1,121 Matching Annotations
  1. Apr 2021
    1. P. Waterhouse et al., Science 270, 985 (1995)

      Waterhouse et al. investigate the effects of deleting CTLA-4 from mice. These "CTLA-4 deficient" mice had disorders of T cell proliferation and quickly died.

    2. J. G. Gribben et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 92, 811 (1995)

      Gribben et al. show that CTLA-4 functions to induce cell death of T cells. In biology, many signaling events are also controlled by an off switch that prevents prolonged or out-of-control signaling. CTLA-4 fulfills this role for T cells.

    3. J. F. Brunet et al., Nature 328, 267 (1987)

      Brunet et al. identify the sequence of the CTLA-4 receptor. They note that it is part of immunoglobulin and has hydrophobic flanking sequences reminiscent of a membrane-bound protein. They also show that its expression is restricted to activated lymphocytes (T cells and B cells).

    4. D. L. Mueller, M. K. Jenkins, R. H. Schwartz, Ann. Rev. Immunol. 7, 445 (1989)

      Mueller, Jenkins, and Schwartz review the body of research on T cell costimulatory signaling pathways. In the few years after the discovery of the T-cell receptor, which directly binds the antigen to which a T cell is responding, researchers proposed that other signals are needed for T cells to become fully activated. This led to the two-signal model of T-cell activation described in this review.

    1. I’m resisting the temptation to add bibliographical cards into the Obsidian vault. Niklas Luhmann, you may recall, had a set of cards in his zettelkasten that were source citations. I don’t get the impression from reading his descriptions of his process or Schmidt’s research into it, that these were really an active part of the network of ideas in the boxes, which seem to have been based on his digested reactions to sources.

      I've done some bibliographical cards in the past myself, but find that I never used or revisited them or had great need to have them crosslinked myself. I've been moving away from doing this as well.

  2. Mar 2021
    1. S. Y. Oh, et al., ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10, 13729–13740

      To add on wearable skin electronics, the created sweat glucose and pH sensors. The sensors were created out of carbon nanotubes combined with different polymers.

    2. G. Schwartz, et al., Nat. Commun. 4, 1859

      They have created a flexible pressure sensor which has the capability of non-invasive continuous radial artery pule monitoring. It is stated that this has the capability of being a breakthrough for wearable cardiovascular health monitoring.

    3. H. C. Ko, et al., Nature 454, 748–753

      They created an hemispherical optoelectronic device that can replicate the functions and characteristics of a human eye such as a wide field of view and low aberrations. This electronic device is based off of single-crystalline silicon and is compressible, which enables the hemispherical shape.

    4. S. Choi, et al., Nat. Nanotechnol. 13, 1048–1056

      Here, biocompatable and stretchable materials were tested for implant use. Gold coated silver nanowires within a polymer were tested to see its conductivity. Using this material they were able to fabricate wearable and implantable soft bioelectronic devices that can be conformally integrated with human skin.

    5. J. A. Rogers, T. Someya, Y. Huang. Science 327, 1603–1607

      They reviewed materials that maintain proper electronic properties while having the ability to be stretched, compressed, twisted, bent, and deformed. They discussed different applications for these technologies and possible commercialization.

    6. T. Sekitani, et al.,Science 326, 1516–1519 (2009)

      They used transistors with a floating gate embedded in hybrid dielectrics at a nanoscale of size, and created a flexible array of these floating gate transistors. They coupled this with a pressure sensitive rubber sheet, and the result was a matrix that was able to read mechanical pressure and store it as an image.

    7. C. Choi, et al., Nat. Commun. 8,

      They test a high density, hemispherical image sensor array comprised of an atomically small MoS2 heterostructure that has the capability of releasing strain. They deem this device to be capable of being a soft retinal implant capable of various imaging elements.

    8. I. R. Minev, et al., Science 347, 159–163 (2015).

      Stiff-neural implants have very rare compatibility with soft-neural tissues. Therefore an soft-neural implant was configured that is elastic like dura matter (the protective membrane of the spinal cord).

    9. Y. M. Song, Yet al., Nature 497

      An elastomeric camera was created in the likeness of ant and beetle eyes. These cameras have close to full hemispherical shapes, at around 160 degrees. This hopes to copy arthropods who have wide-angle field of view, low aberrations, high acuity to motion and an infinite depth of field which are all difficult to replicate.

    10. 1. W. Gao, et al., Nature 529, 509–514 (2016).

      A self-healing system was created that was capable of automatically repair damage from repeating events. They used a coating-substrate (a substance on which an enzyme acts) to deliver healing agents to cracks within the polymer.

    11. S. Xu, et al., Science 344, 70–74 (2014).

      They created a thin, comfortable device that can be laminated or stuck to the skin of a person to allow for the monitoring of physiological monitoring for the user. Examples of this could be heart rate or blood pressure. This is also a wireless device.

    12. D. H. Kim, et al., Nat. Mater

      A non-invasive ultra-thin electronic interface was created what is capable of being mounted on tissue using a a protein called fibroin which can be obtained from silk. This protein is capable of being absorbed back into the tissue which results in the mounting of the device. These electronics are capable of neural mapping of the brain.

    13. X. Yu, et al., Nature 575, 473–479 (2019).

      They created a wireless, battery free, touch based electronic system that is capable of being placed onto the skin. This technology has the capability of communicating information through vibrations. They also have the capability of being used for VR.

    14. Y. Chen, A. M. Kushner, G. A. Williams, Z. Guan, Nat. Chem

      A multiple phase heat sensitive rubber like material was created. This substance is extremely tough and durable while also having the capability of self-healing.

    15. D.-H. Kim, et al., Science 320, 507–511 (2008).

      An easily foldable and stretchable circuit was created using silicon, a good semi-conductive metal. They combined the silicon with rubber like plastic material to help create the flexibility of the circuit.

    1. 14. T. Wilson, J. W. Hastings, Annu. Rev. Cell Dev. Biol. 14, 197 (1998).

      Wilson and Hastings discuss bioluminescence in this article. This is a very large overview and descriptor of bioluminescence, where it covers what it is and what it does.

      The chemical way in which bioluminescence works is described in depth, and explained that the factors which control the intensity of this light can vary. Wilson and Hastings also touch on how this can be credited for some bacteria to sense their density and regulate specific genes through chemical communication.

    2. 1. R. T. Hanlon, Curr. Biol. 17, R400 (2007).

      Roger Hanlon discusses the use of dynamic camouflage, specifically applied to cephalopods.

      Hanlon discusses that these animals are able to camouflage themselves against almost any background, which is a feat non mastered by any land animals. He also categorizes different camouflage patterns. These patterns help to allow the animals that possess them to stay alive.

    1. D. M. Bass, M. Prevo, D. S. Waxman, Drug Saf. 25, 1021–1033 (2002).

      This paper found that extended release devices, like the one described in this paper, add therapeutic and convenience benefits, without adding any risks.

    2. G. Domokos, P. L. Várkonyi, Proc. Biol. Sci. 275, 11–17 (2008).

      This paper gave the authors the idea for the Leopard Tortoise shell shape to design this pill.

    3. G. Traverso et al., J. Pharm. Sci. 104, 362–367 (2015).

      This paper showed the authors that microneedles increase bioavailability of a drug and can be safely excreted by the body as seen using a swine model.

    4. L. Bolondi et al., Gastroenterology 89, 752–759 (1985).

      This paper showed the authors that direct injection into the stomach lining leads to a more predictable delivery rate when compared to a small intestine injection.

    5. I. P. Vazharov, J. IMAB 18, 273–275 (2012).

      This source showed that there were few injuries after multiple upper endoscopies, which are much more invasive. This was another source that showed the authors that injecting insulin into the GI tract is a safe way to deliver insulin, since it is less invasive than an upper endoscopy.

    6. D. K. Podolsky, J. Gastroenterol. 32, 122–126 (1997).

      This source explains that the mucosal surface in the GI tract is quick healing, giving the authors a good place to inject insulin without causing damage to the GI tract.

    7. T. A. S. Aguirre et al., Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 106, 223–241 (2016).

      This source shows that the bioavailability for even the most advanced drugs when taken orally is usually only 1-2%, meaning that very little drug is actually usable by the body, when a pill is taken orally. This led to the authors designing a pill that directly administered insulin directly into the GI tract.

    8. E. Moroz, S. Matoori, J.-C. Leroux, Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 101, 108–121 (2016).

      This study was important to the authors to find proper coatings for successful treatments of diabetes via the GI tract.

    9. M. J. Calvert, R. J. McManus, N. Freemantle, Br. J. Gen. Pract. 57, 455–460 (2007).

      This study explained that optimized treatment for Type II diabetes is delayed by, on average, 7.7 years. This meant that people with Type II diabetes were not well monitored or treated.

    10. Diabetes Control and Complications Trial Research Group, N. Engl. J. Med. 329, 977–986 (1993).

      This paper found that intense regular treatments of diabetes led to a decreased rate of progression to diabetic retinopathy (a disease of the eye caused by diabetes).

    11. L. Fallowfield et al., Ann. Oncol. 17, 205–210 (2006).

      This source describes the preference of people taking injections or tablets. The authors of that paper found that people preferred tablets over injections. This led the authors of this paper to design a tablet to treat diabetes as an alternative to insulin injections.

  3. Feb 2021
    1. J. Heikenfeld et al., Nat. Photonics 3, 292 (2009)

      This paper details a technique that rivals conventional electrowetting techniques. Here liquid dispersion forces are used in order to pull colored oil out of a reservoir and into an observable area greatly increasing the ability to see color while enhancing contrast.

    2. R. A. Hayes, B. J. Feenstra, Nature 425, 383 (2003)

      This paper describes the process of electrowetting. This process is a way of taking paper and using electric fields to manipulate water droplets that are found on the surface of the paper. In terms of application this paper uses electrowetting as a way of creating a reflective surface that can be altered.

    3. 24. A. Rogalski, Prog. Quantum Electron. 27, 59 (2003).

      This paper was published in 2003 and highlighted advances in the field of thermal imaging. Specifically advancements in infrared detection was made. Here the author highlights three new techniques to detecting infrared waves.

    4. D. Stuart-Fox, A. Moussalli, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B Biol. Sci. 364, 463 (2009)

      In this piece we start with a review detailing how different studies of color changing organisms has led to what we currently know about camouflage. The paper then goes onto describe how organisms do not only change color based on their background but potentially also the number of predators that are threatening them.

    5. 12. M. Stevens, S. Merilaita, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B Biol. Sci. 364, 423 (2009).

      Stevens and Merilaita explain the importance of animal camouflage and their implications in science today.

      While other authors focus on the how animal camouflage would work in general, there is more of a focus on defining camouflage strategies and crypsis, or features of physical appearance but also behavioral traits.

    6. 6. F. Ilievski, A. D. Mazzeo, R. F. Shepherd, X. Chin, G. M. Whitesides, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 50, 1890 (2011)

      Robert Shephard, who is an author of this work, teamed up with several of his collages in order to help introduce soft robotics to the world. Here he defines what constitutes as soft robotics and how it can be useful to different fields of study.

    7. 3. H. B. Cott, Adaptive Coloration in Animals (Methuen, London, 1957).

      Cott and Huxley describe general camouflage and warning coloration and mimicking which animals use.

      This knowledge of camouflage can be utilized to be adapted towards soft machines and how to use dynamic coloration. The ability for this type of technology is not commonly used and replicated by using other technologies.

    8. 7. R. F. Shepherd et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108, 20400 (2011).

      Shepherd and others describe the utilization of a soft robot that is exclusively made of soft polymers.

      This soft quadrupedal robot is utilized as it can produce complex motions. Soft robotics can simplify the more mechanical structures and do not require a mechanically strong and rigid skeleton.


      This word is exactly the point. What if this web page were a public thing within Roam? Then other people's notebooks could comment within their own, but using notifications (via Webmention) could be placed into a comments section at the bottom of one's page or even done inline on the portions they're commenting on using block references.

    1. Fully integrated wearable sensor arrays for multiplexed in situ perspiration analysis

      A flexible sensor device was created with the ability to analyze different elements/compounds found within sweat such as glucose and sodium while also monitoring skin temperature. All of this is fully integrated within the system so no outside analysis is needed.

  4. Jan 2021
    1. cellular data recorders offer the capacity to measure biologically relevant signals15,16,17,18,19 in places that are otherwise difficult to access, such as inside the body20,21, and over time22
    2. Recently, redox-responsive biomolecules such as phenazines have been used in several electrochemical strategies to interrogate a range of biological activities30,31 and to control gene expression in living cells32,33, where the redox status of the biomolecules could be measured or manipulated by application of electronic potentials
    1. 19. G. Fatemifar et al., Hum. Mol. Genet. 22, 3807–3817 (2013).

      Fatemifar et al. (2013) showed that HMGA2 is associated with craniofacial features such as the width of the eye region, the width of the lower part of the nose, and the height of the mid-brow prominence.

  5. Nov 2020
  6. Oct 2020
    1. E. E. Evans-Pritchard

      I hear this name and can't help but think about the potential influence on the name of the character from The Dead Poets Society


  7. Jul 2020
    1. 18. M. N. Weedon et al., Nat. Genet. 40, 575–583 (2008).

      Weedon et al. concluded that the HMGA2 gene was one of several that has a role in influencing height in adult humans.

    2. 17. X. Zhou, K. F. Benson, H. R. Ashar, K. Chada, Nature 376, 771–774 (1995).

      Zhou (1995) found that, in mice, mutant alleles sometimes arise from deleted DNA or from chromosomal inversions.

      When these mutations cause the protein Hmgi-c to inactivate and not be expressed in mice, the result is dwarfism. This protein is associated with the HMGA2 gene.

    3. 16. K. Pfannkuche, H. Summer, O. Li, J. Hescheler, P. Dröge, Stem Cell Rev. Rep. 5, 224–230 (2009).

      Pfannkuche and colleagues (2009) found that HMGA2 is an important factor in embryonic stem cells and seems to magnify other factors, such as the regulation of body height in humans, the repression of certain genes, and several other functions.

    4. 15. S. Lamichhaney et al., Nature 518, 371–375 (2015).

      The previous tree from Lamichhaney and colleagues in 2015 showed that the initial split between warbler finches and other finches happened 900,000 years ago. Rapid divergence of ground and tree finches occurred 100,000 – 300,000 years ago.

    5. 14. A. Abzhanov, M. Protas, B. R. Grant, P. R. Grant, C. J. Tabin, Science 305, 1462–1465 (2004).

      Abzhanov and colleagues (2004) analyzed various growth factors that were known to be expressed during craniofacial development of birds. When looking at Darwin's finch species, some factors showed simply showed no correlation whereas other factors showed a correlation with beak size, but not beak shape.

      However, researchers did find that the expression of the Bmp4 molecule had strong association with both beak size and shape.

    6. 11. P. R. Grant, B. R. Grant, Science 313, 224–226 (2006).

      Grant and Grant (2006) reported that the finch species Geospiza fortis diverged in beak size from one of its competitors, G. magnirostris. This divergence happened on an isolated Galapagos island 22 years after G. magnirostris arrived to share a habitat with G. fortis.

    1. C. Y. Logan, J. R. Miller, M. J. Ferkowicz, D. R. McClay, Development 126, 345 (1999).

      This work is part of the foundation that the Wnt signaling pathway is well established chemical pathway in embyrogenesis. This is important, because embryos contain stem cells which require direction for migration and differentiation much the the regeneration in adult planarians.

    2. C. E. Rocheleau et al., Cell 90, 707 (1997

      This research was the first to identify the set of genes in C. elegans (a simple nematode invertebrate model) that were used in the experimental RNAi silencing by Alvarado and colleagues. Evidence was also provided that showed a potential role in early embryonic development.

    3. S. Q. Schneider, B. Bowerman, Dev. Cell 13, 73 (2007).

      The data confirm that β-catenin regulates cell fate in two very distant animal species, which suggest that β-catenin has an ancient metazoan origin.

    4. A. H. Wikramanayake et al., Nature 426, 446 (2003).

      The authors in this study show that β-catenin plays a role in cell adhesion and body plan development in sea urchins, a primitive invertebrate animal. This research provides additional evidence the β-catenin is an evolutionarily important molecule and its role has been maintained over time across the animal kingdom.

    5. 1. S. Schneider, H. Steinbeisser, R. M. Warga, P. Hausen, Mech. Dev. 57, 191 (1996).

      The authors used two vertebrate models, zebrafish and frogs, to identify that β-catenin via the Wnt signaling pathway plays a role in dorsal-ventral polarity. This research suggest that β-catenin is an important molecule because it has been found to play similar roles in both vertebrates and invertebrates.

    6. R. Stadeli, R. Hoffmans, K. Basler, Curr. Biol. 16, R378 (2006)

      The data provided insight into how the Wnt signaling pathway and β-catenin target gene activation. This foundational information provided understanding of how RNAi could be used to silence the genes associated with control of this pathway.

    7. H. Yokoyama, H. Ogino, C. L. Stoick-Cooper, R. M. Grainger, R. T. Moon, Dev. Biol. 306, 170 (2007).

      Some amphibian species have the ability to regenerate limbs. The data suggest that Wnt/β-catenin signaling plays an essential role in this process. These results again confirm that β-catenin is present across various animal species. A full understanding of regeneration in vertebrates may lead to potential treatments for human organ regeneration.

    8. T. H. Morgan, Am. Nat. 38, 502 (1904)

      Morgan was a pioneer in the field of genetics. His theory that polarity, or development of two axes in animals was a direct result of the presence of a yet unidentified molecule. This theory has stood the test of time and provides the foundation of this research.

    9. P. W. Reddien, A. Sánchez Alvarado, Annu. Rev. Cell Dev. Biol. 20, 725 (2004).

      Earlier research by Alvarado and colleagues identified the types of tissue that are able to regenerate from a blastema that forms after tissue damage. Without previously identifying this role, the current research would not be possible.

    1. A. R. Adamantidis, F. Zhang, A. M. Aravanis, K. Deisseroth, L. de Lecea, Nature 450, 420 (2007).

      The authors used Channelrhodopsin-2 to selectively photostimulate hypocretin-producing neurons in the lateral hypothalamus and showed a frequency-dependent effect on sleep-to-wakefulness transition. This paper supported optogenetics' ability to stimulate cells and elicit a physiological effect.

    2. V. Gradinaru et al., J. Neurosci. 27, 14231 (2007)

      This paper discusses targeting strategies to selectively express opsins to certain regions or cell types as well as methods to read out expression and activity. Methods include electrophysiology, imaging, and behavior analysis.

    3. F. Zhang et al., Nature 446, 633 (2007).

      A paper describing the first use of halorhodopsin—a chloride pump expressed in an archaeon named Natronomonas pharaonis that expressed temporal optical inhibition of neural activity. The investigators were then able to co-express both NpHR and ChR2 in the same cell and optically control its activity.

    4. V. Gradinaru, K. R. Thompson, K. Deisseroth, Brain Cell Biol. 36, 129 (2008)

      The authors engineered the NpHR from the F. Zhang et al. paper in 2007 to be better expressed at the cell membrane by inserting a membrane-insertion signal and an endoplasmic reticulum export signal. Both interventions created eNpHR (enhanced NpHR) that improved protein trafficking and membrane expression. This was a necessary modification for the current paper published by the same first author. Temporal precision is a key parameter when dealing with neural firing which can occur at millisecond resolution.

    5. F. Zhang et al., Nat. Neurosci. 11, 631 (2008)

      The authors investigated a red-shifted cation-conducting opsin variant from the algae species Volvox carteri that could be stimulated at a wavelength of 595nm. VChR1 can be stimulated by yellow light and offered a third class of microbial opsins.

    1. 29. J. D. Creswell et al., Psychol. Sci. 16, 846 (2005).

      Creswell et al. identified a physical reaction to stereotype threat and found that values affirmation reduces this reaction.

    2. 23. G. L. Cohen, J. Garcia, N. Apfel, A. Master, Science 313, 1307 (2006).

      Cohen et al. performed a large-scale examination of the efficacy of values affirmation in an authentic classroom environment.

      They found that having students complete a short writing exercise, in which they wrote about a value they found important (values affirmation), reduced the gap in performance between African American students and other students.

      A full PDF copy of this research can be found in the Related content tab.

    3. 22. C. Good, J. Aronson, M. Inzlicht, Appl. Dev. Psychol. 24, 645 (2003).

      Good, Aronson, and Inzlicht assessed whether specific kinds of mentoring could reduce the effects of stereotype threat in female, minority, or low-income 7th graders.

      They found that students paired with a college-student mentor who either 1) encouraged them to view intelligence as malleable, or 2) told them to attribute academic difficulties to the novelty of the educational setting, performed much better than students who did not get this framing.

    4. 31. G. L. Cohen, J. Garcia, V. Purdie-Vaughns, N. Apfel, P. Brzustoski, Science 324, 400 (2009).

      Cohen et al. found that an initial values affirmation intervention could have long-lasting positive effects.

  8. Jun 2020
    1. B. Schoene et al., Science 363, 862-866

      S. Burgess stresses that knowledge of the cause or causes of mass extinctions can inform understanding of how the biosphere responds to dramatic environmental change and can help to validate hypotheses about probable outcomes of anthropogenic changes. Both the asteroid impact and large-scale volcanic eruptions as the cause of the K-Pg extinction are credible. Now, with more accurate dating techniques, it appears that most of the large-scale eruptions occurred after the impact, delaying recovery.

    2. P. Hull, Curr. Biol. 25, R941-R952 (2015)

      Mass extinctions often result in the loss of entire branches of the tree of life. Pincelli Hull argues that macroevolution is shaped as much by the species that survive a mass extinction as by those that do not. He contends that more than 99% of all species that have ever lived are now extinct and that the losses have not been random.

    3. 8. P. Wilf, K. R. Johnson, B. T. Huber, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100, 599-604 (2003).

      Wilf et al. differentiate between climatic change and asteroid impact effects on biodiversity. They determined there was a cooling trend during the final 0.1 m.y. of the Cretaceous. This likely accounts for some loss of biodiversity from its peak during the earlier warm interval and makes inaccurate the observation that the asteroid impact alone resulted in the loss of 70%–90% of macrofossil species.

    4. B. Blonder et al., PLOS Biol. 12, e1001949 (2014).

      The authors tested the hypothesis that an impact winter following the asteroid impact selected against slow-growing evergreen species. Using fossil leaf collections crossing a 2-million-year interval spanning the K-Pg boundary, they assessed both carbon assimilation rate and carbon investment using leaf vein density and leaf mass per area as proxies. They learned that species that survived the K-Pg extinction had fast-growth strategies with high assimilation rates and low carbon investment.

    5. 18. W. C. Clyde et al., Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 452, 272-280 (2016).

      Clyde et al. used several different dating techniques to more precisely determine the age of volcanic ash deposits across the K-Pg boundary in the Denver Basin. The results were compared to data derived from an analysis of fossil spores and pollen from deposits in the same region. They concluded that the interval between the extinction of the dinosaurs and the appearance of the earliest Cenozoic mammals in the Denver Basin lasted ∼185 k.y. and the "fern spike" lasted ∼1 k.y. after the K–Pg boundary layer was deposited, indicating rapid rates of biotic extinction and initial recovery in the Denver Basin.

    6. G. P. Wilson, "Mammalian extinction, survival, and recovery dynamics across the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary in northeastern Montana, USA" in Through the End of the Cretaceous in the Type Locality of the Hell Creek Formation in Montana and Adjacent Areas (Geological Society of America Special Paper, ed. 503, 2014), pp. 365-392.

      Wilson’s research concludes that the richness of mammalian species remained relatively stable for most of the last ~1.9 m.y. of the Cretaceous. However, the relative abundance of mammals more closely related to marsupials than to placentals began declining ~500–600 k.y. before the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary. Based on available fossil evidence, mammalian recovery occurred within ~600–700 k.y. of the Cretaceous-Paleogene event.

    7. 3. R. O. Prum et al., Nature 526, 569-573 (2015).

      Prum and colleagues investigated avian phylogeny with a data set of >390,000 bases of genomic sequence from each of 198 species of living birds. This represents all major avian lineages, and two crocodilian outgroups. The results of their divergence time analyses are congruent with the paleontological record and support a major radiation of crown birds following the Cretaceous–Paleogene (K–Pg) mass extinction.

  9. Apr 2020
    1. S. Lamichhaney, F. Han, J. Berglund, C. Wang, M. S. Almen, M. T. Webster, B. R. Grant, P. R. Grant, L. Andersson, Science 352, 470-474 (2016).

      This paper reports the identification of the importance of the HMGA2 gene in affecting beak shape in Darwin's finches, especially during natural selection that occurred during a drought in 2004-05.

    2. P. R. Grant, B. R. Grant, Evolution 48, 297-316 (1994).

      In this summary of genes and traits of hybridizing finches on Daphne Major, the authors established general patterns found in hybridization of the finches on this island: that hybrids are generally intermediate between parental species and often go on to mate with members of the parental species.

      They discuss hybridization as a source of genetic variation within existing species and suggest that it can happen through new combinations of genes (additive genetic variance) as well as new patterns of dominance or co-dominance among known genes, or even the establishment of new combinations of genes on chromosomes.

      They also note how rare it would be to see hybridization produce birds much larger than parent species, and how unusual occurrences might be necessary to provide the conditions for this to happen.

    3. L. H. Rieseberg, M. A. Archer, R. K Wayne, Heredity 83, 363-372 (1999)

      In this discussion of transgressive segregation, Riesenberg et al. review many studies and conclude that the genetic basis of transgressive segregation is through complementary alleles: new combinations of alleles that provide novel combinations of genotypes.

      They find that transgressive segregation occurs most frequently in crosses between closely related species and that niche separation is the most important factor in favoring the establishment of hybrids.

    4. H. S. Swarth, Occas. Pap. Calif. Acad. Sci. 18, 1-299 (1931)

      Swarth's paper reorganized the classification of Darwin's finches slightly, particularly with regard to the Geospiza genus.

    5. D. L. Lack, Darwin's Finches (Cambridge Univ. Press, 1947)

      Lack's book recounts what he learned about Darwin's finches from a visit to the Galapagos in late 1938-39, one of the first visits to the island focused on the finches since Darwin's time. The work includes the classification of the finches as well as notes on speciation, adaptive radiation, and evolution.

    6. P. R. Grant, B. R. Grant, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol Sci. 365, 1065-1076 (2010)

      Grant and Grant use genetic information to quantify the effects of the gene exchange between populations of birds. They explore two situations: genes that enter a population through mating with a bird of the same species (conspecific) but from a different population on another island; and genes that enter a population from a member of a different species (heterospecific). They conclude that while both types of gene flow are rare, they do occur and have measurable effects on the populations that are complex and change through time rather than being steady.

    7. S. Lamichhaney, J. Berglund, M. S. Almen, K. Maqbool, M. Grabherr, A. Martinez-Barrio, M. Promerova, C. -J. Rubin, C. Wang, N. Zamani, B. R. Grant, P. R. Grant, M. T. Webster, L. Andersson, Nature 518, 371-375 (2015).

      This paper presents the results of a whole genome study of 120 of Darwin's finches and identifies the ALX1 gene as important in determining beak shape. The study also helps revise the phylogenetic tree of the finches and provides evidence for hybridization as the finches evolved.

    8. P. R. Grant, B. R. Grant, How and Why Species Multiply (Princeton Univ. Press, 2008)

      This book gives a complete evolutionary history of Darwin's finches. Grant and Grant explain the speciation that occurred and the mechanisms that underpin the formation of different species of finches in the Galapagos Islands.

    9. M. Schumer, G. G. Rosenthal, P. Andolfatto, Evolution 68, 1553-1560 (2014)

      In the article "How Common is Homoploid Hybrid Speciation?" Schumer et al. indicate that in the study of this topic future research needs to clarify the mechanisms of this type of event. They also propose criteria by which to judge the strength of evidence for this event, arguing that evidence for hybridization's role in speciation is somewhat limited.

    1. 19. A.-K. Olsson, A. Dimberg, J. Kreuger, L. Claesson-Welsh, Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 7, 359–371 (2006).

      Researchers at the Department of Genetics and Pathology in Rudbeck Laboratory studied three vascular endothelial growth-factor receptors (VEGF) responsible for regulating the cardiovascular system. VEGFR1, VEGFR2, and VEGFR3 all function slightly different but together produce cardiovascular development, control endothelial-cell function and the development and survival of blood vessels. They showed the importance of controlling angiogenetic-growth-factors (such as proangiogenic) that are responsible for the formation of blood vessels. Fibronectin is not mentioned by name but other glycoproteins are emphasized for their importance as receptors for VEGF.

    2. 5. D. B. Kolesky, K. A. Homan, M. A. Skylar-Scott, J. A. Lewis, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 113, 3179–3184 (2016).

      Researchers at Harvard were the first to keep a 1cm thick vascularized tissue alive in lab conditions for longer than 6 weeks. They achieved this by co-printing a mixture of bioinks composed of human stem cells, skin cells, cells from umbilical cord vessels, and growth factors. The printed artificial tissue contained a network of embedded blood vessels used for perfusion to keep the tissue alive.

    3. 23. J. S. Miller, PLOS Biol. 12, e1001882 (2014).

      Jordan S. Miller at Rice University highlighted that more clinical trials, proper tissue fabrication sterilization, sufficient vasculature and quality assurance will lead to good manufacturing practice (GMP) and a standard regulatory process. Miller believes overcoming these obstacles will transition the use of 3D printed tissue from research and development to manufacturing and production.

    4. 17. M. Potente, H. Gerhardt, P. Carmeliet, Cell 146, 873–887 (2011).

      Michael Potente, Holger Gerhardt, and Peter Carmeliet worked with endothelial cells in order to grow blood vessels in a scaffold smaller than any needle is capable of printing. The cells naturally line the inner surface of the vessel and are responsible for repair and growth of new vasculature. Under predetermined conditions the cell have genes that will be expressed to grow vasculature; a process known as angiogenesis.

    5. 9. C. Frantz, K. M. Stewart, V. M. Weaver, J. Cell Sci. 123, 4195–4200 (2010).

      Christian Frantz, Kathleen M. Stewart and Valerie M. Weaver compiled information on the extracellular matrix (ECM) and its application in tissue engineering

    6. 8. N. Noor et al., Adv. Sci. 6, 1900344 (2019)

      Dvir and colleagues used a specific type of stem cells called pluripotent stem cells that allowed them to grow and develop vascularization as an embryo would. They are the first to take cells from a patient to print a personalized full size and function heart using bioinks. Bioinks are the printing material that replicates the extracellular matrix and has living cells in it.

    7. 6. H.-W. Kang et al., Nat. Biotechnol. 34, 312–319 (2016).

      HW Kang and others at Wake Forest Institute for Regenerative Medicine used microchannels developed at University of Pennsylvania on an integrated tissue-organ printer (ITOP) so that they can produce human-scale mandible and calvarial bone, cartilage and skeletal muscle.

    8. 4. J. S. Miller et al., Nat. Mater. 11, 768–774 (2012)

      J.S. Miller and others in the Bioengineering Departmnet of University of Pennsylvenia were able to 3D print living cells together to form a tissue. The current problem is that blood and oxygen was unable to get to the center of the tissue leaving a large dead spot in the center called a necrotic core. They solved this problem by engineering in channels for blood to flow as they do through veins to keep a wide variety of cell types alive.

    1. S. Hunt, T. G. McKay, I. A. Anderson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 113701 (2014).

      This paper describes the development of a self healing dielectric elastomer. The actuator contains a layer of oil which allows the actuator to maintain dimensional stability even after being punctured multiple times.

    2. S. J. Dünki, Y. S. Ko, F. A. Nüesch, D. M. Opris, Adv. Funct. Mater. 25, 2467–2475 (2015).

      This paper describes self‐repairable, high permittivity dielectric elastomers with large actuation strains at low electric fields. The actuators can be operated repeatedly and reversibly at voltages below the first breakdown.

    3. W. Yuan et al., Adv. Mater. 20, 621–625 (2008).

      This paper demonstrates the fault-tolerant dielectric elastomer electrodes consisting of elastomers spray coated with carbon nanotubes. The electrodes allows for isolation of the fault after a dielectric breakdown increasing the reliability of the actuator.

    4. R. Pelrine, R. Kornbluh, Q. Pei, J. Joseph, Science 287, 836–839 (2000).

      This paper describes the change in characteristics of elastomers when pre-strained. The resulting elastomers feature double the strength and speed of previous actuators.

    5. R. F. Shepherd et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108, 20400–20403 (2011).

      This paper describes the development of a quadrupedal soft robot that moves through fluid pressure.

    6. P. Polygerinos et al., Adv. Eng. Mater. 19, 1700016 (2017).

      This paper reviews a specific type of soft robot, elastomeric robots, that are powered by fluid pressure.

    7. F. Ilievski, A. D. Mazzeo, R. F. Shepherd, X. Chen, G. M. Whitesides, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 50, 1890–1895 (2011).

      This paper defines the characteristics of many types of soft robots. The authors compile a benchmark of these characteristics for future research reference.

    8. S. Kim, C. Laschi, B. Trimmer, Trends Biotechnol. 31, 287–294 (2013).

      This article is a review of the current common designs and applications of "soft-robots". Soft-robots are robots modeled after things that occur in nature. For example, robotics would traditionally use gears and motors to move. .Soft-robotics use designs that mimic human or even insect muscle.

  10. Mar 2020
    1. J. Liu, Y. Pang, S. Zhang, C. Cleveland, X. Yin, L. Booth, J. Lin, Y.-A. L. Lee, H. Mazdiyasni, S. Saxton, A. R. Kirtane, T. von Erlach, J. Rogner, R. Langer, G. Traverso, Triggerable tough hydrogels for gastric resident dosage forms. Nat. Commun. 8, 124 (2017).

      Liu and colleagues created "triggerable tough hydrogels," composed of novel materials that promote a prolonged stay in the gastric system.

      The once-monthly smart birth control pill employs this concept of tough materials that will only disintegrate in the presence of chemical stimuli to ensure the contraceptive will stay in the digestive tract longer.

    2. A. M. Bellinger, M. Jafari, T. M. Grant, S. Zhang, H. C. Slater, E. A. Wenger, S. Mo, Y.-A. L. Lee, H. Mazdiyasni, L. Kogan, R. Barman, C. Cleveland, L. Booth, T. Bensel, D. Minahan, H. M. Hurowitz, T. Tai, J. Daily, B. Nikolic, L. Wood, P. A. Eckhoff, R. Langer, G. Traverso, Oral, ultra–long-lasting drug delivery: Application toward malaria elimination goals. Sci. Transl. Med. 8, 365ra157 (2016).

      Bellinger and colleagues design a long-term drug delivery system for malaria. They accomplish this by designing an oral capsule that stays in the gastric cavity for up to 14 days.

      The smart birth control pill presented in this work builds off of this research and the idea that reducing dosage frequency can be accomplished by increasing the time it stays in the stomach.

    3. A. Hayward, T. Bensel, H. Mazdiyasni, J. Rogner, A. R. Kirtane, Y.-A. L. Lee, T. Hua, A. Bajpayee, J. Collins, S. McDonnell, C. Cleveland, A. Lopes, A. Wahane, R. Langer, G. Traverso, Scalable gastric resident systems for veterinary application. Sci. Rep. 8, 11816 (2018).

      A study was performed to investigate scalable doses and the modulation of drug release in the gastrointestinal system.

      The author's used most of the characteristics of these dosage forms in the manufacturing of the oral contraceptive.

    4. 30. V. Snoeck, N. Huyghebaert, E. Cox, A. Vermeire, J. Saunders, J. P. Remon, F. Verschooten, B. M. Goddeeris, Gastrointestinal transit time of nondisintegrating radio-opaque pellets in suckling and recently weaned piglets. J. Control. Release 94, 143–153 (2004).

      Snoeck and colleagues determine the time it takes for a dosage form to pass through pigs. This information can help in the design of oral drug delivery methods.

    5. 12. United States Food and Drug Administration, Nuva Ring FDA label, (2013); www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2013/021187s022lbl.pdf. 13. United States Food and Drug Administration, Ortho Evra FDA label, (2014); www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2014/021180Orig1s046lbl.pdf.

      The authors discuss the current alternative contraceptive forms that provide shorter-term protection (about 1 month).

    6. 3. R. H. Allen, C. A. Cwiak, A. M. Kaunitz, Contraception in women over 40 years of age. Can. Med. Assoc. J. 185, 565–573 (2013).

      Allen and colleagues discuss the use of contraceptives as a form of family planning in women over the age of 40. Due to being at the end of the reproductive age range, special attributes of the effects of contraceptives for women over 40 need to be considered.

    7. 5. United States Food and Drug Administration, Nexplanon FDA label, (2015); www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2015/021529s011lbl.pdf. 6. United States Food and Drug Administration, Implanon information leaflet, (2008); www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2009/021529s004lbl.pdf.

      The authors discuss that some contraceptive devices can be implanted outside of the uterus and release hormones for about 3 years, after which they are surgically removed.

    8. 1. World Health Organization, “Family planning/contraception,” (2018); www.who.int/ news-room/fact-sheets/detail/family-planning-contraception.

      The World Health Organization describes the vast impacts of contraceptives, ranging from its role in family planning to its involvement in protecting from sexually transmitted infections, as well as the many different forms of contraceptives that are available.

    1. J. Terborgh et al., Science 294, 1923 (2001)

      In this natural experiment, as a result of a hydroelectric dam flooding a rainforest in Venezuela, researchers were able to measure the results of predator removal in isolated communities. Top-down regulation of these communities were discovered and drastic trophic cascades were observed. 

    2. J. A. Estes, D. O. Duggins, Ecol. Monogr. 65, 75 (1995).

      This observational study of 153 sites demonstrated, over the course of 3-15 years, the importance of sea otters to the community structure of the kelp forests of the Aleutian Islands and Alaska. Without sea otters, the kelp forests collapsed due to overgrazing by urchins and other herbivores, leading to implications for numerous other organisms in the system. With sea otter predation on urchins, the kelp system was stable and supported a much higher diversity of organisms at all trophic levels (Fig 3).

    3. N. G. Hairston, F. E. Smith, L. B. Slobodkin, Am. Nat. 94, 421 (1960)

      The authors highlight 5 lines of reasoning to underscore the importance of predators as top-down controls:

      1) the rate of planetary fossil fuel accumulation over time has not been minuscule as compared to the rate of photosynthesis in the same systems;

      2) given this, decomposers must be food-limited; otherwise, fossil fuels would build up at higher rates;

      3) in terrestrial systems, plants are typically not herbivore-controlled, nor are they regularly destroyed by weather, but are controlled by bottom-up factors such as light, water, and nutrients;

      4) terrestrial herbivores are therefore typically not limited by their food supply, even in areas where the primary consumers are overabundant;

      5) herbivore populations are therefore controlled by predators.

    1. H. M. Gonnermann, S. Mukhopadhyay, Nature 449, 1037–1040 (2007)

      While <sup>4</sup>He is formed as a result of radioactive decay, the origin of <sup>3</sup>He has been traced to collision with meteorites. Thus a high <sup>3</sup>He/<sup>4</sup>He ratio indicates that the rock sample has been collected from a region which has been undisturbed and very ancient. Hence it is expected that OIBs, which are conventionally identified as undegassed, primitive mantle sources, should show high concentrations of <sup>3</sup>He. However, this conventional model fails in reality. This is also known as the "Helium Concentration Paradox". This paper aims at self-consistently explain the paradox by measuring the carbon dioxide in mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORBs) and ocean island basalts (OIBs).

    2. T. Hanyu, I. Kaneoka, Nature 390, 273–276 (1997)

      This article reports the helium isotope data from ancient basalts located in three islands in the southern pacific ocean. The HIMU (high μ, where μ= U-238/Pb-204) sample collected from this area shows a relatively low and stable helium-3 to helium-4 ratio. While, other enriched samples show a variation in this isotope ratio.

    1. X. Zhao, Q. Wang, Appl. Phys. Rev. 1, 021304 (2014).

      This paper focuses on classifying the deformations of dielectric elastomers. The classification aims to better characterize properties of elastomers under deformation.

    2. Z. Suo, Acta Mech. Solida Sin. 23, 549–578 (2010).

      This paper is a review of dielectric elastomers, their characteristics and use.

    3. P. Brochu, Q. Pei, Macromol. Rapid Commun. 31, 10–36 (2010).

      This paper reviews the recent advancements in dielectric elastomers which allow for longer use before dielectric breakdown renders them unusable.

    4. C. Keplinger, M. Kaltenbrunner, N. Arnold, S. Bauer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 192903 (2008).

      This paper describes a computational model that attempts to demonstrate of an actuator can be programmed to deform in a specific form.

    5. G. Kovacs, L. Düring, S. Michel, G. Terrasi, Sens. Actuators Phys. 155, 299–307 (2009).

      This paper describes the characteristics of polymer actuators when serially stacked. Stacking actuators allows for significant unidirectional contraction.

    6. C. S. Haines et al., Science 343, 868–872 (2014).

      This paper describes the development of a new type of artificial muscle constructed from high-strength polymer fibers, like fishing line or sewing thread. This new muscle is much more efficient than natural human muscle.

    7. S. Bauer et al., Adv. Mater. 26, 149–161 (2014).

      This paper is based on a 25-year review on the field of soft robotics. Actuators, sensors, and flexible energy harvesters are all reviewed.

    8. B. Mazzolai, L. Margheri, M. Cianchetti, P. Dario, C. Laschi, Bioinspir. Biomim. 7, 025005 (2012).

      This paper is the second of a two part series of papers studying and attempting to replicate an octopus tentacle in a soft robot model.

    9. D. Rus, M. T. Tolley, Nature 521, 467–475 (2015).

      This article reviews the current findings and knowledge in the field of soft robotics.

    10. D. Trivedi, C. D. Rahn, W. M. Kier, I. D. Walker, Appl. Bionics Biomech. 5, 99–117 (2008).

      This paper analyzes possible inspiration for soft-robot designs, such as elephant trunks or octopus tentacles. It also analyzes the benefits of soft-robot designs compared to more rigid traditional robotic designs.

  11. Feb 2020
    1. (http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/MoonFraction.php)

      This link does not seem to work, but the data resources of the United States Naval Observatory Astronomical Applications Department can be found at this website.

    1. 4. Centers Disease Control and Prevention, “Contraception,” (2018); www.cdc.gov/reproductivehealth/contraception/index.htm.

      The Center for Disease Control and Prevention describes existing methods of contraception. In addition to oral pills, other methods include subcutaneous implants, intrauterine devices, vaginal rings, transdermal patches, and injectables.

    2. R. Hatcher, Contraceptive Technology, D. Kowal, R. A. Hatcher, A. L. Nelson, J. Trussell, C. Cwiak, P. Cason, M. S. Policar, A. B. Edelman, A. R. A. Aiken, J. M. Marrazzo, Eds. (Managing Contraception LLC, ed. 21, 2018)

      Statistics show that "the chance of pregnancy in women using oral contraceptive pills is ~9% per year," signifying the need for improving oral contraceptives.

    3. 7. United States Food Drug and Administration, Mirena FDA label, (2015); www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2015/021225s031lbl.pdf). 8. United States Food Drug and Administration, Liletta FDA label, (2018); www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2018/206229s007lbl.pdf). 9. United States Food and Drug Administration, Kyleena FDA label, (2016); www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/nda/2016/208224Orig1s000LBL.pdf. 10. United States Food and Drug Administration, Skyla FDA label, (2017); www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2017/203159s007lbl.pdf.

      The authors discuss that intrauterine (within the uterus) hormone devices can serve as an alternative contraceptive form, providing protection for 3-6 years.

    1. P. Schulte et al., Science 327, 1214-1218 (2010)

      The authors conclude that the distribution of ejecta from the asteroid impact in Chicxulub around the globe provides evidence that the impact triggered the K-Pg mass extinction. The volcanic eruption hypotheses fail to explain the global distribution of ejecta, its composition, the timing of the extinction, and the scale of environmental changes.

    2. P. Wilf, K. R. Johnson, Paleobiology 30, 347-368 (2004

      The authors conducted a quantitative analysis of megafloral turnover across the K-Pg. They based their work on data from the Williston Basin located in southwestern North Dakota. They relied on previously recovered high-resolution palynological data. Their data confirm that a major plant extinction event occurred in conjunction with the asteroid impact. An estimate of plant extinction, based on species lost that were present in the uppermost 5 m of Cretaceous strata, is 57%.

    3. A. D. Barnosky et al., Nature 471, 51-57 (2011)

      The authors confirm that current rates of extinction are higher than expected based on the fossil record. He, and other scientists, suggest that a sixth mass extinction may be underway. Conservation efforts must be increased.

    1. M. G. Jackson, J. G. Konter, T. W. Becker, Nature 542, 340–343 (2017)

      In this paper, the authors have shown that only the hottest hotspots with the slowest wave velocity draw from the ancient reservoirs formed during the early days of planet Earth.

    2. M. J. Walter et al., Science 334, 54–57 (2011)

      There has been a lot of debate regarding the exact location of the chemical reservoirs containing superdeep diamonds. In this research, the authors have done carbon isotope analysis on these diamonds and concluded that the most likely origin is in the lower mantle of Earth.

    3. D. L. Anderson, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 95, 4822–4827 (1998)

      This research article debunks the popular outcomes of previous geological models of Earth's interior. The author shows data to disprove the previous hypothesis of correlating high R in basalts with excess of helium-3 and existence of primitive gas-rich chemical reservoirs.

    4. M. D. Kurz, J. J. Gurney, W. J. Jenkins, D. E. Lott III, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 86, 57–68 (1987)

      In this paper, the authors have performed a series of experiments on diamond samples in order to ascertain the chemical composition and isotope variability of diamonds from the Orapa kimberlite.

    5. F. Kaminsky, Earth Sci. Rev. 110, 127–147 (2012)

      There are several existing models of the Earth's formation. In this research, the author points out the discrepancies in the preconceived models and highlights the fact that the chemical compositions of the upper and lower mantle are different.

    6. J. C. VanDecar, D. E. James, M. Assumpção, Nature 378, 25–31 (1995)

      The author reports a seismic study of old parts of southeast Brazil and provides no concrete evidence of metamorphic rocks which are commonly found in regions occupied by subducted oceanic plates.

    7. M. Broadley et al., Geochem. Perspect. Lett. 8, 26–30 (2018)

      In this research, the authors investigate the geochemical processes involving diamond formation within the Siberian cratonic lithosphere. They particularly study the halogen and noble gas geochemistry of fluids trapped in diamonds sampled from this region.

    8. R. L. Christiansen, G. Foulger, J. R. Evans, Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. 114, 1245–1256 (2002)

      In this research paper, the author presents their data of helium isotope analysis of rock samples from the Yellowstone region. They conclude that the analysis shows no evidence of a deep mantle origin of the collected samples.

  12. Nov 2019
    1. M. F. Krummel and J. P. Allison, J. Exp. Med. 182, 459 (1995)

      Krummel and Allison study the effect of CTLA-4 engagement. Their anti-CTLA-4 antibody blocks the receptor without engaging it. On its own, blocking the receptor does not have an effect on T-cell responses. Combined with an activation signal, anti-CTLA-4 allows for enhanced proliferation of T cells. The antibodies introduced here are the same ones used in the treatment of mice in this paper.

    2. T. L. Walunas et al., ibid., p. 405

      Walunas et al. show that CTLA-4 is an inhibitor of T cells. Their approach is to cross-link the receptors together, mimicking the cross-linking that would occur naturally upon receptor engagement. The effect of this is inhibition of T cell proliferation.

    3. P. S. Linsley et al., Immunity 1, 793 (1994)

      Linsley et al. study the differences between binding of CD28 and CTLA-4 to B7 molecules. Though they have similar avidities, they bind the B7 surface molecules using different conformations and kinetics.

    4. P. S. Linsley et al., J. Exp. Med. 174, 561 (1991)

      Linsley et al. show that CTLA-4, like CD28, binds B7. Using a soluble version of CTLA-4, they show that it binds to B7 with an affinity of 12 nM.

    5. K. Harper et al., J. Immunol. 147, 1037 (1991)

      Harper et al. present compelling evidence that CTLA-4 and CD28 share a similar function. They found that the receptors share similarities in structure, sequence, gene location, and expression patterns.

    6. P. S. Linsley, J. Exp. Med. 182, 289 (1995)

      In this commentary, Linsley speculates on how the evidence for the roles of CD28 and CTLA-4 fits together. T-cell activation is more complex than scientists originally thought.

    7. J. A. Bluestone, ibid. 2, 555 (1995)

      In this minireview, Bluestone summarizes the studies showing the nuances of CD28-mediated signaling. He discusses that different B7 molecules result in differing levels of activation, and that CTLA-4 has an inhibitory effect.

    8. M. K. Jenkins, Immunity 1, 443 (1994)

      In this minireview, Jenkins summarizes the evidence for the role of CTLA-4. It was shown from multiple studies that CTLA-4 has an immunosuppressive effect.

    9. S. Baskar et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 90, 5687 (1993)

      Baskar et al. investigate the effect of B7 expression in tumor cells on the helper T cell immune response. They show that engineered tumor cells generate a helper T cell response and tumor rejection.

    10. S. E. Townsend and J. P. Allison, Science 259, 368 (1993)

      Townsend and Allison investigate whether expressing B7 on the surface of a tumor will enhance its rejection. They show that B7 expression results in a cytotoxic T cell immune response.

    11. L. Chen, S. Ashe, W. A. Brady, l. Hellstrom, K. E. Hellstrom et al., Cell 71, 1093 (1992)

      Chen et al. investigate whether expressing B7 on the surface of a tumor will enhance its rejection. They show a B7-dependent immune response by cytotoxic T cells.

    12. C. H. June, J. A. Bluestone, L. M. Nadler, C. B. Thompson, Immunol. Today 15, 321 (1994)

      June, Bluestone, Nadler, and Thompson review the research on B7 and CD28. Though they are the most commonly found members, each of these molecules is part of a larger receptor family of related molecules.

    13. P. S. Linsley and J. A. Ledbetter

      Linsley and Ledbetter summarize the research on CD28 and B7 molecules. The costimulatory signal needed for full T-cell activation is supplied through these surface molecules.

    1. (s. d.)

      Votre référence est bien en bib, mais (hormis l'hyperlien), elle est totalement vide : si vou l'aviez exporté à partir de la bibliographie commune sur Zotero, elle aurait été plus fournie et les indices bib auraient alors fait sens.

    2. article

      c'est moins un article, qu'une partie d'un ouvrage commun

    3. article Chapitre 11. Le livrel et le format ePub

      si c'est un chapitre, c'est un chapitre

    4. sur les Presses de l’Université de Montréal.

      les PUM sont ici la maison d'édition

  13. stylo.ecrituresnumeriques.ca stylo.ecrituresnumeriques.ca
    1. (Fontanille, 2008, p. 23)

      référence qui aurait mérité d'être éditée dans la bibliographie

    2. (1954)

      référence à intégrer dans la bibliographie

    3. Mackenzie

      la référence est ici attendue

    4. Louis Hjelmslev

      l'ajout de la référence aurait été nécessaire ici.

    5. (De Angelis 2018)↩ (De Angelis 2018)↩ (De Angelis 2018)↩ (De Angelis 2018)↩ (De Angelis 2018)↩

      ces références auraient pu être intégrées au corps du texte avec les indices bib (sans appel de note)

    6. revue Signata

      il est conseillé de citer les revues en utilisant l'italique

    1. Bibliographie

      vous avez ici placé la bibliographie du cours, ce qui vous génère une bibliographie immense avec des entrées doubles... Était davantage attendue une bibliographie présentant les ouvrages dont vous vous êtes inspirée pour créer le compte rendu (dont l'ouvrage de référence).

    2. page3]

      même remarque que pour la référence précédente, de plus un espace manquant entre la page et son numéro

    3. [(???); page 1]

      la référence est absente de la bibliographie : elle n'apparaît donc pas correctement

    1. Roger Bautier et Gabriella Giudici, « La question de la démocratie des réseaux socio-numériques », Sciences de la société [En ligne], 91 | 2014, mis en ligne le 16 avril 2015, consulté le 31 octobre 2019. URL : http://journals.openedition.org/sds/931 ; DOI : 10.4000/sds.931

      cette référence doit être éditée dans le module bibliographie

    2. (Bautier, 2014).


    3. (Bautier, 2014).

      cette référence aurait dû être éditée avec un indice bib et se retrouver dans le module bibliographie.

    4. « il n’est de science de ce qui est publié »,

      référence ?

    5. (Le Crosnier, 2004).

      la référence aurait dû être citée avec l'indice bib

    6. Désintermédiation et démocratie

      les articles sont généralement cités entre guillemets

    1. Grenier (2017) , p. 8 et p. 10

      On cite généralement les références entre parenthèse, sans italique, mais cela montre ici que vous vous êtes appropriez l'édition dans stylo !

    2. (Grenier (2017), p. 2)↩

      Vous avez ici placé l'indice bib entre parenthèse : cela créé une double parenthèse. Il faut le laisser entre crochet.

    1. « Google nous rend-il stupide? »

      référence ?

    2. C. Anderson, The Long Tail : How Endless Choice Is Creating Unlimited Demand, Londres, Random House, 2007.↩ S. Firer-Blaess, « Wikipédia : hiérarchie et démocratie », Homo numericus, 2007.↩

      ces références aurait mérités une intégration dans la bibliographie

    3. Communications,

      les revues sont citées en italique

    4. “Édition électronique”

      guillemets français de préférence

    1. Dans le numéro 19 de la revue politique, artistique et philosophique Multitudes, Hervé Le Crosnier, enseignant-chercheur à l’université de Caen et responsable éditorial chez C&F éditions, écrit sur la question de la désintermédiation dans le domaine culturel (Le Crosnier 2004). Il affirme que « ce sont les intermédiaires qui fondent les sociétés ».

      il aurait été attendu que soit citer le titre de l'article.

    2. Multitude

      les revues sont à citer en italique

    1. Claire Clivaz et Jérôme Meizoz

      exemples de références ?

    2. Roger Chartier, Serge Bouchardon, Bourdieu ou encore Christian Vanderdorpe.

      quelques références étaient attendues ici

    3. UNIL - Jérôme Meizoz 

      il y a ici un problème d'encodage (UTF8) dans le bib

    1. Foglia

      le nom de l'auteur aurait pu être ôté dans l'indice bib (avec la présence préalable du tiret)

    2. Voir (Delacroix 2005)↩ Voir (Simondon 1958)↩ Voir (Flower et Hayes 1981)↩ Voir (Caby-Guillet, Guesmi, et Mallard 2009)↩

      ces références auraient pu être intégrées dans le corps du texte avec les indices bib.

    1. (Mounier et Dacos 2011)↩ (Mounier et Dacos 2011)↩

      ces références auraient pu être placées dans le corps du texte

    2. Édition électronique

      on cite en général un article entre guillemets

    3. ouvrage

      il s'agit d'une revue

    1. Johanna Drucker, théoricienne de l’esthétique et artiste livresque, et de Milad Doueihi, historien des religions et titulaire de la chaire d’humanisme numérique à l’université de Paris-Sorbonne.

      des références inclues en bibliographies auraient été attendues.