322 Matching Annotations
  1. Nov 2018
    1. 2.1.1 Cognitive and psycholinguistic theories of SLA One of the main theoretical frameworks on the cognitive side is the input–interactionist paradigm (Long, 1996), and the early research on online interaction in FL/SL contexts focused on the development of linguistic competence in in-class interaction, e.g., comparing online synchronous interaction with face-to-face student interaction. Many of these studies used a quantitative methodology, involving control groups of students engaged in face-to-face interaction that were compared to experimental groups of learners participating in online interaction or intra-class studies in which the same students took part in both face-to-face and online interaction (Warschauer, 1996b). What was often counted and categorized were linguistic features and language functions (e.g., Chun, 1994; Kern, 1995), and researchers showed how negotiation for meaning occurs in intra-class online chat (e.g., Blake, 2000). Similarly, studies of online interaction based on psycholinguistic theories of SLA (e.g., Ellis’ (2006) Associative Cognitive CREED and Schmidt’s (1990) Noticing Hypothesis) have found that text-based chat promotes noticing of grammatical and lexical features or errors (e.g., Lai & Zhao, 2006; Lee, 2008). Other studies of interclass interactions between learners and native speakers (Tudini, 2003) or tandem learning partnerships (Kötter, 2003; O’Rourke, 2005) have investigated form-focused interaction, negotiation of meaning and code switching, primarily linguistic aspects of SL/FL learning.

    2. In both SLA and CALL (computer-assisted language learning) research, a new perspective may be found in ecological approaches, e.g., van Lier (2004), who takes an ecological world view and applies it to language education. Ecology broadly studies organisms in their relations with their environment. Van Lier’s approach thus incorporates many different perspectives with regard to language learning, e.g., sociocultural theory, semiotics, ecological psychology, and the concepts of self and identity. Key constructs in this approach to language learning are affordances and scaffolding, with an affordance defined as the relationship between an organism and something in the environment that can potentially be useful for that organism. Technology is viewed as a source of affordances and learning opportunities for language learners. Appropriate scaffolding, i.e., help from peers, teachers, or technology itself, might also be necessary, and this is a core feature of telecollaboration.

    3. 2.1.2 Sociocultural theories of SLA In contrast to interactionist research, Block (2003) proposed the “social turn” taken by the field of SLA, and variations of socially based theories and approaches have flourished. For example, socio-cognitive paradigms (Kern & Warschauer, 2000), which view language as social and place emphasis on the role of cultural context and discourse, are often used in the research on telecollaboration. Many studies have been influenced by sociocultural theory (Belz, 2002; Thorne, 2003; Ware, 2005). In the Vygotskian perspective, language is viewed as a mediating tool for learning, and the entire language learning process must by necessity be a dialogic process (see, e.g., Basharina, 2007; Blin, 2012, who rely on Activity Theory and Cultural Historical Activity Theory, respectively, for their analyses of telecollaboration). Other studies make visible the development of linguistic, pragmatic, and intercultural competence in both intra-class telecollaboration (e.g., Abrams, 2008) and inter-class interactions (e.g., Belz & Thorne, 2006; Jin & Erben, 2007). Chun (2011) reports on advanced German learners in the United States engaging online with advanced English learners in Germany, as they used different types of speech acts to indicate their pragmatic ability and to show their developing ICC. Specifically, some learners realized that they could exhibit curiosity and interest (a component of ICC) by engaging in multi-turn statements and did not need to use questions to convey their intent.

    1. The results of the paired-groups experimental study proves "are interpreted as being supportive for the interactionist perspective on SLA, especially the importance of attention". The study focuses on the acquisition of lexical meaning through negotiated interaction on NNS-NNS synchronous CMC. Check into Long's Interaction Hypothesis.

      The benefits of CMA in language learning: interactionist perspective.

    1. "Researchers have found that cognitive interactionist and sociocultural SLA theories offer a means of interpreting prior research on CALL and suggest a point of departure for designing future studies of CALL activities that are based on human–computer interaction and computer-mediated communication."

      Chapelle. C. A 2007. theories expand from interactionist to cognitive interactionist and sociocultural theory cognitive interactionist: Human-computer interaction. sociocultural: CMC (Computer-Mediated Communication)

    1. Sociocultural Approaches to SLA and Technology (Steven Thorne): Sociocultural approaches (SCT) to second language acquisition draw from a tradition of human development emphasizing the culturally organized and goal-directed nature of human behavior and the importance of external social practices in the formation of individual cognition. This paper describes the principle constructs of the theory, including mediation, internalization, and the zone of proximal development, and will describe technology-related research in these areas. Vygotskian SCT shares foundational constructs with distributed and situated cognition, usage-based models of language acquisition, language socialization, and ecological approaches to development, all of which have contributed to new applications of SCT in the areas of language research and pedagogical innovation. A discussion of methodological challenges and current practices will conclude the presentation.

    2. Ecological Approaches to SLA and Technology (Leo van Lier): Ecological approaches to SLA are premised on a holistic view of human-world interrelations and the notion of affordance-effectivity pairings that help to better understand human activity and functioning. To many educators, technology and ecology are irreconcilable opposites. Yet, educationally speaking, they turn out to be perfectly compatible. This presentation examines the ways in which the Internet is an emergent resource, a social tool, and a multimodal repository of texts. The ecological affordances of CALL will be illustrated in terms of activity through, with, at and around computers.

    3. The Interaction Approach and CMC (Bryan Smith): The Interaction Approach(IA) in second language acquisition studies suggests that there is a link between interaction and learning. This approach focuses on three major components of interaction — exposure (input), production (output), and feedback. Many CALL researchers have adopted this theoretical perspective in exploring the relationship between CMC and instructed second language acquisition, exploiting many of the argued affordances offered by this medium in relation to the key tenets of the IA. This paper will provide a conceptual overview of the IA and explore specifically how CALL researchers have sought to study SLA from this theoretical perspective. We will discuss several methodological hurdles facing researchers engaged in this type of research and will offer some suggested strategies for conducting sound SLA/CALL research from an IA.

      the interaction approach overlaps with psycholinguistic approach under the cognitive theory

    4. Psycholinguistics, SLA, and Technology (Scott Payne): Investigating second language acquisition and CALL from a psycholinguistic perspective entails examining how language learners process, store, and retrieve information from memory and how cognitive capacity impacts acquisition and influences performance. This paper will provide an overview of psycholinguistic approaches to SLA research highlighting research findings relevant to the field of CALL. This discussion will include some of the challenges and opportunities for researchers interested in employing psycholinguistic methods for studying SLA in classroom and computer-mediated contexts.

      (https://paperpile.com/view/d6077af8-b494-0c5b-bcbe-71ea1d198029)

    1. In today's fast-paced knowledge-intensive economy, work of importanceis increasingly accomplished coUaboratively through informal networks. As aresult, assessing and supporting strategically important informal networks inorganizations can yield substantial performance benefits. In addition, networkrelationships are critical anchoring points for employees, whose loyalty andcommitment may be more to sets of individuals in their network than to a givenorganization. Our research (and that of others) has found that these informalnetworks are increasingly important contributors to employee job satisfactionand performance. Yet despite their importance, these networks are rarely well-supported or even understood by the organizations in which they are embedded.Social network analysis provides a means with which to identify and assess thehealth of strategically important networks within an organization. By makingvisible these otherwise "invisible" patterns of interaction, it becomes possible towork with important groups to facilitate effective collaboration

      The author does a great job of examining social relationships and the effect they have in the workplace. The author asserts that by making the connections and work visible there will be a better result.

      9/10

    1. A number of authors argue that professional development requires adual focus on both knowledge of subject matter content and an understand-ing of how children learn specific content.

      This article addresses what makes professional development effective and why. It reviews study results to show what works in a national sample of teachers. This article has good information on professional development.

      9/10

    1. This article takes a different perspective on technological integration, showing that sometimes technology, when used improperly, can set a class backwards.Examples in the article clearly show that effective use of technology is extremely important, otherwise the technology may cause more problems than it offers solutions.

      Rating: 9/10

    1. This article takes the perspective that education should not necessarily be solely focused on educational experiences, as we tend to do. Rather, technology should also have a focus in supporting non-academic areas and using data to drive instruction.

      Rating: 7/10

    1. This research takes an interesting look into the role gender plays in self-efficacy in technology. The research finds that self-efficacy in technology was primarily effected by gender and gender roles, not specifically by biological sex.

      Rating: 10/10

    1. Several problems and barriers to technological integration are often included in the discussion about using technology in higher education, however it is less common that solutions are presented. This article proposes solutions for transforming educational technology through personalized experiences and collaboration.

      Rating: 8/10

    1. This article suggests that perhaps keeping updated and informed on technology can prevent the shut-down and closure of specific degrees and the departments they come from. Technology is constantly changing, and it is expected that institutions will change with it. Rating: 7/10

    1. The Flipped Classroom:An OpportunityTo Engage MillennialStudents Through ActiveLearning Strategies

      This article discussing using the flipped classroom using accessible technology and expand learning activities. The authors point out that the use of technology must be based on training provided to teachers to implement the technology in the classroom.

      RATING: 8/10

    1. Factors influencing teachers’ adoption and integration of information and communication technology into teaching: A review of the literature

      This article is a review of literature regarding what influences teachers to adopt and integrate information and communication technology (ICT) in the classroom. This discussion takes into consideration age, gender, prior exposure to technology, and teacher attitudes. Further consideration is given to institutional support, technical support, available professional development, and access to both hardware and software. The conclusion is that there are numerous levels of support that are required to make technology support and training available to educators.

      RATING: 7/10

    1. Technological Pedagogical ContentKnowledge: A Framework for TeacherKnowledge

      The authors discuss the fact that traditional learning has been an intersection of content knowledge and pedagogical knowledge, but with today's learning environment, it must also intersect with technological knowledge which requires further professional growth and development. The authors further discuss the challenges keeping up with the rate of change of technology and suggest that this is just a foundation for the ongoing research in educational technology.

      RATING: 7/10

    1. This site includes five highly effective technological resources that instructors can use in their higher ed classrooms. What is especially useful about this site is that it includes a rationale for all the proposed technologies, ensuring that the technology is not just including in lesson planning for technology's sake.

      Rating: 10/10

    1. We often talk about avoiding the use of technology for technology's sake and ensuring here is relevance in the integration. This site lays out specific characteristics of effective technologies in the classroom.

      Rating: 9/10

    2. This article has several resources teachers can use to incorporate technology into their lessons. It also gives ideas on how to become more proficient with adding technology to the classroom and what to do if the technology enhanced lesson fails. Ratings: 4/5

    3. What Is Successful Technology Integration?

      This article offers a few ideas on how to measure the success of technology integration. Rating: 4/5

    1. This article brings up the important issue of accessibility as a barrier to technology integration. It is suggested that accessibility should be a much more pressing concern than technological relevance to a lesson plan. First it is important to know whether or not all students will still have equal access and ability to reach mastery with the deliver method provided.

      Rating: 7/10

    1. This article focuses on the importance of using technological integration in the classroom correctly and effectively. Barriers to effectiveness, as the article states, are often linked to lack of rational, vision, or necessity for including technology in instruction.

      Rating: 8/10

    1. This is scholarly article that shares research findings in questions such as, to what extent is there a relationship between faculty's comfortableness with technology and perception of technology integration and student success? The data is very interesting, including the fact that students in the sample reported being most proficient with a printer and least proficient with a smarboard. This definitely indicates a shift in what technological knowledge a professor will need verses their students.

      Rating: 9/10

    1. This article looks into the different ways technology can be incorporated into adult learning. These methods include technology as curriculum, technology as delivery mechanism, technology as complement to instruction, and technology as an instructional tool. The benefits and limitations of each method is also discussed. Rating: 4/5

    2. This site gives a thorough overview into the integration of technology in the classroom. The most helpful element it includes is a list of limitations to consider within this integration. The downside is you will have to "dig" a little through the article to find the solutions to these problems, as they are not immediately obvious. Rating: 8/10

    1. This article documents how Ohio State University trains new elementary and middle school teachers to incorporate technology into their lessons. It highlights that technology integration is a tool not a theory or education. It also states that technology integration should be used to enhance the students' learning instead of forcing it into the curriculum. Rating: 5/5

    1. This website details a case study that was performed in order to determine the effectiveness of online advising (a position I am currently involved in myself). There were several studies conducted and student responses are detailed in charts-- overwhelmingly, students felt the online advising format was a success.

      Rating: 10/10

    1. This page has easy-to-follow methods for integrating technology into academic advising practices. Many of the theories listed are quite similar to simply good teaching techniques such as using data to drive instruction and maintaining continuous outreach. Rating: 8/10

    1. This article gives a few quick insights into how technology is useful in academic advising. This article makes the distinction between technology "complementing" advising and actually impacting student success. In other words, technology should never be a sole substitute for success. I would like to see more numerical-based data supporting the claims listed, but there are some great resources cited.

      Rating: 7/10

    1. The way we choose what to buy, like the way we choose how to vote, will never be logical. Trying to make it so has created an environment in which our basest impulses are relentlessly stimulated and amplified. The philosopher Gilles Deleuze once remarked, “It is not the slumber of reason that engenders monsters, but vigilant and insomniac rationality.” If ever there was a creation of insomniac rationality it is the 21st-century advertising business. Its monsters roam the planet.
    2. “Knowing that the seller has faith in their product is a hugely valuable piece of information,” he says. “In luxury goods, for instance, the ad says almost nothing; the cost of the ad almost everything.” Biologists regard the peacock’s tail as an expensive and so unfakeable signal of fitness – a sexual status symbol.
    3. “Flowers are ads. Peacocks’ tails are ads.” Rory Sutherland, vice-chairman of Ogilvy & Mather, and the ad industry’s most vigorous defender, is in full flow over lunch at his agency’s offices in Blackfriars. “One reason I’m not predicting the death of advertising any time soon is that you can see how important it is in nature. A flower is basically a weed with an advertising budget.”
    1. Instructional Design Strategies for Intensive Online Courses: An Objectivist-Constructivist Blended Approach

      This was an excellent article Chen (2007) in defining and laying out how a blended learning approach of objectivist and constructivist instructional strategies work well in online instruction and the use of an actual online course as a study example.

      RATING: 4/5 (rating based upon a score system 1 to 5, 1= lowest 5=highest in terms of content, veracity, easiness of use etc.)

    1. “The ADDIE model consists of five steps: analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation. It is a strategic plan for course design and may serve as a blueprint to design IL assignments and various other instructional activities.”

      This article provides a well diagrammed and full explanation of the addie model and its' application to technology.

      Also included on the site is a link to an online course delivered via diversityedu.com

      RATING: 4/5 (rating based upon a score system 1 to 5, 1= lowest 5=highest in terms of content, veracity, easiness of use etc.)

  2. create-center.ahs.illinois.edu create-center.ahs.illinois.edu
    1. CREATE Overview

      Create is a non-profit organization dedicated to providing resources for the development and creation of educational technology to enhance the independence and productivity of older adult learners.

      The sight includes publications, resources, research, news, social media and information all relevant to aging and technology. It is the consortium of five universities including: Weill Cornell Medicine,University of Miami, Florida State University,Georgia Institute of Technology, and University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

      RATING: 4/5 (rating based upon a score system 1 to 5, 1= lowest 5=highest in terms of content, veracity, easiness of use etc.)

    1. At the intersection of technology and pedagogy:considering styles of learning and teaching

      When examining the pedagogy of learning, teacher and student centered approaches, there is additional evidence supporting a model moving more towards technology-based learning. This articles considers the question of technology in the classroom and its' advantages/disadvantages.

      RATING: 4/5 (rating based upon a score system 1 to 5, 1= lowest 5=highest in terms of content, veracity, easiness of use etc.)

    1. Using Model Strategies forIntegrating Technology into Teaching

      In this pdf, there are many helpful tips and techniques in creating a foundation for technology. The introduction of model strategies are laid out with lots of supporting detail and examples and weblinks. It includes nearly 400 pages of peer-reviewed lessons, models and various strategies.

      RATING: 5/5 (rating based upon a score system 1 to 5, 1= lowest 5=highest in terms of content, veracity, easiness of use etc.)

    1. Teaching Tech Skills to Older Adults

      Ed Tech Center for world education's article on teaching older adults technology is a primer for understanding considerations of introducing technology as the prime delivery mode for education.

      The article includes simple tips such as providing individual attention, offering reinforcement and affirmation and how to problem solve. The tips are aimed at an older adult group age 70+.

      RATING: 2/5 (rating based upon a score system 1 to 5, 1= lowest 5=highest in terms of content, veracity, easiness of use etc.)

    1. Study: Most Teaching and Learning Uses Technology Nowadays

      This article reviews the impact of technology in the classroom. Today over 73% of teachers stated students are using tablets or laptops in the classroom. According to David Nagel, technology not only dominates education but also make students more productive and stimulates them intellectually.

      There is a link on the site to the complete study.

      RATING: 4/5 (rating based upon a score system 1 to 5, 1= lowest 5=highest in terms of content, veracity, easiness of use etc.)

    1. 1Engaging Adults Learners with Technology

      The pdf provides information from The Twin Cities Campus Library with instruction incorporating technology into teaching adult students.

      It includes a review of instructional technology, assessment for learning, framework for teaching adult learners and a workshop. This 14 page pdf provides the essentials necessary in understanding basic learning needs of adult learners.

      RATING: 3/5 (rating based upon a score system 1 to 5, 1= lowest 5=highest in terms of content, veracity, easiness of use etc.)

    2. Engaging Adults Learners with Technology

      This presentation features a broad overview of adult learning and defines an adult learner. Additionally, the presentation provides multiple technology resources that can be used in an adult learning environment. Rating: 4/5

    1. Distance Education Trends: Integrating new technologies to foster student interaction and collaboration

      This article explores the interaction of student based learner-centered used of technology tools such as wikis, blogs and podcasts as new and emerging technology tools. With distance learning programs becoming more and more popular, software applications such as Writeboard, InstaCol and Imeem may become less of the software of choice. The article looks closely at the influence of technology and outcomes.

      RATING: 4/5 (rating based upon a score system 1 to 5, 1= lowest 5=highest in terms of content, veracity, easiness of use etc.)

    1. Factors Influencing Teachers' Integration of ICT in Teaching and Learning

      ICT is enhancing communication in the digital learning environment. In this article the integration of ICT is explored and reveals how both teachers and students are able to better utilize their digital options 24/7 more effectively and efficiently. In addition, a gap has been identified in being showing how to best use ICT in the learning environment and included are in-depth studies of its’ use. The article identifies factors influencing teachers’ decision to integrate ICT in teaching.

      RATING: 4/5 (rating based upon a score system 1 to 5, 1= lowest 5=highest in terms of content, veracity, easiness of use etc.)

    1. LINCS is a national leadership initiative of the U.S. Department of Education, Office of Career, Technical, and Adult Education (OCTAE) to expand evidence-based practice in the field of adult education. LINCS demonstrates OCTAE’s commitment to delivering high-quality, on-demand educational opportunities to practitioners of adult education, so those practitioners can help adult learners successfully transition to postsecondary education and 21st century jobs.

      The LINCS website has an abundance of information that can prove useful in the designing of adult educational materials which are technology based. The site includes courses, articles and links 743 research studies, materials and products. In addition there are State Resources for Adult Education and Literacy Professional Development. Overall I found the site to be a wonderful source of relevant information to tap into.

      RATING: 5/5 (rating based upon a score system 1 to 5, 1= lowest 5=highest in terms of content, veracity, easiness of use etc.)

    1. 10 Training Tips for a Successful Technology Integration

      This blog provides ten tips to successfully integrate technology in the classroom. The tips include conducting a needs assessment, plan ahead, and to not let the technology become the focus. Rating: 5/5

    1. Technology Integration for the New 21st Century Learner

      Although focusing on younger learners, this article details many things to consider when integrating technology into the classroom. Additionally, Blair shares ideas for developing a plan to continue technology planning into the future. Rating: 4/5

    1. Technology Integration and Higher Education

      Dr. Jones explains that instructors are reluctant to use technology and choose to use a traditional lecture as a teaching method. He continues to explore how to eliminate the barriers to technology integration. Rating: 5/5

    1. Anticipating and Addressing Challenges With Technology in Developmental Education

      The authors describe how to anticipate and handle challenges with technology integration in developmental education. They insist that vendors and end users must work together to develop technology that will benefit everyone. Rating: 4/5

    1. Educational Technology Leadership and Practice in Higher Education: The Emergence of Threshold Concepts

      This article explores how technology has become the new standard for higher education and this new standard has created a need to develop new concepts on how to view a subject. Additionally, methods to use educational technology resources are described. Rating: 5/5

    1. Bringing IT to the Forefront of Innovation: How to Leverage Technology to Drive Innovation on Campus

      Dr. Burrell explores how technology can be used to more tightly integrate students and faculty and provide an efficient form of communication and discovery. He also details what is needed from a technical standpoint to make technology easily adoptable by universities. Rating: 4/5

    1. What K–12 Administrators Should Think About When Integrating Classroom Tech

      This article describes how school districts who wish to integrate more technology into their classrooms should approach the integration. Rating: 4/5

    1. What is the future of technology in education?

      The article explores how technology will grow beyond individual devices and how it will move into the cloud. Cloud computing would allow students and teachers to access course content any time and any place. Rating: 5/5

    1. Here's how technology is shaping the future of education

      This article explains how technology is changing education and offers a few examples of how it has already done so. Rating: 5/5

    1. 5 Teaching Strategies to Engage Students Using Technology

      This article offers strategies on how to integrate technology into the classroom and get students involved. Rating: 4/5

    1. Approaches in the use of assistive technology in inclusive education focus on using technologyto train or rehearse, and to assist and enable learning

      This chapter presents a list of assistive technology applications that supports the students with disabilities in classroom learning in several categories such as reading, writing, math, and computer access.

      Rating: 8/10

  3. Oct 2018
    1. Technology As a System: Technology is a development and application of knowledge, tools, and human skills to solve problems and extend human potential. It is used to perform tasks that our human bodies can’t by use of knowledge, tools & human skills. I see technology as a human made system which shares common characteristics such as:

      What Is Technology

    1. A wariness that has been slowly brewing is turning into a regionwide consensus: The benefits of screens as a learning tool are overblown, and the risks for addiction and stunting development seem high.
    1. I imagine it is possible that personalized and adaptive learning could well preserve that which is sacred in the faculty-student relationship, freeing faculty to focus on what matters most. After all, what I cherish most about the colleges and universities I have attended are the human connections.

      This seems like what everyone who values the human connections in education wants — and promotes as a healthy outcome of technology-enhanced learning — but do we have any evidence that this hope is borne out? It seems that most technology interventions in education are happening in an environment where there are also strong forces working to reduce the costs — especially labor costs — and so machines are most often displacing human connections rather than freeing up time for more.

    1. In capitalism, structures of technological advancement are the precondition of development, but in the Hainish universe, those civilizations that have the most powerful technologies use them sparingly, and organize everyday life in a manner that looks, from our perspective, to be highly traditional, based on handicraft, ritual, and religion. In such societies, scientists might spend their mornings building gates with hand tools and their afternoons working on machines for teleportation. The most highly technologically mediated societies, conversely, tend to encounter problems of resource depletion and pollution. Free development for each and all implies voluntary change, but this need not mean a constant technical transformation of the built environment and everyday life. In the Hainish universe, human society has moved in directions that can only be understood, from the standpoint of technological growth, as movement backwards or sideways, branching out in innumerable directions.
    1. The use of the mouse is still considered experimental. We know of several editors which depend highly on the use of a mouse for input, but we are not convinced that it is better than a keyboard; after more people start using ZWEI, it will be interesting to see how many of them make heavy use of the mouse and how many hardly use it at all.

      mouse considered experimental mouse better than keyboard?

    1. On the other hand, though much less likely, is the possibility of the gig economy becoming a long-term fixture of capitalism.

      Whether or not the gig economy is here to stay, the result will be widespread un- or under-employment caused by technological displacement. Whether workers are gathered into a gig economy or are outright unemployed is what remains to be seen.

  4. cloud.degrowth.net cloud.degrowth.net
    1. Local- using social media, technology, keeping it horizontal, keeping it simple and humble, celebration is important.
    2. the social technologies- knowing how to organize and have effective meeting- from sociocracy and dragon dreaming, agile tools.

      There is a lot to learn from, about Teixidora's meeting notes methodology, for example. http://peerproduction.net/editsuite/issues/issue-11-city/peer-reviewed-papers/the-case-of-teixidora-net-in-barcelona/

    3. How is technology socially constructed, this is something I am interested about. What I would propose is that there are many experiences of people using things that aren~t meant to be used that way.

      And what about using things that are built to be used in a certain way? Can we also learn from that?

    1. As the power is unleashed, computers on the Semantic Web achieve at first the ability to describe, then to infer, and then to reason. The schema is a huge step, and one that will enable a vast amount of interoperability and extra functionality. However, it still only categorizes data. It says nothing about meaning or understanding.

      The author presents an interesting progression for the Web to eventually learn to reason. The picture he paints of more accessible content on the internet hinges on the internet learning to reason, which is a human characteristic. It seems we need to apply human characteristics to all of our mechanics for them to progress in their usefulness.

    1. In the past, technology has extended the human body, providing it with tools to act upon the world. But at some point, a tool becomes something more. When does it become part of its user?

      In this passage, the author is claiming that with transhumanism and the growing appeal of technology as tools to advance or "extend" the human body, it can blur the lines between what is considered human and what is considered technology. For example, the author previously mentions social media and cell phone use in today's world. In today's society, using smartphones has become second nature. The author is implying that in the near future tools and technology such as anabolic steroids, laser surgery, advanced prosthetic limbs, etc can also become as prominent to humans as cellphones/social media is now.

    1. Ich glaube, dass man nur, wenn man diese Techniken ernst nimmt und sich so viel wie möglich mit ihnen beschäftigt – nur dann gibt es eine Möglichkeit, sie progressiv zu steuern.
    2. Wie können wir die vorhandene Technik stärker zum Klimaschutz nutzen?
    3. Um die Frage, ob es sich bei den dominanten Technikfirmen, die auf eine feudale Art und Weise die Infrastrukturen unseres Lebens bestimmen, nicht um öffentliche Güter handelt. Sind die sozialen Netzwerke nicht genauso ein Gemeingut?
    4. Wir haben es mit einer neuen Technik zu tun, die Monopolbildung sehr stark fördert.
  5. Sep 2018
    1. For the age of biotechnology is not so much about technology itself as it is about human beings empowered by biotechnology

      The author mentions a great argument surrounding modern technology which is not limited to biotechnology alone. when new technologies are invented the entire focus of humanity will be shifted towards the effects of that certain technology on human beings and not the technology itself therefore in the age of biotechnology we will be more concerned about the results that biotechnology brings rather than the biotechnology itself

    2. “The food is contaminated, but why are my portions so small?”

      This analogy stood out to me as a very effective means to explain what the author is trying to get at. The idea that regardless of how bad something is, if everyone has it and I don't, the question isn't if I should have it, it's why don't I. It's used fairly effectively here to get the point across, specifically with the idea of food, which is so necessary to us. We could even go further to draw the connection between food and technology as now completely essential to our lives that who cares if it's contaminated or dangerous, we still need it.

    1. The merely instrumental, merely anthropological definition of technology is therefore in principle untenable. And it may not be rounded out by being referred back to some metaphysical or religious explanation that undergirds it.

      Saying that the usual and formal definition of Technology as simply a tool or a means to end is untenable, not able to be defended from objection, is to take away Technology's connection to humanity. This is problematic. Technology, at least in the way humanity knows it, would never exist without humans. Sure, if you classify the way an otter uses a rock to open a clam or the way a monkey uses a stick to get ants as technology, then yes it would exist without humanity. However I believe that although technology can be classified as a tool, I do not believe that a tool can be classified as technology. Technology, as defined, is the practical application of knowledge to an area. A tool is a device used to accomplish a task, especially in a profession. The key to Technology is the idea of knowledge. Does an otter have knowledge about the anatomy of the clam or of the physics behind using a rock to open the clam? No, so the rock is a tool. Technology only exists because of Humanity's knowledge, humanity creates Technology as a tool to solve our problems, technology has in its very existence an instrumental definition. Taking that away, takes away it's connection to humanity. It makes it impersonal.

    2. Everywhere we remain unfree and chained to technology, whether we passionately affirm or deny it. But we are delivered over to it in the worst possible way when we regard it as something neutral;

      Technology has the human enslave. Giving great thought to this if you look around most humans cannot "live" without technology. Is as if technology has become the oxygen to human life. Parents now a days has use technology to do the parenting and the babysitting for them. You see 2-3 year old toddler glued to the phone. But if technology were to vanish human life would be a lot more difficult than it already is.

    3. Technology is therefore no mere means. Technology is a way of revealing. If we give heed to this, then another whole realm for the essence of technology will open itself up to us. It is the realm of revealing, i.e., of truth.

      Technology opening itself to us giving us the essence of technology to which we--as a species-- can conquer the mysteries of the natural laws around us. As many fears for the day of the technological singularity, they should not worry since by the fact that that piece of information is unlocked for researchers to tinker then there will always be a counter measure to such an event. Knowing the truth of the machine allows for loopholes of the machine to be exploited and neutralize.

    4. The establishing of this mutual relationship between technology and physics is correct. But it remains a merely historiological establishing of facts and says nothing about that in which this mutual relationship is grounded. The decisive question still remains: Of what essence is modern technology that it thinks of putting exact science to use?

      It seems that the author is establishing a relationship between modern physics and technology as a circular relationship in that modern physics would not be possible if technology did not allow us to study it nor would technology advance should modern physics not be studied. So, essentially, modern technology is a method to reveal modern physics to us? Therefore, modern technology is also a revealing just as modern physics is a revealing, but that they mutually allow each other to do so?

    1. Monolith Encounter 3

      The Monolith's act as stages throughout the movie of human development/evolution. And every monolith up until this point has seemed to be the human as a creator of technology and being able to use it, but it's at this point that the monolith represents a transition into a type of 'superhuman' as shown in the rebirth scene. No longer are humans evolving by creating something, but by improving themselves. This seems especially poignant when HAL's disconnection is considered as well. David had to 'unplug' HAL in order to get to this next step. He had to, in essence, kill the very thing that had led humans to this point of evolution.

    2. We’ve got lots of telephones already. Can’t you think of anything else for your birthday? Something very special?

      This part of the dialogue creates a good view of how consumerism will be just as prominent as today if not more. when he says we've got a lot of telephones, it might suggest that they are extremely reliant on technology so in a sense the movie had correctly predicted our current addiction and reliance on mobile phones.

    1. Large computer networks (and their associated users) may “wake up” as superhumanly intelligent entities.

      The great "AI" has been around for a while now, we human are largely working on a computer machine to think for "itself". As fascinating as it sounds, aren't we just being lazy; depending on a robot to do the work for us. What will happen with the human race if these AI start producing more and better equipped AI. We have a brain that can produce so much if we just decide to do things on our own.

    2. performance curves beginning to level off – because of our inability to automate the design work needed to support further hardware improvements. Wed end up with some very powerful hardware, but without the ability to push it further

      Addressing the question of singularity, the author takes on an interesting perspective. One rationalization or opposing view is that technology is only as informational and intelligent as the creator itself. Just as the Mores conclude, "the computational competence of single neurons may be far higher than generally believed" and that "our present computer hardware might be [] 10 orders of magnitude short [compared to] our heads". This means that AI cannot surpass human intelligence as popularly believed. Rather, the article conjectures the possibility that if singularity were to occur, further innovation and improvements could never be made. I assume this is a biological and anatomical argument. Thus, implying that the technological constraints of AI cause it to be inferior to the biological makeup of the human brain. Thus, the author suggests that singularity can never really be fully realized.

    3. The maximum possible effectiveness of a software system increases in direct proportion to the log of the effectiveness (i.e., speed, bandwidth, memory capacity) of the underlying hardware.

      Simply stating that there will always be something restrictive about what technologies can do. Thus far in human technological advances there have not been a single database that can support a beyond human software. As stated in the quotes, the 'mind' of the piece of software is limited to all the effectiveness of the hardware, and by the time that humans are able to invent something that could effectively contain this non-human beyond human brain there would be some counter measures in placed to reduce the risk of an AI taking over the human race. The resource cost would also discourage for such experiment to be funded as it would be expensive to fund the researcher on creating compatible parts and programmers to develop something that would resemble that of a human mind but something more advance. Programming is also another problem, humans do not fully understand the human mind so there is a very unlikely chance that some programmer is able to accidentally write a line of code that make an AI be able to extend further than what a human can comprehend. The idea of a technology singularity stays a theory but this one single quote assures that the technology singularity is far from what is achievable.

    4. Another approach to confinement is to build rules into the mind of the created superhuman entity (for example, Asimovs Laws of Robotics). I think that any rules strict enough to be effective would also produce a device whose ability was clearly inferior to the unfettered versions (so human competition would favor the development of the more dangerous models).

      The author points out that human competition, which thus far has driven the exponential development/advancement of technology, would drive developers towards the "unfettered versions." While I agree that it would likely be the case, I think it's possible that the author is underestimating how much of ourselves would likely end up in the superhuman. Aspects of humanity that were likely never intended to be in the superhuman, but will end up there inherently due to who is programming it.

    1. Becoming posthuman means exceeding the limitations that define the less desirable aspects of the “human condition.” Posthuman beings would no longer suffer from disease, aging, and inevitable death (but they are likely to face other challenges). They would have vastly greater physical capability and freedom of form

      Posthuman beings contradict the human conditions that apply to my life, and every living being for that matter: immortality is non-existent. The passage alludes that the posthuman evolution will oppose the current human condition, and humanity will be redefine its physical form. A reformation in the modern humans understanding of scarcity is entirely different than that of the posthuman. With increased control over the posthumans physical capability are differing in juxtaposition to the human condition in the twenty first century: Prompting our modern society with the question of whether the human condition makes significant biological changes. The change from the former to the latter intertwines technological advancements with physical capabilities, although to what end? The human condition will be a backbone to the technology that manages the posthumans interpretation of reality.

    1. Leapfrogging in developing countries

      I think this concept cannot be applied to a developing country. A society who never made the experience and the learning path of how the technology was made and conceived. Because I found that certain technologies as are mentioned in this paragraph never rech the level of functionality like in developed countries. The reason is always something, soon or later, will went wrong and nobody will knows how to fix the problem. Then locals have to call a foreign engineer to look what the problem is. And then the parent company never send the best professional to the locals in order to see what the problem is. Then there are other problems like cultural communication between foreign engineer and local engineer and the problem enters in a vicious cycle of "We did all what we could". The other problems are these technologies are seen and transferred out of its system without the corresponding social captial and its value chain constructed.

  6. Aug 2018
    1. developed on an evidence-based foundation that draws from the learning sciences and is implemented using effective strategies that focus on improving the quality of learning experiences and improving the outcomes for all students.
    2. enable everywhere, all-the-time learning and ensure greater equity and accessibility to learning opportunities over the course of a learner’s lifetime
    1. The spaces may change, but the organizing principles aren’t different.
    2. When they did look at their phones, they were often sharing the screen with the person sitting next to them, reading or viewing something together.

      Over history, most "teen technology" is about being able to communicate with their peers. From the handwritten letter via post, to the telephone, to the car, to the pager, and now the cell phone.

    3. given that I was in Nashville to talk with teens about how technology had changed their lives.

      I have to wonder who the sociologists were from the 60's that interviewed teens about how the telephone changed their lives. Or perhaps the 70's sociologist who interviewed kids about how cars changed their lives? Certainly it wasn't George Lucas' American Graffiti that informed everyone of the issues?

    1. Provide equal opportunity and access for all students to use ICTs that foster and improve learning

      Crucial- responsibility of teacher to make sure students have EQUAL access to the skills we want to foster and support! If ALL students do not have means of providing own resources, make sure the resources are provided to ALL students! (think- have copy of textbook for each student, why not technology?)

  7. Jul 2018
    1. cance. Waiting, for example (which, given the modern utilitarian approach to time [Zerubavel 1981, pp. 54-59], is generally regarded as an ordeal), is normally associated with worthlessness, and making others wait is often regarded as a symbolic display of deg

      How does this idea of negative time stretch / waiting as insignificance apply to technology or the social coordination process?

      How does "slow technology" overcome this and retain a positive self-reflective value?

    1. Record your observations 2 Share with fellow naturalists 3 Discuss your findings

      inaturalist website- really cool place to upload nature pics and correspond in discussions with others about identifying the plant or animal species

    1. Project Noah was created to provide people of all ages with a simple, easy-to-use way to share their experiences with wildlife. By encouraging your students to share their observations and contribute to Project Noah missions, you not only help students to reconnect with nature, you provide them with real opportunities to make a difference.

      Looks like a great project to get involved in! Very collaborative (both in the classroom and in online), plus integrate technology while having students explore nature

    1. We decided to use photography as a centerpiece of the new program. Photography emerged as the medium of choice because it:

      using photography in nature (a form of technology) to enhance learning science curriculum

    1. Integrating technology in your classroom is a great way to connect your students to nature—increasing their likelihood of becoming environmental stewards and making a positive impact on our planet.

      Wow! I had no idea there were so many organizations, apps, and programs to combine technology with nature for a classroom setting! This is really encouraging and I would love to use some of these with my future classes!

    2. These websites allow your students to report sightings (of robins, earthworms, frogs, mushrooms, etc.) and share pictures for a variety of projects or missions that help scientists across the world.

      int. tech into nature for ages 2nd grade and up

    3. So children need direct exposure to nature. Given their increased access to technology, can we use technology to enhance that direct exposure?

      Interesting article- Combining technology with nature in an age that kids desperately need to be outdoors more

    1. At least as far as these gentlemen were concerned, this was a talk about the future of technology. Taking their cue from Elon Musk colonizing Mars, Peter Thiel reversing the aging process, or Sam Altman and Ray Kurzweil uploading their minds into supercomputers, they were preparing for a digital future that had a whole lot less to do with making the world a better place than it did with transcending the human condition altogether and insulating themselves from a very real and present danger of climate change, rising sea levels, mass migrations, global pandemics, nativist panic, and resource depletion. For them, the future of technology is really about just one thing: escape.

      So often we consider technology as being about particular things, but it can be much more fruitful when thinking of it as a system.

    1. The slow technology design agenda, first presented by Hallnäs and Redström [15], builds on the idea that as tech-nologies become more ubiquitous they must do more than prioritise the efficiency and productivity associated with task-completion. In contrast to fast technologies that savetime, the aim with slow technologies is to produce time, by serving as an incitement for reflection.

      This seems like a clearer, more boiled down definition of "slow technology" than found in the Pschetz Temporal Design paper.

    1. The association of alternative approaches to time with a rejection of technology reinforces dichotomies that do not reflect the way people relate to artefacts and systems (Wajcman 2015). As a result, these proposals not only risk being interpreted as nostalgic or backward looking, but also leave little space for integrating more complex accounts of time (particularly those arising in the social sciences) or for discussing more nuanced rhythms, as well as more complex forces and consequences related to temporal decisions. As a result, instead of challenging dominant accounts of time, these proposals arguably reinforce the overarching narrative of universalised acceler

      Argument that slow technology is not anti-technology but should encourage different perspective on how people relate to artifacts and systems via time, rhythms, and other forces that help drive temporal decisions.

    2. gs done. Accepting an invitation for reflection inherent in the design means on the other hand that time willappear, i.e. we open up for time presence” (Hallnas & Redstrom 2001). A slow technology would not disappear, but would make its

      The idea of making time more present/more felt is counter-intuitive to how time is experienced in crisis response as urgent, as a need for effiicency, as an intense flow (Csikszentmihalyi) that disappears.

    3. In Slow Technology, Hallnas & Redstrom (2001) advance the need for a form of design that emphasises reflection, the amplification of environments, and the use of technologies that a) amplify the presence of time; b) stretch time and extend processes; and c) reveal an expression of presenttime as slow-paced. Important here is the concept of “time presence”: “when we use a thing as an efficient tool, time disappears, i.e. we get things done. Accepting an invitation for reflection inherent in the design means on the other hand that time willappear, i.e. we open up for time presence” (Hallnas & Redstrom 2001). A slow technology would not disappear, but would make its

      Definition of "slow technology" and its purpose to make time more present for the user.

  8. Jun 2018
    1. In “Getting Real,” Barad proposes that “reality is sedimented out of the process ofmaking the world intelligible through certain practices and not others ...” (1998: 105). If,as Barad and other feminist researchers suggest, we are responsible for what exists, what isthe reality that current discourses and practices regarding new technologies makeintelligible, and what is excluded? To answer this question Barad argues that we need asimultaneous account of the relations of humans and nonhumansandof their asymmetriesand differences. This requires remembering that boundaries between humans and machinesare not naturally given but constructed, in particular historical ways and with particularsocial and material consequences. As Barad points out, boundaries are necessary for thecreation of meaning, and, for that very reason, are never innocent. Because the cuts impliedin boundary making are always agentially positioned rather than naturally occurring, andbecause boundaries have real consequences, she argues, “accountability is mandatory”(187). :We are responsible for the world in which we live not because it is an arbitraryconstruction of our choosing, but because it is sedimented out of particular practicesthat we have a role in shaping (1998: 102).The accountability involved is not, however, a matter of identifying authorship in anysimple sense, but rather a problem of understanding the effects of particular assemblages,and assessing the distributions, for better and worse, that they engender.
    2. In her analysis ofcomputer-based work, Susanne Bødker (1991) has discussed the shifting movement of theinterface from object to connective medium. She observes that when unfamiliar, or at timesof trouble, the interface itselfbecomes the work’s object. At other times persons work asshe puts it ‘through the interface’, enacted as a transparent means of engagement with otherobjects of interest (for example, a text, or an interchange with colleagues).
    3. Finally, the ‘smart’ machine's presentation of itself asthe always obliging, 'labor-saving device' erases any evidence of the labor involved in itsoperation "from bank personnel to software programmers to the third-world workers whoso often make the chips" (75).
    4. Chasin poses the question (which I return to below) of how a change in our view ofobjects from passiveand outside the social could help to undo the subject/object binaryand all of its attendant orderings, including for example male/female, or mental/manua
    5. Figured as servants,she points out, technologies reinscribe the difference between ‘us’ and those who serve us,while eliding the difference between the latter and machines: "The servanttroubles thedistinction between we-human-subjects-inventors with a lot to do (on the onehand) andthem-object-things that make it easier for us (on the other)" (1995: 73)
    6. One consequence of thisposition is a more radical understanding of the sense in whichmateriality is discursive (i.e., material phenomena are inseparable from theapparatuses of bodily production: matteremerges out of and includes as part of itsbeing the ongoing reconfiguring of boundaries), just as discursive practices arealways already material (i.e., they are ongoing material (re)configurings of theworld) (2003: 822).Brought back into the world oftechnology design, this intimate co-constitution ofconfigured materialities with configuring agencies clearly implies a very differentunderstanding of the ‘human-machine interface’.
    7. agencies involved in the sustenance of vital bodily functions areprogressively delegated from ‘the patient’ as an autonomously embodied entity, to anintricately interconnected sociomaterial assemblage, and then back again.
    8. A rich body ofempirical studies have further specified, elaborated, and deepened the senses in whichhuman agency is always inextricably tied to the specific sociomaterial arrangements ofwhich we are part.These studies provide compelling empirical demonstration of howcapacities for action can be reconceived on foundations quite different from those of anEnlightenment, humanist preoccupation with the individual actor living in a world ofseparate things. Insofar as we see the politics of technology to be based in fundamentalassumptions about where agency is located,and whose agencies matter, these approacheshave at least the potential to work as powerful allies to feminist projects. In particular,these scholars align with feminist theorizing in their emphasis on the always relationalcharacter of our capacities for action; the constructed nature of subjects and objects,resemblances and differences; and the corporeal grounds of knowing and action.
    9. Must those not presentlyidentified as creative be shown in fact to be inventors in order tobe fully recognized? Thisquestion suggests that we need to pay close attention to the tensions and contradictionsthat arise when we adopt a strategy that distributes practices previously identifiedexclusively with certain people and places (for example, with privileged white menworking in elite institutions of science and technology) across a wider landscape (one thatincludes women). In distributing those practices more widely, they are givencorrespondingly greater presence. A counter project, therefore, is to question the valueplaced on innovation itself. The aim is to understand how a fascination with change andtransformation might not be universal, but rather specifically located and with particularpolitical consequences for women, both in termsof the possibilities that are available tothem, and the visibility of their already existing contributions.
    10. Recent research on the actual work involved in putting technologies into usehighlights the mundane forms of inventive yet taken for granted labor, hidden in thebackground, that are necessary to the success of complex sociotechnical arrangements.