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    1. Multimedia Appendix 1Characteristics of the selected studies.Click here to view.(247K, pdf)Go to:Multimedia Appendix 2Participant characteristics of the selected studies.Click here to view.(160K, pdf)Go to:FootnotesConflicts of Interest: Conflicts of Interest: None declared.

      Appendices and footnotes may be included as well.

    2. References1. World Population Ageing 2007. New York: United Nations; 2007. [2015-11-13]. webcite Magnitude and speed of population ageing http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/population/publications/pdf/ageing/WorldPopulationAgeingReport2007.pdf. [Google Scholar]2. Victor C, Bowling A, Bond J, Scambler S. Loneliness, social isolation and living alone in later life. Sheffield, UK: University of Sheffield: Economic and Social Research Council Growing Older Programme; 2003. [Google Scholar]3. Iliffe S, Kharicha K, Harari D, Swift C, Gillmann G, Stuck AE. Health risk appraisal in older people 2: the implications for clinicians and commissioners of social isolation risk in older people. Br J Gen Pract. 2007 Apr;57(537):277–82. http://bjgp.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=17394730. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]4. Tomaszewski W, Barnes M. Banks J, Breeze E, Lessof C, Nazroo J. editors. Living in the 21st century: older people in England. 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      The citations include references from other sources.

    1. Akhvlediani, T., Ali, S. M., Angus, D. C., Arabi, Y. M., Ashraf, S., Baillie, J. K., Bakamutumaho, B., Beane, A., Bozza, F., Brett, S. J., Bruzzone, R., Carson, G., Castle, L., Christian, M., Cobb, J. P., Cummings, M. J., D’Ortenzio, E., Jong, M. D. de, Denis, E., … Webb, S. (2020). Global outbreak research: Harmony not hegemony. The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30440-0

    1. Adjusting practices to grow higher soybean yields isn’t simple. There are technology and management practices to master. To help you put everything together, visit AgWeb.com/high-yield-soybeans

      There may or may not be any citations.

  2. May 2020
  3. Apr 2020
    1. Jefferson, T., Jones, M., Al Ansari, L. A., Bawazeer, G., Beller, E., Clark, J., Conly, J., Del Mar, C., Dooley, E., Ferroni, E., Glasziou, P., Hoffman, T., Thorning, S., & Van Driel, M. (2020). Physical interventions to interrupt or reduce the spread of respiratory viruses. Part 1 - Face masks, eye protection and person distancing: Systematic review and meta-analysis [Preprint]. Public and Global Health. https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.03.30.20047217

  4. Mar 2020
    1. Clicking through to the photo, there is no mention of this image appearing on this important announcement. Perhaps the author privately contact the photographer about using his image. Since Ken Doctor is so incredible with his media experience (i’m being serious), I’m fairly certain someone from his team would have contacted the photographer to give him a heads up.

      I'm sure I've said it before, but I maintain that if the source of the article and the target both supported the Webmention spec, then when a piece used an image (or really any other type of media, including text) with a link, then the original source (any website, or Flickr in this case) would get a notification and could show—if they chose—the use of that media so that others in the future could see how popular (or not) these types of media are.

      Has anyone in the IndieWeb community got examples of this type of attribution showing on media on their own websites? Perhaps Jeremy Keith or Kevin Marks who are photographers and long time Flickr users?

      Incidentally I've also mentioned using this notification method in the past as a means of decentralizing the journal publishing industry as part of a peer-review, citation, and preprint server set up. It also could be used as part of a citation workflow in the sense of Maria Popova and Tina Roth Eisenberg's Curator's Code<sup>[1]</sup>set up, which could also benefit greatly now with Webmention support.

  5. Dec 2019
    1. Clerval spent the last evening with us. He had endeavoured to persuade his father to permit him to accompany me, and to become my fellow student; but in vain. His father was a narrow-minded trader, and saw idleness and ruin in the aspirations and ambition of his son. Henry deeply felt the misfortune of being debarred from a liberal education. He said little; but when he spoke, I read in his kindling eye and in his animated glance a restrained but firm resolve, not to be chained to the miserable details of commerce. We sat late. We could not tear ourselves away from each other, nor persuade ourselves to say the word “Farewell!” It was said; and we retired under the pretence of seeking repose, each fancying that the other was deceived: but when at morning’s dawn I descended to the carriage which was to convey me away, they were all there—my father again to bless me, Clerval to press my hand once more, my Elizabeth to renew her entreaties that I would write often, and to bestow the last feminine attentions on her playmate and friend.

      In the 1831 revision, Henry Clerval is a more pitiable figure., acutely feeling the loss of his chance to pursue his passions in university studies.

  6. Nov 2019
    1. When you present information visually (using slides, a poster, video, handout, etc.), you must provide a full written citation.

      citing sources

      • When you present information visually (using slides, a poster, video, handout, etc.), you must provide a full written citation.
        • A parenthetical citation should directly accompany images, videos, quotes, or anything that is directly referenced in your presentation.
        • works cited or references list should appear at the end of your presentation for all sources.
      • When you present information orally, you must provide an abbreviated citation that should include the name of the creator, title, and publication date.
  7. Oct 2019
    1. Location

      Location of what?

    2. Link Type. Is the citation being referred to because the author agrees or disagrees with it?

      There is some research in link types and citation types to build on, e.g. https://sparontologies.github.io/cito/current/cito.html

  8. Sep 2019
    1. Rigoberto Lara Guzmán defines SHINE as a tactic to counter our erasure by acknowledging one another and unsettling who is considered an expert.

      Ironically, I cannot find a citation for why SHINE is capitalized or what it might stand for (if it is an acronym). Anyone?

  9. Jul 2019
    1. Some still consider

      I'd be curious to see citations throughout as a model for how students can cite their work and extend their knowledge.

  10. Apr 2019
    1. Although the investigation established that the Russian government perceived it would benefit from a Trump presidency and worked to secure that outcome, and that the Campaign expected it would benefit
    1. ALetterisajoyofEarth—ItisdeniedtheGods——EMILYDICKINSONSee,Ihaveengravedyouonthepalmsofmyhands;yourwallsareeverbeforeme.—ISAIAH49:16,NIVAletteralwaysarrivesatitsdestination.—JACQUESLACAN
    1. students virtually never summarize entire sources but rather pluck individual sentences out of them for quotation or paraphrase

      Is this an issue if the student has used the idea cited appropriately? As long as they're not taken out of context, we don't expect an authority to be entirely consistent, and we don't insist that they agree with us on everything in order to consider a point valid, do we?

  11. Oct 2018
  12. Aug 2018
  13. Jun 2018
    1. Fig1 Fig2

      Menarik kalau ada yang menghubungkan tingginya sitasi jumlah pendidikan teknik dengan jumlah mahasiswa atau dosen/peneliti di bidang ini. Apakah berhubungan atau tidak? Akan lebih menarik lagi kalau ada yang mencari tahu apakah sitasi tersebut berasal dari penulis Indonesia atau artikel yang terbit di jurnal dalam negeri (DN) atau dari penulis/artikel luar negeri (LN).

    2. Journals in the engineering field were the most cited, with 2,427 citations, including 930 self-citations.

      Ini akan menjadi menarik, ketika ada yang membantu mengevaluasi sitasi-sitasi tersebut, termasuk sitasi-pribadinya.

    3. Citation performance of Indonesian scholarly journals indexed in Scopus from Scopus and Google Scholar

      Salam dan terima kasih untuk Tim Penulis.

      Secara umum artikel ini patut dihargai, karena penulis telah meluangkan waktu dan tenaga untuk menuangkan hasil penjaringan informasi sitasi dari Google Scholar (GS) dan Scopus yang telah diagregasi SINTA.

      Artikel ini bersifat deskriptif, yang mana artikel jenis ini sering terlupakan, padahal fakta-fakta menarik akan muncul setelah data dan grafik terpampang rapih dalam bentuk artikel. Semoga artikel ini dapat menggugah banyak pendapat yang bersifat argumentatif yang kemudian dapat melahirkan artikel-artikel baru.

      Perkenankan saya meninggalkan beberapa catatan untuk artikel ibu dan bapak ini.

    1. E.P. "Herr Hausmann's Violoncello Recital" Musical standard; Apr 16, 1887; 32, 1185; British Periodicals pg. 245.

    1. Acero F., Ackermann M., Ajello M. et al (Fermi-LAT) 2015 arXiv:1501.02003Preprint

      Starting in 2014-2015, AAS/IOP started linking to preprints in reference lists if they were the version cited by the author and an accepted manuscript did not at that time exist.

      Thus we now have built in "categories" for references, which could be expanded to include data/software sections.

    2. The most up-to-date version of the open-source package NPTFit may be found at https://github.com/bsafdi/NPTFit and the latest documentation at http://nptfit.readthedocs.io. In addition, the version used in this paper has been archived at https://zenodo.org/record/380469#.WN_pSFPyvMV.

      This is an example of incorrect software citation per the AAS Journal's policy. The Zenodo metadata should have been added to the reference list as a 1st class citation.

      It is also an example of an incorrectly typeset URL. URLs that come from DOIs should be typeset using the DOI string not the resolved URL. It should have read, "version used in this paper has been archived at https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.380469"

    3. Foreman-Mackey D., Vousden W., Price-Whelan A. et al 2016 corner.py: corner.py v2.0.0, doi:10.5281/zenodo.53155

      corner.py is one of the more interesting examples of software citations. there are at least 3 different formal references in the wild:

      https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.11020 https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.53155 https://doi.org/10.21105/joss.00024

      with different versions and author lists.

    1. Barbary K. 2014 sncosmo Zenodo, 10.5281/zenodo.11938

      This software citation losts its version information. We will have to work on our typsetting and production rules, as well as develop formal JATS/NLM XML schema to contain versioning information.

    2. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.11938

      This DOI software archive is also in the Reference list per our Journal's software policy.

    3. The catalog of fakes used to generate the efficiency grids in Section 3 are available in a persistent directory: doi:10.5258/SOTON/D0030.

      This is the dataset related to this article. It contains reproducibility and reusable data for readers.

      Our "article data" tab is suppose to show this entry, but the article data tab is currently linked to the wrong DOI (the Zenodo one highlighted below).

      We do not yet submit this type of data citation as CrossRef metadata. We are still discussing how data citations should appear and be acknowledged in the text.

    4. Software: hotpants, PostgreSQL, realbogus (Bloom et al. 2012) scamp (Bertin 2006), sextractor (Bertin & Arnouts 1996), sncosmo (Barbary 2014), swarp (Bertin et al. 2002), matplotlib (Hunter 2007), numpy (Van Der Walt et al. 2011).

      The AASJournals now highlight software using a paragraph trailing the acknowledgements that lists all software used in the paper's analysis. The software doesn't need to be mentioned in the main text; context-free mentions can be placed here.

      The format is a 2 item tuple containing the short/common name of the software, and a citation or URL for the software.

      In principle this section could be data mined. At the moment it is just a free paragraph in the XML, but could be given more explicit markup to aide in data mining reuse and indexing.

    1. Our posterior samples are available online (10.5281/zenodo.162965).

      This is an example of our current data linking markup. Data links are inline to the text through a parenthetical anchored link to the DOI resource.

      There is a bug in the current version of the article. Our formal practice is to include this in the "Article Data" tab, which didn't happen this time. We will have to do some more work standardizing our production practices. We are also still thinking about how best to markup the anchored text.

      We have not yet adopted a formal XML schema for including data links. We are working on this, which may be made easier when we adopt the most recent JATS schema.

    1. Software: Juypter notebook (http://jupyter.org), Jupyterlab (https://github.com/jupyterlab), VOspace (http://www.canfar.net/en/docs/storage), vos (https://pypi.python.org/pypi/vos), VirtualBox (https://www.virtualbox.org), JupyterHub      (https://jupyterhub.readthedocs.io/en/latest/), ipywidgets (https://ipywidgets.readthedocs.io), NuPyCEE (http://nugrid.github.io/NuPyCEE), NuGridSetExplorer (https://github.com/NuGrid/WENDI), hdf5 (https://www.hdfgroup.org), Cyberlaboratories cyberhubs (https://github.com/cyberlaboratories/cyberhubs), Cyberlaboratories astrohubs        (https://github.com/cyberlaboratories/astrohubs), Cyberhubs Docker repository (https://hub.docker.com/u/cyberhubs), Docker (https://www.docker.com), NOAO data lab (http://datalab.noao.edu), ansible (https://www.ansible.com), puppet (https://puppet.com), mesa_h5 (https://github.com/NuGrid/mesa_h5), Python (https://www.python.org), MESA (http://mesa.sourceforge.net), WENDI (http://wendi.nugridstars.org), OpenMP (http://www.openmp.org), MESA-SDK (http://www.astro.wisc.edu/~townsend/static.php?ref=mesasdk), MPI (https://www.open-mpi.org), gfortran (https://gcc.gnu.org/fortran), SuperLU (http://crd-legacy.lbl.gov/~xiaoye/SuperLU), OpenBLAS (http://www.openblas.net), mencoder (http://www.mplayerhq.hu).

      It would be better to see some of these going to bibliographic references instead of URLs though many of them do not list preferred citations.

  14. May 2018
    1. 6-2006Scale Development and Construct Clarification ofServant LeadershipJohn E. BarbutoUniversity of Nebraska - Lincoln, jbarbuto@unlnotes.unl.eduDaniel W. WheelerUniversity of Nebraska - Lincoln, dwheeler1@unl.edu

      Barbuto Jr, J. E., & Wheeler, D. W. (2006). Scale development and construct clarification of servant leadership. Group & Organization Management, 31(3), 300-326.

  15. Apr 2018
    1. Interview with Dr. Richards

      Interesting idea to incorporate the interview content in three ways. Those who want to use it as an article can do so, and those who want the original source can still access it.

  16. burn.coplacdigital.org burn.coplacdigital.org
    1. http://www.encyclopediaofalabama.org/article/h-1126 https://www.biography.com/people/harper-lee-9377021

      Easy to find citation. While I like the simple style, maybe go ahead and do a full citation?

  17. Jan 2018
    1. Wikipedia's Verifiability policy requires inline citations for any material challenged or likely to be challenged, and for all quotations, anywhere in article space.

      For quotations, we can do better than pointing to containing documents. We can use annotations to point directly to quotes.

  18. Dec 2017
    1. Men are somewhat more likely than women to seek short-term partners and to value physical attractiveness over material resources in a mate. Women are somewhat more likely than men to seek long-term partners and to value material resources over physical attractiveness in a mate. But why? The standard evolutionary theory holds that because the male investment in becoming a parent is relatively small, men reproduce more successfully by seeking several short-term partners who are young and healthy (which is signaled by physical attractiveness). But because the female investment in becoming a parent is quite large, women reproduce more successfully by seeking a long-term partner who has resources to contribute to raising the child.

      is this backed up by any sort of research? journal articles, stats etc.?

  19. Oct 2017
  20. Sep 2017
    1. NVivo software Version 11.3.2. (QSR International)

      It would be great if software were cited according to the Software Citation Principles: https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj-cs.86 .

    2. protocol available at doi: 10.7910/DVN/V1TKIO20

      kudos for citing (rather than just mentioning) the dataset and especially for including the consent forms (they are in Study_protocol.docx)

    1. We found that data citations appear in the references section of an article less frequently than in the main text, making it difficult to identify the reward and credit for data authors (i.e. data sharers). Consistent data citation formats could not be found. Current data citation practices do not (yet) benefit data sharers.
    2. Genetics and Heredity is the top field with almost 2.3 million records (representing public datasets, software, data studies, and data repositories).


    3. Given that researchers benefit from publicly shared data through data reuse in their own research, researchers who provide access to data should be acknowledged for their contributions, much in the same way that authors are recognized for their research publications through citation. Researchers who use shared data or other shared research products (e.g. open access software, tissue cultures) should also acknowledge the providers of these resources through formal citation. At present, data citation is not widely practiced in most disciplines and as an object of study remains largely overlooked.
  21. Aug 2017
  22. Jun 2017
    1. The publication data areindependent of each other.

      Which they clearly are not - there are a researcher at an elite institution will have a citation pattern more like another researcher at an elite institution, not like another researcher in the same field at a non-elite institution.

  23. May 2017
  24. Apr 2017
  25. Mar 2017
    1. By then end of my PhD, I had over 800 documents in my Sente library incuding journal articles and full books, many with highlights and notes. How am I supposed to find interesting bits related to one concept, idea or topic? My highlights and notes are there somewhere in those documents but there is no easy way of tracking them down and working with them. They are searchable or can be made searchable (see Jeff Pooley’s guide  on Macademic here), but that is often not very helpful. I would for instance like to see them in one place organized according to some logic. My current practice is that I make the highlights in Sente for any potential future use and at the same time I copy the text (quote) to Scrivener with the citation info and keep these snippets organized there. I would for instance have a card for ‘innovation (def.)’ in which I would only collect various definitions of innovation from the sources I read.

      Interesting process. I have tended to export all notes from one reference in a batch, and then organize them in DevonThink. In theory, this process is more efficient (I think) because I can process large numbers of notes in one go without constant app-switching. On the other hand, though, the method outlined is wonderfully direct: when you find information you need, you put it where you're going to need it.

  26. Feb 2017
  27. Sep 2016
    1. The main reason that sociologists of science feel that this perspective has not produced the needed encompassing citation theory, is the variety of behavioural characteristics underlying the citation patterns found in the literature. This is, however, the consequence of the semiotic inversion of the reference into the citation. This inversion is asymmetrical: whereas the references have very different characteristics (both textually and behaviourally), citations are all the same. The citation no longer betrays from what type of reference it was produced. This is why one should expect it to be difficult or even impossible to recreate this variety by citation analysis, unless one re-translates the citation to the reference, that is, as is done in reference analysis. This is also why it is impossible to exclusively link the sign citation to a specific behavioural characteristic with respect to citing.

      Key point with some useful pull quotes. It is the assymetry of the reference and citation and the decontextualisation that is at the core of mainly failures to develop useful theory. See also Leydesdorff on explanans vs explanadum

  28. Aug 2016
    1. Quoted in “A Gathering Storm — ViolentCrime in America,” Police Executive ResearchForum, October 2006, p. 9, www.policefo-rum.org/upload/Gathering-Storm-PRINT-Final_110473745_1027200610304.pdf.

      Track down citations that look interesting to you.

    2. PrisonRape Elimination Act of 2003 (PREA)

      Note governmental agencies that compile data on the issue. Look for new data or current questions the data seeks to answer.

    3. Bureau of Justice Statistics, Department of Justice

      Look for government agencies that compile data on the issue. Visit the website to locate new data or current questions the data seeks to answer.

    4. Jason DeParle

      Record names of significant, thinkers, scholars, authors

    5. Pew CharitableTrusts projects

      Notice the organizations, scholars, or institutions that the article uses to supply evidence.

      Try searching that site or organization for more up to date information.

      For example

  29. Jul 2016
    1. Page 219

      Humanities scholars integrate and aggregate data from many sources. They need tools and services to analyze digital data, as others do the sciences and social sciences, but also tools that assist them interpretation and contemplation.

    2. Page 215

      Borgman discussing the half-life of citations and humanities :

      while the half-life of literature is considered to be the longest in humanities, the large comparative study discussed earlier found the shortest citation age of an average article in humanities…. [another study] also found that the usage of history articles was much more concentrated in recent publications and was the usage of articles in economics or mathematics (the three fields studied). A close inspection revealed that the use of history articles was widely scattered across countries, without the clustering around classic articles from the other two fields. Although history can be considered within the humanities or the social sciences, comparisons between these findings do reinforce others conclusions that humanists’ may read current journal articles to keep up with their fields, but rely more heavily for their research on sources not covered by journal indexes. The findings also amplify concerns about the validity of citation studies of journal literature in humanities, given the reliance on monographic and archival sources. In sum, the humanities draw on the longest literature time span of any of the disciplines, and yet have the least amount of their scholarly literature online. So far, they are the discipline most poorly served by the publications component of the content later.

    3. Page 214

      Literature in the Humanities goes out-of-print long before it goes out of date, so efforts to make older, out-of-copyright books available greatly benefit these fields.

    4. Page 214

      Borgman notes that the bibliographic coverage of journal literature is shallow in the humanities. The ISI Arts and humanity citation Index only goes back to 1975. In Sciences it goes back to 1900. In the social sciences it goes back to 1956. Also SCOPUS does not include the humanities.

      What is interesting about this is that the humanities are the least cumulative of all the disciplines in the sense that they do not build on previous knowledge so much as we examine previous thought.

    5. Page 203

      Citation age of an average article is longest in the social sciences.

    6. Page 158

      George Barnett, Edward think, and Mary Beth debus constructed a mathematical model of citation age to test this ordering using large data sets from each of the science citation index, social sciences citation index, and arts and humanities citation index published by the isi. In each of these three sets, the citation age of an average article reaches its peak in less than two years, with the Arts and Humanities peeking soonest parentheses 1.164 years close parentheses comma and the social sciences speaking latest parentheses 1.752 years close parentheses, contrary to expectations. The maximum proportion of citations did have the predicted ordering, with science the highest, and the Arts and Humanities the lowest. While the models presume that citation rates were stable over time a close examination of the data revealed that citation for article increase substantially over the time period of the study parentheses in science, from 12.14 per article in 1961 to 16 in 1986 God semi colon in the social sciences, from 7.07 in 1970 to 15.6 in 1986 semi colon no Citation for article data were given for the Arts and Humanities close parentheses.

    7. Page 158

      Half-Life studies are used to identify temporal variations in the use of literature by discipline most such studies indicate that the humanities have the longest citation half life and the Sciences the shortest with the social sciences in between. In other words, scientific articles reference the most recent Publications and Humanities articles the least recent ones.

    8. Pages 36 and 37

      Boardman discusses Merton. Lots of references here to series of citation and networks of relationships among Scholars the other references they make to each other's work

  30. Jun 2016
  31. www.glottotopia.org www.glottotopia.org
    1. Dixon’s (Dixon 2010: 263)

      Remove second occurrence of name.

    2. Dixon’s(Dixon 2010: 263)

      Dixon's (2010: 263)

    3. (Hammarström 21 August 2013)

      Personal communication?

    4. Bybee’s (Bybee 2006: 719

      Include name only once. This style of formatting a citation Surname's (YEAR) isn't in the style guide, so consult with an editor.

    5. Ross’s (Ross 2001)

      Include name only once. This style of formatting a citation Surname's (YEAR) isn't in the style guide, so consult with an editor.

    1. If the RRID is well-formed, and if the lookup found the right record, a human validator tags it a valid RRID — one that can now be associated mechanically with occurrences of the same resource in other contexts. If the RRID is not well-formed, or if the lookup fails to find the right record, a human validator tags the annotation as an exception and can discuss with others how to handle it. If an RRID is just missing, the validator notes that with another kind of exception tag.

      Sounds a lot like the way reference managers work. In many cases, people keep the invalid or badly-formed results.

  32. May 2016
    1. \hypersetup{hidelinks=true}

      [Lyx ver.2.1.4/Win7 Pro] To use this: go to Document > Settings > LaTeX Preamble and paste just this line into the corresponding text box. Lyx will add this to the underlying document preamble and this removes those ugly borders around clickable hyperlinks, and citation indices.

  33. Apr 2016
    1. A gradual move to fund incremental and applied research may result in fewer fundamental and theoretical studies being published. Giving credit to these founders may require authors cite an increasingly aging literature.

      Funding policies may result in a problematic growth of cited half-life of literature

    1. Accession codes

      The panda and polar bear datasets should have been included in the data section rather than hidden in the URLs section. Production removed the DOIs and used (now dead) URLs instead, but for the working links and insight see the following blog: http://blogs.biomedcentral.com/gigablog/2012/12/21/promoting-datacitation-in-nature/

  34. Mar 2016
    1. To publish. And sometimes publish in the right journals.... In my discipline ...there’s just a few journals, and if you’re not in that journal, then yourpublication doesn’t really count

      Importance of "top" journals