168 Matching Annotations
  1. May 2019
    1. “Hiking through the Grand Canyon is the closest to hell that I expect to come before I get there when I die,” Fedarko told Outside in August, after pulling out of 105-degree weather to rest. He wrapped up the hike on November 18. “There’s no exaggeration. That’s not hyperbole. It’s absolutely the most physical challenge that Pete and I have endured in our lives.”

      Damn! I want an experience like this

  2. Mar 2019
    1. Japanese gardens (日本庭園, nihon teien) are traditional gardens[1] whose designs are accompanied by Japanese aesthetic and philosophical ideas, avoid artificial ornamentation, and highlight the natural landscape.

      Brief definition of a Japanese Garden.

    1. Crucial to understanding the workings of power is an understandingof the nature of power in the fullness of its materiality. To restrict power’sproductivity to the limited domain of the “social,” for example, or tofigure matter as merely an end product rather than an active factor infurther materializations, is to cheat matter out of the fullness of its capacity.

      The nature of power is material as well as social.

  3. Feb 2019
    1. the melancholy mournings of the turtle,

      gilmanhernandez already linked to the video I was considering, but (according to a cursory search of YouTube at least) videos of turtle sounds are also likely to be videos of turtles mating or attempting to mate, so how 'mournful' they are is perhaps up to interpretation... 😂

    1. the heart of her educational scheme was lo be a method of thinking that could be applied in any area

      Okay, this is is more specific, similar to Wollstonecraft, as curlyQ pointed out.

      What's interesting here is Astell's saying that she isn't "exceptional"--by that she seems to mean that she is no different or more outstanding than other women, that she doesn't have some special ability or nature (just the same natural inclinations as others).

      This resonates with Wollstonecraft's Rights in her insistence that women are not by nature the 'inferior' sex but are instead bred that way due to poor education. By distancing herself from the term "exceptional", Astell seems to be doing something similar, pointing not to any particularly special nature or natural ability but instead a sound education.

    2. naturally attracted them to these qualities when they were en­countered in the world. Additionally. innate human reason

      Would the belief in innate, natural qualities be contrary to John Locke's idea of the tabula rasa? I don't know enough of Locke to know whether innate qualities would be part of what's swept off the slate.

    1. o far only as it is beneficial {l,16�(' or hurtful to the true believers.

      By nature, humans are selfish. We're always thinking, whether consciously or not, "what's in it for me?" We deem actions that have a potential benefit to us as praiseworthy, while label unbeneficial actions as hurtful.

    1. 011 1/w Ed11catio11 of Girls (published in 1687),

      Cf. Wollstonecraft's Vindication of the Rights of Woman, written about 100 years later, making a similar argument. Specifically, Wollstonecraft argues that women are not naturally inferior or frivolous but have been bred that way through poor education. Taken in comparison to the Enlightenment's exploration of human nature and with a lack of significant progress between 1687 and 1792 (outside of literacy, noted below), it seems clear that "human nature" really means "man's nature."

  4. Jan 2019
    1. He acts it as life, before he apprehends it as truth. In like manner, nature is already, in its forms and tendencies, describing its own design.

      What is implied about how we know what we know here? What might be some problems with this argument?

    2. OUR age is retrospective. It builds the sepulchres of the fathers. It writes biographies, histories, and criticism. The foregoing generations beheld God and nature face to face; we, through their eyes. Why should not we also enjoy an original relation to the universe?

      What is the contrast in generations RWE sets up here? What is the problem with his generation in the middle of the 19th century?

    1. real, ‘natural’ order

      How does interpretation of the natural order differ depending on one's paradigm?

    2. nature/culture framework in terms of the real and the sym-bolic.

      Perhaps unrelated, but I'm reminded here of a passage from Cormac McCarthy's The Crossing -- "The world has no name, he said. The names of the cerros and the sierras and the deserts exist only on maps. We name them that we do not lose our way. Yet it was because the way was lost to us already that we have made those names. The world cannot be lost. We are the ones. And it is because these names and these are our own naming that they cannot save us. That they cannot find for us the way again" (387).

      I like this quote because it makes explicit the real/symbolic distinction that we apply to nature, similar to Siegert's music example. The world simply exists, but we interact with it symbolically, assigning names and numbers to denote physical locations or geographic/geological features.

    1. nature—as opposed to cul-ture—is ahistorical and timeless?

      Doreen Massey has an interesting book that touches on this (Space, Place, and Gender), where she points out that time and space are treated as binaries, where time is typically masculine and dynamic and space is feminine and static. Nature (gendered feminine) is spatial, a place, and therefore not a time ("ahistorical and timeless"). Culture, on the other hand, is temporal, dynamic, masculine. It's a very particular rhetoric which begs the "which one?" question.

      (While Massey points out this common way of conceiving of time/space and binaries in general [A vs. Not A], she argues that the concept of space needs to be defined on its own merit, distinct from its binary opposite.)

    2. But representationalism (like “nature itself,” notmerely our representations of it!) has a history.

      Is it our human nature to always perform our identity? can we ever separate ourselves from it?

  5. Dec 2018
  6. Nov 2018
    1. ಅಯ್ಯಾ ನಿನ್ನ ಸಂಗದಲ್ಲಿ ಸಂಗಿಯಾದೆಅಯ್ಯಾ, ನಿನ್ನ ಸಂಗದಿಂದ ಕಾಕುತನವ ಬಿಟ್ಟುಬೇಕಾದ ಹಾಂಗೆಯಾದೆ.ಅಯ್ಯಾ, ನಿನ್ನ ಒಲವು ಅನೇಕ ಪ್ರಕಾರದಲ್ಲಿಪಸರಿ ಪರ್ಬಿತ್ತು ಎನ್ನ ಸರ್ವಾಂಗದಲ್ಲಿ.ನಿನ್ನವರೊಲುಮೆಯ ಆನಂದವನು ಎನಗೆ ಕರುಣಿಸುಕಪಿಲಸಿದ್ಧಮಲ್ಲಿಕಾರ್ಜುನಯ್ಯಾ ನಿಮ್ಮ ಧರ್ಮ.
    2. ಅಸಂಖ್ಯಾತ ಆದಿಬ್ರಹ್ಮರುತ್ಪತ್ಯವಾಗದಂದು,ಅಸಂಖ್ಯಾತ ಆದಿನಾರಾಯಣರುತ್ಪತ್ಯವಾಗದಂದು,ಅಸಂಖ್ಯಾತ ಸುರೇಂದ್ರಾದಿಗಳು ಉತ್ಪತ್ಯವಾಗದಂದು,ಅಸಂಖ್ಯಾತ ಮನುಮುನಿ ದೈತ್ಯರು ಉತ್ಪತ್ಯ ಲಯವಾಗದಂದು,ಓಂಕಾರವೆಂಬ ಆದಿಪ್ರಣವವಾಗಿದ್ದನು ನೋಡಾನಮ್ಮ ಅಪ್ರಮಾಣಕೂಡಲಸಂಗಮದೇವ.
    3. ಅಂಗದ ಮೇಲೊಂದು ಲಿಂಗವು, ಲಿಂಗದ ಮೇಲೊಂದು ಅಂಗವು.ಆವುದು ಘನವೆಂಬೆ ? ಆವುದು ಕಿರಿದೆಂಬೆ ?ತಾಳೋಷ್ಠಸಂಪುಟಕ್ಕೆ ಬಾರದ ಘನ, ಉಭಯಲಿಂಗವಿರಹಿತವಾದ ಶರಣ.ಕೂಡಲಚೆನ್ನಸಂಗಾ ಲಿಂಗೈಕ್ಯವು.
    4. ಅಯ್ಯಾ ಆರೂ ಇಲ್ಲದ ಅರಣ್ಯದಲ್ಲಿ, ನಾನಡಿಯಿಟ್ಟು ನಡವುತ್ತಿರ್ದೆನಯ್ಯಾ.ಮುಂದೆ ಬರೆಬರೆ ಮಹಾಸರೋವರವ ಕಂಡೆ.ಸರೋವರದೊಳಗೊಂದು ಹಿರಿಯ ಮೃಗವ ಕಂಡೆ.ಆ ಮೃಗಕ್ಕೆ ಕೊಂಬುಂಟು ತಲೆಯಿಲ್ಲ,ಬಾಯುಂಟು ಕಣ್ಣಿಲ್ಲ, ಕೈಯುಂಟು ಹಸ್ತವಿಲ್ಲ,ಕಾಲುಂಟು ಹೆಜ್ಜೆಯಿಲ್ಲ, ಒಡಲುಂಟು ಪ್ರಾಣವಿಲ್ಲ.ಇದ ಕಂಡು ನಾ ಹೆದರಿ, ಹವ್ವನೆ ಹಾರಿ, ಬೆದರಿ ಬಿದ್ದೆನಯ್ಯಾ.ಆಗೆನ್ನ ಹೆತ್ತತಾಯಿ ಬಂದು ಎತ್ತಿ ಕುಳ್ಳಿರಿಸಿ,ಚಿತ್ತಮೂಲಾಗ್ನಿಯ ಒತ್ತಿ ಉರುಹಿದರೆ, ಇವೆಲ್ಲವು ಸುಟ್ಟು ಬಟ್ಟಬಯಲಾದವು.ಆ ಬಟ್ಟಬಯಲೊಳಗೆ ಅಡಿಯಿಟ್ಟು ನಡೆವಾಗ,ಮುಂದೆ ಇಟ್ಟಡಿಯ ಬಾಗಿಲೊಳಗೆ ಮತ್ತೊಂದು ಮೃಗವ ಕಂಡೆ.ಆ ಮೃಗಕ್ಕೆ ತಲೆಯುಂಟು ಕೊಂಬಿಲ್ಲ, ಕಣ್ಣುಂಟು ಬಾಯಿಲ್ಲ,ಹಸ್ತವುಂಟು ಕೈಯಿಲ್ಲ, ಹೆಜ್ಜೆಯುಂಟು ಕಾಲಿಲ್ಲ, ಪ್ರಾಣವುಂಟು ಒಡಲಿಲ್ಲ.ಇದ ಕಂಡು ನಾ ಅಪ್ಪಿಕೊಳಹೋದಡೆ, ಮುಟ್ಟದ ಮುನ್ನವೆ ಎನ್ನನೆ ನುಂಗಿತ್ತು.ನುಂಗಿದ ಮೃಗ ಮಹಾಲಿಂಗದಲ್ಲಿಯೆ ಅಡಗಿತ್ತು,ಬಸವಪ್ರಿಯ ಕೂಡಲಚೆನ್ನಬಸವಣ್ಣಾ.
    5. ಅಂಥ ಬ್ರಹ್ಮಾಂಡವ ಎಪ್ಪತ್ತೈದುಲಕ್ಷದ ಮೇಲೆಸಾವಿರದೇಳುನೂರಾ ನಲವತ್ತೆಂಟುಬ್ರಹ್ಮಾಂಡವನೊಳಕೊಂಡುದೊಂದು ಭದ್ರವೆಂಬ ಭುವನ.ಆ ಭುವನದೊಳು ಭದ್ರಕರ್ಣನೆಂಬ ಮಹಾರುದ್ರಮೂರ್ತಿ ಇಹನು.ಆ ರುದ್ರಮೂರ್ತಿಯ ಓಲಗದಲ್ಲಿಎಂಟುನೂರಾ ಎಪ್ಪತ್ತುಕೋಟಿ ಚಂದ್ರಾದಿತ್ಯರು ವೇದಪುರುಷರುಮುನೀಂದ್ರರು ದೇವರ್ಕಳಿಹರು ನೋಡಾ.ಎಂಟುನೂರಾ ಎಪ್ಪತ್ತುಕೋಟಿ ರುದ್ರ-ಬ್ರಹ್ಮ-ನಾರಾಯಣಇಂದ್ರಾದಿ ದೇವರ್ಕಳಿಹರು ನೋಡಾಅಪ್ರಮಾಣಕೂಡಲಸಂಗಮದೇವಾ.
    6. ಅಯ್ಯಾ ಆರೂ ಇಲ್ಲದ ಅರಣ್ಯದಲ್ಲಿ, ನಾನಡಿಯಿಟ್ಟು ನಡವುತ್ತಿರ್ದೆನಯ್ಯಾ.ಮುಂದೆ ಬರೆಬರೆ ಮಹಾಸರೋವರವ ಕಂಡೆ.ಸರೋವರದೊಳಗೊಂದು ಹಿರಿಯ ಮೃಗವ ಕಂಡೆ.ಆ ಮೃಗಕ್ಕೆ ಕೊಂಬುಂಟು ತಲೆಯಿಲ್ಲ,ಬಾಯುಂಟು ಕಣ್ಣಿಲ್ಲ, ಕೈಯುಂಟು ಹಸ್ತವಿಲ್ಲ,ಕಾಲುಂಟು ಹೆಜ್ಜೆಯಿಲ್ಲ, ಒಡಲುಂಟು ಪ್ರಾಣವಿಲ್ಲ.ಇದ ಕಂಡು ನಾ ಹೆದರಿ, ಹವ್ವನೆ ಹಾರಿ, ಬೆದರಿ ಬಿದ್ದೆನಯ್ಯಾ.ಆಗೆನ್ನ ಹೆತ್ತತಾಯಿ ಬಂದು ಎತ್ತಿ ಕುಳ್ಳಿರಿಸಿ,ಚಿತ್ತಮೂಲಾಗ್ನಿಯ ಒತ್ತಿ ಉರುಹಿದರೆ, ಇವೆಲ್ಲವು ಸುಟ್ಟು ಬಟ್ಟಬಯಲಾದವು.ಆ ಬಟ್ಟಬಯಲೊಳಗೆ ಅಡಿಯಿಟ್ಟು ನಡೆವಾಗ,ಮುಂದೆ ಇಟ್ಟಡಿಯ ಬಾಗಿಲೊಳಗೆ ಮತ್ತೊಂದು ಮೃಗವ ಕಂಡೆ.ಆ ಮೃಗಕ್ಕೆ ತಲೆಯುಂಟು ಕೊಂಬಿಲ್ಲ, ಕಣ್ಣುಂಟು ಬಾಯಿಲ್ಲ,ಹಸ್ತವುಂಟು ಕೈಯಿಲ್ಲ, ಹೆಜ್ಜೆಯುಂಟು ಕಾಲಿಲ್ಲ, ಪ್ರಾಣವುಂಟು ಒಡಲಿಲ್ಲ.ಇದ ಕಂಡು ನಾ ಅಪ್ಪಿಕೊಳಹೋದಡೆ, ಮುಟ್ಟದ ಮುನ್ನವೆ ಎನ್ನನೆ ನುಂಗಿತ್ತು.ನುಂಗಿದ ಮೃಗ ಮಹಾಲಿಂಗದಲ್ಲಿಯೆ ಅಡಗಿತ್ತು,ಬಸವಪ್ರಿಯ ಕೂಡಲಚೆನ್ನಬಸವಣ್ಣಾ.
    1. ಆಕಾರ ನಿರಾಕಾರವೆಂಬೆರಡೂ ಸ್ವರೂಪಂಗಳು ;ಒಂದು ಆಹ್ವಾನ, ಒಂದು ವಿಸರ್ಜನ,ಒಂದು ವ್ಯಾಕುಳ, ಒಂದು ನಿರಾಕುಳ.ಉಭಯಕುಳರಹಿತ ಗುಹೇಶ್ವರಾ_ನಿಮ್ಮ ಶರಣ ನಿಶ್ವಿಂತನು.
    1. ರಾಕಾರವೆಂಬೆರಡೂ ಸ್ವರೂಪಂಗಳು ;ಒಂದು ಆಹ್ವಾನ, ಒಂದು ವಿಸರ್ಜನ,ಒಂದು ವ್ಯಾಕುಳ, ಒಂದು ನಿರಾಕುಳ.ಉಭಯಕುಳರಹಿತ ಗುಹೇಶ್ವರಾ_ನಿಮ್ಮ ಶರಣ ನಿಶ್ವಿಂತನು.
    1. The truth is, none of us are born scientists. When we say "children are natural scientists", what we mean is that they're naturally inquisitive and willing to experiment in ways adults are generally trained out of. We have to be taught to channel that inquisitiveness into productive pathways, both in STEM and non-STEM fields. And we have to do a helluva lot better at not reinforcing the message that scientists are intrinsically smarter than non-scientists, and that only the geniuses can do science.
  7. Oct 2018
  8. Sep 2018
    1. People who take pills to block out from memory the painful or hateful aspects of a new experience will not learn how to deal with suffering or sorrow. A drug that induces fearlessness does not produce courage.

      He does a really good job pointing out some of the dangers of effortlessly overcoming fear at the cost of learning courage and struggle at the cost of learning discipline but he doesn't really touch on how in time we might recognize the side effect these biomedical technologies bring and human nature might push back against it. Kind of like with genetically modified foods now all people want is organic food.

    1. Instead of taking these characteristics and saying that they are the basis for “human dignity,” why don’t we simply accept our destiny as creatures who modify themselves?

      He mentioned several times that human nature can be the basis for values and morality, but here he says that human nature is subject to change. In that case It sounds like he believes that the standards of morality and value which are based on human nature should also change and that doesn't sound like very firm ground to stand on.

  9. Aug 2018
    1. The cry was pinched off short as the blood-warm waters of the Caribbean Sea dosed over his head.

      This is an example of a man vs. nature conflict, because the sea water is making it hard for him to stay above and breathe.

    2. The cry was pinched off short as the blood-warm waters of the Caribbean Sea dosed over his head.He struggled up to the surface and tried to cry out, but the wash from the speeding yacht slapped him in the face and the salt water in his open mouth made him gag and strangle.

      This is a Man vs. Nature conflict because Rainsford is struggling to stay above water after he has fallen into the ocean and the salt water engulfs him making it impossible to breathe.

  10. Jul 2018
    1. Record your observations 2 Share with fellow naturalists 3 Discuss your findings

      inaturalist website- really cool place to upload nature pics and correspond in discussions with others about identifying the plant or animal species

    1. Project Noah was created to provide people of all ages with a simple, easy-to-use way to share their experiences with wildlife. By encouraging your students to share their observations and contribute to Project Noah missions, you not only help students to reconnect with nature, you provide them with real opportunities to make a difference.

      Looks like a great project to get involved in! Very collaborative (both in the classroom and in online), plus integrate technology while having students explore nature

    1. We decided to use photography as a centerpiece of the new program. Photography emerged as the medium of choice because it:

      using photography in nature (a form of technology) to enhance learning science curriculum

    1. Integrating technology in your classroom is a great way to connect your students to nature—increasing their likelihood of becoming environmental stewards and making a positive impact on our planet.

      Wow! I had no idea there were so many organizations, apps, and programs to combine technology with nature for a classroom setting! This is really encouraging and I would love to use some of these with my future classes!

    2. These websites allow your students to report sightings (of robins, earthworms, frogs, mushrooms, etc.) and share pictures for a variety of projects or missions that help scientists across the world.

      int. tech into nature for ages 2nd grade and up

    3. So children need direct exposure to nature. Given their increased access to technology, can we use technology to enhance that direct exposure?

      Interesting article- Combining technology with nature in an age that kids desperately need to be outdoors more

  11. Jun 2018
  12. May 2018
    1. There’s a few less apostles in Australia’s Twelve Apostles Marine National Park. In 2005, one of the largest and most intricate of the offshore sea stacks crumpled into dust in front of a watching family

      It's still very impressive to see.

  13. Apr 2018
    1. We know what it is for men to live without government

      Bentham's view of "state of nature" aligns nicely with Hobbes. It would be useful to remind students of the way in which the vision of "State of Nature" leads to conclusions regarding what Social Contract should be. I would ask students who Madison might agree with, or at least who he seems to have taken into consideration. ( "If men were perfect . . .")

    1. Theskyitself,shecouldnothelpthinking,hadchanged.Itwasnolongersothick,sowatery,soprismaticnowthatKingEdward--see,therehewas,steppingoutofhisneatbroughamtogoandvisitacertainladyopposite--hadsucceededQueenVictoria.Thecloudshadshrunktoathingauze;theskyseemedmadeofmetal,whichinhotweathertarnishedverdigris,coppercolourororangeasmetaldoesinafog.Itwasalittlealarming--thisshrinkage.

      I found this interesting how the weather changed so quickly after King Edward took over the throne from Queen Victoria. As we know from the start of Chapter 5, the Victorian era was dark and gloomy. Now that it is a new chapter, it goes onto another era in time, when King Edward takes the power. With the rise of a new era, it also is a new birth for a brighter future and the country is becoming more and more modernized, but this is not really the case. This is interesting because how rapid the change is able to take place, showing how fast time is passing. The new era is completely different from the one before, contrasting with the Victorian times, as described by the biographer in this section, everything was brighter and the sky is no longer filled with gloomy cloud, but instead metals. The light serves as a guide for the people to move forward when the women were in aprons, showing how gender roles are changing. On the other hand, we associate light with something positive, but during this time,things were also shrink in size, like the amount of fertilized plants and family sizes.

  14. Nov 2017
    1. improves what in his nature was vicious & perverse, into qualities of virtue and social worth;

      The writers of this document seem to view education not only as a means of expanding one's knowledge but as a means of improving one's inherent nature from one of evil and corruption to one of goodness and virtue. I find this notion classist and fallacious, as it seems to suggest that those who are not educated (including those who cannot afford education) are inherently worse as people than those who are educated and also that education can fundamentally change who a person is.

  15. Oct 2017
    1. Education, in like manner engrafts a new man on the native stock, & improves what in his nature was vicious & perverse

      This section reminded me of the philosophy of Thomas Hobbes who believed the nature of man is inherently bad and the purpose of government and education is to control man's selfish desires. In my opinion, I side more with John Locke's philosophy that the nature of man is inherently good but society is corrupted by certain negative people. Education's purpose should be to remind people of their virtuous nature and not become distracted by the inequalities and failures of society.

  16. Aug 2017
    1. Art made a myrrhour, to behold my plight

      The wrath of winter reflected his sadness

    2. Winters wastful spight was almost spent

      When the snow from winter has almost vanished

  17. Jul 2017
    1. “Libraries find the majority of their budgets are taken up by a few large publishers,” says David Hoole, director of brand marketing and institutional relations at NPG

      How old is this article? David hasn't been there for years...

    1. By the end of his research, Leclaire was left in no doubt. For him, “athletic performance is largely determined by genetics and specifically ACTN3, the so-called ‘sprint gene’”. The ACTN3 was discovered for the first time by a team of Australian researchers in 2003. It is a gene present in all humans in two forms, either the RR form which helps speed, or the RX form which aids endurance. “Since its discovery, a lot of research has shown that the RR form of the gene gives those who hold it explosive muscle power when the body is put under a certain amount of physical stress, so it’s a natural predisposition for sprinters,” Leclaire explained. “If you had a weak form of ACTN 3, it would be impossible to match the great sprinters,” he said. Leclaire concluded that the genes favourable for sprinting are more commonly found in those of West African origin. There are exceptions, of course, which explains how French sprinter Lemaitre has been able to compete in the same class as the likes of Bolt and fellow Jamaican sprinter Yohan Blake. “Lemaitre posesses the same genetic combinations that you find in most of the athletes of West African origin. He is the exception that confirms the rule,” Leclaire said. East Africa, by contrast, is the land of the long-distance runner. Author John Entine believes genetics also explains the continuing supremacy of Kenya’s runners in long distance races. “They are short and slender with huge natural lung capacity and a preponderance of slow twitch muscles, the energy system for endurance sports,” Entine wrote on the website blackathlete.net. “It’s a perfect biomechanical package for long-distance running but a disaster for sports that require anaerobic bursts of speed.”
    2. The director of the Copenhagen Muscle Research Institute, Bengt Saltin, believes an athlete's “environment” can account for 20 to 25 percent of his speed, but that the rest is down to birth.
    1. Avid lovers of books and nature, they conspired to marry the two in a vast library woven into the Western landscape — a literary refuge where patrons could spend the night among the books, attend lectures and maybe catch a trout.

      Sounds cool, and I don't even like the outdoors...

  18. May 2017
    1. Dramatic cell phone footage captured the startling moment that a sea lion grabbed a young girl’s dress and pulled her into the water at a harbor in Canada.

      Don't feed the wild animals, please!

    1. Here's a night pities neither wise KL III.ii.13  men nor fools.

      The storm tonight is merciful to none--not wise men, nor fools.

    2. Blow, winds, and crack your cheeks! Rage! Blow! KL III.ii.2  You cataracts and hurricanoes, spout hurricano (n.) water-spout KL III.ii.3  Till you have drenched our steeples, drowned the cocks! cock (n.) 1 weathercock KL III.ii.4  You sulphurous and thought-executing fires, thought-executing (adj.) acting as fast as thought; or: thought-destroying KL III.ii.5  Vaunt-curriers of oak-cleaving thunderbolts, vaunt-currier (n.) forerunner, announcer, herald KL III.ii.6  Singe my white head! And thou all-shaking thunder, KL III.ii.7  Smite flat the thick rotundity o'the world, KL III.ii.8  Crack Nature's moulds, all germens spill at once germen (n.) seed, life-forming elements spill (v.) destroy, overthrow KL III.ii.9  That makes ingrateful man!

      Facing the music

    1. That sir which serves and seeks for gain, sir (n.) 1 man, person, individual KL II.iv.75  And follows but for form, form (n.) 8 physical appearance, outward appearance KL II.iv.76  Will pack when it begins to rain, pack (v.) 1 take [oneself] off, be off, depart KL II.iv.77  And leave thee in the storm

      funny, literal foreshadowing. This fool ends up in a storm with King Lear.

    1. Here stood he in the dark, his sharp sword out, KL II.i.38  Mumbling of wicked charms, conjuring the moon KL II.i.39.1  To stand auspicious mistress.
    1. Hear, Nature, hear! Dear goddess, hear! KL I.iv.273  Suspend thy purpose if thou didst intend purpose (n.) 1 intention, aim, plan See Topics: Frequency count KL I.iv.274  To make this creature fruitful. KL I.iv.275  Into her womb convey sterility, KL I.iv.276  Dry up in her the organs of increase, KL I.iv.277  And from her derogate body never spring derogate (adj.) degenerate, debased, degraded KL I.iv.278  A babe to honour her. I
    1. My father compounded with my mother under the compound (v.) 4 mix, mingle, combine KL I.ii.129  Dragon's tail, and my nativity was under Ursa Major, so dragon's tail [astrology] intersection of the orbit of the descending moon and that of the sun [associated with lechery] See Topics: Cosmos KL I.ii.130  that it follows I am rough and lecherous

      taking astrology to the other fucking level, my dude. Allows that to determine his destiny. Fuck. Not cool. nature determines your nature determines your destiny

    2. This is the excellent foppery of the world, that excellent (adj.) 2 [in a bad or neutral sense] exceptionally great, supreme, extreme foppery (n.) 1 folly, foolishness, stupidity KL I.ii.119  when we are sick in fortune – often the surfeits of our surfeit (n.) 2 sickness brought on by excess KL I.ii.120  own behaviour – we make guilty of our disasters the sun, guilty (adj.) 2 responsible [for], answerable [for] KL I.ii.121  the moon, and stars, as if we were villains on necessity, KL I.ii.122  fools by heavenly compulsion, knaves, thieves, and knave (n.) 1 scoundrel, rascal, rogue See Topics: Frequency count KL I.ii.123  treachers by spherical predominance, drunkards, liars, predominance (n.) ascendancy, predominant influence, authority spherical (adj.) of the spheres [stars], planetary treacher (n.) traitor, deceiver, cheat KL I.ii.124  and adulterers by an enforced obedience of planetary KL I.ii.125  influence

      Natural progression of things means we are naturally evil?

    1. consuming use

      Berger uses the term "non consuming use" to define activities in the wilderness that do not have a lasting impact on nature. He talks about how these non consuming acts are practiced by the Native People and some recreational activities. He contrasts this with the idea that commercial industry exploits the wilderness in a way that permanently affects it. An interesting example to look at here is commercial hunting and fishing practices in the North compared to recreational and indigenous ones. Commercial hunting and fishing operations does not have a decorated history in the Arctic. Whaling practices have led to the collapse of the North Atlantic Right whale which was at one point considered to be the most abundant species in the Arctic. As of today "it is arguably the most threatened large cetacean in the Atlantic Ocean, if not the world, with an estimated minimum population size of 313 animals." This dramatic decrease in population is not only seen in whales but also in many common fish species in the area as well. In 1992 there was a moratorium put on cod fishing in Canada because the population was so over harvested that there was only a few schools left in the ocean. Both of these situation brought a lot of economic hard ship to fishing regions in Canada that relied on these populations for work. The irony in this situation comes from how the large scale fishing operations caused a ban for indigenous populations too even for their comparatively miniscule action.

      Parsons, E.C.M., J. Patrick Rice, and Laleh Sadeghi. "Awareness of whale conservation status and whaling policy in the US--a preliminary study on American Youth." Anthrozoos 23, no. 2 (2010): 119+. Global Reference on the Environment, Energy, and Natural Resources (accessed May 8, 2017).

    2. wilderness

      Wilderness is a very vague term that get used a lot in this chapter. Berger uses the definition which is “A wilderness, in contrast with those areas where man and his own works dominate the landscape, is hereby recognized as an area where the earth and its community of life are untrammeled by man, where man himself is a visitor who does not remain.” This definition covers the technical and legal definition of wilderness, but wilderness has many meanings that has changed over time. Before modern technology, the wilderness was a place that was dangerous and unforgiving. Because of this perception of the wild, there was a sense of masculinity to travelling in the through it. Even today this idea manifests in pop culture as shows such a Man vs Wild are still popular that focus on humans overcoming the elements in the wilderness. However, wilderness has a even deeper meaning than that. There has been a spiritual element to the wilderness that has been integral to North American society for centuries. From the Pilgrims to Thomas Cole to Thoreau to John Muir to Bob Marshall to Aldo Leopold, the spiritual aspect of the wild led these men on philosophical movements. John Nagle argues "the spiritual benefit which people receive from a stay in the wilderness is not a tangible item, but it must be an important consideration in legislation of America is truly dedicated to a somewhat idealistic sense of values." This notion has been seen throughout history as there was a clear sense of spirituality recognized when the Wilderness Act of 1964 was passed. Nagle, John Copeland. "The spiritual values of wilderness." Environmental Law, Fall 2005, p. 955+. Global Reference on the Environment, Energy, and Natural Resources, find.galegroup.com/grnr/infomark.do?&source=gale&idigest=6f8f4a3faafd67e66fa023866730b0a1&prodId=GRNR&userGroupName=bucknell_it&tabID=T002&docId=A141802024&type=retrieve&PDFRange=%5B%5D&contentSet=IAC-Documents&version=1.0. Accessed 6 May 2017.

    3. Alberta-British Columbia

      Alberta-British Columbia is a region in south western Canada. This region is where the proposed pipeline would be travelling through to get to the lower parts of Canada and Vancouver as well as the United States. This region is home to foothill forests which are very interesting ecosystem that is only found at this latitude. The foothill forests border the Canadian taiga forests from the north and the temperate forests from the south. This combination makes the foothill forests a very unique community which is known as an ecotone because it works as a buffer in between two other ecosystems. This ecosystem is home to a variety of fauna such as moose, reindeers, snowshoe hares, and beavers. This area is home to the most abundant moose populations in the world. Forests have become increasingly vulnerable to mortality due to the direct and indirect effects of climate change and human activity. "In Western Canada, recent increases in the frequency and severity of natural disturbances in forests, such as wildfires, pest outbreaks, and droughts, have been attributed to a changing climate" Like many other ecosystems in the north, the foothill forests are facing major problems due to climate change. Moose populations are dropping due to new diseases that are prevalent because of the warmer year round temperatures. This phenomenon is being experienced all over the northern part of the United States and southern Canada.

      Hajjar, Reem, and Robert A. Kozak. "Exploring public perceptions of forest adaptation strategies in Western Canada: Implications for policy-makers." Forest Policy and Economics 61 (2015): 59+. Global Reference on the Environment, Energy, and Natural Resources (accessed May 6, 2017). http://find.galegroup.com/grnr/infomark.do?&source=gale&idigest=6f8f4a3faafd67e66fa023866730b0a1&prodId=GRNR&userGroupName=bucknell_it&tabID=T002&docId=A437244896&type=retrieve&PDFRange=%5B%5D&contentSet=IAC-Documents&version=1.0.

    4. rare and endangered species

      Similar to the United States, Canada has the Species as Risk act. This act is was published in 2002 and is intended to protect any species that is being threatened in Canada. Many of the species on the list are endangered due to human activity in the area. In February 2017, "Eighteen species were recently added or reclassified under Schedule 1 of the Species at Risk Act because of threats to their recovery and survival, including habitat loss, degradation and fragmentation; changes to land use and human activity; climate change (variability, unpredictability, severe storms); and invasive species." Many of these species are different types of birds found in Western Canada. The recent increase of human activity in western Canada has led to a lot of habitat loss for these birds as humans continue to cut down forests and pollute the area. However, not just birds are being threatened in Canada. The Collared Pika was recently added to the Species at Risk Act. The collared pika is a small mammal similar to a rabbit that has being endangered due to habitat loss. The situation with the collared pika is an important one because the Canadian distribution takes up about half of its global range. The pika is a good example of what Berger is referring to about species that do not need wilderness habitat but are being pushed to extinction by humans. Canada overall has their hands full with conserving the biodiversity in the country with all of the invasive oil techniques that are being applied. "Canada : Amendments involving 18 species under the Species at Risk Act." Mena Report, February 28, 2017. Global Reference on the Environment, Energy, and Natural Resources (accessed May 6, 2017). http://find.galegroup.com/grnr/infomark.do?&source=gale&idigest=6f8f4a3faafd67e66fa023866730b0a1&prodId=GRNR&userGroupName=bucknell_it&tabID=T004&docId=A483932721&type=retrieve&PDFRange=%5B%5D&contentSet=IAC-Documents&version=1.0.

    5. 1964 of the Wilderness Act

      In this context, Berger is using the Wilderness Act to reference how wilderness is defined. This is a very famous definition for the eloquent way the wilderness is described. "A wilderness, in contrast with those areas where man and his own works dominate the landscape, is hereby recognized as an area where the earth and its community of life are untrammeled by man, where man himself is a visitor who does not remain.” After many drafts and eight years of work the Wilderness Act was signed in 1964 by President Lyndon B. Johnson. Since the passage of this act there has been much debate about what land is "wilderness" and what should be done with this land. The main reason for the act is to protect these lands from development and industrialization. But another part of the reason was to increase recreational use of this land such as hiking, canoeing and fishing. "Over the decades an obvious contradiction has emerged between preservation and access." The National Forest Service is reluctant to put up signs and other infrastructure in these areas because it goes against the foremost goal of this act. Unfortunately, this is causing safety concerns for recreationists. Overall the Wilderness Act has made over 170,000 square miles into "wilderness" and has protect this land for the last half century. Gourlie, Don. "The Wilderness Act at 50." Environmental Law, Spring 2014, 285+. Global Reference on the Environment, Energy, and Natural Resources (accessed May 6, 2017). http://find.galegroup.com/grnr/infomark.do?&source=gale&idigest=6f8f4a3faafd67e66fa023866730b0a1&prodId=GRNR&userGroupName=bucknell_it&tabID=T002&docId=A375290680&type=retrieve&PDFRange=%5B%5D&contentSet=IAC-Documents&version=1.0.

    6. Sequoia National Park

      Sequoia National Park is a large land reserve in southern California which is home to the Sequoia National Forest. This forest is home to five out of the ten largest trees in the world and contains the single largest tree known as the General Sherman Tree. General Sherman stands at a whopping 275ft and a 14ft diameter at the middle of the tree. Sequoia National Park was founded in 1890 and was part of the initial effort to create more national parks to conserve the different habitats and ecosystems in the United States. The mission of the national parks was to bring awareness of the beauty of our environment. National parks were created to have designated areas that were set aside for humans to enjoy in a natural state. This concept still holds true today in parks as research shows "that this wilderness, in contrast to where most visitors live, is highly valued for clean air and water, natural sounds, low density of people, lack of motorized noise, and where evidence of human influence is relatively unnoticeable." Sequoia and other national parks around it are a large source of eco-tourism in the area. Eco-tourism is becoming a more prevalent force in the world today and some countries such as Costa Rica have much of their entire economy built on it.

      Watson A, Martin S, Christensen N, Fauth G, Williams D. The Relationship Between Perceptions of Wilderness Character and Attitudes Toward Management Intervention to Adapt Biophysical Resources to a Changing Climate and Nature Restoration at Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks. Environmental Management [serial online]. Septe](http://insert-your-link-here.com))mber 2015;56(3):653-663. Available from: GreenFILE, Ipswich, MA. Accessed April 25, 2017.

  19. Apr 2017
    1. (like “nature itself,” notmerely our representations of it!) has a history

      RE: "Nature itself" having a history

      Nathaniel's in-class comments last week were very helpful to hear prior to the readings this week. It is particularly helpful to consider the paradox that some folks want to protect the Earth from humans and somehow return it to a point "before humans," as though the Earth exists outside of humans and we are pure agents acting upon it. (Which is where we get things like this video that has been going around Facebook because of Earth Day:) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=49w7GHVYoI0

      This video pretends the Earth is an agent, but it actually only reflecting human actions back on humans. There is an underlying argument that our relationship to the planet is only the things we do to it and not all the other relationships and existences on and in it.

    1. Yellowstone National Park

      Yellowstone National Park is a large land reserve in the American west that extends into Wyoming, Idaho, and Montana. Yellowstone is very well known for its incredible geology and wildlife. Yellowstone National Park is built on top of a ancient super volcano that causes interesting geological phenomena like geysers and hot springs. Furthermore, Yellowstone has very diverse wildlife that ranges from wolves to American bison to elk populations. Yellowstone was the first ever National Park in the world as it was established in 1872 by President Ulysses S. Grant. The original initiative for national parks came from the idea for people to leave areas of great natural beauty to be left alone and enjoyed by everyone. Though the first national park, the development of Yellowstone stared a theme of conservation and preservation that spread throughout the country. Even to this day, Yellowstone stands as a prime example of environmental preservation because of their ever expanding American Bison population as well as wolf populations. This can be seen even as early as last year as the Obama administration placed a ban on mining in an area near Yellowstone saying, "Today's action helps ensure that Yellowstone's watershed, wildlife and the tourism-based economy of local communities will not be threatened by the impact of mineral development."

      Dennis, Brady. "Obama administration moves to block mining near Yellowstone." Washington Post, November 21, 2016. Global Reference on the Environment, Energy, and Natural Resources (accessed April 10, 2017). http://find.galegroup.com/grnr/infomark.do?&source=gale&idigest=6f8f4a3faafd67e66fa023866730b0a1&prodId=GRNR&userGroupName=bucknell_it&tabID=T004&docId=CJ470939393&type=retrieve&PDFRange=%5B%5D&contentSet=IAC-Documents&version=1.0

    2. dust-bowl

      The dust bowl is a geographic region in the United States centralized in the panhandle of Oklahoma and northern part of Texas that extends to surrounding states like Kansas and New Mexico. The dust bowl is infamous for experiencing a severe drought for almost a decade in the 1930's. In addition to the drought, decades of poor farming practices led the top soil to be overused and low in nutrients. Because of these compounding problems, crops were not able to be grown in this region which forced tens of thousands of farming families to move away. The drought in the dust bowl could not have come at a worse time as it occurred during the Great Depression. With an already struggling economy, food supplies were severely reduced nationwide leading to even more struggle. "This convergence of geophysical and anthropogenic factors conspired to create what is arguably the most severe long-term human ecological crisis the USA has seen.” An iconic part of the dust bowl were the intense dust storms that were experienced because of the loose top soil and high power winds. These storms were know as black blizzards as they covered the sky in dust and blackened everything. These dust storms reached all the way to areas of the East coast.

      Porter, Jess. 2014. "What was the Dust Bowl? Assessing contemporary popular knowledge." Population & Environment 35, no. 4: 391-416. GreenFILE, EBSCOhost (accessed April 10, 2017).

    3. The buffalo herds, estimated to number about 75 million, were reduced in only a few decades to a few hundred survivors

      American buffalo also known as bison were at one point the thought to be the most abundant mammal living in North America. They have been reported to grow up to 6 feet tall and weigh over 2000 pounds. Buffalo, in the wild, are indigenous to the Great Plains region of North America but lived all throughout the continent all the way into Canada and Alaska. This massive animals played an essential role in for many Native American populations throughout history. In the 19th centuries mass hunting of these animals began with the use of horses and rifles. Before this hunting it was reported that one would be able to see entire parries filled with millions of these animals. Over the course of the century, reckless hunting of bison led to a massive collapse of their population. There was many different reasons for their hunting ranging from sport hunting, to killing them to hurt the Native American populations that heavily relied upon them. The American Buffalo has become a symbol of conservation and there has been an ongoing effort to try and rebuild their populations. Recently they were named as the official mammal of the United States as "the bison is North Americas largest land animal the embodiment of American strength, resilience and the nations pioneer spirit.” Many national parks including Yellowstone have protected bison populations that have been steadily growing over the last decades.

      "American bison designated national mammal of U.S." St Louis Post-Dispatch [MO], November 24, 2016, A17. Global Reference on the Environment, Energy, and Natural Resources (accessed April 10, 2017). http://find.galegroup.com/grnr/infomark.do?&source=gale&idigest=6f8f4a3faafd67e66fa023866730b0a1&prodId=GRNR&userGroupName=bucknell_it&tabID=T004&docId=CJ471488256&type=retrieve&PDFRange=%5B%5D&contentSet=IAC-Documents&version=1.0..

  20. Mar 2017
    1. It was lovely to smell the toast in a university classroom.  

      learning space

    2. I wandered out of the classroom into the nature on the campus.  I felt the warmth of the Indian Summer on my back, I sat down on the grass.  

      nature ecosystem

    1. I bid them well with their renovation work of their crumbling edifice. I am on the beach listening to the waves
    2. I am still an outsider running an underground railway and I am needing folks to guide me: is this connectedcourses System A or a well-disguised System B.

      Both. These are not railway tracks they are intermingled and confusing networks - undergrowth and cash crops

    1. When should the three of us meet again? Will it be in thunder, lightning, or rain

      They are deciding in what weather they should rather meet

  21. Feb 2017
    1. The predominant feelings have by use trained the intellect to represent them.

      Another connection with Blair, here. Though while Blair identifies a universal nature to attune to, Spencer sees a number of natures, but they are still naturally correct for their particular circumstance.

    1. These words used lo trouble them; they would express for me the liveliest sympathy, and console me with the hope that something would occur by which I might be free

      Douglass really underscores how there's no natural basis for slavery, that it requires instruction and reinforcement at every level. This seems to fit well with Locke, who would be similarly opposed (perhaps not to the same degree) to the dominant arguments that slavery was a natural function.

    1. Gothic architec-ture

      Somewhat related text on this point: Ruskin's Stones of Venice describes Gothic architecture as the best architecture because it is the closest to nature.

    2. hat among the learned it has long been a contested, and remains still an undecided point, whether nature or art confer most towards excelling in writing and discourse.

      Couldn't it be a combination of both? One has to be naturally comfortable speaking in front of others, but it is also necessary that they be trained in how to best do this.

  22. Jan 2017
    1. clear

      Her ideas that "nature is the best teacher of eloquence" and rules only help a little is tricky. It seems that Astell is proclaiming that there are natural characteristics which make women effective rhetorically, but women must also follow rules in order to adhere to their nature and speak eloquently?

  23. Dec 2016
    1. The large amount of available land in the midwestern and western United States lured families to seek new land when the soil became depleted. As a result of this, President Theodore Roosevelt called for a national sense of duty to the land during a 1908 White House Conservation Conference. However, it was not until the dust bowl disaster of the 1930s that major efforts to protect soil and water finally emerged.

      Theodore didn't get much attention until he negative effects like the dust bowl append

  24. Oct 2016
  25. teaching.lfhanley.net teaching.lfhanley.net
    1. The river sweats                Oil and tar

      Nature defiled by the unreal city

    2. In the mountains, there you feel free.

      Interesting break from the aforementioned cruelty that April brings. What is it about the mountains that generate that feeling of being free? Perhaps having nothing or nobody to disturb the peace and solitude found there. Maybe is suggests optimism or hopefulness such as was discussed in class with the discussion on specks of light. It briefly pulls away from the gloom by offering romanticism instead.

    3. deep sea swell

      nature as motif, for in class activity, interconnecting man with nature

    4. Unreal City, Under the brown fog of a winter dawn

    5. Or has the sudden frost disturbed its bed

      This line is significant because it implies the possibility of that the cycle of life can be disrupted not just by death, but also by natural processes that prevent rebirth.

    6. And other withered stumps of time

      This is another example of an image of a plant that cannot regenerate itself, which reminds us that it is possible for the cycle of life to be disrupted.

    7. The nymphs are departed. And their friends, the loitering heirs of city directors; Departed, have left no addresses.

      Nymphs are nature spirits, so for the nymphs (and even the city directors) to depart and leave no address implies that the cycle of life has been disrupted.

    8. Here is no water but only rock

      Water is necessary for the cycle of biological life. Take away water, and this cycle of life is disrupted, leaving only rock.

    9. Forgot the cry of gulls, and the deep sea swell

      This line is implying that we choose to forget the power of nature, and how it can destroy us in an instant. Even when nature tries to warn us itself.

    10. And the dead tree gives no shelter, the cricket no relief,

      Already this book is filled with lots of death but this line really stands out. He says it as if the tree should give shelter but a dead tree is weak and rotten.

    11. In the mountains, there you feel free.

      Interesting, because a snowy mountain is also a fairly desolate place (dead trees/plants, deadly stillness or harsh wind, untouched landscape, etc), but it is seen as beautiful instead of distasteful like the wasteland that Eliot describes.

    12. dried tubers.

      Merely surviving on the little bits of life that still exist during the winter. Feeding on mainly potatoes and whatever else can be found.

    13. old man with wrinkled dugs

      The term which is repeated often, "jugs" is the same as "dugs" in it's reference to female breasts. This once again touches upon not only Apollo's clairvoyant prophet, but the concept of life and nourishment.

    14. forgetful snow,

      When i hear this i think of death but also wiped out memories. I remembered seeing in a movie that after the snow this boys memory of a girl was wiped clean. The snow melts after a while which results in it being forgetful because it docent stay for that long. Almost like a memory being lost or a lost of life.

    15. The river’s tent is broken:

      I cannot help but think of a tree branch hovering over the river. its a good image of that because that was the first thing that came to mind.

    16. But sound of water over a rock

      I just got the idea of what if the water over a rock is a waterfall and the waterfall is the thunder described.

    17. Dead mountain mouth of carious teeth that cannot spit Here one can neither stand nor lie nor sit There is not even silence in the mountains

      These dry summer mountains are so different from the sheltering winter mountains in the beginning of the poem. The mountain is dead, and still able to work destruction even with "teeth that cannot spit." We get away from death by water and leap into the jaws of death by thirst...escaping the misery is impossible.

    18. April is the cruellest month

      I always saw April as one of the more beautiful months. But sometimes beauty is the greatest cause of pain for those who can't relate to it.

    19. White bodies naked on the low damp ground

      Are the bodies being considered as angels?

    20. the violet hour

      the sky at dusk

    21. nightingale

      the nightingale, or the bird that Philomel becomes.

    22. And the dead tree gives no shelter, the cricket no relief, And the dry stone no sound of water. Only There is shadow under this red rock,

      This part of the poem is creating a contrast with nature because we usually see objects of nature as something lively, but here they are being represented as something lifeless.

    23. And dry grass singing

      Dry grass to me seems so lifeless, basically dead. But as the stanza before, this is like pairing opposites. If dry grass does sing, I imagine it's a sad song.

  26. Jul 2016
    1. Page 187 On hyper authorship

      "hyper authorship” is an indicator of "collective cognition" in which the specific contributions of individuals no longer can be identified. Physics has among the highest rates of coauthorship in the sciences and the highest rates of self archiving documents via a repository. Whether the relationship between research collaborators (as indicated by the rates of coauthorship) and sharing publications (as reflected in self archiving) holds in other fields is a question worth exploring empirically.

  27. Jun 2016
    1. Beaver and Rosen (1978) have shown how the differentialrates of scientific institutionalization in France, England,and Germany are mirrored in the relative output of coau-thored papers.

      bibliography tying rate of coauthorship to professionalisation of science

    2. In some domains, path-breaking work is nec-essarily the outcome of collaborative activity rather thanindividualistic scholarship, a fact reflected in the modestproportion of federal research funds which is allocated toindividual investigators rather than teams. Collaborationsare a necessary feature of much, though by no means all,contemporary scientific research.

      in some domains, collaboration is necessary. Hence the preference for team grants

    3. n general terms, the lone authorstereotype ignores the fact that a great deal of the scholarlyliterature is the product of a “socio-technical production andcommunications network” (Kling, McKim, Fortuna, &King, 1999),

      A great deal of scientific production is the product of a "socio-technical production and communications network"

  28. May 2016
    1. Now you may not even yet know I AM, or believe that I AM really you, or that I AM likewiseyour brother and your sister, and that you are all parts of Me and One with Me.You may not realize that the Souls of you and your brother and sister, the only real andimperishable parts of the mortal you, are but different phases of Me in expression in what iscalled Nature.Likewise you may not realize that you and your brothers and sisters are phases or attributes ofMy Divine Nature, just as your human personality, with its mortal body, mind and intellect, is aphase of your human nature.No, you do not realize this yet, but I speak of it now, that you may know the signs when theybegin to appear in your consciousness, as they surely will.In order to recognize these signs, all that now follows must be considered carefully and studied,and should not be passed by until My meaning, at least in some degree, is grasped.Once you fully understand the principle I here set down, then all My Message will become clearand comprehensible

      This part encourages that even if I do not know yet what this text is sharing it is important to have some understanding so as I may recognise the signs when they do occur.

  29. Dec 2015
    1. self-acting

      We're essentially creating things on purpose that are going to have the ability to make their own decisions, possibly be smarter than us, and also have a chance of malfunctioning... Why?

    2. a sophisticated creation thatseems to simultaneously extend but also threaten our understanding of what it means tobe human.

      So if it threatens our understanding of what it means to be human.. is that beneficial to our ongoing research of essentially what makes us humans by constantly pushing our understanding to be deeper? or is harmful and uprooting of the interpersonal/cultural norms we've established?

  30. Nov 2015
    1. If there were only water amongst the rock Dead mountain mouth of carious teeth that cannot spit

      The Mountain passage continues Eliot’s theme of Nature and the effects of human pollution upon it. This instance has a more distinct visual of man’s impact on the world that surrounds us. It focuses not so much on contrasting dirty vs. clean imagery, but on the disfiguration of nature. The “Dead mountain” suggests human intervention as it and the surround lines seem to bring to mind imagery of mining within the mountains. In the line on 385, it evokes this with the line: “In this decayed hole among the mountains”. This could be a reference to how we would mine mountains by either blowing them up or digging holes right through them. This hole could be a result of this human intervention.

      Image Description Image Description

      The pollution of nature is seen on the line preceding the dead mountains. Eliot notes how there is no “water among the rock”. It suggests that by our tampering with nature we have driven the key element of life from this area: water. Without water, the life around the mountain will die, leading to Eliot calling it a “dead mountain”. This pattern can be seen a few times in the poem, the idea of a dead land not able to contain life. In line 23 and 24, Eliot states how “[…] the dead tree gives no shelter, the cricket no relief, And the dry stone no sound of water”. The broken mountain can give no protection to life. The dry rocks have no water, as the mountain’s “carious teeth that cannot spit”. Even with out rain there is still “dry sterile thunder” that cannot hurt the land due to it already being dead. As Eliot says, “There is not even solitude in the mountains”. When humans try to change nature, it can lead to disastrous consequences that destroy the land from even the simple pleasures of life and nature. This is not only disastrous for nature but come back to haunt humans as well.

    2. Under the brown fog of a winter dawn, A crowd flowed over London Bridge, so many, I had not thought death had undone so many.

      Image Description

      This passage continues Eliot’s motif of nature throughout the poem. However it does not present nature as pristine. The imagery of a cold winter fog is mixed in with a dirty brown fog, offering a strong contrast between nature and pollution. The “Brown Fog” seems to be a reference to the industrial revolution in Victorian London. During the time industrial pollution was rampant, especially due to the now iconic imagery of the smoke towers of factories around the city. It seems to suggest how humans cause pollution through our industry and our numbers. The brown fog is a result of the dirty smoke mixing in with the clean air, producing a dirty haze. However, we would only notice this contrast because it’s mixing with clean nature.

      In life we only seem to notice the effects of pollution when they begin to mix in and change the clean nature, giving us a way to contrast the dirty from the clean. Eliot is well aware of this and uses this to his advantage. He pairs the words and imagery together of “the brown fog” (the dirty) with “a winter dawn”, with winter evoking sterile white, clean imagery. Eliot’s poem works in a similar way. The contrast of Eliot’s techniques, poetic and non-poetic, stands out more when thrown in together. The broken pieces of the poem would not be as noticeable if they were separated into their own short little poems. However the fragmented nature of the poem is more noticeable when it is mixed together, contrasting much like clean nature highlights pollution.

      Another interesting note is how directly after the mention of a brown fog, Eliot mentions, “a crowd flowed over London Bridge, so many, I had not though death had undone so many”. The rapid growth of humans seems to be creating a different form of pollution. While their actions effect nature, the growth of the population could be affecting the city itself. Perhaps its meant to suggest the larger crowds dirtying the city like the fog dirties the air. Perhaps the crowd pollutes the city by another means? The line “I had not though death had undone so many” makes the crowd seem like walking corpses. However, Elliot might be suggesting that the crowds are only behaving like corpses. As the city grows, so does society and they way people act in a big city is far different from a small town. Society makes the crowd behave a certain way, polluting their individualism into something the fits in line more with society. Elliot sees them as being “undone” because they have been polluted by society.

      Image Description

    3. April is the cruellest month, breeding Lilacs out of the dead land, mixing Memory and desire, stirring Dull roots with spring rain. Winter kept us warm, covering          5 Earth in forgetful snow, feeding A little life with dried tubers.

      Dead land, dull roots, dried tubers. These are all images of dead or dying nature. However, in the winter this is not visible. Because in the winter, everything is covered in forgetful snow. The snow covers the land and hides all the broken and dead images under its snow-white blanket. White is the color of innocence. As long ans the land is covered in snow pollution seems to be non existent or at least forgotten for some time.

      However, as soon as the snow melts, the cruel reality shows its face again. That is why April is described as the cruelest of all months. It is the month that confronts mankind with the damages it has done to nature. Over the winter men could forget about pollution, because they could not see it as well as in the other seasons, when it was not covered by “forgetful snow”. Now that it melts the dull roots, and the dead land become visible again. Image Description Memory and desire get mixed. The memory of pollution and the desire that it was not there. But it is and April shows it, when it start waking up the dying land. The “spring rain” washes away the “forgetful snow” and confronts people with their hidden secrets. Nothings stays hidden forever.

      The poem, therefore, starts with a relevation of pollution by the melting snow. As the poem goes on it explores and examines this relevation of pollution further.

  31. Oct 2015
    1. The river sweats Oil and tar

      Eliot explores the themes of nature and non-nature, focusing specifically within the themes on the motif of pollution. Pollution exists as the link between nature and non-nature. In this case the “river” signifies nature whilst “Oil and tar” signify non-nature. It is only through spoiling nature, that “Oil and tar” become pollution. Image Description Eliot successfully captures the industrial state of America during the 1920s through the motif of pollution. Due to the huge boom in industry, more and more waste was subsequently created. Eliot effectively forms a commentary on the negative ways in which society therefore spoils nature through the waste and by-products it creates. Image Description The image of pollution spreading throughout water is particularly effective as it suggests how pollution formed by society becomes almost uncontainable after it has been created. As “Oil and tar” continue to spread further down the river, pollution too continues to spread, spoiling nature and leaving it in a state of ruin.

      Additionally through Eliot’s choice of oil and tar as the materials to represent pollution he emphasises the extreme nature and impact that society has upon nature. As the process of removing oil and tar from water is particularly challenging, Eliot suggests the severe significance of the pollution created by society, even perhaps proposing its irreversible nature.

      The motif of pollution runs throughout the poem however it could also be said that the poem itself is polluted. The poem being a combination of fragments appears almost jumbled together, each stanza different to another. Pollution in the form of waste or rubbish is jumbled together in a similar way, each fragment within the poem can therefore be interpreted as a different piece of waste that collectively forms pollution.

    2. That corpse you planted last year in your garden,

      A corpse flower is a certain sort of flower. With this meaning, the sentence could be read literally as a question about the flowers the person planted. However, there is a double meaning in this line. Corpse can also mean “dead body”. A dead body is a impurfying entity. A possible interpretation of this line would, therefore, be that mankind even pollutes their self-created nature by burying dead bodies in their gardens.

      Gardens are a symbol of men wanting to dominate and control nature. They appear several times in the poem. There is the Hyacinth garden, there are the gardens with the frosty silence and other gardens in the Unreal City. In the form of these gardens, men create their own nature, within their range of control. Gardens are orderly and beautiful and predictable. Nature outside of gardens, real nature, however, is anything but predictable. It can be harsh and cruel and deadly. These features are taken from it, when creating gardens. Gardens are some kind of “fake nature”, that only present the good features of nature. They are not threatening. They should be beautiful and pure.

      Pollution, however, does not make a exception for them. Mankind is, therefore, even polluting their own creation. They are not only polluting the wild, untamable nature outside of their control, but also their very own gardens. Pollution is slowly turning all kinds of nature, no matter whether inside or outside of society, into a Wasteland.

      The dead body is, furthermore, polluting not only nature but society as well. Gardens are part of domesticity, the household of a person. By burying a dead body in ones household, this household or domestic realm of a person gets polluted and contaminated.

      This line is also connected to the very opening of the poem: “April is the cruelest month”. In April the first flowers start to sprout, the snow that covers everything in forgetfulness and hides the secrets and sins of everyone, is melting and leaves behind the cruel reality. Pollution becomes visible in April, because there is no longer snow to cover it and everything that had be buried comes back to the surface.

  32. teaching.lfhanley.net teaching.lfhanley.net
    1. The river sweats                Oil and tar
    2. The road winding above among the mountains Which are mountains of rock without water If there were water we should stop and drink Amongst the rock one cannot stop or think
    3. In this decayed hole among the mountains In the faint moonlight, the grass is singing

      Perhaps another example of human impact on the natural world?

    4. Who are those hooded hordes swarming Over endless plains, stumbling in cracked earth

      I feel like this subtly captures the natural world vs. modern world hints we discussed last class.

    5. exhausted wells

      Another hint to water shortage.

    6. But there is no wate

      Water is an important motif in "The Wasteland". It is one representation of nature and now by the end of the poem it seems to have run out. There is no water left. Earlier in the poem the pollution of water is described, the power of water to take a human life. Water is the most valuable good on earth. Without water there would be no life. Maybe Eliot is hinting to the wast of water and the danger that having no water would oppose to human society.

    7. brown fog

      this image reminds me of the smog that covers some big cities. Emissions pollute the air and accumulate in a cloud of brown fog above the roofs of the city. The Unreal city is causing pollution and destroying nature.

    8. empty bottles, sandwich papers, Silk handkerchiefs, cardboard boxes, cigarette ends Or other testimony of summer nights.

      The wast of society polluting the river and nature in general.

    9. Thunder Said

      Persinification of thunder. nature gets personified

    10. river’s tent

      Interesting imagery here. Under what kind of tent did the river exist/dwell?

    11. Above the antique mantel was displayed As though a window gave upon the sylvan scene

      Rather than a real, natural sylvan scene seen through a window, an image of a natural scene unnaturally depicted in a painting hanging in a wholly unnatural, sumptuously decorated room - material objects/displays of wealth used as a substitute for nature here.

    12. violet light

      Makes me think of UV-rays

    13. gardens
    14. human engine
    15. vegetation
    16. What is the city over the mountains Cracks and reforms and bursts in the violet air Falling towers
    17. Trams and dusty trees.
    18. cicada
    19. spoke the thunder
    20. ungle crouched
    21. the cry of gulls, and the deep sea swell

      the power of nature to take lives.

    22. automatic

      this description reminds me of a roboter hand.

    23. Metropole
    24. wind under the door.

      nature invading non-nature, or maybe the door keeps the wind (nature) outside.

    25. nightingale Filled all the desert with inviolable voice
    26. synthetic

      synthetic is unnatural

    27. The river sweats                Oil and tar
    28. the last fingers of leaf Clutch and sink into the wet bank

      Is it autumn when leaves fall off trees?

  33. Sep 2015
  34. Aug 2015
    1. In nature, everything evolves, adapts, grows, blooms, degrades, dies, gets absorbed, reused.
  35. May 2015
  36. Apr 2015
    1. Name /yal05/27282_u00 01/27/06 10:25AM Plate # 0-Composite pg 6 # 6  1 0  1 “Human nature is not a machine to be built after a model, and set to do exactly the work prescribed for it, but a tree, which requires to grow and develop itself on all sides, according to the tendency of the inward forces which make it a living thing.” “Such are the differences among human beings in their sources of plea- sure, their susceptibilities of pain, and the operation on them of differ- ent physical and moral agencies, that unless there is a corresponding di- versity in their modes of life, they neither obtain their fair share of happiness, nor grow up to the mental, moral, and aesthetic stature of which their nature is capable.” JohnStuartMill, On Liberty (1859
  37. Feb 2014
  38. Nov 2013
    1. But at the same time, from boredom and necessity, man wishes to exist socially and with the herd; therefore, he needs to make peace and strives accordingly to banish from his world at least the most flagrant bellum omni contra omnes

      This isn't a wish, it's a property of our evolution. We evolved in a social world as well as a physical world. As a social primate, it's something we do naturally. OH SHIT, NATURE!

    2. . And when it is all over with the human intellect, nothing will have happened.

      This is so darkly true. We tend to praise our impact on the world, but it's very much something we believe to be true, but is not. If human kind disappeared tomorrow, the Earth would be back to awesome in about 500 years (I think, there is a whole book about this. Correct this if you have read the book and recall better than I).

  39. Oct 2013
    1. As birds are born to fly, horses to run, and wild beasts to show fierceness, so to us peculiarly belong activity and sagacity of understanding; hence the origin of the mind is thought to be from heaven.

      Although are all birds as good as flying as the others and horses at running? There has to be some variance, and not from lack of repetition. In the same line of reasoning, even if all men were born to "activity and sagacity of understanding," some must have more innate gifts with it. The rest of this paragraph seems to credit persistence with progress, but nature does play at least some sort of role. After all, we can't all be basketball players, no matter how hard we try.

    2. if he is unwilling to learn, let another be taught before him, of whom he may be envious.

      This aligns with Confucius thinker Xunzi's attitude on properly cultivating morality in others. We are guided by our desires: whatever we feel a sense of lack in, we desire that object. It is the role of those with cultivated morality (gentlemen, sages) to act as an exemplar of moral goods, so that others who have yet to be cultivated desire what they have.