523 Matching Annotations
  1. Nov 2019
    1. Mount: A cooking technique where small pieces of butter are quickly incorporated in a hot, but not boiling, sauce to give bulk and a glossy appearance.

      A definition I don't recall having ever seen before.

  2. Oct 2019
    1. ormed into an association and endowed by law with the rights and liabilities of an individual

      thanks citizens united

  3. Jun 2019
    1. Taken together, the main purpose of principal component analysis is to: identify hidden pattern in a data set, reduce the dimensionnality of the data by removing the noise and redundancy in the data, identify correlated variables
    2. Principal component analysis is used to extract the important information from a multivariate data table and to express this information as a set of few new variables called principal components.
    1. The result of standardization (or Z-score normalization) is that the features will be rescaled so that they’ll have the properties of a standard normal distribution with μ=0μ=0\mu = 0 and σ=1σ=1\sigma = 1 where μμ\mu is the mean (average) and σσ\sigma is the standard deviation from the mean
  4. May 2019
    1. vestibule

      "A chamber or hall immediately between the entrance-door and the interior of a building or house, to which it gives admittance; an ante-chamber, entrance-hall, or lobby" (OED).

      https://www-oed-com.jpllnet.sfsu.edu/view/Entry/222903?rskey=RAUZwy&result=1#eid

    2. shrubbery

      "A plantation of shrubs; a plot planted with shrubs" (OED).

      https://www-oed-com.jpllnet.sfsu.edu/view/Entry/178960?redirectedFrom=shrubbery#eid

    3. copse

      "A thicket of small trees or underwood periodically cut for economic purposes" (OED).

      https://www-oed-com.jpllnet.sfsu.edu/view/Entry/41274?result=2&rskey=pfse77&

    4. Hertfordshire

      County directly North of London

    5. annum.

      For each year (used in financial contexts)

      Oxford Dictionary: https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/per_annum

    6. ensigncy

      "The rank or position of an ensign in the army" (OED).

    7. entail

      "Law. The action of entailing; the state of being entailed. The settlement of the succession of a landed estate, so that it cannot be bequeathed at pleasure by anyone possessor; the rule of descent settled for any estate; the fixed or prescribed line of devolution" (OED).

    8. guinea

      "A gold coin issued in England from 1663 to 1813 and worth one pound and one shilling" (OED).

    9. connubial

      "Of or pertaining to marriage, or the married state; nuptial, matrimonial" (OED).

    10. hackney-coach

      "A four-wheeled coach for hire, typically drawn by two horses and with seating for six passengers" (OED).

    11. acutely

      "In relation to the senses or emotions: keenly, delicately; sharply, intensely, poignantly. Now frequently with aware, conscious" (OED).

    12. quitting

      "To set free, relinquish, or leave" (OED).

    13. turnpikes

      "A barrier placed across a road to stop passage till the toll is paid; a toll-gate" (OED).

    14. review

      "An inspection of military or naval forces; esp. a ceremonial display and formal inspection of troops or the fleet by a monarch, commander-in-chief, or high-ranking visitor" (OED).

    15. gaming

      "The action or practice of playing games, as cards, dice, etc., for stakes" (OED).

      Also known as gambling.

    16. dilatory

      "Tending to cause delay; made for the purpose of gaining time or deferring decision or action" (OED).

    17. licentiousness

      "Disregarding commonly accepted rules, deviating freely from correctness, esp. in matters of grammar or literary style; overstepping customary limits" (OED).

    1. curricle

      Unlike a carriage, which is four-wheeled; a curricle is two-wheeled. Both are drawn by horses and this picture showcases how lavish a curricle can be.

    2. livery

      This picture showcases that a livery is very fine and elegant. An emphasis is focused on the fancy standard that is within the uniform's conception.

    3. Amazed at the alteration in his manner since they last parted

      "Amazed" may hold a different meaning and provide a different perspective, as the Oxford English Dictionary defines the word as: "To put out of one's wits; to stun or stupefy, as by a blow on the head; to infatuate, craze".

    4. gaudy

      Excessive, glaringly showy or tastelessly fine (OED).

    5. impropriety

      The quality of being improper; unsuitable, inappropriate, or unfit (OED).

    6. affable

      To be easy to converse with, good-natured; approachable, courteous when dealing with people of equal or lower status (OED).

    7. enlarging

      “ To widen, render more comprehensive (a person's thoughts, sympathies, affections); to expand, increase the capacity of (the mind)” (OED).

    8. illiberal

      “Narrow-minded,without liberal culture, unscholarly; [...] unrefined" (OED).

    9. countenance

      "To assume or have a certain demeanour or attitude; to comport oneself" (OED).

    10. fancy

      "Delusive imagination; hallucination = fantasy" (OED).

    11. diffidence

      "Lack of confidence or faith in someone or something; distrust; mistrust, misgiving, doubt" (OED).

    12. perturbation;

      "The fact or condition of being mentally perturbed; mental or spiritual agitation or disturbance" (OED).

    13. eminence

      "An elevation on the earth's surface; a hill" (OED).

    14. quarter

      "Without reference to locality: a particular but unspecified area, person, or part of a community, esp. regarded as a source of something" (OED).

    15. essentials

      "Essence (...) or intrinsic nature" (OED).

    16. saloon

      “A room, more or less elegantly furnished, used for the reception of guests; a drawing-room” (OED).

    17. pathetic

      "Arousing sadness, compassion, or sympathy" (OED).

    18. comprehended

      "Included in the same category" (OED).

    19. rage

      "Of a passion, feeling, or appetite: to have or reach a high degree of intensity" (OED).

    20. prospect

      "The appearance presented by anything" (OED).

    1. borrowed feathers

      "Feathers are used as a symbol of honor" (OED). Mrs. Gardiner relief to be able to tell the truth for her husband, and take away the false mark of honor.

    2. curricle

      "A light two-wheeled carriage, usually drawn by two horses abreast" (OED).

    3. sermon

      "A discourse, usually delivered from a pulpit and based upon a text of Scripture, for the purpose of giving religious instruction or exhortation" (OED).

    4. covies

      "A brood or hatch of partridges; a family of partridges keeping together during the first season" (OED). Also spelled as covey.

    5. She sat intently at work

      "Work done with a needle; spec. the art or practice of sewing or embroidery. Also: sewn or embroidered items collectively" (OED).

      A lady can continue her light needlework during morning calls, but all other activities must be stopped at the entrance of guests.<br> http://www.mrsbeeton.com/01-chapter1.html

    6. prodigiously

      " Wonderfully, amazingly; (also) to a great extent or degree; extremely, immensely; prolifically, copiously" (OED).

    7. phaeton

      "A four-wheeled open carriage, usually drawn by a pair of horses" (OED).

    8. wild

      "Of persons (or their attributes): Uncivilized, savage; uncultured, rude; also, not accepting, or resisting, the constituted government; rebellious. Sometimes with implication of sense" (OED).

    9. vestibule

      "A chamber or hall immediately between the entrance-door and the interior of a building or house, to which it gives admittance; an ante-chamber, entrance-hall, or lobby" (OED).

    10. the regulars

      "A soldier belonging to the permanent professional armed forces of a country; a member of the regular army" (OED). Wickham has moved from his position in the militia, to a permanent position in the military after his marriage to Lydia.

    1. arrear

      "That wherein one has fallen behind. A duty or liability overdue and still remaining undischarged, esp. a debt remaining unpaid." (OED).

    2. copse;

      "A thicket of small trees or underwood periodically cut for economic purposes" (OED)

    3. drawing-room,

      "A room to withdraw to, a private chamber attached to a more public room now a room reserved for the reception of company, and to which the ladies withdraw from the dining-room after dinner" (OED).

      Photo Credit

    4. waiting-woman

      " A female servant, or personal attendant "(OED).

    5. dining-parlour

      “If there was a dining room, it was most often used for formal dinners; the family usually had their meals in a ‘breakfast parlour’ or ‘morning room.” (http://www.jasna.org/persuasions/printed/number12/sutherland2.htm )

      Photo Credit

    6. chaise-and-four

      "To take chaise: to use a chaise as a means of conveyance. A chaise and pair, four, six. A chaise drawn by a pair, four, or six horses" (OED).

      Photo Credit

    7. gentlemanlike manner.

      "A man of birth; a man of extraction, though not noble; between the gentlemen and the peasants" (Johnson)

    8. properly sanctioned

      “Allowed by Authority” Marriages must be recognized by both law and God to be proper (OED).

    9. retrospections

      "A survey or review of past acts or events, esp. with reference to a particular subject or sphere" (OED).

    10. abhorrence

      "detestation, hatred, repugnance. Also: a feeling of repugnance or loathing" (OED).

    11. intreaty

      "An earnest or humble request. Also: the action of making such a request; supplication"(OED).

      Jane Austen uses the archaic form of entreaty.

    12. philosophy.

      "In extended use: a set of opinions or ideas held by an individual or group; a theory or attitude which acts as a guiding principle for behaviour; an outlook or world view" (OED).

    13. scruple

      "A thought or circumstance that troubles the mind or conscience; a doubt, uncertainty or hesitation in regard to right and wrong, duty, propriety, etc.; esp. one which is regarded as over-refined or over-nice, or which causes a person to hesitate where others would be bolder to act. Often, scruple of conscience" (OED).

    14. annexed

      "Added, attached, or appended as subordinate or supplementary; subjoined; rendered subject" (OED).

    15. mirth

      "Laughter" (OED).

    16. pin-money

      "A wife’s pocket money" (Johnson).

    17. epithet.

      "A word or phrase describing someone or something's character or most important quality" (OED).

    18. fix

      "To settle definitely" (OED).

    19. avowed

      "To declare with confidence, to justify" (Johnson).

    20. assiduously

      "Diligently, continually" (Johnson).

    21. approbation

      "The act of proving true; confirmation, attestation, proof; the action of formally or authoritatively declaring good or true; sanction" (OED).

    22. befall

      "To happen to; to become of" (Johnson).

    23. heretofore

      "Before this time, before now, in time past, formerly" (OED).

    24. abominate

      "To feel extreme disgust and hatred towards, to loathe" (OED).

    25. missish

      "Resembling or characteristic of a young lady or schoolgirl" (OED).

    26. blemish

      "A moral defect or stain, a flaw" (OED).

    27. sagacity

      "Keenness and soundness of judgement" (OED).

    1. obeisance

      "The action of obeying, such as bowing or curtsying, to show respect" (OED).

    2. diminution

      "The action of diminishing or making less; the process of diminishing or becoming less" (OED).

    3. profusion

      "An abundance or large quantity of something" (OED).

    4. perusal

      "Reading through or over something" (OED).

    5. approbation

      "Approval or praise" (OED).

    6. profligacy

      "Licentious or dissolute behavior, debauchery; sexual promiscuity" (OED).

    7. penitent

      "Feeling or showing sorrow and regret for having done wrong" (OED).

    8. err

      "To fail; to miss" (OED).

    9. chaise

      "A horse-drawn carriage for one or two people, typically with an open top and two wheels" (OED).

    10. parsonage

      "A church house provided for a member of the clergy" (OED).

    11. condescension

      "An attitude of patronizing superiority; disdain" (OED).

    12. abode

      "A place of residence; a house or home" (OED).

    1. rencontre

      French. Used in the 1800s as a variant form of rencounter. "To encounter or meet, usually under negative circumstances" (OED).

    2. haunt

      "A place in which one is frequently found; habit of being in a certain place" (Johnson).

      • A Dictionary of the English Language, Volume 1 By Samuel Johnson, John Walker, Robert S. Jameson
    3. forbearance

      "Patient self-control; restraint and tolerance" (OED).

    4. ill-breeding

      "Bad or inferior breeding or bringing up; hence, Bad manners, rudeness" (OED).

    5. learnt

      "To acquire knowledge" (OED).

    6. drawing-room

      "A room to withdraw to, a private chamber attached to a more public room (see withdrawing-room n.); now, a room reserved for the reception of company, and to which the ladies withdraw from the dining-room after dinner" (OED).

    7. thither

      "Also, 'hither,' to go to and fro; to move about in various directions" (OED).

    8. ladyship

      "The state or condition of being a lady; the rank, status, or authority of a lady" (OED).

    9. connivance

      "Voluntary blindness; pretended ignorance; forbearance" (Johnson).

    10. preferment

      "Advancement to a higher station" (Johnson). In this case, the clergy living of Pemberly.

    11. legacy

      "A particular thing given by last will or testament" (Johnson).

    12. repugnance

      "Reluctance; unwillingness, struggle of opposite passion" (Johnson).

    13. open

      "Not wearing disguise; clear; artless; sincere" (Johnson).

    14. wantonly

      "Laviciously; frolicksomely; gayly; sportively; carelessly" (Johnson).

    15. Wilfully

      "Obstinately; stubbornly" or "by design, on purpose" (Johnson).

    16. through

      "From one end of side to another" (Johnson).

    17. haughty

      "Proud; lofty; insolent; arrogant; contemptuous" (Johnson).

    18. degradation

      "Lowering in honour, estimation, social position, etc.; the state or condition of being so lowered" (OED).

    19. imputing

      "To set to the credit of; to ascribe or reckon to" (OED).

    20. intentions

      "Purposes in respect of a proposal of marriage" (OED).

    21. unalloyed

      "To qualify or diminish (a pleasure, feeling, etc.) by the admixture of something unpleasant; to contaminate or adulterate" (OED).

    22. unqualified

      "Lacking the qualities, attributes, or accomplishments required to be or do something; not having the necessary qualifications" (OED).

    23. impelled

      "To drive, force, or constrain (a person) to some action, or to do something, by acting upon his mind or feelings; to urge on, incite" (OED).

    24. derision

      "The action of deriding or laughing to scorn; ridicule, mockery" (OED).

    25. caprice

      "A sudden change or turn of the mind without apparent or adequate motive; a desire or opinion arbitrarily or fantastically formed; a freak, whim, mere fancy" (OED).

    26. censure

      "An adverse judgement, unfavourable opinion, hostile criticism; blaming, finding fault with, or condemning as wrong; expression of disapproval or condemnation" (OED).

    27. inferiority of your connexions? — to congratulate myself on the hope of relations, whose condition in life is so decidedly beneath my own?”

      Connexions - "Relationship by family ties, as marriage or distant consanguinity. Often with a and plural" (OED).

      Technically, Mr. Darcy and the Bennet family are from the same class, the gentry, but he has better connections. Mr. Darcy is related to Lady Catherine De Bourgh who holds the highest title a woman can have within the Gentry class. Comparatively, the Bennet's are related to the Gardiners, who are in a class below the gentry, the professional class.

    28. veracity.

      "Agreement of statement or report with the actual fact or facts; accordance with truth; correctness, accuracy" (OED).

    29. remonstrance

      "A protestation, an objection; an expression of disapproval or disagreement; a warning against a particular course of action" (OED).

    30. verdure

      "The fresh green colour characteristic of flourishing vegetation; greenness, viridity" (OED).

    31. turnpike-road.

      "A road on which turnpikes are or were erected for the collection of tolls; hence, a main road or highway, formerly maintained by a toll levied on cattle and wheeled vehicles" (OED).

      The Bayswater Turnpike, Paul Sandby, 1731-1809, undated (Artstor).

    32. abhorrence

      "An object of disgust; a loathed or detested thing. Also: that which causes hatred or repugnance" (OED).

    33. disapprobation

      "Disapproval; the action of feeling or expressing censure; (in later use) esp. strong moral disapproval. Also: an instance of this" (OED).

    34. tumult

      "Disapproval; the action of feeling or expressing censure; (in later use) esp. strong moral disapproval. Also: an instance of this" (OED).

    35. recital

      "An account or detailed description of a fact, incident, etc." (OED).

    36. conciliate

      "To gain (goodwill, esteem, etc.) by acts which soothe, pacify, or induce friendly feeling" (OED).

    37. incredulity

      " A disbelieving frame of mind; unreadiness or unwillingness to believe (statements, etc.); disbelief" (OED).

    38. avowal

      "An act of avowing; acknowledgement, declaration; unconstrained admission or confession" (OED).

    39. called

      "An order or request for someone to be present; a summons, an invitation" (OED).

    40. fortnight

      "A period of fourteen nights; two weeks" (OED).

    41. obtruded

      "Forcibly or unduly proffered; imposed" (OED).

    42. pecuniary

      "Consisting of money; exacted in money" (OED).

    43. dissipation.

      "Wasteful expenditure or consumption of money, means, powers, faculties, etc.; squandering, waste" (OED).

    44. plantation

      "An area planted with trees, esp. for commercial purposes" (OED).

  5. Feb 2019
    1. slighted to clear access to the drove way

      Might mean slighting in the sense of straightforward demolition

  6. Jan 2019
    1. abjection

      Literally means "the state of being cast off" https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abjection

    2. hallenges distinctions between subjectivitie

      Another good way to articulate the mission of posthumanism--challenging distinctions between subjectivities (the arbitrary, "man-made" [?] characteristics we assign to human and nonhuman categories).

    1. we can cite ample precedent to refute any particularclaim as well

      this seems to go hand-in-hand with what Professor Rivers said last week in our discussions. There are many ways to define rhetoric, but each definition is also cutting it out and saying what it is not

    1. semiotic

      adj: relating to signs and symbols

    2. shamanic

      Shamanism is a practice that involves a practitioner reaching altered states of consciousness in order to perceive and interact with what they believe to be a spirit world and channel these transcendental energies into this world. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shamanism

    3. winnow

      (of the wind) blow

    1. positive-feedback system

      A positive-feedback system is a system in which the output is enhanced when a stimulus is received.

      The best example that is used in most science classes at SLU is childbirth. Oxytocin is released when a child places pressure on the cervix for the first time triggering contractions. As the child begins to crown and places more pressure on the cervix, additional oxytocin is released. This triggers even more contractions and eventually the child is born. I apologize for the gross explanation, but it is the best one to explain what the system is.

    2. infra dig

      From the Latin phrase infra dignitatem meaning beneath one; demeaning. First used by Sir Walter Scott in his 1825 novel Redgauntlet

    3. isonwrphi

      isomorphic: "being of identical or similar form, shape, or structure"

      https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/isomorphic

  7. May 2018
    1. phaeton

      "A type of light four-wheeled open carriage, usually drawn by a pair of horses, and having one or two seats facing forward" (OED).

      Image of a light phaeton (Two Nerdy History Girls).

    2. gig

      "A light two-wheeled one-horse carriage" (OED).

      Image of a Standhope-style gig (Wikipedia).

    3. fish

      “A small flat piece of bone or ivory used instead of money or for keeping account in games of chance; sometimes made in the form of a fish” (OED).

      Fish made from ivory (Austenonly.com):

      Other shapes, made of mother-of-pearl (Austenonly.com):

    4. screen

      "Used to shield people from the heat of a fireplace….Also used to keep sparks off the floor" (Pool, What Jane Austen Ate…, 308).

      Picture of a fire screen from 1788 (Victoria and Albert Museum).

    1. Mr. Darcy may, perhaps, have heard of such a place as Gracechurch Street, but he would hardly think a month’s ablution enough to cleanse him from its impurities, were he once to enter it

      Ablution is defined as, Frequently humorous (with mock formal tone). The action or an act of washing oneself; personal cleansing; bathing" (OED)

    2. At his own ball he offended two or three young ladies by not asking them to dance; and I spoke to him twice myself without receiving an answer. Could there be finer symptoms?

      After describing Mr. Bingley's love as "violent", Elizabeth explains how much he loved Jane, such as declining other ladies and not replying to Elizabeth, which she suggests are fine "symptoms". What is unique is that she now uses "symptoms" to describe his behavior and many people associate this word as having a negative connotation. This term is defined as, "A phenomenon or circumstance accompanying some condition, process, feeling, etc., and serving as evidence of it (orig. and properly of something evil); a sign or indication of something" (OED)

    3. “But that expression of ‘violently in love’ is so hackneyed, so doubtful, so indefinite, that it gives me very little idea. It is as often applied to feelings which arise from an half-hour’s acquaintance, as to a real, strong attachment. Pray, how violent was Mr. Bingley’s love?”

      The use of the word "violent" is very interesting when describing Mr. Bingley's love. This word is defined as, "By or with great force, strength, or vigour; with a violent motion or action; so as to produce a violent or powerful effect" (OED). This definition shows that his love for her is really intense, showing that he's deeply in love with her. Instead of saying that he is deeply in love with Jane, the use of "violent" works in this context because he does end up hurting her emotionally. This is a play on words used by Austen on purpose. With this being said, Mrs. Gardiner states that the phrase is "hackneyed" which defines as "To overuse or make too familiar; (hence) to make trite, banal, or uninteresting, esp. through indiscriminate use" (OED), which again plays with how Mr. Bingley hurt Jane. Both definitions show that Mrs. Gardiner is not fully convinced of Mr. Bingley loving Jane, that it seems fake.

  8. Apr 2018
  9. annotatingausten.sfsuenglishdh.net annotatingausten.sfsuenglishdh.net
    1. clever

      "possessing skill or talent" (OED).

    2. ductility

      "capability of being easily led or influenced" (OED).

    3. censuring

      "to form or give an opinion; to judge, pass judgment on" (OED).

    4. character

      "The sum of the moral and mental qualities which distinguish an individual" (OED).

    5. good-breeding

      "Good manners and courteous behavior resulting from a good upbringing esp. among the upper classes" (OED).

    6. handsome

      "Of a thing: having an attractive form or appearance; well-proportioned; elegant, stylish." (OED)

      Austen uses "handsome" to describe beauty in the male and female sense

    7. trade

      Trade - The practice of making one's living in business, as opposed to in a profession or from unearned income. (OED)

    8. three-and-twenty years

      three and twenty years = 23

      This number references the 23 years they had been married.

    1. intermarriage

      "Marriage between members of different families, castes, tribes, nations, or societies, as establishing a connection between such families, etc." (OED).

    2. coming out

      "Emerge; become known." (OED).

    3. sensible

      "Done or chosen in accordance with wisdom or prudence; likely to be of benefit." (OED).

    4. disapprobation

      "Strong disapproval, typically on moral grounds." (OED).

    5. patroness

      "A person who gives financial or other support to a person, organization, or cause." (OED).

    6. ladyship’s

      "A respectful form of reference or address to a woman who has a title." (OED).

    7. countenance

      "A person's face or facial expression." (OED).

    8. hot-pressed paper

      "paper which has been pressed between heated metal plates or rollers during manufacture to flatten and smooth the surface" (OED).

  10. annotatingausten.sfsuenglishdh.net annotatingausten.sfsuenglishdh.net
    1. piquet

      "A trick-taking card game for two players, using a 32-card pack consisting of the seven to the ace only" (OED).

    2. estimable

      "worthy of great respect" (OED).

    3. panegyric

      "A public speech or published text in praise of someone or something" (OED).

    4. alacrity

      "Brisk and cheerful readiness" (OED).

    5. avenue

      "The chief approach to a country-house, usually bordered by trees; hence, any broad roadway bordered or marked by trees or other objects at regular intervals. Sometimes used of the trees alone, with tacit disregard of the road they overshadow" (OED).

    6. decorum

      "That which is proper, suitable, seemly, befitting, becoming; fitness, propriety, congruity." (OED)

    7. the dining-parlour

      "A room used for dining or eating supper. Now rare." (OED)

    8. Vingt-un

      “A round game of cards in which the object is to make the number twenty-one or as near this as possible without exceeding it, by counting the pips on the cards, court-cards counting as ten, the ace one or eleven as the holder chooses”(OED).

    9. archly

      “In an arch manner; cleverly, waggishly; with good-humoured slyness or sauciness”(OED).

    10. capital

      “Prominent; important, significant; particular”(OED).

    11. superciliousness

      “The quality or character of being supercilious; haughty contemptuousness or superiority” (OED).

    12. petticoat

      "A woman's undercoat or under-tunic, analogous to the male petticoat, often padded and worn showing beneath an open gown." (OED)

    1. fortnight

      "A period of fourteen nights; two weeks" (OED).

    2. toilette

      The action or process of washing, dressing, or arranging the hair." (OED)

    3. in spirits

      "'In spirits': in a cheerful mood; animated, elated, happy. 'out of spirits': low-spirited" (OED).

    1. propitious

      "Of God, the fates, etc.: disposed to be favourable; gracious; merciful, lenient" (OED).

    2. filial

      "Of or pertaining to a son or daughter" (OED).

    3. scruples

      "A thought or circumstance that troubles the mind or conscience; a doubt, uncertainty or hesitation in regard to right and wrong, duty, propriety, etc.; esp. one which is regarded as over-refined or over-nice, or which causes a person to hesitate where others would be bolder to act" (OED).