412 Matching Annotations
  1. Nov 2023
    1. The rejection of the provincial assemblies’ petition movement for a national parliament had already led many constitutionalists to accept the necessity of revolution, i

      they tried to get reform through legal processes but then had to resort to revolution when this didn't work

    2. unity of the five races advocated by the constitutionalists helped keep the border regions of the Qing Empire together.

      simultaneous ethnic/racial unity and disunity

    3. socially regressive, but recognizes the politically progressive contributions of the constitutionalist gentry in leading the transition to a republican form of government.

      proggress? or disruption

    4. revolutionaries may have both appealed to and created anti-Manchu sentiment through their propaganda.
    5. The revolution happened suddenly, unlike other revolutions that were long and protracted.
    1. The Qing court's position weakened when they were defeated in Nanjing.Negotiations led to the abdication of the emperor and the establishment of a provisional republican government.
    2. Yuan Shikai tried to balance the interests of the Manchus and the revolutionaries.
    3. These demands included creating a parliament, having a constitution, electing a premier, and reviewing international treaties.
    4. uan Shikai, a former leader of the Beiyang army.
    5. e Second International, a federation of socialist parties and trade unions, supported the concept of parliamentary democracy and believed in the possibilities of social revolution.
    6. Russian revolution and saw similarities between the tsars and the Qing emperors.
    7. onstitutional monarchy as a way to achieve progress and economic development

      infiltration of Western Enlightenment values

    8. anti-Manchu sentiment
    9. Natural disasters,
    10. The Qing government struggled financially, with increasing expenses for the army and a growing budget deficit.
    11. The New Army,
    12. The Qing government decided to nationalize the railway system under their control because it was profitable and would provide funds for the government.This decision angered many Chinese who believed each province should control its own railway development.

      centralisation vs localism

    13. 1900s, Chinese people wanted to regain control of their own transportation system from foreign investors.They formed groups to raise money and buy back the railroad rights.

      feeling of a loss of control and traditional values

    14. Qing court, the ruling dynasty at the time, should have been aware that these assemblies would scrutinize their actions.

      the dynasty became open to change by the people, worried about fitting in with the West

    15. he country as a whole moved towards constitutional change, with plans for full constitutional government over the nine years.The death of the empress dowager Cixi increased the urgency for reform.
    16. Various groups, including constitutional monarchists, nationalists, anarchists, Marxists, and the Revolutionary Alliance, criticized the Qing.
    17. The Qing court and Chinese officials had attempted to adapt Western techniques and ideas to China's needs.
    18. The fall of the Qing dynasty was triggered by an accidental bomb explosion in Hankou, which was fueled by agitation over constitutionalism, railways, and foreign encroachments
    1. militarized masculinities are sites where boundary lines are drawn – “one between good guys and bad guys and the other separating what we can look at from what we can’t”

      polarised identity formation

    2. “peacekeeping” over “peacemaking” in Afghanistan (the poll defined peacemaking as distinct from traditional peacekeeping because it involves combat).

      differing definitions of peace depends on gender based understandings

    3. white masculinity and perpetuated narratives of saving "brown women" in need of salvation.
    4. Female soldiers were depicted as tough but tender, exhibiting masculine qualities while helping others.

      females only good if masc, only used 'good' fem qualities for reputation

    5. combat activities would make Canada more respected and taken seriously by other countries.

      masc = serious IR

    6. believed that projecting warrior masculinity would enhance Canada's reputation internationally.


    7. "warrior creep," which refers to the spread of the warrior culture into non-combat roles and environments.

      affects culture

    8. The peacekeeping model emphasizes traits like impartiality, sensitivity, compassion, and empathy, which are sometimes seen as feminized and can lead to frustration among peacekeepers who feel they cannot prove their masculinity.

      combat (masc) vs peacekeeping (fem), gender dichotomy

    9. warrior archetype, which is characterized by traits like physical strength, toughness, rationality, and aggression.
    10. constructed, reproduced, and influenced by gendered relationships within military institutions.
    11. archetype obscures the violence and imperialism of war.

      helpful hero can obscure hidden real motives

    12. role of gender in legitimizing violence in the Global War on Terror.

      gender (save women etc) can used to justify military intervention and violence (seen an expression of desired masculinity).

    13. helpful hero masculinity as an ideal type should be politically troublesome for feminist scholarsThis archetype obscures all of the ways in which “legitimized” military violence is unhelpful,
    1. hows that Gurkhas are actively shaping their own futures and challenging stereotypes through their actions.

      starting to change

    2. natural attributes

      link to biology

    3. source of pride and economic stability.

      masculinity is something to aspire to

    4. Gurkhas, who have a reputation as fierce warriors due to their martial race

      superior people decided based on masculine qualities such as being active

    5. gendered nature of the security industry and the participation of primarily men.
    1. Feminist analyses see both the state and trafficking networks as threats to security, as trafficked persons lack freedom of movement and are at risk of abuse and poor health

      opens the table to consider more things in terms of IR security

    2. Governments prioritize defense spending over healthcare,

      its cos thats real politics, men bruh

    3. Improving reproductive health and addressing gender inequalities are crucial for promoting human security.
    4. health impacts of violent conflict, bioterrorism, pandemics, and endemic diseases disproportionately affecting certain regions are all linked to health and security
    5. World Health Organization (WHO) and policymakers recognize the importance of health for international peace, stability, and human security.
    6. onsidering gender in discussions of human security and argues for a balanced focus on both freedom from fear and freedom from want.
    7. evidenced by the lack of involvement of women in drafting the new constitution and the passing of repressive legislation.
    8. "responsibility to protect" (R2P).R2P suggests that states have a responsibility to intervene and protect civilians in other states if they are unable or unwilling to do so themselves.Some feminist scholars argue that the language of protection can reinforce gendered and racialized narratives.
    9. issues of human security and human rights are sometimes used as justifications for military intervention.

      e.g., with women and Taliban

    10. The focus on individuals in human security discourse may overlook vulnerabilities and threats that are linked to larger associations such as gender, class, and ethnicity.

      relies on the definition of person which can be politically constituted

    11. International Criminal Court
    12. providers of human security, and that NGOs and international organizations
    13. mphasizes empowering individuals to take action for their own security and well-being.

      still a liberal lassez-faire approach :(

    14. he United Nations Development Programme and the Commission on Human Security have played important roles in promoting and defining the concept of human security.
    15. Human security includes freedom from fear and freedom from want, and encompasses various elements such as economic security, food security, health security, environmental security, personal security, community security, and political security.

      socialist feminist focused on social issues?

    16. wars, conflicts, famine, and poverty are all examples of insecurity that can harm individuals and communities.

      human non conflict issues

    17. exual exploitation is by far the most commonly identified form of human trafficking

      women = sex

    1. "environmental security" and how it can be linked to traditional security ideas.Some view this connection as a positive way to address the threats posed by environmental degradation, while others see it as adding unnecessary complexity to the concept of security.
    2. gender norms and identities can limit people's ability to achieve security.
    3. considering gender in policymaking.
    4. analyzing key issues in security studies through gender lenses.
    5. Gender lenses help us understand how gender is connected to power dynamics and how it shapes international processes and practices.
    6. rethought to reduce inequality and encourage security for people in their daily lives.

      private becomes political, new meaning to security

    7. ects of war on women, we can gain a better understanding of the unequal gender relations that sustain military activities.
    8. specific issues faced by women during war, such as rape, military prostitution, and civilian casualties.
    9. simplistic views of women as victims

      link to Whitworth

    10. individual insecurity, for marginalized and disempowered individuals.
    11. that conflict impacts individuals differently based on gender, making women more vulnerable to security threats.
    12. eminist security studies focus on how insecurities are created and how individuals respond to them within structures of violence and oppression

      violence and oppression by the state- patriarchy can also be a security issue, also who the state protects is based on who is classed as a citizen so marginalised people might not be inclined to fight for their state

    13. security language

      masc language = military language, sexualised and degrades women.

    14. human security, shifting the focus from states to individuals.
    15. In international relations, high politics focuses on security, while low politics includes economics and social issues.

      idea that womens issues and feminism is only concerned with low politics and aren't concerned with 'high' politics such as IR.

    1. COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the importance of care and calls for a change in how it is valued and prioritized

      crisis point, now care crisis has come into focus. i like how she didn't focus just on this but took into account long-term systematic problems with the UK's social care system. but not so convinced by the suggestions because the analysis is specific but suggestions are ideological and vague rather than practical.

    2. s-subsidization from more productive parts of the economy and public investment in the care sector

      suggestion of what to do, are there any more?

    3. "asset-based approaches," which view communities and individuals as having valuable skills and abilities that can contribute to the community.


    4. "co-production" in social care, which involves involving different stakeholders in the production of care outcomes
    5. Advice given to healthcare workers focused on self-care,

      self-care as a type of get of jail free card, could be expanded more

    6. Social care workers had higher mortality rates than healthcare workers.
    7. Black and minority ethnic groups had higher infection and mortality rates due to underlying health conditions, lack of healthcare access, living conditions, and being essential workers.


    8. Care workers received little support during the pandemic and are dealing with increased stress and exhaustion.
    9. e crisis highlighted the importance of essential workers like supermarket cashiers and care workers, but these workers are often undervalued, especially those who are women or people of color.

      back to be undervalued now but were semi valued- performative, article on clap for the NHS

    10. exploitation of domestic workers and the need for fair pay and working conditions.Many nannies lost their jobs and housing
    11. structural changes to address the housing crisis, such as banning real estate speculation and building more affordable housing.
    12. The social structures and inequalities in society determine who is most vulnerable to the virus.
    13. concept of interdependence
    14. The focus on profit-making and cost-efficiency meant that there were no reserves or adequate supplies of protective equipment.

      profit comes at the expense of lives- should have made this more prevalent throughout the argument

    15. hlighting issues such as underfunding, lack of protective equipment, and the increase in unpaid carers. It also mentions the impact on refuge vacancies, food distribution, and the lack of occupational sick pay.
    16. It mentions the disproportionate impact on disabled individuals and minority ethnic groups.
    1. Self-care can involve setting up supportive networks and making connections between personal experiences and broader social structures.Taking care of oneself is an act of resistance against societal messages that devalue certain lives.

      also acknowledges the other side of the self-care coin!

    2. demands of work and personal life are becoming blurred

      lost balance of work and personal life, I would argue that the media are trying to encourage this FIND EXAMPLE

    3. sure comes from a fear of job insecurity and a lack of support from welfare systems.

      not so sure, links everything back to capitalism??

    4. neoliberal regime that values productivity and growth.
    5. complex needs behind

      exclusion of marginalised groups due to technology in social care

    6. the pursuit of a "reliable body" in an uncertain world.

      link to no space for female bodies

    7. orthorexia, an eating disorder characterized by an obsession with healthy eating.

      disproportionately affects women, interesting that self-care is considered as part of social care- self- reliance

    1. arguing that care is often subordinated to the demands of capitalism.

      creates a care vs capitalism narrative which is a little reductive?

    2. t financialisation, the process of allocating resources through financial instruments, can worsen inequality and social issues.
    3. Disadvantaged young people, for example, face institutionalized racism, poverty, and precarious job markets, but these factors are not considered in this approach.

      ignores intersectionality

    4. cerns that easy targets are prioritized over more challenging cases, and the costs of implementing and scaling these projects may outweigh any potential savings

      SIBs not very effective

    5. Critics argue that this system allows private investors to profit from cost savings that should benefit society.

      criticises capitalism

    6. social impact investing, where investors provide funding for projects that have a social impact.
    1. o reduce staff costs by 30 per cent through wage reductions, changes to bank holiday pay or reductions in staffing level
    2. er 80 per cent of adult social care workers are women.23
    3. Personal budgets create extra work and potential exploitation for care recipients who become employers when hiring personal assistants.
    4. improve communication and support for those in need of care, but it has economic implications, such as charging fees or relying on volunteers.
    5. Decisions about technology in care are influenced by politics, economics, and cultural contexts.
    6. more severe in social care due to its lower status compared to healthcare.
    1. assroots social movements and self-help groups can often provide better care than professional services, while creating alternative structures that promote mutual aid and reduce reliance on expensive commodities.

      supports charity but acknowledges that it can't be good without gov funding for everyone- unsure?

    2. "landscapes of care" in everyday places where people gather, such as homes, cafes, community centers, and parks.

      informal social care system- not just a political problem, personal is political

    3. quality and safety of services provided by untrained volunteers.

      link to Tory austerity- Big community, reliance on charity and volunteers rather than public services

    4. Household work is often invisible and paid domestic work is characterized by informality and lack of social protection.

      exploitation of 'female' careers

    5. better care than a market equivalent.

      maybe cos theres not much choice and its not very good

    6. This could result in women paying more for childcare than they earned working and facing discrimination at work.

      the world is not built for women- demand for radical feminist changes to deconstruct the patriarchy

    7. The text discusses various aspects of care work, including the impact of contracts on unpaid care, the gendered effects of these contracts, the increase in unpaid care work, the rise of informal carers, the financial struggles of carers, the rise of young carers, the reliance on volunteers in the care sector, the dilution of the nuclear family, and the need for collective care that challenges structural inequalities.
    1. The Institute for Fiscal Studies has reported that a 30 per cent reduction to social care spending for people over the age of sixty-five, between 2009 and 2016, led to a significant rise in visits to A&E by the same cohort, signalling increased costs for hospital emergency departments.

      lack of routine social care increases the need for crisis services, so it doesn't really help much by cutting these services

    2. policies undermine social cohesion and exacerbate social divisions.The text discusses how negative stereotypes and stigmatization of welfare recipients have been perpetuated by government campaigns and media portrayals.

      media and social divisions- sociological approach

    3. The United Nations has criticized the British government's austerity measures, calling them punitive and mean-spirited.

      uses IOs to reinforce the situation.

    4. Black and Minority Ethnic women and people with disabilities have been disproportionately impacted by the cuts.


    5. cuts in social services and benefits, affecting the most vulnerable populations.

      non proportional affecting of all areas of the population, marginalised people are marginalised by policies

    6. care

      lack of care in social services- key component, she critiques economic focus

    1. A survey carried out across EU countries in 2016 found that among respondents, 44 per cent of women and 30 per cent of men found it difficult to combine paid work with caring responsibilities.8

      uses personal stories, stats and ideology to explain which is quite convincing

    2. Global Financial Crisis and its aftermath, with austerity measures disproportionately affecting certain groups
    3. ideas of deserving and undeserving poor.

      link to MMW welfare state week

    4. certain groups of people were excluded from the welfare state, such as women, people of color, migrants, LGBTQIA communities, and those with mental health or disability issues.
    5. The lens of social reproduction helps to identify the unpaid work that is necessary for the production of economic value in a capitalist economy.

      challenges capitalist way of thinking- challenges status quo through lens of social reproduction, Marxist, women's role in the home that contributes to production

    6. Care can be provided for free or bought and sold as a commodity, but it is best understood as a configuration of social relationships that are politically and economically conditioned
    7. The experiences and access to power of women, people of color, and colonized peoples are different and must be taken into account.


    8. Feminist activists and scholars have sought to challenge this by politicizing these tasks and highlighting their importance for the functioning of the economy.

      personal is the political- third wave feminism

    9. Sue feels isolated and wishes she had more support in her life.

      uses real life examples that people like my mum can relate to

    10. consumer culture


    11. unpaid care work compared to men, which includes household chores, personal care, and volunteering.This imbalance in care work can lead to economic disadvantages for women, such as lower earnings and limited job opportunities.

      women are socially and economically disadvantaged (communism) due to unpaid domestic labour and more care responsibilities

    12. interdependence of our lives


    13. desire to have professional help in the future rather than relying on family members.

      relates to my mum, links to the limited provision and access to professional social care

    14. The welfare state has played a role in the provision of care, but certain groups have been excluded. Care work is deeply intertwined with power dynamics, and feminist movements have challenged traditional gender roles.
    1. he welfare state has played a role in the provision of care, but certain groups have been excluded. Care work is deeply intertwined with power dynamics, and feminist movements have challenged traditional gender roles.
    1. ecorded 20 per cent increase in female labour-force participation in OECD countries over the last thirty years.31
    2. reports by the charity organisation Age UK and the Care Quality Commission, the public body that inspects and regulates health and social care in Britain, one in seven older people (1.4 million) were not receiving the care they needed in 2018.5 The Care Quality Commission also reported in 2019 that the number of children with mental health disorders accessing social services had increased by 50 per cent in four years.6


    3. non-academic audience and aims to contribute to the political debate on the topic.


    4. Migrant women from the Global South and Eastern Europe have filled care gaps in the Global North, taking up positions as domestic workers or health and social care workers.

      intersectionality as exploitation

    5. Migration plays a role in care debates, with migrant workers often scapegoated despite their contributions to the economy and care sector.


    6. shifted the cost of care onto individuals and communities, leading to a greater reliance on informal support and charity.

      neoliberal = more exploited women in social care for free

    7. but without a change in the division of unpaid care work, many women are left doing multiple shifts of caring for others.

      women are most impacted as they mostly work in the care industry (more than men). division of labour and paid/unpaid

    8. important role of women in providing unpaid care work and criticizes the invisibility and undervaluation of this labor.
    9. criticizes the neoliberal ideology that promotes individual responsibility and privatization of care, arguing that caring for others should be a collective and public responsibility.

      challenges neoliberalism- theoretical and practical text with applications. links political theory to the real world

    10. nequal impact of the coronavirus crisis on different groups, such as precarious workers and marginalized communities.

      care industry and capitalism has a greater impact on marginalised groups (intersectionality)

    11. crisis of care is influenced by material conditions, ideological assumptions, and inequality
    12. lobal crisis of care, where a growing number of people are unable to access the care and support they need.
    13. Privatization of health and social care services has led to financial difficulties and debts for care home providers.


    14. Access to care is becoming more dependent on financial ability,

      impact of capitalism driving down value of care

    15. f elderly people not receiving necessary care is increasing, and there has been a significant rise in children with mental health disorders accessing social services.
    16. issues such as the lack of care facilities for an aging population, reduced mental health services, cuts to disability care budgets, and overworked doctors and nurses
    1. Hangzhou fell to the Taiping rebels in 1861 he lost some eighteen of his relatives, including his mother.

      they consequently received honours

    2. in every case suggesting the failure of o cially sanctioned structures to requite loss, restore order, address human feeling, and commemorate the dead.

      he challenges the state by showing his own personal emotion rather than ritual in grieving for his mum

    3. He de ed the absolute moral clarity of o cial narratives, absorbing the rhetoric of virtue into an account that privileged loss and emotion
    4. It explained how her life had ended, virtuously, and it enabled her family to include her in their application for state honors along with the other relatives who died in 1861
    5. In this vein, Zhang describes an encounter with the spirit of his beloved oldest sister, Xingzhu.
    6. their spirit tablets are enshrined at the provincial shrine to honor the Loyal and Righteous.Wood and words provide ritual prosthetic,
    7. Zhang Guanglie situates his e orts to locate and ritually honor the dead in relation to family cult and state honors—themselves important symbols of restoration.
    8. ctionate description of physical detail and emotional connection—cleft by a moment of extreme violence.Zhang provides snapshot views of a woman whose loss occasioned profound personal pain—an image composed of intimate moments that reveal her a ection for her children, her personal habits, and those idiosyncrasies that capture her humanity
    9. uthenticity of his grief through references to tears, physical pain, wailing, and other uncontrolled responses, which contrast neatly with hierarchical and orderly commemorative arrangements within established ritual settings.
    10. Zhang Guanglie presents himself as the embodiment of his own bereavement.
    11. shrine for the Loyal and Righteous in Hangzhou, an essay by one of Zhang’s acquaintances narrating the family’s tragedy, the table of contents of a collection of poems by Zhang about his deceased mother, and a record of a garden that he built as a monument to her
    12. omposed the preface to A Record of 1861 (Xinyou ji), a compilation of materials honoring his mother, Zhang Yao shi, whose murder at the hands of a Taiping soldier he had witnessed as a child of eight sui nearly two decades earlier
    1. how the spirit of a deceased sister reassured her family.
    2. isionary leader of the rebellion and his religious ideology.
    3. nderlying causes for the rebellion, including government incompetence, economic problems, and natural disasters.
    4. Taiping forces occupied Nanjing and attempted to establish a new system of government and land ownership

      similarly occupied parts of China

    5. e time portrayed the dead as martyrs and used morally charged language to give their deaths political meaning.

      loyalty in death

    6. remains relatively unknown outside of China.


    1. Locke even grants absolute power to the master over them

      slaves seen as a necessary and embedded part of European life

    2. Indeed, he says, ‘these two powers, political and paternal, are ... perfectly distinct and separate, are built on ... different foundations, and are given to ... different ends’

      at least he acknowledges that it shouldn't just be men who have political power, oh wait, he does by extension

    3. The law of nature allows us to regulate our own action, but also allows each to regulate others: if some people violate this natural law, each and every one of us can put ourselves in the position of a judge and punish the offender

      laws to control the state of nature

    4. He argued against hereditary servitude, but the laws governing slavery in the New World allowed for it.
    5. t mentions that Locke strongly opposes slavery, he was involved in forming a colony where owning slaves was allowed.

      hypocritical, and contradiction

    6. ut certain groups like the poor, non-Europeans, and the physically and mentally disabled may lack the conditions to develop rationality.
    7. critics argue that human beings act based on their passions and desires rather than reason.

      such as Hobbes

    8. rationality in liberal theory and how it can create hierarchies


    9. This portrayal made them enemies of mankind and justified wars against them.
    10. He argued that colonization of America provided a solution to this problem, as it was seen as "free" land available for European settlers.

      idea that this is free to use as not being used for the proper purpose?

    11. xcludes women from the political sphere and confines them to the private sphere.
    12. division between the private and political spheres in liberalism, arguing that it allows for hierarchies and domination to go unregulated.

      but the gender inequality isn't based upon property so could be changed without impacting the foundation of the theory

    13. property means that the interests of servants and other propertyless individuals may not be represented in the rules of the contract.


    14. t there is a hierarchical order where some people become property owners while others must work for them.


    15. individuals own themselves and their bodies, which gives them freedom.

      right to your own body only, not others

    16. the laws of nature, which forbid us from harming others or their property, provide a form of order in the state of nature.

      property is accepted into normal life, compared to life

    17. humans are essentially rational beings and can live in peace with each other without a strong government.

      more optimistic view of human nature, but still focused on rationality and reason (enlightenment values).

    18. It is important to note that Locke's theory only included certain individuals, propertied European men
    19. Locke believed that humans could live peacefully with each other and regulate themselves according to natural laws, even without a governing power

      state of nature isn't necessarily needing to be solved by bringing in a common power

    20. colonization in America was important for Locke's conceptualization of the state of nature and his defense of enclosure. Indigenous Americans were portrayed as hunter-gatherers, and only enclosed lands were seen as producing value.
    1. political actors and dynamics, not vague forces of development, are the central factor producing and mitigating inequalities in representation

      quotas still places female inclusion and recruitment in the hands of already established political elites, is this really fair? and it doesnt always reflect societal and economic changes in the status of women.

    2. option to pursue positive action in candidate selection.

      choice not made which means that most parties wont

    3. ausal heterogeneity and the interaction of different factors.

      linked to taking a different approach to political science

    4. International norms and organizations play a role in promoting quotas for women.
    5. Quotas tend to emerge during periods of democratic innovation, as a way to establish the legitimacy of the new political system.
    6. quotas for women are often seen as an extension of guarantees given to other groups based on factors like language, religion, and race.
    7. Quotas can be seen as compatible with ideas of equality and fair access, and left-wing parties are generally more open to implementing them.
    8. Some see them as a way to achieve justice and promote women's interests, while others adopt them strategically to compete with rival parties or maintain control within their own party.

      gender inclusion and feminist ideas can be used strategically