57 Matching Annotations
  1. May 2019
  2. inst-fs-iad-prod.inscloudgate.net inst-fs-iad-prod.inscloudgate.net
    1. alid or invalid on a priori ground*y Thus, de-pending on the problem, the laboratory may bean altogether appropriate setting for an investiga-tion and certain real-life environments may behighly inappropriate. Suppose, for example, oneis interested in studying the interaction betweenmother and child when the child is placed in astrange and unfamiliar situation. Clearly the lab-oratory approximates this condition far better thanthe home. Conversely, if the focus of inquiry isthe modal pattern of parent-child activity pre-vailing in the family, observations confined to thelaboratory can be misleading. As I have docu-mented elsewhere in greater detail (Bronfenbren-ner, in press), patterns of parent-child interactionin the laboratory are substantially and systemati-cally different than those in the home. Specifi-cally, so far as young children are concerned, theresults indicate that the strangeness of the labora-tory situation tends to increase anxiety and othernegative feeling states and to decrease manifesta-tions of social competence (Lamb, 1976b; Ross,Kagan, Zelazo, & Kotelchuck, 1975; Lamb, Note3). Possibly in response to this reaction of thechild, parents tend to exhibit more positive inter-i actions toward their children in the laboratory' than in the home (Schlieper, 1975; Shalock, 1956;Belsky, Note 4). In addition, Lamb (1976b;Note 3) reported that the tendency of the infantat home to display more affiliative behaviors (e.g.,looking, smiling, reaching, vocalizing) toward thefather than the mother was reversed in the labora-tory. Moreover, consistent with the arguments ofSroufe (1970) and Tulkin (1972) that the lab-oratory is especially likely to be an anxiety-arous-ing situation for lower-class families, Lamb foundsocioeconomic differences in father-infant inter-action favoring the middle class in the laboratory,'whereas such differences had not been present inI the h o m e.Again, the fact that

      Since my Action Research is based on building relationships with the families from Room 3, I was interested to see the impact of laboratory research vs. home environment research. According to this paragraph, it is hard to get a clear picture of parent-child relationship in either setting due to a number of factors. If I understand it correctly, however the laboratory environment is less optimal to infants, young children and families of lower socio-economic status. Increased anxiety was cited as a contributing factor. I believe that the Hawthorne Effect could contribute to the difference is how parents responded positively to their children in the laboratory versus at home. So far, of the homes I have visited this semester, there is not a significant amount of difference between how the children are interacted with at school, compared to how they are interacted with at home. It will be interesting to see, based on what I've read in this paper, if what I have experienced recently will be evident with all of the families. I also wonder, if age and familiarity are factors? I work with one-year-olds and they have all developed a secure relationship, over time, with me, unlike the people who conducted this research. Any thoughts from others, is greatly appreciated, regarding whether or not you too experience what the article says or what I have experienced.

  3. Apr 2019
    1. The consensus reception holds that the visual composition of the structures lack a unified voice due to the heavy handedness of the individual star-architects who were commissioned to design its various structures.Most critics write from the lens of art criticism and therefor focus on the aesthetics of structures as though they were sculptures in a museum. For decades, critics from this tradition have failed to understand or assimilate the principles of urban design that make cities vibrant and walkable.

      This struck me as very interesting, as it frames the article as a rejection of accepted criticism of many respected voices in the field. Instead, the author conducts a potential use study of the space for future users, from the perspective of walkability. It is written not for other scholars of the field but for a general audience, New Yorkers in particular.

    2. The primary benefit of this would be to make the Hudson River and Public Square park areas more easily accessible to everyone who lives and works east of Hudson Yards. Opening 10th avenue to street facing retail, turning the six lane street two-way, and adding bike lanes would also make it more forgiving.

      Concluding appeal and explanation of the author's call to action. Considering the lack of walkability and limited potential use, they suggest a new design that will maximize access. This also has the benefit of altering the public's sense of that the space is exclusive.

    3. Urbanists like Jan Gehl, Janette Sadik-Kahn, Jeff Speck, and others have composed a comprehensive and well codified body of knowledge on humane urban design and walkability, which art critics should assimilate into their practice.

      Framework for criticism

    4. The Javits Center is often used by urbanists as an example of the perils of inhumane design. The unused and un-policed periphery attracts crime and vagrancy while its one entrance opens upon an eight lane street. This combination means that most conference attendees hire a taxi to ferry them to a more hospitable neighborhood.

      This is an excellent example of creation without context, particularly use by target populations. Walkability was so poor that it negatively affected the area.

    5. The only way to reach the Public Square promenade from the street is to climb three flights of stairs onto the High Line, then cross a fairly narrow bridge connection. The street level features a large cafeteria, but like the 10th avenue perimeter, the sidewalks are so narrow and the road so heavily trafficked with vehicles that it is unlikely the street can thrive as a public space.

      Examples of why this space is not user-friendly and basically unwalkable. Those designing the space did not consider practicalities like access.

    6. But over time, they become numb to the novelty of art, and other considerations exert a far greater influence on their experience of the building: things like who uses the space, when the space is used, how the space forms community and how it integrates the the community that surrounds it.

      His argument is user-orientated, criticizing experts in the field who work separately to build components of a shared urban ecosystem. Each architect was chosen for their fame, not their ability to work as part of a team, and spare little consideration about those who will live, work, and move through the space. Most importantly, the question of fostering community is addressed.

      Similar to scholars at the top of their field, these architects place little consideration towards the mass consumption of their work and its context.

    7. Street front retail creates foot traffic in places that might otherwise be desolate and inhospitable during different parts of the day. A diversity of land uses is key in cultivating walkability. For example, New York’s financial district is generally a ghost town after office hours because it lacks residential buildings. Adjacent Battery Park City has the opposite problem; it is so domestic that its streets are empty except during commuting hours.

      Cites two examples of spaces in the city that fail to maximize walkability and reduces user satisfaction/use. Users require mixed-use spaces that promote diverse populations, keeping them from becoming too exclusive and barren during the off hours.

  4. Mar 2019
    1. Laboratory activities and constructivism are two notions that have been playing significant roles in science education. Despite common beliefs about the importance of laboratory activities, reviews reported inconsistent results about the effectiveness of laboratory activities. Since laboratory activities can be expensive and take more time, there is an effort to introduce virtual laboratory activities. This study aims at exploring the learning environment created by a virtual laboratory and a real laboratory. A quasi experimental study was conducted at two grade ten classes at a state high school in Bandung, Indonesia. Data were collected using a questionnaire called Constructivist Learning Environment Survey (CLES) before and after the laboratory activities. The results show that both types of laboratories can create constructivist learning environments. Each type of laboratory activity, however, may be stronger in improving certain aspects compared to the other. While a virtual laboratory is stronger in improving critical voice and personal relevance, real laboratory activities promote aspects of personal relevance, uncertainty and student negotiation. This study suggests that instead of setting one type of laboratory against the other, lessons and follow up studies should focus on how to combine both types of laboratories to support better learning.

      In this peer-reviewed study, two tenth-grade classes were analyzed as they used either a virtual or a real laboratory to accomplish learning tasks. The question raised was whether a real or a virtual laboratory was more conducive to constructivist learning. The study concluded that a real lab is better than a virtual one to trigger constructivist learning. This is of importance to me because I teach adults about software in both virtual and real laboratories, and when I develop content, I try to use the constructivist theory as much as possible as I find it works best for my audience, in addition to making novel content more relatable. Please note: I could not put the annotation on the text because the paper opened in a popup page that does not work with Hypothes.is. 7/10

    1. Design-Based Research Methods (DBR)

      Design-based research (DBR) tries to connect learning theory and practice. It puts theories to the test and is an important part of siting through which parts of theories work well, contradict each other, or contradict themselves. This page provides several of the characteristics of design-based studies, as well as the needs and issues important to studying learning. 7/10

    1. We have previously shown that antinociceptive effects of morphine are enhanced in histamine H1 receptor gene knockout mice.

      H1 antihistamines enhance the opioid high in humans. Hospitals sometimes administer antihistamines in combination with opioids. It's not hard to find people online who are using this combination recreationally.

  5. Jan 2019
    1. actor network theor

      Actors (human or otherwise) function together in systems (networks), and those systems must be observed and described rather than "explained": https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Actor%E2%80%93network_theory

      The notion that a system should be examined prior to bringing in theories and frameworks is also one held by the qualitative research approach called grounded theory (a theory grounded in observed data).

    1. Minnesota Transracial Adoption Study

      This is a study begun in the 1970s of African American, interracial, and other minority group children who had been adopted by White families in Minnesota. The 1976 results indicated large IQ boosts (about 12 points) for adopted African American children at age 6, compared to the average IQ for African Americans in general. However, the 1992 report shows that the advantage had faded to about 6 points when the children were aged 17 years. Generally, intelligence experts see this landmark study as supporting both "nature" and "nurture."

  6. wendynorris.com wendynorris.com
    1. For our research design, we drew on Walsham [33] and Klein and Myers [13],who provide comprehensive guidelines on how to conduct interpretive case studyresearch in the IS domain.

      Bookmarked as a reminder to get these papers which could be helpful for the participatory design study.

  7. Dec 2018
    1. Noguidance was given to the participants regarding what topography or function of behavior to choose, nor which client tochoose. The BIPs that were submitted included a wide range of behavior topographies and functions, as depicted inTables 2 and 3. The ages of the clients ranged significantly, but were roughly equivalent across the two groups, witha mean age of 8.75 years (range = 3–19) in the treatment group and a mean age of 7.75 years (range = 4–10) in thecontrol group. It seems reasonable that due to reactivity, participants would choose to send a BIP that they believedwas good-quality, however, this reactivity was likely to be equally distributed across groups. Each BIP was then scoredas the pre-test data for that participant. For participants in the control group, the participant was then asked to updatetheir BIP however they see fit over the next 24 h and resubmit it. For participants in the BIP builder group, they wereasked to update their BIP using the BIP builder within the next 24 h. No further instructions were given to theparticipants.
  8. Nov 2018
    1. The results of the paired-groups experimental study proves "are interpreted as being supportive for the interactionist perspective on SLA, especially the importance of attention". The study focuses on the acquisition of lexical meaning through negotiated interaction on NNS-NNS synchronous CMC. Check into Long's Interaction Hypothesis.

      The benefits of CMA in language learning: interactionist perspective.

    1. "Researchers have found that cognitive interactionist and sociocultural SLA theories offer a means of interpreting prior research on CALL and suggest a point of departure for designing future studies of CALL activities that are based on human–computer interaction and computer-mediated communication."

      Chapelle. C. A 2007. theories expand from interactionist to cognitive interactionist and sociocultural theory cognitive interactionist: Human-computer interaction. sociocultural: CMC (Computer-Mediated Communication)

    1. The Interaction Approach and CMC (Bryan Smith): The Interaction Approach(IA) in second language acquisition studies suggests that there is a link between interaction and learning. This approach focuses on three major components of interaction — exposure (input), production (output), and feedback. Many CALL researchers have adopted this theoretical perspective in exploring the relationship between CMC and instructed second language acquisition, exploiting many of the argued affordances offered by this medium in relation to the key tenets of the IA. This paper will provide a conceptual overview of the IA and explore specifically how CALL researchers have sought to study SLA from this theoretical perspective. We will discuss several methodological hurdles facing researchers engaged in this type of research and will offer some suggested strategies for conducting sound SLA/CALL research from an IA.

      the interaction approach overlaps with psycholinguistic approach under the cognitive theory

  9. Oct 2018
    1. Further studies in this field are needed to pay attention especially to modern a detailed evaluation of brain activity in the group of impulsively aggressive perpetrator
    1. forensically informed, interdiscipli-nary approach that integrates neuropsychiat-ric, neuropsychological, and psychophysiologi-cal methods for the study of brain localisation,social cognition, and emotional processing

      can such a large study be done?

    2. neuropsychiatric evaluation of violentpatients should include clinical assessment forfrontal lobe impairment and neuropsychologi-cal evaluation of executive functions,
    3. Accurate measurement of theincreased risk of violence in subjects with pre-frontal dysfunction also requires comparisonwith rates of aggression in appropriate controls

      different brain impairments = different levels of anger?

    4. future studies testing the relation betweenfrontal lobe dysfunction and aggression shouldincorporate controls for known risk factorscontributing to violent behaviour

      good solution, but there's sOOO many factors to consider

  10. Jun 2018
    1. This was a descriptive study based on the analysis of a literature database.

      Akan lebih baik bila dirinci kembali tahapannya, agar terbuka peluang lebih besar bagi pembaca untuk berkontribusi memperkaya artikel ini. Saat ini isu reproducibility merebak luas secara internasional.

  11. May 2017
  12. Feb 2017
    1. In fact the photosynthetic rate achieved with the two light qualities combined could be 30–40% higher than the sum of the rates in far-red or shorter red when measured separately (Emerson et al. 1957).

      This could be an important experiment to use as a case study.

  13. Sep 2016
    1. In sum, you can buff your rote memorization by trying to recall frequently, not relying on familiarity, and taking strategic breaks. Trying to solve real problems and trying to accurately recite your understanding of a rule can also be a conduit for remembering. (The ultimate combination? Teaching someone.)

      This is how you study for an exam guys!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

  14. Aug 2016
  15. Jul 2016
    1. The study reveals—“boredom,” “experimentation,” and “insight”—are reasons for use related to increased and decreased risk of use of other drugs.

      This study shows that teens use drugs for three reasons: BOREDOM: meaning people use drugs because they are bored. EXPERIMENTATION: people use drugs to experiment about it. INSIGHT: it makes teens understand more.

      I think this is important because when teens are bored some teens use drugs. I agree and this connects to me because marijuana does make me want to experiment more and actually make me understand or have a argument in things i do. although when boredom strikes it helps motivates more.

  16. Apr 2016
    1. flexibility allows you to study what you need when you need it

      This is likely true for any study system. Then comes my question, how do I balance that flexibility with having some sort of overarching direction and plan? I need to be open to be guided by the Spirit (especially since I don't even have a mission president LOL).

  17. Mar 2016
    1. Open educational resources and college textbook choices: a review of research on efficacy and perceptions
    2. If the average college student spends approximately $1000 per year on textbooks and yet performs scholastically no better than the student who utilizes free OER, what exactly is being purchased with that $1000?

      Supplemental materials?

  18. Feb 2016
    1. nd C
      1. Through persuasion and the belief that Cortez was the God Quetzalcoatl the Spaniards entered in peacefully and captured Montezuma.
      2. The Sistema de Castas organized individuals into racial groups based on their supposed "purity of blood".
      3. This racial hierarchy was created as a prerequisites for social and political advancement. Iberian-born Spaniards occupied the highest levels of administration. Their descendants, New World born Spaniards occupied the next rung. Those mixed with Spanish and Indian heritage followed.
      1. How does internal tension in the Native American empires of the Americas aid Spanish attempts to create their empire?
      2. The Spanish wanted to take over the natives land because of the wealth and happiness it could bring to them. Central and South America was rumored to have fortunes around the land.

      3. In the biological exchange between Europeans and Native Americans, what diseases, plants, and animals were exchanged? The diseases that Europeans brought over to the Americas were measles, smallpox and influenza. Domesticated animals, squash, beans, corn and tobacco were among the many things traded between the Native Americans and the Europeans.

      4. What are the ways that European powers claim their right to claim land in the Americas?

      5. The pope authorized the Europeans to claim the land, claimed they discovered the land, and claiming they improved the land from the people they took it over from.
    2. social and political advancement i

      The racial system that was established in the new world was a racial hierarchy. The system worked based on the purity of ones blood. Then it was used as a status for political and social advancement.

      1. Why do you think that King Affonso let the Portuguese enslave his subjects at first?
      2. I believe that King Alfonso thought it was a good idea to enslave his subjects at first because it could help boost his wealth and the country's wealth without paying the people who actually did the work. He did not want lower-class people in his country because he wanted all the things he wanted in order to live a luxurious life.
      3. In the letter below, why does the king now request regulations?
      4. The King was finally hearing from all of his people that many of the people in Portugal were being taken away for slavery. He set guidelines because he realized many of the people were being enslaved for no reason at all.
      1. What was the "Black Legend" and how did other European powers use it to justify their attempts to compete with Spain for empire in the Americas?
      2. The Spanish were doing terrible things in the America by bring the population from 60,000 to 17,000 in the time they were here in America. Other European countries talked down on them for what they were doing to the New World. Spain called it a "black legend" because they thought they were rumors that other European countries were throwing out. The other European countries thought they could help the Americans out by bringing their own way of living over and help them get away from the Spanish cruelty.

      3. In what ways did the French presence in North America differ from the Spanish?

      4. The French came to the Americas and treated the natives with respect. They did not kill, enslave or try to conquer the natives who had lived there before. Unlike the Spanish, the French formed an alliance with the Indians and shared Christianity with the Natives rather than killing them because they wanted the land.
      5. What role did slavery play in Dutch attempts to establish Empire? -The slaves built everything in Amsterdam for the Dutch. Without the slaves the Dutch would have nothing of their own because they would not have built everything that they have. The empire would have crashed if the trade routes were not kept up to speed. If it was not for the slaves, the Dutch would have been having a totally different outlook of where they were.
    1. How does this creation story differ from the others you have read this week?

      In this creation story many people were killed and the others it was peaceful because when humans came to earth they were welcomed by animals or other people offering help until they found somewhere to go.

  19. Jan 2016
      1. Native Americans interacted with numerous people from all areas. This lead to the exchange of different resources, religions, labor ways, and ideas. These exchanges often sealed social and political relationships. It allowed the people who gave to earn prestige and placed an obligation to those they gave to. That was how the relationship was sealed. One person did a favor and the other must reciprocate.
      2. All European nations began experiencing massive population growth after the black plague, which increased the economy and the demand for consumer goods. These demands lead to advances like ship building so sea merchants were able to compete with their fellow merchants. Growing economies lead to bigger kingdoms and powerful monarchs. These kingdom's could pull together the resources needed for large voyages. European nations were also interested in trading with the wealthiest countries allowing them to seek out the best trading routes.
      3. There was an increasing need for slaves and it had existed all the way back to the Roman Empire. The Portuguese became major purchasers and sellers of the slave trade allowing them to have influence on the way slave trading was done and the practice of it.
  20. Aug 2015
  21. Oct 2013
    1. As birds are born to fly, horses to run, and wild beasts to show fierceness, so to us peculiarly belong activity and sagacity of understanding; hence the origin of the mind is thought to be from heaven.

      Although are all birds as good as flying as the others and horses at running? There has to be some variance, and not from lack of repetition. In the same line of reasoning, even if all men were born to "activity and sagacity of understanding," some must have more innate gifts with it. The rest of this paragraph seems to credit persistence with progress, but nature does play at least some sort of role. After all, we can't all be basketball players, no matter how hard we try.

    2. The best of rules, therefore, are to be laid down, and if any one shall refuse to observe them, the fault will lie not in the method, but in the man.

      It may just be my perception, but it seems to me that the study of learning is most often left to the pupil to figure out, these days.

  22. Sep 2013
    1. the teachers who do not scruple to vaunt their powers with utter disregard of the truth have created the impression that those who choose a life of careless indolence are better advised than those who devote themselves to serious study.

      Is this stating that traditional teachers that hesitate to boast their knowledge without regard to the truth (possibly meaning the same thing as plato's "experience") inadvertently seem less educated than those who choose a life of careless indolence (sophists?)?