344 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
    1. How to Make Money Online as a Graphic DesignerNEW!2019-12-10 13:24:44テーマ:ブログMaking money online is the best thing that can happen to you. We can do our daily chores in our home and at the same time do our work. Making money online is also an exciting opportunity for housewives and students. In this digital age, everything is turning online so, why not the work we do at our offices? There are many online opportunities that can help you earn money. The only requirement that is needed is skills. You have to be skilled in something to earn money anywhere. There are a lot of methods to learn new skills online using YouTube videos, Udemy, Unacademy etc. Learning a skill is no problem! But, using the skill could be. So, to ease you out we’ve curate the list of 5 ways you can make money online. Logo Design and Brand Identity If you are a designer then you can provide people with services. There are lot of sub categories that you can cover like T-shirt, business card, Logo design services by professional designers and much more. You can find customers by purchasing data from the data providing services. You can contact them via phone or email them, provide them with the best price and you have a new client. They also refer to other people and market your name and get more business. Start an Online Business You can start an online business as a graphic design agency. Every freelancer has a dream to start a business so, why not now? You can operate this business from your home. Yes, eventually you have to get an office but, you have to get an office anyway to earn big. Freelance Designer You can be a freelance designer providing services to websites like EveryDesigns, Freelencer, or Upwork. There are a lot of freelance websites that provide work in return for a small commission. You can participate in a graphic design contest where many designers participate from around the world. In this type of money earning method there is lot of competition so you have to be best at your skills. YouTube You can start a YouTube channel providing tutorials and create content related to your niche. Teaching is a very good field, if you watch YouTube videos then around 70-75% of the YouTube content is “How to” tutorials. These types of videos do best on YouTube and rank higher in the search results. Online Classes You can teach at many online platforms specifically designers to teach skills to other people. Websites like Udemy, Unacademy pay you for teaching online. It is free to register on these websites. You just have to create content and provide after sale services to the clients by updating the content and solving any issue they are having. Conclusion Using the above options to earn money is easy but no one will give you job unless you prove them with your previous work. You have to create a portfolio that contains your previous work and client testimonials to make your clients believe that you are a trustworthy source to get the designs. #Logo#Professionallogodesign#Graphicdesigncontest#graphicdesignservices

      Find out how you can make money as a professional graphic designer online using these amazing tips that will guide you.

  2. Nov 2019
    1. Advantages of Online Professional Development

      This chapter, "Advantages of Online Professional Development" describes the benefits of online teacher professional development (OTPD), which implements technology to deliver training and learning in an online environment. OTPD allows teachers to participate in a flexible, self-directed, and collaborative learning community. They can interact with other teachers synchronously and asynchronously, or take professional development courses at their own schedule.

    1. Section 1.5 Online Learner Characteristics, Technology and Skill Requirements

      This website outlines Section 1.5 of Angelo State University's guide to instructional design and online teaching. Section 1.5 describes key characteristics of online learners, as well as the technology and computer skills that research has identified as being important for online learners. Successful online learners are described as self-directed, motivated, well-organized, and dedicated to their education. The article also notes that online learners should understand how to use technology such as multimedia tools, email, internet browsers. and LMS systems. This resource serves as a guide to effective online teaching. Rating 10/10

    1. E-Learning Theory (Mayer, Sweller, Moreno)

      This website outlines key principles of the E-Learning Theory developed by Mayer, Sweller, and Moreno. E-Learning Theory describes how the implementation of educational technology can be combined with key principles of how we learn for better outcomes. This site describes those principles as a guide of more effective instructional design. Users can also find other learning theories under the "Categories" link at the top of the page. Examples include Constructivist theories, Media & Technology theories, and Social Learning theories. Rating: 8/10

    1. As educational technologies, instructional design and online learning/content delivery platforms keep evolving, more learners with more needs and motives will be drawn to taking online courses – a growing demand that in turn will spur further improvements in technology and delivery.

      Educational Technology offers free articles with sources.

      Rating: 5/10

    1. Recognized by U.S. News & World Report as the country’s most innovative school, Arizona State University is where students and faculty work with NASA to develop, advance and lead innovations in space exploration.

      Arizona State University is one of the best university leaders nationally and around the world. They are known by providing successful online services for online learners. Educators and potential educators should explore their site for leads and their own innovation.

      Rating: 10/10

    1. Private post-secondary institutions that provide educational services in the State of New Mexico are subject to either the New Mexico Post-Secondary Educational Institution Act (Section 21-23-1 et seq. NMSA 1978) or the Interstate Distance Education Act (Section 21-23B-1 et seq. NMSA 1978) and can use this site to apply for State Authorization or submit other required applications to comply with State regulations. Students may request transcripts of closed schools where the New Mexico Higher Education Department is the designated custodian of records or may file complaints against any post-secondary institution that provides educational services in our State.

      The NMHE website is about providing academic, financial and policies to new mexico public higher education institutions and community.

    1. Validate Candidate’s Skills with Coding Assessment Test

      Test coding skills of candidates using Wild Noodle's online coding assessment tests. Their automated online coding challenges to assess developers' programming skills and also have an extensive pool of role based programming and objective questions. Contact now!

    1. The use of on-line instructional delivery methodscontinues to grow as technological and societal changes have enabled and encouraged this growth.

      The article was written to help the reader understand how adult learners comprehend lessons and their learning styles. The type of learning method that is used in this article is the andragogical process model (eight element process). The article is an interesting view of how the andragogical process model can be used to explore how the adult mind understands how to use online learning to educate themselves. Rating 3/5

    1. As online learning matures, it is important for both theorists and practitioners to understand how to apply new and emerging educational practices and technologies that foster a sense of community and optimize the online learning environment.

      The article expresses the design theory elements (goals, values, methods) and how it can assist with defining new tools for online learning. Rating 5/5

    1. n. Key to this model is the assumption that online education has evolved as a subset of learning in general rather than a subset of distance learning

      This article helps the reader understand the major theories that are related to technology using the leaning theories, theoretical frameworks, and models. Rate: 4/5

  3. Oct 2019
  4. Sep 2019
    1. students taking classes in the classroom report significantly higher rates of underutilized textbooks than those taking classes online

      Seems to hint to me that on-campus students may be receiving (or perceiving) a superior level of instructor support (thereby making the textbook less relevant). Interesting responsibility for F2F faculty and interesting possible criticism of the level of instructor support provided to online students.

  5. Aug 2019
    1. However, when groups of readers come together and collectively read and write annotation in response to a shared text, then annotation can - under curated circumstances - spark and sustain conversation.

      I can't help but note that within the IndieWeb community, they're using a combination of online chat and wiki tools which to a great extent are a larger ongoing conversation. The conversation continues on a daily (almost hourly) basis and the substantive portions of that conversation are captured within the wiki for future reference. Interestingly, an internal chat bot, known as Loqi, allows one to actively make changes to the wiki from within the chat. In some sense, within this community there could be an analogy to which came first the chicken or the egg, but replacing those with conversation and annotation.

  6. Jul 2019
    1. . She identified that in order to “identify, in textual terms, how the Internet mediates the representation of knowledge, the framing of entertainment, and the conduct of communication”, our understanding of construction and creation needs to be broad enough to allow for change in the future. I believe that viewing the work as construction and more expansive that just creation allows for this eventuality.

      OCC and allowing content to be able to change and evolve in the future

  7. Jun 2019
    1. Online LIVE Streaming of ICC Cricket World Cup 2019: List of Streaming Platforms along with countries. 1) hotstar: Owned by Novi Digital Entertainment, a subsidiary of Star India, Hotstar is amongst the leading OTT platforms in India having content in different languages and genre. Star Sports is the official broadcaster of ICC Cricket World Cup 2019 in India. Viewers can enjoy uninterrupted match visuals from ground zero on hotstar app or on hotstar.com. Viewers can avail premium plans for Rs999/ year or Rs299/ month to enjoy uninterrupted match experience. The OTT platform owned by Star India has currently disabled watching cricket matches or web series for free. The subscription plans also allow viewers to watch all seasons of the popular web series, Game of Thrones.

      The biggest extravaganza of cricket, ICC Cricket World Cup 2019 has finally arrived. Starting 30th May 2019, nine of the best cricketing nations along with the hosts England will fight it out for the coveted trophy.

    1. Every school with master’s degrees is at some stage of process in moving these programs online. Save for a very small number of elite programs, the model of full-time residential master’s is in decline. The question appears to be not if master's programs will move online, but how they will do so.

      Implications for libraries...

  8. May 2019
  9. Apr 2019
    1. The ITL department at The Ohio State University at Mansfield has six primary themes: (a) developmentally appropriate practice, (b) integrated curriculum, (c) literature-based instruction, (d) classroom-based inquiry, (e) diversity and equity issues, and (f) technology integration. The goal for technology integration, like the other themes in the program, is to integrate the theme into each course of the program, when appropriate. For example, instructors find ways to integrate children’s literature into each of the methods courses, whether it is a mathematics, science, or social studies methods course. The goal is to integrate the common themes of the program throughout the methods courses and the other graduate courses leading up to student teaching.
  10. learn-us-east-1-prod-fleet01-xythos.s3.us-east-1.amazonaws.com learn-us-east-1-prod-fleet01-xythos.s3.us-east-1.amazonaws.com
    1. Since online learning has a different setting from the conventional classroom,online educators need to use some special techniques and perceptions to leadto success. Moreover, adults have special needs and requirements as learnerscompared with children and adolescents, thus online educators should knowhow adults can learn best because of their special characteristics. Philosophicaland methodological shifts also affect instruction. Many researchers havesuggested that constructivism should be applied in distance education. Thus,this paper attempts to examine the impact of constructivism in online learningenvironments when focusing on adult learners. The author develops the con-nection between constructivism and adult learning theory. In addition, thepaper proposes instructional guidelines using the constructivist approach inonline learning for adults.
    1. This article is a study of both in-person and online courses and the affect of internet usage on the student's engaged int those courses. The article notes how saturated the learning environment has become and their approach to using student self-reported data to measure engagement. The authors provide an extensive review of prior literature on both technology and student engagement topics. The data should be reviewed with caution, as it is outlined by the authors that the questions have not been thoroughly vetted for validity and reliability.

      Rating: 6/10. The article had positive results, but the data questions being untested is a bit concerning. The article is also from 2009, and the landscape has changed much since then.

    1. This journal article, written by Amaury Nora, who is currently the Dean for Research at the University of Texas San Antonio and Blanca Plazas Snyder who was pursuing a degree in educational psychology at the time this article as written. The author's bring an honest review of technology and include the benefits, the downfalls and they identify areas where more research needs to be conducted (especially around student persistence).

      Rating: 9/10. The article is informative and takes many perspectives. The only flaw is that when discussing technology in Higher Education, this article is from 2008, but it was also helpful to get the perspective from 10 years ago.

  11. Mar 2019
    1. The world’s largest selection of courses

      Udemy is an online platform where experts in various fields can create paid courses. You can learn languages, web design, photography, musical instruments all in your own time. The platform also allows for extensive ranking and reviews to be put on instructors and courses to keep the quality high. Instruction is inexpensive and self-paced. it is larger aimed at teenagers and adult learners and focuses on skills. Rating 10/10

    1. Designing Technology for Adult Learners: Applying Adult Learning Theory

      Discusses how adult learning theory can be applied for digital learning for adults. It suggests making sure interactions are built on real world and relevant situations, that learners and go at their own pace, they are allowed to reflect on their learning, and interact with each other and different points of view. Rating 10/10

    1. The eZoomBook Tool: A Blended and Eclectic Approach to Digital Pedagogy

      Discusses the use of the eZoomBook Tool which has the ability to allow learners to navigate back through subject matter they need to refresh on as they learn new material. It allows peer to peer teaching and working which is it's most successful feature for adult learners. the eZB template is open-format and can be adapted to a variety of learning situations. Results from their initial experiments show high use of intrinsic motivation for adult learners once they got a handle on the platform.

    1. Beyond the Click: Rethinking Assessment of an Adult Professional Development MOOC

      Examines the design and implementation of a MOOC about flipped teaching. It used digital surveys and the LMS system to gauge participant experiences and expectations. A unique aspect of this MOOC is that it asked participants to set what level of activity they expected to have in the program: active, passive, drop-in, observer. And it found that 60% of people engaged directly at that level. This is useful for designing online education experience and connecting participants with each other and in the classroom based upon their learning goals.

    1. Can an Evidence-Based Blended Learning Model Serve Healthcare Patients and Adult Education Students?

      Discusses the use of blended-learning incorporating technology especially for adult education programs that reduce education gaps and help the under-employed with career readiness. This also focuses in on adults with chronic disease and how online education might better support their needs. It uses constructivist leanings placing education in the context of activity and environment and recreating the correct environments online.

    1. The Career Curriculum Continuum

      Discusses the place of universities in lifelong learning, especially with the advancement of technology in education in the workforce. The career curriculum continuum, includes free and self-paced options such as MOOCs, educational video on Youtube, and Wikis, but also suggests more structured learning placed in context. Universities can offer this as short courses that are cheaper and offer more options for pathways to a full degree program. It also suggests professional certificates for expanding the skills of those already working. Digital institutions will be the most widely used methods for consuming knew knowledge and advancing skills. Rating 10/10

    1. Q&A: How to Develop ‘Program Architecture’

      Discusses they ways in which Kacey Thorne of WGU, outlines plans for developing underlying competencies for online programs. Program architecture refers to the connect of skills and competencies for specific industries linking back to a network of what students will learn in school through offered programs. This is necessary for creating relevant programs that teach translatable skills for the real world after college. Rating 10/10

    1. Using Web 2.0 to teach Web 2.0: A case study in aligningteaching, learning and assessment with professionalpractice

      Research article. Discussed the use of web 2.0 including blogs, wikis, and social media as a method of information sharing that is impacting education through teaching and learning management. The work suggests that learning outcomes, activities, and assessment have to be in alignment to create effective learning experiences and uses a case study within an information management program in which students use various web 2.0 tools and document their use .

    1. The use of digital technologies across the adult life span in distance education.

      Research article. This article explores how older and younger student approach studying through the use of technology and reveals that those in older age groups were more likely to use technology in deep in focused ways to study once they got the hang of it and younger groups were more likely to remain on the surface level of a variety of technologies.

    1. Effect of a metacognitive scaffolding on self-efficacy, metacognition, and achievement in e-learning environments

      Research paper. This work highlights how scaffolding, meaning students work through their learning in stages with support from digital technology, making adjustments to their learning environment as needed as they progress through material. Self-evaluations are a critical component of this to help reflect on the content learned. Scaffolding helps students determine not only what to do but how to do it until they are ready to learn more fully on their own. Rating 6/10

    1. Online is clearly where the growth is, especially when it comes to enrolling adults.

      This article is based around the idea that online education increases access for learners but lacks in completion data. This article provides data around the United States from a study conducted over a few years. Generally speaking this article encourages blended learning rather than all online to obtain better outcomes for adult learners. Rating 7/10 for use of graphs and evidence from data.

    1. Report: Why Tech for Adult Learning So Often Misses the Mark

      Popular article. This article overviews the U.S. Department of Education LINCS system report which shows that there is a disconnect between those that design adult learning technology and the stakeholders (learners and employers) that plan to use it. Often technology is retrofitted, as it was originally intended for K-12 and won't work in the ways adult learners and educators need for them. One of the main ways to circumvent this is to design technology for a specific problem that needs to be solved, instead of starting with the solution. Rating 4/10

    1. Towards a Mobile Augmented Reality Prototype for Corporate Training: A New Perspective

      Research Article. I found this article especially interesting because it promotes the use of mobile devices for online learning. This focuses on corporate training, but it is easy to see how it could be applied across areas and fields. There is a specific focus on the use of virtual and real objects during education experiences to create experience-based learning outcomes. Rating 4/10

    1. Application  of  Virtual  and  Augmented  Reality  tothe  Field  of  Adult  Education

      Research Article from the Adult Education Research Conference. This article examines the history of VR as a tool to train military personnel, and medical professionals and how future directions of VR could be used for other adult education situations especially due to their low risk learning environment. The authors examine how VR could also be used in gaming, arts, entertainment, marketing and business fields. This is important because VR environments also allow students to exploring changing technology and practice self-learning. Rating 6/10

    1. Report: It's Time for Ed Tech to Tackle the Adult Learner

      This article recommends the way in which education technology should adapt to be aimed at adult learners. Specifically that education should all students to assess themselves as they go and fill in any missing gaps in knowledge. It should also be relevant to their life needs, and connect their own experiences back into the learning environment. I feel most of this is known in adult learning theory in general, however this article is really aimed at those outside the industry and is a very helpful summary in this way. Rating 7/10

    1. Top 10 Tools For The Digital Classroom

      Article overviews tools in technology that are useful for bringing learners together in the classroom, especially in ways that enhance their interaction with digital media and each other. Although many of them seem to be aimed at younger learners I feel like some of the tools, like Quizlet, and Prezi are especially useful for adult learners. Rating 10/10

    1. An investigation into the attraction and completion rates of MOOCs Sergey Kruchinin

      Research Paper. Discusses the use of MOOCs and their completion rates as tools for education. MOOCs are often touted as the best way to get education to the popular masses. The study shows that MOOCs coming from universities with major names on just a few platforms like Coursera tend to be the most successful in terms of completion rate. Courses that have auto grading features are more attractive to students, probably because they get feedback immediately. Rating 4/10

    1. This website is a free website that allows for users to access summaries of learning theories, educational guides and much more!

    2. This site includes links to brief discussions of more than 100 learning theories, some of which relate to technology enhanced learning. Those include gamification and online collaborative learning among others. Usability is adequate and this is sufficient for an introduction to the theories though not necessarily a nuanced understanding. rating 4/5

    1. 4 tips to implement just in time learning at your organization This article is published by Udemy so it would appear to be credible. Reading is a bit difficult because of the light font and a sales orientation can be discerned. Nonetheless it does have some useful tips such as encouraging professional developers to 'redefine how you measure learning.' rating 3/5

    1. 8 unexpected benefits of microlearning online training libraries While I am not sure that the benefits are unexpected, this does provide a list of advantages for employee driven voluntary professional development that happens via mobile devices in small doses. The usability of the page is satisfactory. rating 4/5

    1. reconceptualizing learning: a review of the literature on informal learning This is an 80 page PDF that has the support of Rutgers. It is presented in the usual manner in which reports are written. Unsurprisingly the writing is clean and accessible. The role of technology in online learning is discussed.Mentoring and communities of practice are addressed. The writing is fairly general. rating 3/5

    1. Simulations and games in informal learning contexts This article seems to discuss science learning, which is not my foremost interest, but it does give an example of how informal online learning can be used to allow the learner to explore his or her own interests. It is not specific enough to be of high value but is useful as a preliminary reading that can perhaps inform search terms to use for future research. rting 2/5

    1. This is a discussion of informal learning that focuses on ensuring that incidences of informal learning are recognized. This discussion portrays it has happening through casual conversations, online discussions, or social media. The page is easy enough to read though it does not try to be comprehensive. rating 2/5

  12. Feb 2019
    1. to expand their pedagogical repertoire

      Indeed. Just as it requires knowledge and skill to design, develop, and deliver an online learning experience, the same applies to blended learning. Making informed decisions about how to blend is deep, deep, deep.

    1. "Online and face-to-face are delivery modes; they are not course designs," she wrote. "To say that online courses are alike because they are online is like saying that rocky road ice cream and tater tots are the same because you find them in the freezer section.

      Exactly (and...LOL)

  13. Jan 2019
    1. People, branding your new website require extensive efforts and time for initiating the activities, which will help to build the solid base of your site.  There are so many tasks needed to complete the overall branding as we all know that first impression is your last impression.  Online branding is very important for service providers because as a marketing guy, I know that it would be like stress somewhere the majority of the people are not known about the product. 

      People, branding your new website require extensive efforts and time for initiating the activities, which will help to build the solid base of your site. There are so many tasks needed to complete the overall branding as we all know that first impression is your last impression. Online marketing is very important for service providers because as a marketing guy, I know that it would be like stress somewhere the majority of the people are not known about the product.

    1. YourMobileWorld.Com is a free chat room website where you can have live chat with single women and men, you can discuss with random strangers from all over the world, any time you can start a private conversation to meet girls and boys living nearby in your area. Free online chat rooms

    1. More and more, employers are offering professional development courses online, he noted. “Learning online is different from face-to-face, and [graduates] won’t have any experience. If the college wants students to be lifelong learners, give them the opportunity to” take virtual courses."

      This paragraph mentions that employers are offering more training online, so having online course experience will benefit students once they enter the job market, What are some other potential benefits of students learning online?

    1. Avvatar India is one of the famous brands in protein supplement market. Buy whey protein powder online at best price. Our whey protein powder helps to complete protein need of your body, improve overall body composition and mainly it completes your dream of muscle gaining and build lean muscle mass.

    1. Please check out Software Carpentry as well. This is a great intro that covers not just programming and data analysis (R/Python), but a lot of crucial stuff that every bioinformatician should know but usually is not covered in courses, such as Unix shell Git and version control Unit testing SQL and databases Data management and provenance I also like A Quick Guide to Organizing A Computational Biology Project for organizational techniques that usually have to be learned by experience
    1. In my opinion if you can get enrolled into a degree program for systems biology then that would be best. However, if you are just exploring the field on your own I would recommend going through these resources.Video lectures by Uri AlonVideo Lectures by Jeff GorePrinciples of Synthetic Biology (at edx)Coursera specialization on systems biology.If you are looking for mathematical intensive start with first 2 and if you are looking for biologically intensive begin with last 2. Either way go through all 4 of them as they provide diverse perspective on systems biology which is very important. As you will move through these materials all the necessary supplementary information like books, papers and softwares will be informed within these materials itself.Hope this helps!
    1. Romantic relationships are undone by texting; people are much crueler than in live conversation because they don’t receive the visual cues that accompany live talk.

      Dating apps are changing the norm of meeting people in real life to 'e-meeting' and causing a whole host of problems. People are able to create their ideal image on their virtual profiles which may not be an accurate representation of who they are in real life. A new phenomenon in the virtual dating world known as 'cat fishing' is now taking place. This is where people create a fake profile and trick others online to thinking they are some one else - often the Cat Fish is known to the unsuspecting victim

    1. Experimentation, the third affordance, refers to theuse of technology to encourage participants to try outnovel ideas.

      Definition of experimentation.

      Describes the use of comment/feedback boxes, ratings, polls, etc. to generate ideas for new coordination workflows, design ideas, workarounds, etc.

    2. Recombinability refers to forms of technology-enabled action where individual contributors build oneach others’ contributions.

      Definition of recombinability.

      Cites Lessig in describing recombinability "as both a technology design issue and a community governance principle" for reusing/remixing/recombining knowledge

    3. Reviewability refers to the enactment of technology-enabled new forms of working in which participantsare better able to view and manage the content offront and back narratives over time (West and Lakhani2008). By allowing participants to easily and collab-oratively review a range of ideas, technology-affordedreviewability helps the community respond to tensionsin disembodied ideas, because the reviews can provideimportant contextual information for building on others’ideas.

      Definition of reviewability.

      Faraj et al offer the example of Wikipedia edit log to track changes.

    4. Technology platforms used by OCs can providea number of affordances for knowledge collabora-tion, three of which we mention here: reviewability,recombinability, and experimentation. These affordancesevolve as new participants provide new ways to use thetechnologies, new social norms are developed around thetechnology affordances, and new needs for fresh affor-dances are identified.

      Ways that technology affordances can influence/motivate change in social coordination practices.

    5. Given the fluid nature of OCsand their rapidly evolving technology platforms, and inline with calls to avoid dualistic thinking about tech-nology (Leonardi and Barley 2008, Markus and Silver2008, Orlikowski and Scott 2008), we suggest technol-ogy affordance as a generative response, one that viewstechnology, action, and roles as emergent, inseparable,and coevolving. Technology affordances offer a relationalperspective on human action, where neither the technol-ogy nor the actor is dominant in the sense that the tech-nology does not define what is possible for the actor todo, nor is the actor free from the limitations of the tech-nological environment. Instead, possibilities for actionemerge from the reciprocal interaction between actor andartifact (Gibson 1979, Zammuto et al. 2007). Thus, anaffordance perspective focuses on the organizing actionsthat are afforded by technology artifacts.

      Interesting perspective on how technology affordances are a generative response to coordination tensions.

    6. third response to manage tensions is to promoteknowledge collaboration by enacting dynamic bound-aries. In social sciences, although boundaries divide anddisintegrate collectives, they also coordinate and inte-grate social action (Bowker and Star 1999, Lamont andMolnár 2002). Fluidity brings the need for flexible andpermeable boundaries, but it is not only the propertiesof the boundaries but also their dynamicity that helpmanage tensions.

      Cites Bowker and Star

      Good examples of how boundaries co-evolve and take on new meanings follow this paragraph.

    7. We have observed in OCs that no single narrative isable to keep participants informed about the current stateof the OC with respect to each tension. These commu-nities seem to develop two different types of narratives.Borrowing from Goffman (1959), we label the two nar-ratives the “front” and the “back” narratives.

      Cites Goffman and the performative vs invisible aspects of social coordination work.

    8. Based on our collective research on to date, we haveidentified that as tensions ebb and flow, OCs use (or,more precisely, participants engage in) any of the fourtypes of responses that seem to help the OC be gen-erative. The first generative response is labeledEngen-dering Roles in the Moment. In this response, membersenact specific roles that help turn the potentially negativeconsequences of a tension into positive consequences.The second generative response is labeledChannelingParticipation. In this response, members create a nar-rative that helps keep fluid participants informed ofthe state of the knowledge, with this narrative havinga necessary duality between a front narrative for gen-eral public consumption and a back narrative to airthe differences and emotions created by the tensions.The third generative response is labeledDynamicallyChanging Boundaries. In this response, OCs changetheir boundaries in ways that discourage or encouragecertain resources into and out of the communities at cer-tain times, depending on the nature of the tension. Thefourth generative response is labeledEvolving Technol-ogy Affordances. In this response, OCs iteratively evolvetheir technologies in use in ways that are embedded by,and become embedded into, iteratively enhanced socialnorms. These iterations help the OC to socially and tech-nically automate responses to tensions so that the com-munity does not unravel.

      Productive responses to experienced tensions.

      Evokes boundary objects (dynamically changing boundaries) and design affordances/heuristics (evolving technology affordances)

    9. Tension 5: Positive and Negative Consequences ofTemporary ConvergenceThe classic models of knowledge collaboration in groupsgive particular weight to the need for convergence. Con-vergence around a single goal, direction, criterion, pro-cess, or solution helps counterbalance the forces ofdivergence, allowing diverse ideas to be framed, ana-lyzed, and coalesced into a single solution (Couger 1996,Isaksen and Treffinger 1985, Osborn 1953, Woodmanet al. 1993). In fluid OCs, convergence is still likelyto exist during knowledge collaboration, but the conver-gence is likely to be temporary and incomplete, oftenimplicit, and is situated among subsets of actors in thecommunity rather than the entire community.

      Positive consequences: The temporary nature can advance creative uses of the knowledge without hewing to structures, norms or histories of online collaboration.

      Negative consequences: Lack of P2P feedback may lead to withdrawal from the group. Pace of knowledge building can be slow and frustrating due to temporary, fleeting convergence dynamics of the group.

    10. ension 2: Positive and Negative Consequencesof TimeA second tension is between the positive and negativeconsequences of the time that people spend contribut-ing to the OC. Knowledge collaboration requires thatindividuals spend time contributing to the OC’s virtualworkspace (Fleming and Waguespack 2007, Lakhani andvon Hippel 2003, Rafaeli and Ariel 2008). Time has apositive consequence for knowledge collaboration. Themore time people spend evolving others’ contributedideas and responding to others’ comments on thoseideas, the more the ideas can evolve

      Positive consequences: Attention helps to advance the reuse/remix/recombination of knowledge

      Negative consequences: "Old-timers" crowd out newcomers

      Tension can lead to "unpredictable fluctuations in the collaborative process" such as labor shortages, lack of fresh ideas, in-balance between positive/negative consequences that catalyzes healthy fluidity

      Need to consider other possibilities for time/temporal consequences. These examples seem lacking.

    11. We argue that it is the fluidity, the tensions that flu-idity creates, and the dynamics in how the OC respondsto these tensions that make knowledge collaboration inOCs fundamentally different from knowledge collabora-tion in teams or other traditional organization structures.

      Faraj et al identify 5 tensions that have received little attention in the literature (doesn't mean these are the only tensions):

      passion, time, socially ambiguous identities, social disembodiment of ideas, and temporary convergence.

    12. As fluctuations in resource endowments arise overtime because of the fluidity in the OC, these fluctua-tions in resources create fluctuations in tensions, makingsimple structural tactics for managing tensions such ascross-functional teams or divergent opinions (Sheremata2000) inadequate for fostering knowledge collaboration.As complex as these tension fluctuations are for the com-munity, it is precisely these tensions that provide thecatalyst for knowledge collaboration. Communities thatthen respond to these tensions generatively (rather thanin restrictive ways) will be able to realize this potential.Thus, it is not the simple presence of resources that fos-ter knowledge collaboration, but rather the presence ofongoing dynamic tensions within the OC that spur thecollaboration. We describe these tensions in the follow-ing section

      Tension as a catalyst for knowledge work/collaboration

    13. Fluidity requires us to look at the dynamics—i.e., thecontinuous and rapid changes in resources—rather thanthe presence or the structural form of the resources.Resources may flow from outside the OC (e.g., pas-sion) or be internally generated (e.g., convergence), sub-sequently influencing and influenced by action (Feldman2004). Resources come with the baggage of having bothpositive and negative consequences for knowledge col-laboration, creating a tension within the community inhow to manage the positive and negative consequencesin a manner similar to the one faced by ambidextrousorganizations (O’Reilly and Tushman 2004).

      Fluidity vs material resources

    14. However, failure to examine the critical roleof even the inactive participants in the functioning of thecommunity is to ignore that passive (and invisible) par-ticipation may be a step toward greater participation, aswhen individuals use passivity as a way to learn aboutthe collective in a form of peripheral legitimate partici-pation (Lave and Wenger 1991, Yeow et al. 2006).

      Evokes LPP

    15. Fluidity recognizes the highly flexible or permeableboundaries of OCs, where it is hard to figure out whois in the community and who is outside (Preece et al.2004) at any point in time, let alone over time. Theyare adaptive in that they change as the attention, actions,and interests of the collective of participants change overtime. Many individuals in an OC are at various stagesof exit and entry that change fluidly over time.

      Evokes boundary objects and boundary infrastructures.

    16. We argue that fluid-ity is a fundamental characteristic of OCs that makesknowledge collaboration in such settings possible. Assimply depicted in Figure 1, we envision OCs as fluidorganizational objects that are simultaneously morphingand yet retaining a recognizable shape (de Laet and Mol2000, Law 2002, Mol and Law 1994).

      Definition of fluidity: "Fluid OCs are ones where boundaries, norms, participants, artifacts, interactions, and foci continually change over time..."

      Faraj et al argue that OCs extend the definition of fluid objects in the existing literature.

    17. a growing consensus on factors that moti-vate people to make contributions to these communities,including motivational factors based on self-interest (e.g.,Lakhani and von Hippel 2003, Lerner and Tirole 2002,von Hippel and von Krogh 2003), identity (Bagozzi andDholakia 2006, Blanchard and Markus 2004, Ma andAgarwal 2007, Ren et al. 2007, Stewart and Gosain2006), social capital (Nambisan and Baron 2010; Waskoand Faraj 2000, 2005; Wasko et al. 2009), and socialexchange (Faraj and Johnson 2011).

      Motivations include: self-interest, identity, social capital, and social exchange, per org studies researchers.

      Strange that Benkler, Kittur, Kraut and others' work is not cited here.

    18. For instance, knowledge collaboration in OCscan occur without the structural mechanisms tradition-ally associated with knowledge collaboration in orga-nizational teams: stable membership, convergence afterdivergence, repeated people-to-people interactions, goal-sharing, and feelings of interdependence among groupmembers (Boland et al. 1994, Carlile 2002, Dougherty1992, Schrage 1995, Tsoukas 2009).

      Differences between offline and online knowledge work

      Online communities operate with fewer constraints from "social conventions, ownership, and hierarchies." Further, the ability to remix/reuse/recombine information into new, innovative forms of knowledge are easier to generate through collaborative technologies and ICT.

    19. Knowledge collaboration is defined broadly as thesharing, transfer, accumulation, transformation, andcocreation of knowledge. In an OC, knowledge collab-oration involves individual acts of offering knowledgeto others as well as adding to, recombining, modify-ing, and integrating knowledge that others have con-tributed. Knowledge collaboration is a critical elementof the sustainability of OCs as individuals share andcombine their knowledge in ways that benefit them per-sonally, while contributing to the community’s greaterworth (Blanchard and Markus 2004, Jeppesen andFredericksen 2006, Murray and O’Mahoney 2007, vonHippel and von Krogh 2006, Wasko and Faraj 2000).

      Definition of knowledge work

    20. Online communities (OCs) are open collectives of dis-persed individuals with members who are not necessarilyknown or identifiable and who share common inter-ests, and these communities attend to both their indi-vidual and their collective welfare (Sproull and Arriaga2007).

      Definition of online communities

  14. Dec 2018
    1. play poker

      Play free poker online with the most variant of poker for fun. You can also enjoy the poker game with your family by playing free poker in a private table. Join 9stacks and enjoy the benefits of best offers and promotion on the largest tournament of poker than anywhere else.

  15. Nov 2018
    1. It is operating in a territory that offers people more concrete learning (and more interactivity) than a Netflix documentary while not being so specialized as to be a professional course.
    2. there’s just enough must-see content to keep coming back to.
    1. democratizing access to genius,

      nice tagline for masterclass

    2. whether a person could be placed into an intimate conversation – a “teaching moment” – with some of the most skilled people in the world.

      Cool question that could be turned into an USP

    1. "Using mixed methods, we examined the contribution of four scenario-based online discussion strategies -structured, scaffolded, debate and role play – to the learners’ cognitive presence, the outcome of the discussion. "

    1. This is a very useful information for those people who wanted to achieve some desirable output on how are they going to use that kind of language in programming that will be going to be a perfect thing for their projects. At least, through this kind of idea, they can make this tool as a better tool than another tool out there.

    1. Facilitating Adult Learning Through Computer-Mediated Distance Education

      This is an interesting article to discover the history of adult learning technology in a hybrid setting. The study included both face-to-face and online meetings/assignments.

    1. English Teachers' Barriers to the Use of Computer-assisted Language Learning

      This article discusses the use of Computer-assisted Language Learning (CALL) technologies to teach English. Each stage of learning aligns with a level of computer technology. There are also many barriers that impede the process of integrating the CALL into the classroom, which include financial, access to hardware and software, teacher training, technical knowledge, and acceptance of technology.

      RATING: 8/10

    1. IMPACTS OF LEARNING STYLES AND COMPUTER SKILLS ON ADULT STUDENTS’ LEARNING ONLINE

      This article explores how learning styles and computer skills impact student online learning. Further consideration is also given to course format and participants who were first time online learners. This is a complex study that investigates possible skills and abilities of first time online students. It would be interesting to conduct the same study, ten years latter to see if the changes in technology has improved the learners' computer skills and therefore the results of the study.

      RATING: 7/10

    1. Adult learners face numerous challenges that include changing definitions, overcoming circumstances, relearning, and motivation. Addressing these challenges in a timely and personal way is especially important in distance learning environments. This roundtable will discuss how WGU addresses these challenges and prepares educators in a manner independent of place and time.

      This article discusses ways to help adults in distance learning environments. The panelists are university workers sharing how they address the issues.

    1. This website details a case study that was performed in order to determine the effectiveness of online advising (a position I am currently involved in myself). There were several studies conducted and student responses are detailed in charts-- overwhelmingly, students felt the online advising format was a success.

      Rating: 10/10

    1. Instructional Design Strategies for Intensive Online Courses: An Objectivist-Constructivist Blended Approach

      This was an excellent article Chen (2007) in defining and laying out how a blended learning approach of objectivist and constructivist instructional strategies work well in online instruction and the use of an actual online course as a study example.

      RATING: 4/5 (rating based upon a score system 1 to 5, 1= lowest 5=highest in terms of content, veracity, easiness of use etc.)

    1. Transformation for adults in an Internet-based learningenvironment—is it necessary to be self-directed?

      REDIRECT to this URL Tranformation for adults

      This study explores transformative learning theory (TLT) for adults in the Internet-base learning environment and questions the need for students to be self-directed. The study also includes the Constructivist Internet-based Learning Environment Scale (CILES). The Self-directed Learning Readiness Scale(SDLRS) as modified by Chang (2006) was used to meet the cultural needs of the participants. In conclusion, the results have a high reliability factor and add quantitative research to previous qualitative studies.<br> Further discussion is suggested regarding the technical and emancipatory learning interests on adult online learners.

      RATING: 8/10

    1. Online Options Give Adults Access, but Outcomes Lag

      In this article, drivers that increase and improve online learning success in adults are explored. State by state data along with federal stats contribute to the conclusions presented.

      Roughly 13% of all undergraduates are full-time online students and between 2012 and 2017 online students grew y 11 percent, about 2.25 million. The article presents a map showing state by state stats and the information provided can assist in growing individual school needs.

      RATING: 4/5 (rating based upon a score system 1 to 5, 1= lowest 5=highest in terms of content, veracity, easiness of use etc.)

  16. content.ebscohost.com content.ebscohost.com
    1. Toward constructivism for adult learners in online learning environments

      This is an article from 2002 that identified the emerging need of online, adult learners. One concept is the use of cognitive learning theory as tools for the online learning environment.<br> Several descriptors identified who the adult online student is, primarily adult working women with full time jobs and a family (often single head of household) who are trying to return to school to improve personal circumstances.

      This article is a invitation to review the learning environment that was devised and determine if it met the needs of students then and what changes need to be implemented for today's students.

      Rating 9/10

    1. This article focuses on creating online tutorials for adult learners. Andragogy theory is used to build online programs for adult learners that are learner centered and engaging.

      8/10

    1. Learning Needs Analysis of Collaborative E-Classes in Semi-Formal Settings: The REVIT Example.

      This article explores the importance of analysis of instructional design which seems to be often downplayed particularly in distance learning. ADDIE, REVIT have been considered when evaluating whether the training was meaningful or not and from that a central report was extracted and may prove useful in the development of similar e-learning situations for adult learning.

      RATING: 4/5 (rating based upon a score system 1 to 5, 1= lowest 5=highest in terms of content, veracity, easiness of use etc.)

  17. Sep 2018
    1. students are not downloading texts in ePub format but, rather, as PDFs.

      Interesting. Because they're easier (more familiar?) to work with?

  18. Aug 2018
    1. At the same time, however, especially as the Internetincreasingly becomes a primary venue for partici-pating in ‘‘...the political, social and commercialactivities necessary for full participation in a liberaldemocracy,’’ establishing trust in online worldsbecomes a correlatively more pressing matter.
    2. In particular, Myskjapoints out that the largelydisembodiedcharacter ofmost online communication thereby cuts us off fromimportant, perhaps crucial channels of non-verbalcommunication that may be essential to trust-building.
    1. Earlier, I have criticized Facebook for not anticipating the ethical problems with Facebook live and for its general approach of trying things out without much ethical forethought. But wouldn’t a pragmatist argue that because they are charting into new territory, digital innovators are more likely to make ethical mistakes giving the lack of existing normative framework?  This pragmatic defense only has limited power though, as there are general guiding ethical norms and principles in place already.  It is of course true that (some of) these norms might be subject to change in the digital environment and that sometimes our existing frameworks are ill-equipped to deal with new moral dilemmas. However, this does not excuse some of the more egregious ethical lapses we have seen recently, which were violations of well-known and accepted moral guidelines.
    2. This approach, I believe, works well for digital ethics, where we try to articulate rules that govern how we interact with each other through digital technologies. For example, when social media emerged, there was no fixed rule about when it is appropriate to tag someone in a picture and when it isn’t. So we figured out a netiquette and ethical norms as we were going along, based on experience, existing norms, insights from experts etc. There still might be areas of disagreement, but I would argue that overall we have come to an understanding of what is acceptable and what isn’t on this issue, and these norms are passed on to new users of social media.
    3. In daily language, the word pragmatic is often used pejoratively, to describe someone with a lack of principles (or character) who will let the situation, rather than a firm moral compass, guide her actions. But in the philosophical sense, pragmatism refers to an orientation towards ethics that isn’t occupying itself with abstract concepts such as “truth,” “right” and “wrong” or with coming up with all-encompassing ethical theories. Instead it focuses on praxis rather than theory and sees the role of the ethicist more to “de-scribe” norms as they develop than to “pre-scribe” them. 
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