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  1. Last 7 days
    1. Interleaving is a learning technique that involves mixing together different topics or forms of practice, in order to facilitate learning. For example, if a student uses interleaving while preparing for an exam, they can mix up different types of questions, rather than study only one type of question at a time.Interleaving, which is sometimes referred to as mixed practice or varied practice, is contrasted with blocked practice (sometimes referred to as specific practice), which involves focusing on only a single topic or form of practice at a time.

      Interleaving (aka mixed practice or varied practice) is a learning strategy that involves mixing different topics, ideas, or forms of practice to improve outcomes as well as overall productivity. Its opposite and less effective strategy is blocking (or block study or specific practice) which focuses instead on working on limited topics or single forms of practice at the same time.


      This may be one of the values of of the Say Something In Welsh method which interleaves various new nouns and verbs as well as verb tenses in focused practice.

      Compare this with the block form which would instead focus on lists of nouns in a single session and then at a later time lists of verbs in a more rote fashion. Integrating things together in a broader variety requires more work, but is also much more productive in the long run.

    1. Well, for one, there was a clear preference for the blocked study schedule, with 68% of participants reporting that they would choose the blocked strategy to study for a test, while only 32% chose the interleaved strategy. Which is interesting, because the research on blocked vs. interleaved practice suggests that in many cases, interleaving is actually the more effective strategy (here’s a great summary of the research on interleaved practice, why and how it works, guidelines for use, and examples of times when blocked may be better).

      Interleaved practice methods are more effective learning strategies than block practice.

  2. May 2022
    1. therefore the gases should be removed from the condenser. This can be achieved byinstalling vacuum pumps, compressors, or steam ejectors. The condenser heat removalis done either by using a cooling tower or through cold air circulation in the condenser.The condensate forms a small fraction of the cooling water circuit, a large portion ofwhich is then evaporated and dispersed into the atmosphere by the cooling tower. Thecooling water surplus (blow down) is disposed of in shallow injection wells. In singleflash condensation system, the condensate does have direct contact with the coolingwater.
    2. Single flash power plants are classified according to their steam turbines types, i.e., theturbine exit conditions. Two such basic types are the single flash with a condensationsystem and the single flash back pressure system. In the first type, a condenser oper-ating at very low pressure is used to condensate the steam leaving the steam turbine.The condenser should operate at low vacuum pressure to maintain a large enthalpy dif-ference across the expansion process of the steam turbine, hence resulting in a higherpower output. The geothermal fluid usually contains non-condensable gases which arecollected at the condenser. Such a collection of gases may raise the condenser pressure,
  3. Apr 2022
    1. Abu-Raddad, L. J., Chemaitelly, H., Ayoub, H. H., AlMukdad, S., Tang, P., Hasan, M. R., Coyle, P., Yassine, H. M., Al-Khatib, H. A., Smatti, M. K., Al-Kanaani, Z., Al-Kuwari, E., Jeremijenko, A., Kaleeckal, A. H., Latif, A. N., Shaik, R. M., Abdul-Rahim, H. F., Nasrallah, G. K., Al-Kuwari, M. G., … Bertollini, R. (2022). Effectiveness of BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273 COVID-19 boosters against SARS-CoV-2 Omicron (B.1.1.529) infection in Qatar (p. 2022.01.18.22269452). medRxiv. https://doi.org/10.1101/2022.01.18.22269452

    1. To drive this point home:

      I sometimes get people who balk at my characterization of GitHub-style anti-wikis as being inferior to, you know, actual wikis. "You can just use the GitHub UI to edit the files", they'll sometimes say.

      A case study: a couple days ago, I noticed that the lone link in the current README for Jeff Zucker's solid-rest project is a 404. I made a note of it. Just now, I reset my GitLab password, logged in to solid/chat, and notified Jeff https://gitter.im/solid/chat?at=611976c009a1c273827b3bd1. Jeff's response was, "I'll change it".

      This case is rich with examples of what makes unwikis so goddamn inefficient to work with. First, my thought upon finding the broken link was to take note of it (i.e. so that it can eventually be taken care of) rather than fixing it immediately, as would have been the case with a wiki. More on this in a bit. Secondly, my eventual action was still not something that directly addressed the problem—it was to notify someone else† of the problem so that it might be fixed by them, due to the unwiki nature of piles of Git-managed markdown. Thirdly, even Jeff's reflex is not to immediately change it—much like my reaction, his is to note the need for a fix himself and then to tell me he's going to change it, which he will presumably eventually do. Tons of rigamarole just to get a link fixed‡ that remains broken even after having gone through all this.

      † Any attempt to point the finger at me here (i.e. coming up short from having taken the wrong action—notifying somebody rather than doing it myself) would be getting it wrong. First, the fact that I can't just make an edit without taking into account the myriad privacy issues that GitHub presents is materially relevant! Secondly, even if I had been willing to ignore that thorn (or jump through the necessary hoops to work around it) and had used the GitHub web UI as prescribed, it still would have ended up as a request for someone else to actually take action on, because I don't control the project.

      ‡ Any attempt to quibble here that I'm talking about changing a README and not (what GitHub considers) a wiki page gets it wrong. We're here precisely because GitHub's unwikis are a bunch of files of markdown. The experience of changing an unwiki page would be rife with the same problems as encountered here.

  4. Mar 2022
    1. ReconfigBehSci on Twitter: ‘@alexdefig are you really going to claim that responses to the introduction of passports on uptake across 4 other countries are evidentially entirely irrelevant to whether or not passports are justified or not?’ / Twitter. (n.d.). Retrieved 31 March 2022, from https://twitter.com/SciBeh/status/1444358068280565764

    1. Lauring, A. S., Tenforde, M. W., Chappell, J. D., Gaglani, M., Ginde, A. A., McNeal, T., Ghamande, S., Douin, D. J., Talbot, H. K., Casey, J. D., Mohr, N. M., Zepeski, A., Shapiro, N. I., Gibbs, K. W., Files, D. C., Hager, D. N., Shehu, A., Prekker, M. E., Erickson, H. L., … Self, W. H. (2022). Clinical severity of, and effectiveness of mRNA vaccines against, covid-19 from omicron, delta, and alpha SARS-CoV-2 variants in the United States: Prospective observational study. BMJ, 376, e069761. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj-2021-069761

    1. agree to a regular meeting schedule
    2. there should be almost no need for long study sessions.

      Ties into studying certain sections per day.

    3. Make flash cards to review in downtimes,
    4. Challenge yourself to come up with some really tough open-ended questions.
    5. Studying begins after each class or assignment
  5. Feb 2022
    1. APPG on Coronavirus. (2022, January 18). 🗣Dr.Claire Steves continued: “Looking in the national core studies, from cohort studies across the UK we’ve looked at 10 different longitudinal studies. Our best estimates are that about 5% of middle aged people are experiencing long term.. 27/ #APPGCoronavirus #LongCovid [Tweet]. @AppgCoronavirus. https://twitter.com/AppgCoronavirus/status/1483453895061999618

    1. Deepti Gurdasani. (2022, January 30). Have tried to now visually illustrate an earlier thread I wrote about why prevalence estimates based on comparisons of “any symptom” between infected cases, and matched controls will yield underestimates for long COVID. I’ve done a toy example below here, to show this 🧵 [Tweet]. @dgurdasani1. https://twitter.com/dgurdasani1/status/1487578265187405828

  6. Jan 2022
    1. The problem in my experience isn’t that teachers don’t teach enough notetaking systems… the problem is we don’t have good tools to ramp up the difficulty of an individual student’s education at an appropriate rate.

      How can we dramatically increase the complexity of our teaching both knowledge and skills so that students need solid note taking skills earlier in their education.

    2. For most people, the most efficient method to get a quality paper done is to sit down and write it. Short of a project like a dissertation, most people can handle the organization of an essay without a lot of front-loading.  Predictably, then, kids start resenting being forced to outline for no reason. Ditto studying habits or notetaking; most of my “good” students hate taking notes because … why should they bother? They’re going to remember most of what they actually need to know without having to study, not least of which because they’re more likely to be tested on skills than knowledge.
    1. Frere, J. J., Serafini, R. A., Pryce, K. D., Zazhytska, M., Oishi, K., Golynker, I., Panis, M., Zimering, J., Horiuchi, S., Hoagland, D. A., Moller, R., Ruiz, A., Overdevest, J. B., Kodra, A., Canoll, P. D., Goldman, J. E., Borczuk, A. C., Chandar, V., Bram, Y., … tenOever, B. (2022). SARS-CoV-2 infection results in lasting and systemic perturbations post recovery (p. 2022.01.18.476786). https://doi.org/10.1101/2022.01.18.476786

    1. Can Windows/Linux not rename a file while it’s open, show a folder’s size, or rename a document from within its app window?

      Case study in equivocation.

    1. Users are shown four animated GIFs, each correspondingto modifying an attribute for a given image.
  7. Dec 2021
    1. There is a huge amount of uncertainty in these modelled estimates and we can only be confident about the impact of boosters against Omicron when we have another month of real-world data on hospitalisation, ICU [intensive care] numbers and deaths.
  8. Nov 2021
    1. Boosting is an approach to machine learning based on the idea of creatinga highly accurate prediction rule by combining many relatively weak and inaccu-rate rules

      This definition applies to all ensemble methods, right?

    1. ReconfigBehSci. (2021, November 1). 2/2 from the paper ‘We speculate that the extraordinarily high antibody titers observed in vaccinated individuals who develop breakthrough infections may lead to subsequent long-term protection in those individuals.’ [Tweet]. @SciBeh. https://twitter.com/SciBeh/status/1455104597454954497

  9. Oct 2021
    1. Singanayagam, A., Hakki, S., Dunning, J., Madon, K. J., Crone, M. A., Koycheva, A., Derqui-Fernandez, N., Barnett, J. L., Whitfield, M. G., Varro, R., Charlett, A., Kundu, R., Fenn, J., Cutajar, J., Quinn, V., Conibear, E., Barclay, W., Freemont, P. S., Taylor, G. P., … Lackenby, A. (2021). Community transmission and viral load kinetics of the SARS-CoV-2 delta (B.1.617.2) variant in vaccinated and unvaccinated individuals in the UK: A prospective, longitudinal, cohort study. The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(21)00648-4

    1. However, the decrease in BV was greater in men (8.0 +/- 0.8 mL/kg versus 5.8 +/- 0.8 mL/kg)

      That's a substantial fraction of the 11 point lower blood volume in ME/CFS found in one study. Moreover, this was achieved with only 13 days bed rest. I can only imagine the long-term effects of a sedentary lifestyle. It's likely that this is the primary cause of most ME/CFS. Nonetheless, exercise is unlikely to be the optimal treatment.

    1. Pozzetto, B., Legros, V., Djebali, S., Barateau, V., Guibert, N., Villard, M., Peyrot, L., Allatif, O., Fassier, J.-B., Massardier-Pilonchéry, A., Brengel-Pesce, K., Yaugel-Novoa, M., Denolly, S., Boson, B., Bourlet, T., Bal, A., Valette, M., Andrieu, T., Lina, B., … Trouillet-Assant, S. (2021). Immunogenicity and efficacy of heterologous ChadOx1/BNT162b2 vaccination. Nature, 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-04120-y

    1. Tartof, S. Y., Slezak, J. M., Fischer, H., Hong, V., Ackerson, B. K., Ranasinghe, O. N., Frankland, T. B., Ogun, O. A., Zamparo, J. M., Gray, S., Valluri, S. R., Pan, K., Angulo, F. J., Jodar, L., & McLaughlin, J. M. (2021). Effectiveness of mRNA BNT162b2 COVID-19 vaccine up to 6 months in a large integrated health system in the USA: A retrospective cohort study. The Lancet, 398(10309), 1407–1416. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(21)02183-8

    1. Meuris, C., Kremer, C., Geerinck, A., Locquet, M., Bruyère, O., Defêche, J., Meex, C., Hayette, M.-P., Duchene, L., Dellot, P., Azarzar, S., Maréchal, N., Sauvage, A.-S., Frippiat, F., Giot, J.-B., Léonard, P., Fombellida, K., Moutschen, M., Durkin, K., … Darcis, G. (2021). Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 After COVID-19 Screening and Mitigation Measures for Primary School Children Attending School in Liège, Belgium. JAMA Network Open, 4(10), e2128757. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.28757

    1. ual, this study examines the relationship of the extent of power concentration to urban renewal success. The ratio of managers, proprietors, and officials to the employed labor force measures the concentration of power, and success in urban renewal is represented by arrival of cities at the execution stage in that pro- gram. The relationship is found to be statistically significant and remains so under a series of controlled observations

      Quant study that examines the concentration of community power on the success of urban renewal projects.

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    1. Weirdly, in the master of fine arts classes I’ve taught so far, there’s never been a single class on how to store and access your research.

      The fact that there generally aren't courses in high school or college about how to better store and access one's research is a travesty. I feel like there are study skills classes, but they seem to be geared toward strategies and not implemented solutions.

    1. Put another way, in Miller's account the chunk was effectively the basic unit of working memory. And so Simon and his collaborators were studying the basic units used in the working memory of chess players. If those chunks were more complex, then that meant a player's working memory had a higher effective capacity.

      Working memory as storing "chunks". The count of chunks is more or less constant, but what contributes a chunk may have a lot of variance. A chunk is a concept so familiar that you can reason with it.

    2. I said above that I typically spend 10 to 60 minutes Ankifying a paper, with the duration depending on my judgment of the value I'm getting from the paper. However, if I'm learning a great deal, and finding it interesting, I keep reading and Ankifying. Really good resources are worth investing time in.

      How to tag and store the "really good sources" for later review? I wouldn't want to have thousands of really good sources because then I wouldn't have any bandwidth for new material. Always pop something out if something goes in?

  10. Sep 2021
    1. Hippisley-Cox, J., Coupland, C. A., Mehta, N., Keogh, R. H., Diaz-Ordaz, K., Khunti, K., Lyons, R. A., Kee, F., Sheikh, A., Rahman, S., Valabhji, J., Harrison, E. M., Sellen, P., Haq, N., Semple, M. G., Johnson, P. W. M., Hayward, A., & Nguyen-Van-Tam, J. S. (2021). Risk prediction of covid-19 related death and hospital admission in adults after covid-19 vaccination: National prospective cohort study. BMJ, 374, n2244. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.n2244

    1. Pauli and his colleagues captured 10 brown-throated sloths. They are a three-toed species. The scientists also collected 12 Hoffmann’s sloths, which are a two-toed type. All came from a study site in northeastern Costa Rica. Here, the sloths live among a variety of habitats. These range from pristine forest and cacao (Ka-KOW) agroforest to fields of banana and pineapple.“It’s really a quilt of different habitat types,” Pauli says. And it’s one that allowed the researchers not only to study many habitats at once but also to more easily capture and track sloths than if they were in dense jungle.Many elements come in more than one form, or isotope (EYE-so-toap). The researchers injected the sloths with water labeled with specific isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen, then released the animals back to the wild. After 7 to 10 days, the scientists again captured the sloths and sampled their blood. By seeing how much of the isotope labels remained, they could calculate the sloths’ field metabolic rate. This is the energy that an organism uses throughout the day.The field metabolic rate for the three-toed sloths was 31 percent lower than that for two-toed sloths. It also was lower than that found in any mammal that was not hibernating. The researchers reported this May 25 in the American Naturalist.

      Study: 10 3 toed sloths (brown throated) 12 2 toed sloths (Hoffmann)

      where: Costa Rica but variety of habitats

      Researchers injected sloths w/ H20 w/ labeled isotopes of O2 and H before releasing back in wild. 7-10 days later, sloths captured again and measure isotopes by collecting blood --> that how they calculate metabolic rate (by seeing how much is left) (MR_--> energy organism uses throughout the day)

      3 toed sloths--> 31% lower than 2 toed sloths (lower metabolic rate--> less food needed--> less energy wasted)

      Lower than any animals not in hibernating state

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    1. Haber, N. A., Wieten, S. E., Rohrer, J. M., Arah, O. A., Tennant, P. W. G., Stuart, E. A., Murray, E. J., Pilleron, S., Lam, S. T., Riederer, E., Howcutt, S. J., Simmons, A. E., Leyrat, C., Schoenegger, P., Booman, A., Dufour, M.-S. K., O’Donoghue, A. L., Baglini, R., Do, S., … Fox, M. P. (2021). Causal and Associational Linking Language From Observational Research and Health Evaluation Literature in Practice: A systematic language evaluation [Preprint]. Epidemiology. https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.08.25.21262631

    1. We found an association between short-term secondhand exposures to EC emissions, measured by nicotine concentrations, and decreased HRV as well as shortening of the QTc

      It's hard to say what this tells me about my hypothesis that the 7 mg patch increases HRV. It really depends on their blood levels. The second-hand smoke machine is extremely unrealistic. They were exposed to 30 puffs of 1.8% nicotine e-juice in the first measurement interval. Assuming 150 puffs per ml, that's 3.6 mg smoked in a single 15 minute interval! I've not read the full study to confirm this calculation. Nonetheless, it's clear that these insane conditions require scrutiny. That's not even counting the fact that there's no placebo (Or even control). How am I supposed to know if this is not just an effect of being concern about inhaling e-smoke? I'm still searching for studies on low concentration of nicotine and HRV.

  11. Aug 2021
  12. Jul 2021
    1. NIHR HPRU in Behavioural Science and Eval Bristol. (2021, May 27). Event: The CONQUEST study has collected data on the contacts, behaviour & symptoms of staff & students @BristolUni during #COVID19 to inform policy & math modelling. Join us for this webinar on 8 June for an update on the study, its impact & future plans. Https://t.co/DHrmferP0L https://t.co/25cOASdyKJ [Tweet]. @HPRU_BSE. https://twitter.com/HPRU_BSE/status/1397906695775473671

    1. How We Delivered MVP for PlanMyKids - Kids Activities Marketplace (Case Study)Alina NechvolodE-Commerce & SaaS StrategistEugenia ChernukhaProject ManagerInessa IshchenkoUX/UI DesignerMarketplaceCase studyHomeBlogCodica WayHow We Delivered MVP for PlanMyKids - Kids Activities Marketplace (Case Study)Jul 15, 202118 min readIn today’s hectic life keeping children busy after school is a pressing issue for many parents. Not only should they find the most suitable activities for kids, but they also have to monitor the schedule on the go. Such activity booking marketplaces can become a silver bullet for both parents and service providers. Such platforms make it easier for both parties to plan, book, and coordinate these activities for children. Today we would like to share our experience in building a kids activities marketplace. We will lead you through the key stages of custom software product development in our company - from a discovery session to the product launch.

      Today we would like to share our experience in building a kids activities marketplace. We will lead you through the key stages of custom software product development in our company - from a discovery session to the product launch.

    1. Regev-Yochay, G., Amit, S., Bergwerk, M., Lipsitch, M., Leshem, E., Kahn, R., Lustig, Y., Cohen, C., Doolman, R., Ziv, A., Novikov, I., Rubin, C., Gimpelevich, I., Huppert, A., Rahav, G., Afek, A., & Kreiss, Y. (2021). Decreased infectivity following BNT162b2 vaccination: A prospective cohort study in Israel. The Lancet Regional Health - Europe, 7, 100150. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lanepe.2021.100150

    1. and bullet journal for more modern take on commonplace books

      Bullet Journals certainly are informed by the commonplace tradition, but are an incredibly specialized version of lists for productivity.

      Perhaps there's more influence by Peter Ramus' outlining tradition here as well?

      I've seen a student's written version of the idea of a Bullet Journal technique which came out of a study habits manual in the 1990's. It didn't quite have the simplicity of the modern BuJo idea or the annotations, but in substance it was the same idea. I'll have to dig up a reference for this.

  13. Jun 2021
    1. Li, X., Ostropolets, A., Makadia, R., Shoaibi, A., Rao, G., Sena, A. G., Martinez-Hernandez, E., Delmestri, A., Verhamme, K., Rijnbeek, P. R., Duarte-Salles, T., Suchard, M. A., Ryan, P. B., Hripcsak, G., & Prieto-Alhambra, D. (2021). Characterising the background incidence rates of adverse events of special interest for covid-19 vaccines in eight countries: Multinational network cohort study. BMJ, 373, n1435. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.n1435