thesis topic is new, it is just a way to rethink something. Is there ever a time in which information is thought of prior to connections being made to previously recorded information.

    3. If one sees the universe as composed essentially of information, it makes sense that these "creatures" are life forms because they have the form oflife, that is, an informational code.

      Information makes up everything, from inanimate objects to living beings. When the information is turned into an informational code, the form of life comes out, making it so that all "creatures" are life forms. Where can there be different categories of "creatures" and life forms if everything is technically a life form? How can they be categorized? Are there any instances in which information is not converted to an informational code that makes something considered a life form?

    4. the idea of homeostasis was extended to machines. Like ani-mals, machines can maintain homeostasis using feedback loops.

      Feedback loops interact within, between and through subjects, environments, and observers. Feedback loops allow for the connection between living beings and machines. Are feedback loops what connection human bodies to machines, and what gives machines characteristics of human bodies?

    5. People become posthuman because they think they are posthuman.

      People aim to be post human. People often think into the future, so thinking of themselves as post human could correspond to their desire to be in the future. What happens in the future if there is not necessarily something to look forward to, and if post humans ever wanted to become just human again.

    6. the body is possible precisely because the body is understood as an object for control and mastery rather than as an intrinsic part of the self.

      The body is an object that was designed to be controlled. Was is designed to be controlled by the mind? Is the body just an object that serves as a machine to hold the mind so that the mind can have experiences. How does this correspond to the post-human body?

    7. If my nightmare is a culture inhabited by posthumans who regard their bodies as fashion accessories rather than the ground of being

      I wonder what Hayles thinks of today, with so much of the youth culture being dependent on material things. I was just watching a video earlier to day which spoke about teens obsessed with Kanye West's new Calabasas line of clothing. The people standing in line had no idea what or where Calabasas is, but they were obsessed with the idea of new form of clothing they could add to their collection. This is just one example, of many, where we are consumed by products as they are becoming what defines our bodies. If this is what matters, and what drives how we dictate our decision making, is 201 Hayles' nightmare?

    8. The human essence is freedom from the wills of others, and freedom is a function of possession

      Can freedom then be the possession of nothing?

      If our society is built around the trade of taking ownership of objects, selling them, and then taking ownership of new things, then we are built into this rotating wheel of trading ownership. We are in this delusion that we are free because we have the capability to take ownership of things that we seek, but this possession mentality is what is chaining us down and limiting our freedom. So if society is telling me that I own my body, would it be freedom to say that this body is not my own. Is it freedom to reject my body because it serves the function of others and not myself?

    9. autopoiesis,

      What's Autopoiesis?

      Autopoiesis in its simplest definition is the idea of self-production. As an exmaple, the cells in our bodies are vehicles in which they are able to reproduce themselves many times over. The cell is a body of many components, all of which are in constant reproduction themselves. As these components renew themselves in the body of the cell, the begin the cycle in of autopoiesis. The cell is still the original container of these changing characters, but the insides are the pieces which are in constant shift (Zeleny 1).

      http://cepa.info/fulltexts/1194.pdf

    1. not unlike that of the medical industry, where the needs of patients (clients) are met by a process-driven model.

      To what extent is the writer's analogy to the medical industry persuasive?

    2. It would allow lawyers to concentrate on higher-order tasks such as crafting legal strategies, interpreting and applying the relevant parts of the law to complex situations and perhaps most importantly, maintaining the human connection for a profession which is critically about relationships.

      What are the assumptions in the writer's argument?

    3. As business and the economy becomes ever more complex, the information and data available for lawyers to consider in assisting clients to make strategic decisions will be so vast that unless technology and workflows are correctly harnessed to make sense of it, the information would be useless and impossible to interpret manually.

      Can you think of other industries in which this might also be true? Share illustrations with your class.

    4. the final call will have to come from the human in the loop.

      Do you agree that AI is incapable of decision-making, and that a human will always have to make the final call? Why or why not? How might this vary in different fields, including the ones you are interested in pursuing?

    1. improve female representation in the senior leadership

      What are the pros and cons of focusing on representation in the leadership?

    2. gender barriers (physical, cultural, attitudinal)

      What do you think are some of these barriers?

    3. If we can achieve gender balance in the most visible public offices of the land, the rest of the country will follow.

      Do you agree that the writer's proposals will be effective in achieving gender equality? Why or why not? What other ideas do you have for achieving gender equality?

    4. implicit gender bias

      Have you ever experienced or witnessed implicit gender bias? Share your thoughts with a classmate of a different gender.

    5. Most notably, the Cabinet today comprises 16 men and only three women - even though for more than 10 years, the number of women graduating from universities has outnumbered male graduates.

      Do you find the writer's evidence convincing? What are the the strengths—and limitations—of her evidence?

    6. Sadly, these patriarchal attitudes prevail today.

      Do you think this is a fair claim? What examples of patriarchal attitudes can you think of in Singapore?

      You may include photos, videos, or hyperlinks.

    7. I cannot help but wonder, would things have been different if Mrs Lee Kuan Yew had continued to attend these meetings?

      How do you think Singapore's history might have been different if women were included among the founders of independent Singapore?

    8. Discrimination on the basis of gender or sex is omitted

      Can you think of reasons for why this might have been the case?