172 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
    1. (d) All calculations shown in this appendix shall be implemented on a site-level basis. Site level concentration data shall be processed as follows: (1) The default dataset for PM2.5 mass concentrations for a site shall consist of the measured concentrations recorded from the designated primary monitor(s). All daily values produced by the primary monitor are considered part of the site record; this includes all creditable samples and all extra samples. (2) Data for the primary monitors shall be augmented as much as possible with data from collocated monitors. If a valid daily value is not produced by the primary monitor for a particular day (scheduled or otherwise), but a value is available from a collocated monitor, then that collocated value shall be considered part of the combined site data record. If more than one collocated daily value is available, the average of those valid collocated values shall be used as the daily value. The data record resulting from this procedure is referred to as the “combined site data record.”
      1. Calculate mean of all collocated NON-primary monitors' values per day
      2. Coalesce primary monitor value with this calculated mean
  2. Oct 2020
    1. The false promise of your source code repository is that everything it contains is “good.” To complete your task, just find something that does something similar, copy, modify, and you’re done. Looking inside the same repository seems like a safety mechanism for quality but, in fact, there is no such guarantee.
    2. What makes it good or bad is the quality of the code being multiplied.
    3. Anyone who’s ever worked with me knows that I place a very high value on what ends up checked-in to a source code repository.
    1. YouTube (54%), Instagram (51%) or Snapchat (55%)

      I'm curious to know which sources in particular they're using on these platforms. Snapchat was growing news sources a year ago, but I've heard those sources are declining. What is the general quality of these sources?

      For example, getting news from television can range from PBS News Hour and cable news networks (more traditional sources) to comedy shows like Stephen Colbert and The Daily Show with Trevor Noah which have some underlying news in the comedy, but are far from traditional sources.

    1. 1.1. Monitors For the purposes of AQS, a monitor does not refer to a specific piece of equipment. Instead, it reflects that a given pollutant (or other parameter) is being measured at a given site. Identified by: The site (state + county + site number) where the monitor is located AND The pollutant code AND POC – Parameter Occurrence Code. Used to uniquely identify a monitor if there is more than one device measuring the same pollutant at the same site. For example monitor IDs are usually written in the following way: SS-CCC-NNNN-PPPPP-Q where SS is the State FIPS code, CCC is the County FIPS code, and NNNN is the Site Number within the county (leading zeroes are always included for these fields), PPPPP is the AQS 5-digit parameter code, and Q is the POC. For example: 01-089-0014-44201-2 is Alabama, Madison County, Site Number 14, ozone monitor, POC 2.

      How monitors (specific measures of specific criteria) are identified in AQS data.

  3. Sep 2020
    1. This happens because npm makes it ridiculously easy for people to release their half-baked experiments into the wild. The only barrier to entry is the difficulty of finding an unused package name. I’m all in favour of enabling creators, but npm lowers the barriers right to the floor, with predictable results.
    2. I offer an additional explanation: that we in the JavaScript world have a higher tolerance for nonsense and dreck.
    1. Had it not been for the attentiveness of one person who went beyond the task of classifying galaxies into predetermined categories and was able to communicate this to the researchers via the online forum, what turned out to be important new phenomena might have gone undiscovered.

      Sometimes our attempts to improve data quality in citizen science projects can actually work against us. Pre-determined categories and strict regulations could prevent the reporting of important outliers.

  4. Aug 2020
    1. Lozano, R., Fullman, N., Mumford, J. E., Knight, M., Barthelemy, C. M., Abbafati, C., Abbastabar, H., Abd-Allah, F., Abdollahi, M., Abedi, A., Abolhassani, H., Abosetugn, A. E., Abreu, L. G., Abrigo, M. R. M., Haimed, A. K. A., Abushouk, A. I., Adabi, M., Adebayo, O. M., Adekanmbi, V., … Murray, C. J. L. (2020). Measuring universal health coverage based on an index of effective coverage of health services in 204 countries and territories, 1990–2019: A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019. The Lancet, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30750-9

  5. Jul 2020
  6. Jun 2020
  7. May 2020
  8. Apr 2020
  9. Mar 2020
    1. 60+ High DA Profile Creation Sites List in 2020

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  10. Jan 2020
    1. Sleepiness and neck circumference were significantly reduced only in the diet group (p = .007 and p < .001 for the time × group interactions, respectively).

      Fascinating. Neck circumference suggests that sodium intake may indeed be the significant dietary factor. The recommended diet wasn't even very restricted in sodium.

    1. 125+ do-follow backlinks sites 2020 | free backlinks sites

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  11. Oct 2019
    1. 300+ Top High-Quality Backlinks List For Link Building

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    1. TOP 100+ High Quality Backlinks Sites List for SEO

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    1. 70 High Quality DA PA Backlinks for FREE

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      High quality backlinks are those that means in which you have to a backlinks on many different sites which are a higher authority. These are authoritative backlinks and determination of off page SEO.

    1. First, government did not always engage with the market early in running procurements or establish a sufficient understanding on both sides about the service that were being outsourced. This often led to problems over the lifetime of a contract, such as disputes and cost overruns.Second, an excessive focus on the lowest price and an insufficient assessment of quality in selecting bids undermined many contracts. While outsourcing can reduce costs, government must balance this against the minimum level of quality it needs in a service. Too often, it has outsourced services in pursuit of unrealistic savings and without a realistic expectation that companies would deliver efficiencies.Third, large contracts have failed when government has transferred risks that suppliers have no control over and cannot manage, rather than those which suppliers can price and manage better than government. Government should also not think that it has outsourced risks that will revert to it if a supplier fails – as the provision of public services will always do.

      Three case study themes on why contracts failed or worked

  12. Sep 2019
    1. One notable barrier that has prevented faculty from adopting OER is concerns about the quality of the materials. The present study extends upon a growing body of research indicating that OER are not perceived to be lower in quality than traditional textbooks.

      I have trouble believing many faculty members will be swayed by undergraduate students' perceptions of quality. There's a difference to be explored in "quality of disciplinary content in the abstract" vs. "quality as a study aid for this particular course."

      This is of course a broader concern for advocacy for OERs, not a critique of this particular study.

  13. Aug 2019
    1. At the same time, US companies are deleveraging, which has shrunk the supply of new corporate debt, leading to a dearth of investment-grade issuance. Net supply from municipal borrowers, another vital source of new issuance, has also turned negative so there is not enough available for pension funds and insurers to buy.
  14. Jul 2019
    1. 100+ High DA PR Dofollow Profile Creation Sites List 2019 | Quality Backlinks

      Dofollow profile creation sites are very beneficial in increasing website perceptibility and traffic. By creating a profile in profile creation sites, you can make known your business, services and your website. Profile creation is very useful for your website branding.

    1. 65+ Dofollow Backlinks Sites List That Will Boost Your Traffic In 2019

      DoFollow Backlinks are links that Google and other search engines are able to follow to reach a linked website. This passes on authority, or ‘link juice’, from the source through to the destination website. The more reputable links that you have pointing to your website, the more likely a search engine will believe it to be a high-value authority site.

  15. Jun 2019
    1. SEO Quality Backlinks — TOP 50+ DoFollow Backlink Sites List

      DoFollow backlinks are very powerful links that pass a page authority or link juice from the source web page or website to the destination web page or website. It means the more reputable incoming backlinks pointing to your website, the more chances to get higher rank in Google’s SERP.

  16. May 2019
    1. 40+ High PR Quality Backlinks List That Will Boost Your Traffic In 2019

      High PR Quality Backlinks are the heart of SEO. Quality Backlinks provides a way for users to find other sources of information on relevant topics. For the search engine, backlinks determine the value and importance of the page. However, it shows the reputation of the page among the users.

  17. Feb 2019
    1. Free Dofollow High Authority Backlinks List | High-Quality Backlinks Sites

      Free Dofollow High Authority Backlinks List | High-Quality Backlinks Sites

      High-Quality Backlinks (Get Better Results)

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    1. A good palate is not tried '.j by strong flavours; but by a mixture of small in-0 gredients, where we are till sensible of each :J._ part, notwithstanding its minuteness and its con­\..., fusion with the rest. I

      Quality over quantity!

  18. Dec 2018
  19. Nov 2018
    1. Hospitalists were seen as people to lead the charge for safety because they were already taking care of patients, already focused on reducing LOS and improving care delivery—and never to be underestimated, they were omnipresent, Dr. Gandhi says of her experience with hospitalists around 2000 at Brigham and Women’s Hospital in Boston. “At least where I was, hospitalists truly were leaders in the quality and safety space, and it was just a really good fit for the kind of mindset and personality of a hospitalist because they’re very much … integrators of care across hospitals,” she says. “They interface with so many different areas of the hospital and then try to make all of that work better.”

      role of hospitalists in safety and quality

    2. Two years later, IOM followed up its safety push with “Crossing the Quality Chasm: A New Health System for the 21st Century.” The sequel study laid out focus areas and guidelines to start reducing the spate of medical mistakes that “To Err Is Human” lay bare.
    1. Many hospitalists have added value as local leaders in quality improvement, safety, and innova-tion, but some have functioned more as shift workers. For exam-ple, many community hospital-ists have a 7-days-on, 7-days-off schedule that focuses mainly on high-volume clinical work and sends an unspoken but clear mes-sage that, at the end of an inten-sive clinical “on” stint, one is “off ” and uninvolved. Our impression is that hospitalist programs pro-vide more value when hospital-ists’ inpatient assignments (clini-cal “systole”) are complemented by a systems-oriented “diastole,” dur-ing which clinical activity is limit-ed but they contribute to key in-stitutional programs. Productive diastole is more likely when hos-pitalists have strong leadership, a robust professional-development curriculum, and a mutual hospi-tal–hospitalist commitment to adding value during specified and structured nonclinical time.

      The hospitalists patient is the hospital

    1. In the academic setting especially, a premium will beplaced on clinical quality improvement, the develop-ment of practice guidelines, and outcomes research,not only to provide the physician with a creative out-let and a potential source of funding during thenonclinical months but also to give the academiccenter a practical research-and-development arm
    2. Oneof the advantages of the hospitalist model is that itcreates a core group of faculty members whose in-patient work is more than a marginal activity andwho are thus committed to quality improvement inthe hospital.
    3. Equally pressing is the question of value, definedas the quality of care divided by its cost.10
  20. Sep 2018
    1. Tại Việt Nam, Tổ chức Y tế thế giới (WHO) coi ô nhiễm không khí là một trong những nguyên nhân gây ra gánh nặng bệnh tật và tử vong hàng đầu. Có khoảng 6/10 bệnh có tỷ lệ chết cao nhất tại Việt Nam là những bệnh liên quan đến không khí.
      
    2. Tuy nhiên, việc sử dụng khẩu trang chỉ là một giải pháp tình thế. Theo TS Hoàng Dương Tùng, để hạn chế ô nhiễm bụi PM2.5 cần hướng tới giải quyết tận gốc. Nguyên nhân gây ra ô nhiễm bụi mịn PM2.5 được xác định từ các nguồn sản xuất, giao thông, xây dựng, sinh hoạt... Trong đó bốn ngành gồm sắt thép, nhiệt điện, xi măng, hóa chất đã gây ra 80% lượng ô nhiễm từ các nguồn ô nhiễm điểm.

  21. Aug 2018
    1. A promising approach that addresses some worker output issues examines the way that workers do their work rather than the output itself, using machine learning and/or visualization to predict the quality of a worker’s output from their behavior [119,120]

      This process improvement idea has some interesting design implications for improving temporal qualities of SBTF data: • How is the volunteer thinking about time? • Where does temporality enter into the data collection workflow? • What metadata do they rely on? • What is their temporal sensemaking approach?

    2. Of the research foci, quality control has arguably received the most attention so far. Approaches for quality control largely fall into two camps: up-front task design and post-hoc result analysis. Task design aimsto design tasks that are resistant to low-quality work.

      Quality control processes is definitely a tension for SBTF.

      A better integrated task design and verification process at the end of activations could be more effectively address information quality concerns.

    3. Unlike traditional organizations in which workers possess job security and managers can closely supervise and appropriately reward or sanction workers, or distributed computing systems in which processors are usually highly reliable, crowd work poses uniquechallenges for both workers and requestersranging fromjob satisfactiontodirection-setting, coordination, and quality control.

      In the literature, quality tends to be used as an attribute of the output (content, HIT, etc.) but could/should it also refer to the crowd worker experience, as Kittur notes: "job satisfaction, direction-setting, coordination, and quality control"?

      How are these factors incorporated into the process and incentive system?

    1. A more fruitfulapproach considers variation in peer production success to understand whenand where it works better and worse.

      Benkler's examples of quality studies of large peer groups seems focused on community evaluation of the output rather than what constitutes a high-performing community (process) or a quality values (norms).

      Note: He cover process and norms several paragraphs later.

    2. Although this hasconstituted an inconvenient fact in peer production practice, it also reflects animportant opportunity for future research. By focusing only on the projectsthat successfully mobilize contributors, researchers interested inwhenpeerproduction occurs or the reasonswhyit succeeds at producing high qualityoutputs have systematically selected on their dependent variables. An impor-tant direction for peer production research will be to study these failures.

      Failed peer production projects offer potentially interesting insights and should be studied.

    3. Infollowing these three paths, scholars have begun to consider variation withinpeer production projects to understand when and why peer production leadsto different kinds of high quality outputs

      Recent quality studies have explored projects that: • have not attracted sufficiently large communities to wash out bias/inaccuracies, • large communities that have not functioned to create quality information, • different measures/definitions of quality

    4. Both for-profit andnon-profit organizations that have incorporated peer production models havethrived in the networked environment, often overcoming competition frommore traditional, market- and firm-based models.

      But is this a matter of quality or satisficing a need with a free, easily accessible public platform?

    5. Recent work hasbegun to probe more deeply into different dimensions along which qualitycan be conceptualized and measured. This new scholarship has given rise toa more nuanced understanding of the different mechanisms through whichhigh quality resources arise, and founder, in peer production.

      Benkler notes that output "quality" was the focus of early research and has evolved to exploring how it is "conceptualized and measured." Defining and understanding information quality is also connected to my crowdsourcing work.

      However, I'm curious if quality studies also look at the process, in addition to the output.

  22. Jul 2018
  23. May 2018
    1. The literature shows that the vast majority of students report open textbooks to be of the same or better quality than the commercial textbooks they have used.
    2. Sixty-three percent of respondents judged the overall quality of their open textbook to be above average or excellent, with an additional 33% rating it as average. Only 3.5% of the sample rated their open textbook below average in quality (see Figure 4).
    1. Negative values included when assessing air quality In computing average pollutant concentrations, EPA includes recorded values that are below zero. EPA advised that this is consistent with NEPM AAQ procedures. Logically, however, the lowest possible value for air pollutant concentrations is zero. Either it is present, even if in very small amounts, or it is not. Negative values are an artefact of the measurement and recording process. Leaving negative values in the data introduces a negative bias, which potentially under represents actual concentrations of pollutants. We noted a considerable number of negative values recorded. For example, in 2016, negative values comprised 5.3 per cent of recorded hourly PM2.5 values, and 1.3 per cent of hourly PM10 values. When we excluded negative values from the calculation of one‐day averages, there were five more exceedance days for PM2.5 and one more for PM10 during 2016.
  24. Apr 2018
  25. Mar 2018
    1. they performed slightly better in their identical and blind-marked final assessments -- a finding the study hailed as “the first rigorous evidence that we know of showing that an online degree program can increase educational attainment.”
    1. quality of the educational experience at a university: (1) the expertise and dedication of the faculty, (2) the engagement and effort of its students, and (3) the institutional support received for carrying out this educational experience.
  26. Nov 2017
  27. Oct 2017
    1. Beta blockers have long been associated with sleep disturbances such as difficulty falling asleep, staying asleep, and insomnia. They have been shown to reduce the production of melatonin via specific inhibition of beta-1 adrenergic receptors. Melatonin is a hormone secreted by the pineal gland in the brain, and helps in maintaining normal circadian rhythms.6,20-21 People with hypertension already have a lower melatonin production rate than those with normal blood pressure.22

      The question becomes, then, do beta blockers impair sleep when exogenous melatonin is administered concurrently?

  28. Sep 2017
  29. May 2017
    1. volume, velocity, and variety

      volume: The actual size of traffic

      Velocity: How fast does the traffic show up.

      Variety: Refers to data that can be unstructured, semi structured or multi structured.

    1. Air Quality Standards Coalition

      This may be a front group. Investigate, find additional sources, and leave research notes in the comments.

    2. Air Quality Standards Coalition

      This may be a front group. Investigate, find additional sources, and leave research notes in the comments.

    3. Air Quality Standards Coalition

      This may be a front group. Investigate, find additional sources, and leave research notes in the comments.

    4. Air Quality Standards Coalition

      This may be a front group. Investigate, find additional sources, and leave research notes in the comments.

    1. Air Quality Standards Coalition

      This may be a front group. Investigate, find additional sources, and leave research notes in the comments.