526 Matching Annotations
  1. Jan 2019
    1. "We interpret this result as evidence of 'teaching to the exam,'" the authors write, "where TAs divulge information that is pertinent to the class’ exams if given the opportunity. Students who are more likely to interact with the TAs by attending the TAs’ discussion sections and office hours are the beneficiaries of teaching to the test."

      What are the other implications of this research? Is the recommendation that TAs should be paired with classes that most closely match their ethnicity?

    1. In 2000, when the NLRB ruled that graduate teaching assistants are eligible for collective bargaining and can be considered employees, New York University became the first private university to recognize a graduate student union.

      The history of GTA unionization.

  2. Jul 2018
  3. Jan 2018
  4. Jun 2017
  5. Apr 2017
    1. Best Digital-Only Student PublicationWinner: Capital News Service | CNSMaryland.org - by CNS Staff, University of Maryland College of JournalismFinalist: Zajel - by Nada Almenhali, Zayed University
  6. Mar 2017
  7. Feb 2017
  8. Jan 2017
  9. Dec 2016
  10. Oct 2016
  11. Aug 2016
    1. Student Task

      Use the below sources: video, website, and essay to gather information on both of the Emancipation Proclamations. Once you have gathered information, read through each document once and then go back and annotate one part of each document. You should have two annotations when complete.

      Questions that can be answered with annotations:

      ●Which Republican goals were served by each paragraph?

      ● Why is the president authorized to do this?

      ● What should the President have replied to critics who warned him that this document would 1) anger the border states or southern unionists, and 2) undermine prosecution of the war?

      ●What differences are there in the two documents?

      https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=05GVVw7008M&list=PLVggCKD8PzewikRabpcuKeW7ENokjpx-W&index=19

      Emancipation Proclamation 1863 (http://housedivided.dickinson.edu/)

      Emancipation Essay

  12. Jun 2016
    1. Electronic Beowulf 4.0

      This is the entrance to the edition

    2. The third edition of Electronic Beowulf was an html application on DVD that used a Java applet and JavaScript. When first published, major internet browsers could run the html application on PCs and Macs. However, security problems with Java in Summer 2013 forced all major browsers to disable unsigned Java applets compiled with earlier versions of Java. As it was compiled in 2011, Electronic Beowulf 3.0 was then disabled.

      Security-forced obsolescence

    1. Madden also made many careful facsimiles of damaged sections of the manuscript, revealing what appeared to him the exact state of the manuscript in 1824, long before the leaves were inlaid in their protective frames.

      This is the conclusion of the chapter

    2. When an interleaf contains a note, the O-button on the top menu will be green , and the drop-down menu is live. Click the arrows to open a drop-down menu and gain access to the interleaf or interleaves.

      Another interface code

    3. An 'Edition Search' under 'Apparatus' > 'Early Restorations' > 'Transcripts' includes in its results complete lists of later restorations.

      More instructions on how to do things.

    4. Humphrey Wanley, who transcribed a few lines of the Beowulf manuscript at the end of the seventeenth century and published them in 1705, is the only source for a few lost letters. At the end of the eighteenth century, Grimur Jonsson Thorkelin and his hired scribe, probably James Matthews, a British Museum staff member, together saved about 2000 letters that were subsequently lost by fire damage as a consequence of the Cottonian Library fire in 1731. John J. Conybeare and Frederic Madden, in the early nineteenth century, produced two collations, which together help test the accuracy of the Thorkelin transcripts and of their own collations.

      No background.

    1. Note on the Text

      This table of contents doesn't reflect the actual document hierarchy: it looks like it is a new document, but it is part of the previous one. Higher up on the TOC, an indent at this level indicates a new document as well.

    2. Digital technology makes it possible to test the paleographical validity of conjectural restorations, to see if a proposed restoration actually fits in the manuscript space. Underlying the folio image is a completely restored text of the palimpsest, with the gaps filled in using the scribe's own letterforms from elsewhere on the folio. To access the digital restorations go to the top menu, click the drop-down folio menu, and choose 'Conjectural Restorations'. A window with an overlay image of the folio opens.

      Doesn't discuss the reconstructions here, just tells you how to access them.

    3. Here it must suffice to say that Julius Zupitza's "freshening-up" hypothesis to explain the highly complex condition of this folio has nothing in its favor. Editors and scholars must abandon it to understand important facts about the history of the text of Beowulf

      Lack of argumentation in the text by itself. I.e. he uses the repository to do the arguing.

    4. The presence of the manuscript facsimile obviates the need for a strictly diplomatic transcription.

      Not really. Diplomatic transcription is also interpretative.

      This is in fact shown by Kiernan's own use of symbols to describe the (also present) images: i.e. ...) lost at margin.

      | to mark a line boundary

    1. This is an electronic version of a chapter in Poetry, Place, and Gender: Studies in Medieval Culture in Honor of Helen Damico, edited by Catherine E. Karkov. Medieval Institute Publications (Kalamazoo: Western Michigan University, 2009), pp. 98-131. The black-and-white figures are replaced with color screenshots from the third edition of Electronic Beowulf.

      Another interesting bibliographic issue: this is a continuous, running, text of a chapter from a print book.

    1. In addition to tooltips like these in the textual notes there are also “transparencies” over some key folios, in particular the palimpsest, fol. 179 recto and verso, which allow the reader to study a conjectural restoration in the full context of its folio. The reader is alerted to the existence of one of these otherwise hidden overlays in two ways: (1) the textual note, where applicable, will include the statement, “See 'Conjectural Restoration';” and (2) the O-button on the top menu will be green:

      The addition of another UI convention

    2. A case in point is the obliterated text between syððan and þ on fol. 179r10. Any attempt at restoration is complicated by the fact that some of the ink traces, as conclusively shown by an overlay in Electronic Beowulf 4.0, come from an offset from the facing fol. 178v. Digital technology allows us to subtract these false leads and arrive at a more plausible restoration

      Great use of image processing to estimate what could be the conjectural readings.

    3. [italics]

      Do tool tips identify this or do we need to remember this section?

    4. To see the locations of these readings, click the red rectangle on the menu:

      A major option not on the option bar

    5. Differences in line numbering should present no problems to readers who wish to use Electronic Beowulf 4.0 with another edition, because we have provided searchable cross-references in the Options menu. Simply choose “Traditional” in Options to search by traditional line numbers and to show them as tooltips in the margins.
    1. Broken sentence here. Not quite sure what the 1300 is.

    2. For detailed instructions to all aspects of Electronic Beowulf 3.0, click on the online Index & Guide icon on the right side of the top menu. Once online, consult the comprehensive Index & Guide to the left for details of all features of the third edition of Electronic Beowulf.

      Beowulf 3.0 text snuck through here.

      This page is essentially identical to http://ebeowulf.uky.edu/studyingbeowulfs/overview except there this mistake was found.

    1. Drosophila muller f elements maintain a distinct set of genomic properties over 40 million years of evolution

      Leung, Wilson, Christopher D. Shaffer, Laura K. Reed, Sheryl T. Smith, William Barshop, William Dirkes, Matthew Dothager, et al. 2015. “Drosophila Muller F Elements Maintain a Distinct Set of Genomic Properties over 40 Million Years of Evolution.” G3 (Bethesda, Md.) 5 (5): 719–40. doi:10.1534/g3.114.015966.

      This paper puts all 1000+ authors between title and byline.

    1. ***By which I mean, it’s even in Wikipedia

      Doesn't give reference on how the physicist detector models are known in wikipedia

    2. Actually, I didn’t need Holmesian deductions to conclude that Aad et al. aren’t using a conventional definition of authorship. It’s widely known*** that at least two groups in experimental particle physics operate under the policy that every scientist or engineer working on a particular detector is an author on every paper arising from that detector’s data. (Two such detectors at the Large Hadron Collider were used in the Aad et al paper, so the author list is the union of the “ATLAS collaboration” and the “CMS collaboration”.) The result of this authorship policy, of course, is lots of “authorships” for everyone: for the easily searchable George Aad, for instance, over 400 since 2008.

      Physicists authorship models

    3. Does mega-authorship threaten our concept of authorship in science? It would be easy, and fun, to write with a scandalized tone about how mega-authorship corrupts all that is good and decent about scientific publishing. But does it really matter? I think both yes and (mostly) no.

      thesis: a little yes, but mostly no megaauthorship doesn't do harm

    4. Does mega-authorship matter?

      Heard, Stephen. 2015. “Does Mega-Authorship Matter?” Scientist Sees Squirrel. August 18. https://scientistseessquirrel.wordpress.com/2015/08/18/does-mega-authorship-matter/.

    1. However, it seems that the academy is already growing wise to the nature of these mass-authored papers. This year, for the first time, the Times Higher Education World University Rankings will exclude any papers that have more than 1,000 authors, as they are considered to be “so freakish that they have the potential to distort the global scientific landscape”.

      THE rankings will exclude papers with >1000 authors from consideration.

    2. Is mass authorship destroying the credibility of papers?

      Grove, Jack. 2015. “Is Mass Authorship Destroying the Credibility of Papers?” Times Higher Education (THE). August 24. https://www.timeshighereducation.com/news/mass-authorship-destroying-credibility-papers.

    1. A Crowd-authoring Project on theScholarship of Educational Technology

      Lily, Abdulrahman Essa Al. 2015. “A Crowd-Authoring Project on the Scholarship of Educational Technology.” Information Development, December, 266666915622044. doi:10.1177/0266666915622044.

    2. Academia has long experienced a ‘core–periphery’dichotomy (to borrow terminology from Wallerstein,1974), with a one-way influence from the core to theperiphery. The core refers to the well-respected nativeEnglish-speaking departments, faculties and/or jour-nals, whereas the periphery refers to researchers outsideof the native English-speaking domain

      core-periphery discussion

    1. The trend of increasingly long author lists on research papers is clearly getting out of hand. In addition to being impractical, it is also threatening to the entire system in which academic work is rewarded. Radical reform is needed. One way forward could be to completely remove authors on papers and replace them with project names.

      One way forward is to replace authors from papers and replace them with project names

    2. Long lists are eroding the value of being a scientific author

      Priego, Ernesto. 2016. “Long Lists Are Eroding the Value of Being a Scientific Author.” The Conversation. Accessed June 16. http://theconversation.com/long-lists-are-eroding-the-value-of-being-a-scientific-author-42094.

    1. The PDF of the paper gives a bit of a clue as to what’s going one. The author list is more modest on the title page, which lists the authors as, “Wilson Leung and Participating Students and Faculty of the Genomics Education Partnership.” So a lot of these authors are students who took a class, and probably completed part of the analysis as a course assignment.

      difference between byline and authors: byline (like in HEP), lists collaborations

    2. When does authorship stop meaning anything useful?

      Faulkes, Zen. 2015. “When Does Authorship Stop Meaning Anything Useful?” Blog. NeuroDojo. May 11. http://neurodojo.blogspot.com/2015/05/when-does-authorship-stop-meaning.html.

    1. In his blog post, Faulkes suggests a new rule: “If the number of authors on your paper can be measured in ‘kiloauthors’, having your name on the paper will not count for tenure and promotion purposes.”

      Faulkes caps significant authorship at >1000

    2. Zen Faulkes, an invertebrate neuroethologist at the University of Texas-Pan American in Edinburg, questions on his blog whether every person made enough of a contribution to be credited as an author.

      Faulkes questions whether every other has made "enough" of a contribution to be credited as an author.

    3. Fruit-fly paper has 1,000 authors

      Woolston, Chris. 2015. “Fruit-Fly Paper Has 1,000 Authors.” Nature News 521 (7552): 263.

  13. Apr 2016
    1. Here’s the URL of annotations tagged wikipedia: https://hypothes.is/stream?q=tag:%27wikipedia%27 (Actually that doesn’t seem to work yet, but I’d love to see this become a next-gen delicious with all the taggy goodness.)

      I would love to see a worthy successor to delicious. Is hypothesis it?

    2. One thing I held on to during fedwiki was that it wasn’t intended to be wikipedia, and to me that meant it wasn’t intended to produce articles so much as to sustain and connect ideas in formation that might find their way into article-like things on other platforms.
  14. Jan 2016
    1. international law system

      Wikipedia page https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_legal_system

      Does an International legal informatics database exist yet?

    2. Promote a biocentric instead of and anthropocentric paradigms.

      Biocentric includes man and includes him in an appropriately prioritized order. An anthropocentric view should be a biocentric, ecocentric, charitable, human view simply because humans are (among other things) organisms, situated in ecosystems, capable of charity, love, humility and that is in fact what makes us human. What is best for the environment is what is best for humans and everything else.

    3. Ecocide

      Interesting idea. The only thing is that the science is not where we would like it to be. Most of the accusing will need to be done in retrospect. In that case, many will have lost culpability due to insufficient knowledge. I just wonder how this will hold up in a court of law for most practical cases. For some large-scale cases, I can see it working, as long as the effects are enormous.

    4. Land defenders are dying but the news don’t talk about this. Most of media and politics are owned by companies so, we have to force them to serve the people instead. We can’t depend on these guys.

      We need to recognize different values and think that people value land entitlements, family and community, the elderly, connectivity. If we value these, we will want to hear these things reported all the time. Marketing will follow suit. Perhaps marketing will be the first to move...

    5. Here is a video of paul Watson's talk: video

    6. Two great Mother Earth defenders were present on the last day of COP 21 in the public area.

      Is there any way of finding he transcripts for this day?

    1. But, of the dozens of female lawyers and law graduates I spoke with on a visit to Saudi Arabia in early November, only two would admit to any interest in expanding rights for Saudi women.
    2. On Salman’s third day as king, he oversaw his first beheading, of an alleged rapist. By early November, the kingdom had already carried out more executions—at least a hundred and fifty—than it had in any year since 1995. In late November, two Saudi newspapers reported that the state would soon be executing at least fifty more prisoners, all convicted of terrorism, which under Saudi law includes such offenses as damaging the reputation of Saudi Arabia or its king; a charge of terrorism is frequently used to try not only jihadists but also bloggers and lawyers.
    3. Today, several thousand Saudi women hold law degrees, and sixty-seven are licensed to practice, according to justice-ministry figures released at the end of November.
    4. In early October, at the end of the Islamic calendar year, the Saudi justice ministry announced that in the past twelve months there had been a forty-eight-per-cent increase in cases of khula, divorces initiated by women.
    5. The second Hawa’a’s Rights lecture, on April 26th, addressed personal-status law, the category of Saudi law that governs marriage, divorce, guardianship, and inheritance.
    6. The first lecture in the series, which Ferak called Hawa’a’s Rights (Hawa’a is the Arabic version of the name Eve), was publicized on Twitter and took place on the evening of April 15th.
    7. In November, in an adultery case, a married woman was sentenced to death by stoning; her unmarried male partner received a hundred lashes.
    1. But even from this remove it was possible to glean certain patterns, and one that recurred as regularly as an urban legend was the one about how someone would move into a commune populated by sandal-wearing, peace-sign flashing flower children, and eventually discover that, underneath this facade, the guys who ran it were actually control freaks; and that, as living in a commune, where much lip service was paid to ideals of peace, love and harmony, had deprived them of normal, socially approved outlets for their control-freakdom, it tended to come out in other, invariably more sinister, ways.
  15. Dec 2015
    1. And instead of a nice dish of minnows—they had a roasted grasshopper with lady-bird sauce; which frogs consider a beautiful treat; but I think it must have been nasty!
    1. More venery. More love; more closeness; more sex and romance. Bring it back, no matter what, no matter how old we are. This fervent cry of ours has been certified by Simone de Beauvoir and Alice Munro and Laurence Olivier and any number of remarried or recoupled ancient classmates of ours. Laurence Olivier? I’m thinking of what he says somewhere in an interview: “Inside, we’re all seventeen, with red lips.”
    1. common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities

      Malaysia, for the LMDCs, stressed the need to “recognize that the principles of equity and CBDR must be preserved in all their facets and forms.” He urged parties to look at the best available social science to assess modern realities and stressed that civil society must have access to negotiations.

    2. [Article 3bis] (REDD-plus)http://cop21.okfnlabs.org/agreement/#article-3bis-redd-plus

      Calling for a REDD+ mechanism to be reflected in the agreement, Panama, for the Coalition for Rainforest Nations, recalled that heads of state sent a “strong” political signal on the role of forests and biodiversity in their speeches.

    3. Option II: No reference to loss and damage (no Article 5).]

      TUVALU urged reinsertion of language on loss and damage that preserves the issue as an independent article.

    4. Recognizing that Parties should take action to address climate change in accordance with [[relevant][evolving economic and emission] trends, which will continue to evolve post-2020] [and the principles and provisions of the Convention],

      On purpose (Article 2), VENEZUELA supported “stabilization” of GHG emissions and, with SAUDI ARABIA and PAKISTAN, opposed the inclusion of “decarbonization” and “carbon neutrality.”

    5. [and the Central American Isthmus]

      At the end of a preambular paragraph on special needs, EL SALVADOR requested adding “and the Central American isthmus.”

    6. First communication option for agreement5 Option 167: Each Party’s first [NDMC*][INDC] is that listed in [Annex [x] to the Agreement][the registry][the website]. Option 2: Each Party [shall][should] communicate its first [NDMC*][INDC] no later than upon [ratification or acceptance of] [joining] this Agreement. Option 3: No provision on first communication in agreement and/or decision

      On mitigation (Article 3), the EU, supported by Colombia, for AILAC, Maldives, for AOSIS, and the US called for clarifying the date for the submission of contributions.

    7. socially and environmentally sound technologies.

      MEXICO asked that “socially and environmentally sound technology” be reinserted.

    8. Option 1: [[Developed country Parties and other developed country Parties included in Annex II to the Convention][Developed country Parties should take the lead and][Developed country Parties[, Parties with economies in transition] [and Parties in a position to do so]] [All Parties in a position to do so] [shall][should][other] provide [support][[new and additional] financial resources] to assist developing country Parties [including Parties whose special circumstances recognized by [Article 4.8 of the Convention][COP decisions]] with respect to both mitigation and adaptation [as well as addressing loss and damage] [and others in a position to do so should complement such efforts].] Option 2: [Developed country Parties and other developed Parties included in Annex II to the Convention shall provide new and additional, adequate, predictable, accessible, sustained and scaled-up financial resources to developing countries to enhance actions with respect to both mitigation and adaptation to contribute to the achievement of the [objective][purpose] of this Agreement, based on the principles and in accordance with the provisions of the Convention.] Option 3: [Parties in a position to do so, including developed country Parties, should provide support to assist developing country Parties in need of support with respect to both mitigation and adaptation.]

      On finance, the EU, NEW ZEALAND and the US stated developed countries should meet their obligations, and that others in a position to do so should contribute. AILAC envisioned CBDR and respective capabilities (CBDRRC) and developed country parties and countries “willing to do so” providing support. The LMDCs underlined that finance should be from developed to developing countries.

    9. Flexibility LDCs [and SIDS][and African states] may communicate their [NDMC*][INDC] at their discretion, including information on strategies, plans and actions for low GHG development, reflecting their special circumstances.

      On mitigation, the EU, Colombia, for AILAC, the US and others said that the INDCs imply self-differentiation. The EU stated all countries should seek economy-wide targets but there should not be shared timelines. The US added that developing countries should be eligible for support in implementing their contributions, and that LDCs and others should have flexibility to submit at their discretion without expectation. JAPAN stated that only vulnerable countries should have “partly conditional” INDCs.

    10. [Taking account also of the [different and additional] specific needs and special [situations] [circumstances ] of [least developed country (LDC) Parties in accordance with Article 4, paragraph 9 of the Convention and specific circumstances of] small island developing States (SIDS) [and least developed country (LDC) Parties],] [Africa] [and the Central American Isthmus],

      In the afternoon, the contact group discussed differentiation with all parties agreeing that the new agreement needs to reflect differentiation. Several parties observed the need to recognize the special circumstances of small island developing states (SIDS) and LDCs, with SAUDI ARABIA noting that this is already in the Convention.

    11. [Taking account also of the [different and additional] specific needs and special [situations] [circumstances ] of [least developed country (LDC) Parties in accordance with Article 4, paragraph 9 of the Convention and specific circumstances of] small island developing States (SIDS) [and least developed country (LDC) Parties],] [Africa] [and the Central American Isthmus],

      In the afternoon, the contact group discussed differentiation with all parties agreeing that the new agreement needs to reflect differentiation. Several parties observed the need to recognize the special circumstances of small island developing states (SIDS) and LDCs, with SAUDI ARABIA noting that this is already in the Convention.

    12. [Taking account also of the [different and additional] specific needs and special [situations] [circumstances ] of [least developed country (LDC) Parties in accordance with Article 4, paragraph 9 of the Convention and specific circumstances of] small island developing States (SIDS) [and least developed country (LDC) Parties],] [Africa] [and the Central American Isthmus],

      In the afternoon, the contact group discussed differentiation with all parties agreeing that the new agreement needs to reflect differentiation. Several parties observed the need to recognize the special circumstances of small island developing states (SIDS) and LDCs, with SAUDI ARABIA noting that this is already in the Convention.

    13. [Taking account also of the [different and additional] specific needs and special [situations] [circumstances ] of [least developed country (LDC) Parties in accordance with Article 4, paragraph 9 of the Convention and specific circumstances of] small island developing States (SIDS) [and least developed country (LDC) Parties],] [Africa] [and the Central American Isthmus],

      In the afternoon, the contact group discussed differentiation with all parties agreeing that the new agreement needs to reflect differentiation. Several parties observed the need to recognize the special circumstances of small island developing states (SIDS) and LDCs, with SAUDI ARABIA noting that this is already in the Convention.

    14. Hold the increase in the global average temperature [below 1.5 °C] [or] [well] [below 2 °C] above preindustrial levels by ensuring deep cuts in global greenhouse gas [net] emissions;

      On the request to the IPCC to provide a special report on the impact of a temperature increase of 1.5°C, SAUDI ARABIA and others questioned its added value beyond the IPCC assessment reports. TUVALU noted that newer information may be available that was not considered during the last assessment report cycle. INDIA and CHINA underscored the need for information on how to achieve temperature goals. Several parties requested, and ADP Co-Chair Daniel Reifsnyder agreed, to consult with the IPCC.

    15. A [mechanism][committee] [with differentiation between developed and developing country Parties][applicable to all Parties] to promote [[and address] compliance with] and facilitate implementation [of the provisions of this Agreement], which shall be expert-based, [facilitative] in nature and shall act in a manner that is transparent, non-punitive, non-adversarial [for developing country Parties][for all Parties], is hereby established. [It shall pay particular attention to the respective national capabilities and circumstances of Parties.]

      On a facilitative dialogue, several parties proposed a wider scope, beyond mitigation. The EU expressed flexibility on this, suggesting referring to the purpose of the agreement.

      CHINA and SAUDI ARABIA expressed concern that a facilitative dialogue could represent an ex ante review and opposed this. The EU and the US said a dialogue would inform the next round of INDCs.

    16. To this end the CMA shall establish a cooperative mechanism to address the adverse impacts of the implementation of response measures on developing country Parties, as included in decision

      On cooperative mechanisms, Catherine McKenna (Canada) reported that parties considered guiding principles, including, inter alia: environmental integrity; avoiding double counting; and the voluntary nature of such approaches. On mechanisms to support sustainable development (Article 3ter), she reported some parties stressed that such mechanisms would need to be durable over time, while others said they should not be part of the agreement.

    17. The purpose of the REDD-plus mechanism shall be to incentivize the reduction of emissions from deforestation and forest degradation and to promote conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing countries, while enhancing the non-carbon benefits derived as a result of the multiple functions of forests, including alleviating poverty and building ecosystem resilience.

      On forests, Henri Djombo (the Congo) reported a shared view that the Paris outcome could send a strong signal to facilitate sustainable forest management.

    18. An international mechanism to address loss and damage is hereby defined under this agreement/protocol and shall be bound by the principles and provisions of the Convention, in particular common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities. The purpose of the mechanism shall be to promote and support the development and implementation of approaches to address loss and damage associated with the adverse effects of climate change, inter alia, extreme events and slow onset events, in developing countries that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change. The international mechanism on loss and damage shall draw upon, further develop and elaborate on the work of the Warsaw International Mechanism on Loss and Damage pursuant to relevant COP decisions, including the development of modalities and procedures for the mechanism’s operation and support. It can involve, as appropriate, existing bodies and expert groups under the Convention, as well as relevant organizations and expert bodies outside the Convention, and be informed by relevant precedents in international law.

      Åsa Romson (Sweden) highlighted cross-cutting issues needing resolution, including references to a temperature goal, vulnerability and CBDR. On loss and damage, she noted ongoing discussions on institutional arrangements, saying there was no convergence.

    19. An international mechanism to address loss and damage is hereby defined under this agreement/protocol and shall be bound by the principles and provisions of the Convention, in particular common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities. The purpose of the mechanism shall be to promote and support the development and implementation of approaches to address loss and damage associated with the adverse effects of climate change, inter alia, extreme events and slow onset events, in developing countries that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change. The international mechanism on loss and damage shall draw upon, further develop and elaborate on the work of the Warsaw International Mechanism on Loss and Damage pursuant to relevant COP decisions, including the development of modalities and procedures for the mechanism’s operation and support. It can involve, as appropriate, existing bodies and expert groups under the Convention, as well as relevant organizations and expert bodies outside the Convention, and be informed by relevant precedents in international law.

      In the Paris agreement, President Tommy Remengesau, Palau, called for inter alia: a regular review process that drives ambition; robust transparency rules; and a permanent loss and damage mechanism.

      Calling for resolute action, President Ameenah Gurib-Fakim, Mauritius, said the Paris agreement should, inter alia: respect and maintain the principles of equity and CBDR; and treat adaptation and loss and damage as separate components of the agreement, anchoring loss and damage in it as a permanent mechanism.

      Prime Minister Enele Sosene Sopoaga, Tuvalu, called for a permanent mechanism for loss and damage to be anchored in the “treaty” and easy access to predictable finance.

    20. [The [global goal][long-term vision] for adaptation shall be the basis for, inter alia:

      On adaptation, and loss and damage, René Orellana (Bolivia) highlighted landing zones on: a clear goal for adaptation, with a link to Convention Article 2 (objective); recognition of the link between mitigation and adaptation; and a communication process that is flexible and does not further burden developing countries.

    21. Article 11 (facilitating implementation and compliance)http://cop21.okfnlabs.org/agreement/#article-11-facilitating-implementation-and-compliance

      On workstream 2, Pa Jarju Ousman (the Gambia) highlighted emerging convergence on mirroring the mitigation TEP’s institutional arrangements for an adaptation TEP, with a key role for the Adaptation Committee. On accelerating implementation, he noted divergence of views.

    22. Differentiated efforts Option 1: In accordance with Article 4, paragraph 2, of the Convention, developed country Parties and other Parties included in Annex I shall undertake quantified economy-wide absolute emission reduction and limitation commitments/targets, which are comparable, measurable, reportable and verifiable, cover all greenhouse gases and are implemented domestically without any conditions. 3bis. In accordance with Article 4, paragraphs 1, 3, 4, 5 and 7, of the Convention, developing country Parties should undertake diversified enhanced mitigation actions/efforts in a measurable, reportable, and verifiable manner, in the context of sustainable development and supported and enabled by the provision of adequate finance, technology and capacity-building by developed country Parties. Option 2: Option (a): Each Party that has previously [communicated] [implemented] absolute economy-wide emissions reduction or limitation targets should continue to do so and all Parties should aim to do so over time. Option (b): Developed country Parties [and other Parties [in a position][that determine] to do so] should take the lead in mitigation efforts, including by [communicating] [and implementing] absolute economy-wide emissions reduction [or limitation] targets and all other Parties should aim to do so over time. 3bis [Developed country Parties should continue to take the lead].2

      On differentiation, Vivian Balakrishnan (Singapore) noted that “parties are not yet ready to place their final positions on the table,” saying the co-facilitators would work with the Presidency and Secretariat to crystallize existing fault lines in the text.

    23. Hold the increase in the global average temperature [below 1.5 °C] [or] [well] [below 2 °C] above preindustrial levels by ensuring deep cuts in global greenhouse gas [net] emissions;

      Tine Sundtoft (Norway) presented messages, including that, inter alia: most parties are willing to reflect a 1.5°C temperature limit in the purpose of the agreement, with accompanying provisions related to sustainable development, MOI, equity and food security; the two options identified on a global mitigation goal are a goal with quantitative elements for different time periods and a long-term qualitative goal; and there is support for a comprehensive and facilitative global stocktake, and a five-year cycle for successive communications.

    24. Hold the increase in the global average temperature [below 1.5 °C] [or] [well] [below 2 °C] above preindustrial levels by ensuring deep cuts in global greenhouse gas [net] emissions;

      SAINT LUCIA, opposed by the ARAB GROUP who suggested deleting reference to “degrees” altogether, called for including a request for consideration of consistency with 1.5°C scenarios. Parties decided that those interested would work on a new proposal.

      SAINT LUCIA, supported by a number of parties, and opposed by the ARAB GROUP, introduced a new paragraph urging the update to the synthesis report to take into account 1.5°C scenarios.

    25. recognizing the [important] role of [subnational and local authorities as well as [non state actors and the private sector]] [a multiplicity of] [different] actors,

      ARAB GROUP proposed deleting two paragraphs, on requesting all actors to scale up and demonstrate efforts, cautioning against passing the burden to actors outside the Convention.

    26. This Agreement shall enter into force on the thirtieth day after the date on which at least [X] [50][55][100] [ the ¾] Parties to the Convention [including all Annex I Parties] [and] [or] [on which Parties to the Convention accounting for [55][60][70][X] per cent of total [net] global greenhouse gas emissions in [[date][1990][2000][2010][2012]]

      On implementation and compliance (Article 11) and final clauses, Co-Facilitator Sarah Baashan (Saudi Arabia) said CMA (Article 12) was now clean, but disagreements remained on a compliance committee/mechanism in Article 11 and the type of threshold to use for determining entry into force (Article 18).

    27. Option 1: [The mobilization of climate finance [shall][should][other] be scaled up [in a predictable and transparent manner] [beyond previous efforts] [from USD 100 billion per year] from 2020[, recognizing the important role of the Green Climate Fund in the scaling up of financial resources for the implementation of this agreement, as well as other multilateral mechanisms and other efforts].] Option 2: [The provision and mobilization of financial resources by developed country Parties and other developed Parties included in Annex II shall represent a progression beyond their previous efforts towards achieving short-term collective quantified goals for the post 2020 period to be periodically established and reviewed. Financial resources shall be scaled up from a floor of US$100 billion per year, including a clear burden-sharing formula [among them], and in line with needs and priorities identified by developing country Parties [including Parties whose special circumstances were recognized by COP decisions] in the context of contributing to the achievement of the [objective][purpose] (Article 2/XX) of this Agreement.

      Report of the GCF and Guidance to the GCF: GCF Board Co-Chair Henrik Harboe (Norway) highlighted key milestones including: nomination of 136 National Designated Authorities; accreditation of 20 entities to channel finance into action on the ground; and signed contribution agreements representing 58% of the initial US$100 billion in pledges.

    28. [Developed country Parties shall provide developing country Parties, taking into account the needs of those that are particularly vulnerable, with long-term, scaled-up, predictable, new and additional finance

      REPORT OF THE ADAPTATION FUND BOARD: Adaptation Fund Board Chair Hans Olav Ibrekk (Norway) reported that the “fund has never been more in demand” and has delivered effectively on its mandate, but that the sustainability of the fund is “in danger.” Parties established a contact group co-chaired by Richard Muyungi (Tanzania) and Herman Sips (the Netherlands) on this item (FCCC/KP/CMP/2015/2).

    29. Article 7 (technology development and transfer)

      President Ali Bongo Ondimba, Gabon, urged parties to “act in order not to be responsible for something that we still can avoid,” and called for technology transfer in the areas of agriculture, forestry and clean energy, suggesting this is “the price of shared responsibility.”

    30. The purpose of the system for transparency of support is to: Provide a clear understanding of the support provided and received [as relevant] by individual Parties [as well as needs of developing country Parties] [and assist Parties in identifying gaps in support provided and received], without placing an undue burden on SIDS and LDCs; Provide[, to the extent possible,] a full overview of aggregate support provided and [mobilized] [in the light of {refer to the objective of the stocktake under Article 10}][under Article 10];

      On the synthesis report of the aggregate effect of the INDCs, parties decided to take note of the document. After intensive discussions on the various elements of the paragraph, including the gap between the aggregate effect of the INDCs and emissions consistent with 2°C or 1.5°C, Co-Chair Reifsnyder proposed: mentioning the gap resulting from the aggregate effect of INDCs communicated by 1 October 2015; inserting figures to concretize the gap; and including language from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change on lowest-cost emission pathways. He noted a revised text would be proposed by the ADP Co-Chairs and the Secretariat.

    31. Option 1: [The [NDMC*][INDC] communicated by Parties shall be [listed][published] [in an online registry maintained by the secretariat][ in Annex [X] to this Agreement][on the UNFCCC website].]

      Parties added brackets around a paragraph related to requesting the Secretariat to publish INDCs on its website.

    32. Article 18 (entry into force)http://cop21.okfnlabs.org/agreement/#article-18-entry-into-force This Agreement shall enter into force on the thirtieth day after the date on which at least [X] [50][55][100] [ the ¾] Parties to the Convention [including all Annex I Parties] [and] [or] [on which Parties to the Convention accounting for [55][60][70][X] per cent of total [net] global greenhouse gas emissions in [[date][1990][2000][2010][2012]] have deposited their instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession [whichever occurs first, coming into effect not earlier than 1 January 2020]][.][, with such Parties to the Convention accounting for X per cent of total [net] global greenhouse gas emissions [in [date] [1990][2000][2010][2012]] [but not earlier than 1 January 2020].]

      On paragraphs related to the adoption of the agreement, parties converged on paragraph 5 on parties provisionally applying the provisions of the agreement pending entry into force.

      On a body to prepare for entry into force, parties agreed that the ADP Co-Chairs and Secretariat would streamline the three options into one, representing the various proposals for the body raised by parties, including: using the ADP, changing its mandate and name, but importing all its previously agreed operational arrangements; using the SBI and/or the SBSTA; or creating a new body.

    33. In pursuit of the objective of the Convention, [and being guided by its principles [and provisions], including the principle of equity and common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities, [in the light of different national circumstances],]

      TUVALU proposed adding language stating that the new agreement was being adopted in the context of Convention Article 17 (protocols). SAUDI ARABIA, the EU and the US opposed. Co-Chair Djoghlaf suggested discussing the issue during lunchtime.

    34. Option 1: A technology framework is hereby established to pursue that vision, including to enhance the development and transfer of socially and environmentally sound technologies. Option 2: A technology framework is hereby established to achieve that vision, with a view to enhancing the development and transfer of, and access to, socially and environmentally sound technologies by [addressing [mutually agreed] barriers and] guiding the work of the Technology Mechanism and further to facilitate the understanding of [the intended nationally determined contributions of Parties pertaining to] technology provision under the Agreement.

      Co-Facilitator Tosi Mpanu-Mpanu (Democratic Republic of the Congo), reporting back from technology development and transfer (Article 7), noted that the African Group presented a revised option for the technology framework that was well-received and informed that views remained divergent on the global goal.

    35. the rights of indigenous peoples

      INDIGENOUS PEOPLES urged, inter alia: respecting indigenous peoples’ rights; recognizing traditional knowledge and practices; and providing direct access to climate finance.

    36. Option 1: communication to 5 year time period Every 5 years, harmonised [NDMC*][INDC] Each Party shall [[communicate its [successive] [new]] [update its] [NDMC][INDC] by [year x] [2020] [2021] and every five years thereafter on a [synchronized][common] basis, [or resubmit an existing [NDMC][INDC]] [for the subsequent five-year time frame], taking into account the outcomes of the global stocktake referred to in Article 10.

      Saying “we are far from where we need to be,” Climate Action Network (CAN), for ENVIRONMENTAL NGOs (ENGOs), called for creating five-year cycles and matching conditional INDCs with finance.

    37. Option 1: [The mobilization of climate finance [shall][should][other] be scaled up [in a predictable and transparent manner] [beyond previous efforts] [from USD 100 billion per year] from 2020[, recognizing the important role of the Green Climate Fund in the scaling up of financial resources for the implementation of this agreement, as well as other multilateral mechanisms and other efforts].] Option 2: [The provision and mobilization of financial resources by developed country Parties and other developed Parties included in Annex II shall represent a progression beyond their previous efforts towards achieving short-term collective quantified goals for the post 2020 period to be periodically established and reviewed. Financial resources shall be scaled up from a floor of US$100 billion per year, including a clear burden-sharing formula [among them], and in line with needs and priorities identified by developing country Parties [including Parties whose special circumstances were recognized by COP decisions] in the context of contributing to the achievement of the [objective][purpose] (Article 2/XX) of this Agreement.

      China, for Brazil, South Africa, India and China, emphasized conducting work in an open, transparent, inclusive and party-driven manner, and said that the Paris agreement should be in line with CBDR and respective capabilities. On the pre-2020 period, he stressed that developed countries must meet their commitments and define a clear roadmap to achieving the US$100 billion goal.

    38. Flexibility LDCs [and SIDS][and African states] may communicate their [NDMC*][INDC] at their discretion, including information on strategies, plans and actions for low GHG development, reflecting their special circumstances.

      The Republic of Korea, for the ENVIRONMENTAL INTEGRITY GROUP, called for the adoption of an agreement that is applicable to all, includes a flexible approach to differentiation, and has common rules and a mechanism to increase ambition over time.

    39. Hold the increase in the global average temperature [below 1.5 °C] [or] [well] [below 2 °C] above preindustrial levels by ensuring deep cuts in global greenhouse gas [net] emissions;

      On ambition, Tine Sundtoft (Norway) outlined the questions posed to parties, including on how to: frame a possible reference to a 1.5 °C limit; identify an acceptable long-term goal for mitigation over different timeframes; have a common “global moment” every five years for taking stock and informing future nationally-determined efforts on mitigation, adaptation and support; and provide reassurances that the global stocktake would not impinge on national determination of commitments.

      James Fletcher (Saint Lucia) said that, while several developed and developing country parties indicated willingness to refer to a 1.5 °C limit, others reaffirmed the temperature limit in the Cancun Agreements. He said there is general interest to express a collective long-term goal for mitigation, which could be expressed in quantitative or qualitative terms, such as a transformation to carbon neutrality or decarbonization. He also reported convergence on a common “global moment” every five years to take stock and review aggregate progress, and provide an opportunity to confirm or raise targets, but without an obligation to do so.

    40. Hold the increase in the global average temperature [below 1.5 °C] [or] [well] [below 2 °C] above preindustrial levels by ensuring deep cuts in global greenhouse gas [net] emissions;

      Angola, for the LDCs, stated that the 2°C limit is inadequate and should be strengthened to 1.5°C.

      Maldives, for the ALLIANCE OF SMALL ISLAND STATES (AOSIS), called for the agreement to establish, inter alia, medium- and long-term emission reduction pathways capable of delivering less than 1.5°C of warming.

      WOMEN AND GENDER urged countries to limit temperature rise to 1.5°C and avoid concepts such as net zero, carbon neutrality and offsetting.

      LOCAL GOVERNMENTS AND MUNICIPAL AUTHORITIES highlighted the contributions of local governments to mitigation and adaptation, while calling for a 1.5°C temperature limit.

    41. The nationally determined [mitigation] [contribution] [commitment] shall be legally binding on that Party upon entry into force of this Agreement for that Party.]

      President Vladimir Putin, Russian Federation, highlighted that it is possible to ensure economic development and take care of the environment, saying Russia stands ready to exchange energy efficiency solutions. He called for the new climate agreement to build on the principles of the UNFCCC, be legally-binding and include participation of developing countries.

    42. Progression/ambition Each Party’s successive [NDMC*][INDC] [shall][should][will] represent a progression beyond the Party’s previous efforts and reflect its highest possible ambition [based on common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities [[and] in light of different national circumstances [and best available science]] [based on provision of finance, technology and capacity-building to developing countries].3

      Noting that current INDCs are voluntary and thus far not ambitious enough to attain the 2°C temperature goal, a goal insufficient for small island nations, Chancellor Angela Merkel, Germany, called for a binding review mechanism with a five-year cycle to begin in 2020 to ensure credibility and increased ambition.

    43. equitable distribution of a global carbon budget based on historical responsibilities and [climate] justice]

      President Maithripala Sirisena, Sri Lanka, emphasized the necessity of deep cuts in global emissions, considering the principle of historical responsibility, and said that technology transfer will ensure adaptation and nationally suitable mitigation actions in developing countries.

    44. [the integrity of Mother Earth

      President Evo Morales, Bolivia, shared the outcome of the World People’s Conference on Climate Change and the Rights of Mother Earth, which took place in October 2015, in Cochabamba, Bolivia, and called on COP 21 to address capitalism, which he emphasized as the origin of the climate crisis.

    45. [All Parties [shall] regularly prepare, communicate [and implement] [intended] nationally determined [contributions][components] [on [mitigation] and adaptation] [undertakings in adaptation planning] [and means of implementation]* [towards achieving the [purpose of this Agreement as set out in Article 2] [objective of the Convention as set out in its Article 2],] [in accordance with Article 4 of the Convention] [in accordance with the provisions of this Agreement including the specific provisions related to mitigation and adaptation and means of implementation.]]

      Saying that COP 21 builds on the “historic and bold decisions taken at COP 17,” President Jacob Zuma, South Africa, called for a legally-binding agreement based on equity and differentiation that will enable ambitious action through the provision of means of implementation (MOI).

    46. [For the purpose of meeting a portion of its mitigation commitment under Article 3, any Party may elect to use certified units (CU) generated under the new market-based mechanism defined under decision 2/CP.17, paragraph 83, subject to the adoption by the CMA of modalities and procedures elaborating each of the elements in decision 1/CP.18 paragraph 51, and the adoption of eligibility rules for participation which promote fair and equitable access for all Parties. These modalities and procedures shall ensure that the design and operation of the mechanism delivers net global emission reductions, through the cancellation of a share of units generated, transferred, used or acquired from offsetting activities.]

      President Park Geun-hye, Republic of Korea, underscored the importance of a global carbon market that brings together developed and developing countries.

    47. The purpose of the REDD-plus mechanism shall be to incentivize the reduction of emissions from deforestation and forest degradation and to promote conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing countries, while enhancing the non-carbon benefits derived as a result of the multiple functions of forests, including alleviating poverty and building ecosystem resilience.

      President Juan Hernández, Honduras, called for, inter alia, making the Warsaw Framework for REDD+ and WIM binding, and stressed the global average temperature rise should not exceed 1.5°C above the pre-industrial era.

      Prime Minister Erna Solberg, Norway, announced that her country would double its contribution to the GCF by 2020 in the context of verifiable emissions reductions from REDD+.

      President Juan Carlos Varela, Panama, proposed setting up an international center for facilitating a network of public and private actors to combat deforestation, promote sustainable forestry and reduce carbon emissions.

    48. Hold the increase in the global average temperature [below 1.5 °C] [or] [well] [below 2 °C] above preindustrial levels by ensuring deep cuts in global greenhouse gas [net] emissions;

      President Abdel Fattah El Sisi, Egypt, said the new agreement should: not harm African countries’ efforts to eradicate poverty, or their right to develop; be based on the principle of CBDR; include a commitment that global average temperature increase not exceed 1.5°C; and include a global target on adaptation.

      President Christopher Loeak, the Marshall Islands, underscored that current contributions are not enough to limit warming to 1.5°C, saying nations should reset their targets every five years.

      President Uhuru Kenyatta, Kenya, supported a long-term global goal of a maximum 1.5°C temperature increase and continuing the Convention’s financial mechanism and the WIM.

      President Issoufou Mahamadou, Niger, stressed the need for: increased resilience of peoples and ecosystems; ambitious global efforts to limit global temperature rise to below 1.5°C; balancing mitigation and adaptation finance; and developed countries to take the lead according to the polluter pays principle.

      Prime Minister Keith Mitchell, Grenada called for, inter alia: a protocol based on the principles of the Convention and with a goal of maintaining global temperature rise below 1.5°C; ambitious mitigation efforts to be reviewed as of 2018 and renewed every five years; and anchoring loss and damage in the agreement.

    49. [Article 3ter] (mechanism to support sustainable development)

      President Filip Vujanović, Montenegro, emphasized the links between the expected Paris agreement with the Sustainable Development Goals and the outcome of the Financing for Development Summit.

      President Xi Jinping, China, stressed that the Paris agreement should: follow the principles and focus on the full implementation of the UNFCCC; create institutional arrangements that compel concerted efforts; respect differences in countries’ economic structures and capacities; and not deny the legitimate needs of developing countries to improve living standards and develop economically.

    50. Option 1: [The mobilization of climate finance [shall][should][other] be scaled up [in a predictable and transparent manner] [beyond previous efforts] [from USD 100 billion per year] from 2020[, recognizing the important role of the Green Climate Fund in the scaling up of financial resources for the implementation of this agreement, as well as other multilateral mechanisms and other efforts].] Option 2: [The provision and mobilization of financial resources by developed country Parties and other developed Parties included in Annex II shall represent a progression beyond their previous efforts towards achieving short-term collective quantified goals for the post 2020 period to be periodically established and reviewed. Financial resources shall be scaled up from a floor of US$100 billion per year, including a clear burden-sharing formula [among them], and in line with needs and priorities identified by developing country Parties [including Parties whose special circumstances were recognized by COP decisions] in the context of contributing to the achievement of the [objective][purpose] (Article 2/XX) of this Agreement.

      Noting that the Paris agreement must reflect equity and fairness, President Joko Widodo, Indonesia, called for progress on the mobilization of US$100 billion, noting that the commitment should be increased going forward.

      President Simonetta Sommaruga, Switzerland, advocated a new climate agreement that is legally-binding, ambitious and based on the same obligations and rules for all parties. She announced a 75% increase in Switzerland’s annual contribution to the Least Developed Countries Fund (LDCF).

      King Norodom Sihamoni, Cambodia, called for: maintaining the impetus provided by the initial capitalization of the GCF; funding for LDCs; and stimulating private investments in renewable energy and energy efficiency.

    51. An International Tribunal of Climate Justice is hereby established to address cases of non-compliance with the commitments of developed country Parties on mitigation, adaptation, provision of finance, technology development and transfer, capacity-building, and transparency of action and support, including through the development of an indicative list of consequences, taking into account the cause, type, degree and frequency of non-compliance.

      President Rafael Correa Delgado, Ecuador, called for free access to mitigation technologies and the creation of an international court for environmental justice.

    52. Option 1: communication to 5 year time period Every 5 years, harmonised [NDMC*][INDC] Each Party shall [[communicate its [successive] [new]] [update its] [NDMC][INDC] by [year x] [2020] [2021] and every five years thereafter on a [synchronized][common] basis, [or resubmit an existing [NDMC][INDC]] [for the subsequent five-year time frame], taking into account the outcomes of the global stocktake referred to in Article 10.

      In the Paris agreement, President Sauli Niinistö, Finland called for: a clear goal; common rules on transparency and accountability; and stocktaking every five years.

    53. In accordance with Article 4, paragraph 2, of the Convention, developed country Parties and other Parties included in Annex I shall undertake quantified economy-wide absolute emission reduction and limitation commitments/targets, which are comparable, measurable, reportable and verifiable, cover all greenhouse gases and are implemented domestically without any conditions. 3bis. In accordance with Article 4, paragraphs 1, 3, 4, 5 and 7, of the Convention, developing country Parties should undertake diversified enhanced mitigation actions/efforts in a measurable, reportable, and verifiable manner, in the context of sustainable development and supported and enabled by the provision of adequate finance, technology and capacity-building by developed country Parties.

      In the morning, President Ollanta Humala, Peru, urged leaders to empower their negotiators to produce an ambitious and equitable agreement with, inter alia, verifiable and progressive mitigation actions.

    54. [Article 3ter] (mechanism to support sustainable development)

      COP 20/CMP 10 President Manuel Pulgar-Vidal, Minister of Environment, Peru, explained that, with the Paris agreement, along with the adoption of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the Sustainable Development Goals in September 2015, “we are framing the new paradigm of development.” He called on delegates to show solidarity and work efficiently in a time-bound manner to find textual solutions.

    55. Emphasizing the need to respond to the urgent threat of climate change on the basis of the [best available] [reliable] scientific knowledge, in particular, the assessment reports of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change,

      Saudi Arabia, for the ARAB GROUP, emphasized that setting a goal for governments’ efforts “needs to be substantiated by proven science,” provided by the IPCC.

    56. [Each Party’s [intended] nationally determined contribution will represent a progression in the light of Parties’ differentiated responsibilities and commitments under the Convention.] [The extent to which developing country Parties will effectively implement this Agreement will depend on the effective implementation by developed country Parties of their commitments on the provision of finance, technology development and transfer and capacity-building.]

      On differentiation, Vivian Balakrishnan (Singapore) characterized the INDCs as an “innovation” allowing all parties to operationalize their diverse starting points and make continuous improvements over time. He said that assurances of no backsliding and that developed countries would continue to take the lead “resonated strongly.”

  16. Oct 2015
    1. 两会

      人(民代表)大(会)+政(治)协(商会议)

    2. 风暴

      风暴 fēngbào ②名 比喻气势猛烈、震动全社会的事件。 政治风暴 | 金融风暴

    3. 开启

      inaugurer; ouvrir

    4. 老虎
    5. 外媒

      境外媒体

    6. 班子

      班子 bānzi ③名 指领导机构。 班子换届

    7. 警醒

      警醒 jǐngxǐng ①动 警觉醒悟。 这场大火应该使你们警醒了。 ②形 形容睡觉不沉,容易醒来。 夜里要警醒些,不要睡得太死。

    8. 官僚主义

      bureaucratie

    9. 形式主义

      !主义:-isme, une idéologie formalisme

    10. 群众

      la masse / polulace

    11. 脱离

      脱离 tuōlí 动 离开;断绝。 脱离危险期 | 脱离夫妻关系

    12. 贪污

      贪污 tānwū 动 国家工作人员利用职务上的便利,非法占有公共财物。 贪污和浪费是极大的犯罪 | 贪污腐化

    13. 亟待

      亟待 jídài 动 急切地等待。 珍稀物种亟待保护 | 亟待商讨 用法说明 跟“急待”不同。“亟待”文言色彩较浓,语意也较重,多用于较庄重的场合;“急待”较口语化,多用于一般场合。

    14. 鼓掌

      applaudir

    15. 严峻

      严峻 yánjùn ①形(神情、态度)严厉;严肃。 严峻的目光 ②形(情况)严重。 形势严峻

    16. 开诚布公

      开诚布公 kāichéng-bùgōng 《三国志蜀书诸葛亮传》:“开诚心,布公道。”后用“开诚布公”形容诚恳待人,坦白无私。 用法说明 跟“推心置腹”不同。“开诚布公”侧重于公开、坦率;“推心置腹”侧重于真心、诚挚。

    17. 总书记

      中共中央总书记

    18. 常委

      中共中央政治局常委

    19. 当选

      当选 dāngxuǎn 动 选举或选拔中被选上。 她当选为人民代表。

    20. 十八届一中全会

      中国共产党第十八届中央委员会第一次全体会议

    21. 抛出

      抛出 pāochū 动 投掷出去;比喻把某事物公之于众。 他们终于抛出一份宣言。

    22. 别有用心

      别有用心 biéyǒu-yòngxīn 另有不可告人的企图。

    23. 不时

      ⚠️ 不是否定的意思,而是说“时不时”。=“时时” 不时 bùshí ①副 时时;常常。 不时从街上传来吆喝声。 ②副 随时;不定什么时候。 法庭在审理案件中不时传唤证人。

    24. 舆论

      opinion publique 舆论 yúlùn 名 公众的议论。 制造舆论 | 舆论谴责 用法说明 跟“言论”不同。“舆论”强调议论的公众性;“言论”既可指公众的,也可指个人的议论。

    25. 查阅

      查阅 cháyuè 动 查找翻阅(书刊、文件等)。 查阅资料 | 便于查阅

    26. 高层

      高层 gāocéng ①名 高的等级或层次。 位居高层 | 他住高层,我住低层。

    27. 随即

      à la suite 随即 suíjí 副 表示紧接着前一动作或情况之后立即发生,相当于“随后就”。 接到报警后,消防队员随即赶赴火灾现场。

    28. 停顿

      pause ③动 语流中的间歇。 讲话要注意停顿

    29. 说道

      原文错误:“说完”已经完成,“说道”正在说。去掉其中一个。

    30. =到

    31. 避罪

      néologisme, construction similaire à "避税": 避免承担罪责

    32. 避税

      避免交税。和“逃税”不同:“逃税”是非法的,“避税”是合法的。 避税 bìshuì 动 在不违反税法的前提下,纳税人利用税法的漏洞或税法允许的办法,规避某些税负。 瞒报销售收入的做法不是避税,而是逃税 | 依法避税

    33. 分子

      分子 fènzǐ 名 属于一定社会群体或具有某种特征的人。 作家协会的一分子 | 投机分子

    34. 追逃

      追捕逃犯

    35. =和/与/跟

    36. 纸牌屋
    37. 顺应

      顺着回应

    38. 苍蝇

      mouche

    39. 说/表示

    40. 以往

      以前

    41. 各界

      社会各个方面

    42. 查处

      检查,处理

    43. 腐败

      corruption

    44. 微信

      WeChat, marque de messagerie instantanée.

    45. 政事儿

      Affaires politiques. Néologisme homophonique de "正事儿”, chose solennelle.

    46. 首站

      第一站

    47. 西雅图

      Seattle

    48. 谈及

      =谈到 及:达到 ex.: 及格(达到要求的成绩)

    49. 访美

      访(问)美(国)

    50. 对美

      对美(国的)

    51. 国事访问

      visite d'État

    52. 微信

      WeChat

    53. 反腐

      反对腐败

  17. Sep 2015
    1. 上一届:已经结束任职年的那些人 应届毕业生:今年毕业的学生 届 jiè(屆) ①动 到(预定的时候)。 届时 | 届期 ②量 用于定期的会议或毕业生等,略相当于“次” “期”。 第一届 | 本届 | 历届 | 应届

    2. 曾(经)