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    1. t is at thisstage in the fable that Sellars introduces his ‘myth of Jones’. Jones is atheoretical genius who postulates the existence of internal speech-likeepisodes called ‘thoughts’, closely modelled on publicly observabledeclarative utterances.

      Sellars' myth of Jones

    2. Chapter 7 recapitulates Nietzsche’s narrative ofthe overcoming of nihilism in light of critical insights developed overthe preceding chapters, before proposing a speculative re-inscription ofFreud’s theory of the death-drive, wherein the sublimation of the latteris seen as the key to grasping the intimate link between the will toknow and the will to nothingness

      content chapter 7

    3. Chapter 6’s critical recon-struction of the ontological function allotted to the relationship betweendeath and time in Heidegger’s Being and Timeand Deleuze’s Differenceand Repetition

      content chapter 6

    4. Chapter 5 attempts to find a wayout of the deadlock between the idealism of correlation on one hand,and the idealism of mathematical intuition and inscription on theother, by drawing on the work of François Laruelle in order to elaboratea speculative realism operating according to a non-dialectical logic ofnegation.

      content chapter 5

    5. Chapter 4, which examines how AlainBadiou circumvents the difficulties attendant upon Meillassoux’s appealto intellectual intuition through a subtractive conception of beingwhich avoids the idealism of intuition, but only at the cost of an equallyproblematic idealism of inscription.

      content chapter 4

    6. Chapter 3, the final chapter of Part I, lays out QuentinMeillassoux’s critique of the ‘correlationism’ which underpins theKantian–Hegelian account of the relationship between reason and nature,before pinpointing difficulties in Meillassoux’s own attempt to rehabilitatemathematical intuition.

      content chapter 3

    7. Chapter 2 analyses Adorno and Horkheimer’sinfluential critique of scientific rationality in the name of an alternativeconception of the relation between reason and nature inspired byHegel and Freud

      content chapter 2

    8. Chapter 1 introduces the themewhich governs the first part of the book, ‘Destroying the Manifest Image’,by considering Wilfrid Sellars’s distinction between the ‘manifest’ and‘scientific’ images of ‘man-in-the-world’

      content chapter 1

    1. argument that a‘knowledge economy,’despite its cheerful optimism, isalso an elegant incarnation of the demise of Western economies
    2. Hence, thenarrative of ideas and ideational work–banking on innovation and creativity–functionsboth as a celebration of the latest stage in capitalismandas a distressing symbol of thelast resort of post-industrial economies
    3. The USA and Europe, long before the financial meltdown,were facing a crisis in economic production
    4. While seemingly intangible and ephemeral, a knowledge economy is fixed in place innational economies through government and corporate policy
    5. What the texts have in common is that they translate and fold a crisis in economicproduction into a new conceptual stage, a stage that sounds promising and civilizational:we are moving forward into a conceptual economy
    6. The unity that is offered isanalogical: labor, natural resources, and physical inputs in industrial economies arereplaced by creativity, intellectual resources, and intangible inputs in knowledgeeconomies
    7. A knowledge economy enfolds defeat with progress
    8. knowledge economydownplays the importance of industrial labor and simultaneously depends on it to materialize itsideas
    9. I argue that this reorganization of the production line undergirds theinterest in–and organization of–intangibles.
    10. Moreover, and I will return to this point in the second halfof this article, a knowledge economy is not just‘located’in some of these sites, but thediscourse actively seeks to recreate geographies of value for these sites
    11. narrative of stagesallows for a cheery sense of progress: knowledge economies equal the avant-garde of latecapitalism
    12. A knowledge economy is on the other hand, and simultaneously, a victoriousrecoding of economic demise
    13. Hence, one of the paradoxicalcharacteristics of a knowledge economy is that it connotes both a decrease and an increasein the importance of manufacturing labor.
    14. knowledge economy, presumably, is aneconomy in which manual labor–the execution of industrial tasks–is no longer presentand necessary, and instead, many workers are eking out a living using their disembodiedminds
    15. Lehman continued his narrative of how wealth had come to reside in the mind with areflection on the spatial organization of economic production
    16. competition based on manufacturing efficiency was, in the discourse of a knowledgeeconomy, framed as a lost cause
    17. The story of knowledge economies has thuscomprised a combination of being wiped off the map of economic production and at thesame time of endeavoring to redraw the map so that these post-industrial zones couldregain their challenged sense of centrality in the world economy
    18. It is important to note that intellectual labor, under Taylor’s watch, becameseparated from manual labor in the name of standardization, rationalization, and efficiency
    19. thesystematicity of‘science,’as well as the management that arose from scientificmanagement, became the embodiment of that which had to be‘overcome’and spurnedin order to produce knowledge and to work‘creatively’in later articulations of knowledgeeconomies
    20. This transfer of knowledge enabled a conceptual shift that has been a foundationalcondition for the current reordering of the economy.
    21. first, workers were no longer cast as embodiedthinker
    22. I propose therefore that a knowledge economy is best understood not as a temporalconcept of the latest stage of capitalism, but as a geographical one: it marks a spatialreorganization of production
    23. second, a regime of management emerged to control the productionprocess, and consequently, knowledge came to be seen as something alienated from thelaboring body/mind.
    24. , manufacturing is still at the center oftrade, but profits arerealized in the realm of concepts
    25. Standardization of the labor process lay at the heart of these Tayloristreorganizations of production.
    26. Creativity and knowledgewere, first of all, allegedly the only things that resist standardization
    27. The interest in intangibles reinforced a geography of value (and difference) in whichknowledge economies had the ideas, and others did the work.
    28. The valorization of ideas isbacked by an organization and determination of value that marks knowledge economiesas competitive and‘high-value’economies
    29. Enfolding defeat with progress is a classic move in the framing of economictransformations
    30. The geopolitical reorganization of production and the resulting bleak economicreports have been the impetus for recent searches formodelsthat reframe this alarmingpicture
    31. Thus, while it embodies a shift in the regime of production, aknowledge economy is also a continuation of a manufacturing economy, albeit‘elsewhere.’
    32. The dream in which the demise of old economies can be wrappedin a celebratory narrative of a great leap forward, in which Western brains, intuition,ingenuity, and creativity will float so-called knowledge economies back to the center ofthe world economy, may turn out to be just that, a dream

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    1. In the past two decades, the policy concept of a knowledge economy hasincreasingly become an object of knowledge and governance
    2. ‘Potential’is aspeculativeterm encompassing (real) capabilityand(imagined)promise
    3. And from a certain vantage point it sounds quite interesting to unfasten thedefinition of capital, to look beyond the numbers, and to try to incorporate aneconomy if not of appearances, of knowledge, people and ideas.
    4. On the one hand, it is seen to partake inthe production of objectivity
    5. The rationale for a new accounting categoryfollowed the narrative logic–not unlike the CIT advertisements–thatprevious calculative practices did not portray‘what was really going on’.
    6. in my analysis I look first of all at how existing classifications havebeen transformed to incorporate knowledge through a close reading of therules and regulations of economic models, complemented by policy documentsand popular accounts

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    1. In the next section, surveys are classifiedaccording to a number of criteria. Underlying thisclassification is the following poem by RudyardKipling:I keep six honest serving-men(They taught me all I knew);Their names are What and Why and WhenAnd How and Where and Who.

      RACIST BASTARD

    2. A short enquiry into types ofsurveys yields random samples, telephone sur-veys, exit polls, multi-actor surveys, businesssurveys, longitudinal surveys, opinion polls(although some would argue that opinion pollsare not surveys), omnibus surveys and so forth.

      survey types

    3. Methods

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    1. Hats-on Harry, Off-at-Seven George, Handle-It-Yourself Fred, and The-Eternal-Flame Edward Who-Never-Goes-Out

      Example Realist Ethnography

    2. One with a Gun, One with a Dog, and One with the Shivers

      Example Impressionist ethnography

    3. One with a Gun, One with a Dog, and One with the Shivers

      Example Impressionist ethnography

    4. Hats-on Harry, Off-at-Seven George, Handle-It-Yourself Fred, and The-Eternal-Flame Edward Who-Never-Goes-Out

      Example Realist Ethnography

    5. Johnny Gets His Gun

      Example comfessional ethnography

    6. Johnny Gets His Gun

      Example comfessional ethnography

    7. Fieldwork usually means living with and living like those who are studied
    8. Fieldwork usually means living with and living like those who are studied

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    1. The ecclesiastical reflects the heavenly hier­archy, and in this reflection becomes conscious o f its own inviolable necessity
    2. To be sure, the docta ignorantia,fconsidered negatively, emphasizes the opposition o f the absolute to every form o f rational, logical-conceptual knowledge;
    3. we have here the actual fusion o f the Christian doctrine o f salvation and Hellenistic speculation
    4. Between God and man there is the world o f pure intelligences and heavenly powers. I
    5. o explain the meaning and the purpose o f the visio intellec­tualis, Cusanus relies not on the mystical form o f passive contemplation, but on mathematics, which he considers the only true, genuine, and precise symbol o f speculative thought and o f the speculative vision that resolves contraries
    6. Here, too, the starting point is the opposition between the being o f the absolute and the being o f the empirical- conditioned, i.e., between the being o f the infinite and o f the finite. But now the opposition is no longer merely dogmatically posited; rather it must be understood in its ultimate depth and conceived o f through the conditions o f human knowledge. This position towards the problem o f knowledge makes o f Cusanus the first modem thinker.
    7. All knowledge presupposes comparison, which, in turn, more precisely understood, is nothing but measurement.
    8. precisely this condition becomes unfulfillable as soon as the goal, the object o f knowledge is no longer something finite, conditioned, singular, but rather an absolute object.
    9. any contents are to be measured by and through each other, the first, inevitable assumption must be the condition o f homogeneity. They must be reduced to one and the same unit o f measure; they must be capable o f being thought o f as belonging to the same quantitative order
    10. The distance between the finite and the infinite remains the same no matter how many intermediate terms we may place between them
    11. Aristotle’s logic, based on the principle o f the excluded middle, seems precisely for that reason to be merely a logic o f the finite, one which must always and necessarily be found wanting when it comes to contemplating the infinite.

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    1. However, the spec-ulative design approach takes the critical practice one step further, towards imagina-tion and visions of possible scenarios.

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    1. introduce the empirical, interview-based study which informs it, discussing how the data which it produced is used to address how individuals (in this case young adults living in Australia) imagine the future of their society
    2. Such claims suggest a movement away from long-term and collective concerns in favour of the pressures and challenges of everyday life which does not bode well for the profile of long-term thinking.
    3. due to the complexity of contemporary life they are perhaps now more than ever hindered in their abilities to extrapolate from the present in order to anticipate what the future will hold
    4. n an oft-quoted statement, Friedrich Nietzsche put forward the view that ‘the future influences the present just as much as the past’
    5. understandings of what specifically constitutes the near and distant future are socially constructed in relation to prevailing norms of attention, needs and priorities.
    6. Rather, it seeks to understand whether influential claims that have informed implicit understandings of the future are reflected in individuals’ outlooks
    7. meaning that although they offer a broad overview of collective trends in future-oriented thinking, they are generally less able to account for why individuals hold specific views.
    8. The near or short-term future is hereafter intended to refer to the personal or biographical future that one expects to see and experience
    9. Studies on this subject have generally focused on governance of the future, using the language of risk, contingency and sustainability (Ayre and Callway 2005; Beck 2009).
    10. these accounts each suggest a uni-fying reading of modernisation that draws society under the umbrella of a single characterisation
    11. As such, this text avoids using climate change as a pre-established focal point, instead considering how individuals relate to the future in a broad sense
    12. Do individuals’ imaginings of the long-term future interact with or impact upon the ways in which they relate to the short-term, biographical future?
    13. The study was motivated by the following questions
    14. n order to explore the reach of such tendencies and consider why something as prominent as the future of society is claimed to have become a peripheral concern for contemporary individuals, this study seeks to gain insight into the relevance that individuals’ perceptions of the long-term future may have for their identities and present-day lives.
    15. How do individuals imagine the future of the society in which they live?
    16. while the distant or long-term future is intended to refer to a future that extends beyond one’s life and immediate, personal concerns to address an experience of time that may be socially shared
    17. It is important to be mindful of the fact that theorists who propose diagnoses of the contemporary era (as, for instance, second, late, reflexive, post- or liquid modernity) do not seek to disclose how individuals view the future, and therefore cannot be critiqued for failing to meet aims that are not their own.
    18. Are the ways in which individuals relate to the long-term future compatible with popular theoretical accounts of the contemporary future horizon?
    19. Although these studies have found compelling evidence for the fact that individuals conceptualise the personal and societal future in distinct ways, they have focused exclusively on the content of their respondents’ imaginings, leaving the question of whether the types of logic or perhaps the beliefs underpinning individuals’ approaches to each dimension of the future have any commonality.

    Annotators

    1. Veronika Vincze designed and prepared the annotationguidelines, trained the linguist students who carried outthe first annotation phase and then she resolved cases ofdisagreement. She was responsible for all the linguisticaspects throughout the project.
    2. BioInfer corpus [10]
    3. Genia Event corpus [9]
    4. Hedge classification corpus [8]

    Annotators

    1. Makerspaces open up a protected space for creative technical task and solution finding for a wide interested audience of non-experts.
    2. The aim is to transfer these results into industry, for example through their evaluation in the training center of an Austrian engine manufacturer and the establishment of contacts with other manufacturing companies.
    3. Die Entscheidung über die Zuweisung verschiedener Aufgaben ist dabei oft in der HABA-MABA-Tradition (“Humans are better at...; Machines are better at...“) [Ch65] verankert
    4. he project focuses on Austrian Makerspaces and FabLabs.
    5. provide basic training for interested people,
    6. allow for the reconceptualiza-tion of the cobot as a tool and to reinvent its application possibilities
    7. Sicherheit der Cobots, Arbeitsorganisatorische Einbindung und Roboterpro-grammierung
    8. Cobots ermöglichen eine enge räumliche, zeitliche und interaktive Zusammenarbeit mit Menschen
    9. Die Fortschritte der sensiti-ven Robotik ermöglichen heute schon die Interaktion durch Berührung oder Führung des Roboters im Betrieb

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    1. maybe it is correlation itself that is contingent
    2. Contingency is necessary since it challenges theabsolutization of correlationism, which in fact leads to a de-absolutization
    3. The question of technodiversitydirects us to the question of epistemology (way of knowing) and episteme (thesensibility that underlies such way of knowing).
    4. Decades after poststructuralism we are in a much moreembarrassing situation with technical systems. Lines of flight can exist only as arefusal to engage with the system, as a self-marginalization or escape tooccultism and sectlike communes
    5. provides an ontological refusal of a unified system of knowledgebased on subject-object correlation
    6. ontological pluralism in order to surpass modernity byrefusing nature as a single system
    7. Heis not seeking a mathematical reductionism, but rather sees very clearly theirreducibility of art and life; as he says: “I observe the mathematization of thereal, without entering into its theories
    8. Technology in the twenty-first centuryis becoming inhuman in a negative sense, because it is human, all too human.

    Annotators

    1. sites of hyper-projectivity
    2. I propose ways in which we might study their temporal reach
    3. measuring futures in action
    4. state of potentiality, involving risk, hope, and uncertainty, and are thuseven more subject than the past to contestation and debate
    5. the constitutive role that the future imaginaryplays in reflective processes of critique,problem-solving, and social intervention.
    6. While narratives about the pastare certainly open to contestation and revision, they are still disciplined by truth claimsthat they are recounting“what happened,”which is arguably more rigorous than thediscipline of“what might (or could or should) happen.
    7. their attention to contingency and causality
    8. theorization of how people coordinate futures at threedifferent levels of anticipation
    9. level of collectiv-ities, which jointly elaborate, argue over, and attempt to implement projects ofsocial change
    10. “sites ofhyperprojectivity”are communicative settings, somewhat removed from the flow of day-to-day activity, in which the explicit purpose of talk is to locate problems, visualizealternative pathways, and consider their consequences and desirability
    11. attention to the reflexive engagement with future scenarios of action aspart of deliberate efforts at social change, a process that was centrally important totheorists such as Dewey, Mead, and Schutz
    12. cultural scaffoldings of future projec-tions in narratives and institutions, as well as the skilled performative work needed toattune those futures with others
    13. rojective engagement of the future does not usually take the form of rationalcost benefit analysis, nor of utopian fantasies; these are only some of the diversemodesof future engagement and probably not the most common ones.
    14. The study of future-oriented deliberation in such sites draws on both the narrativeand performative approaches described above
    15. Futures are elaborated through interaction and talk with others
    16. as Dewey (1922) notes, most of the timewe are propelled toward the future by“habits”of thought, feeling, and action (Gross2009).
    17. As noted above, this may be particularly challengingin the study of projected futures, since the target phenomenon is the imagina-tion of events and end states that have not happened yet.
    18. look for settings in whichreflective thought about the future is particularly salient and encouraged
    19. uchsettingscanserve as“pivots”for action, even if the futures under discussion are not realized or evenclear (Dewey1922, p. 225)
    20. In such sites, the future is self-consciously introduced into the present, becoming theobject of conversation, scenario-building, analysis, and argument
    21. This pattern suggests that there is a connection between an organization’spositionality in the broader field of environmental activism and policy-making,and the deployment of different grammatical patterns and modes of projectivity.
    22. ideal setting in which to study heightened future-oriented deliberation

    Annotators

    1. That is, new knowledge can change international politics if it is reproduced transnationally and taken up by the associations underlying international order.
    2. Recursive institutionalization foregrounds the dynamic, ongoing processes by which the international system is trans-formed as the associations that carry and reproduce international order change.

    Annotators

    1. establishes a set of normative democratic criteria by which we can judge to what extent and in what way a specific participatory mechanism makes a policy process more democra
    2. Scientific and technological policy issues are not and should not be exempt from the norms of democratic govern
    3. to develop further the normative democratic criteria that could be used to evaluate participatory mechanism
    4. . Direct participation, in contrast, is premised on the notion that democratic governance includes the full participation of individuals as individ- uals in setting polic
    5. o put forward a new category of activity for analyzing public participation programs aimed at scientific and technological issues, called here participatory analys
    6. m. Pluralism (also called polyarchy or interest group liberalism) is the mainstream theory of democracy in American political scien
    7. pluralism is a theory of democracy based on the actions of organized voluntary interest group
    8. ory, pluralism should also be used as a source of democratic crite

    Annotators

    1. The community of inquiry has special appeal for public adminis-tration because it is an orientation that uses a democratic approach toproblem definition and interpretation of consequences
    2. The members of a community of inquiry pro-ceed with a sense of critical optimism.
    3. Charles Sanders Peirce originally conceived of pragmatism as a phi-losophy of science with inquiry at its center.
    4. The story’s moral is that we are all trapped inside our lim-ited selves and cannot know the truth.
    5. Ideally,members of the community of inquiry recognize the value of uncertainty.
    6. Dewey’s notion of community is not necessarily based on physicalproximity. It is rather rooted in intellectual and cultural neighborhoodsthat interact with shared membership.
    7. pessimism is a paralyzing doctrine. In declaring that the world is evilwholesale, it makes futile all efforts to discover the remedial causes of spe-cific evils and thereby destroys at the root every attempt to make the worldbetter and happier.
    8. Dewey does not see democracy as simply giving everyone a say in asquabble over cutting up a pie of given size. Rather, his conceptionincludes the capability of designing a better pie or imagining and con-structing something other than a pie. This characteristic requires the capa-bility for inquiry on the part of the participants.
    9. Mutual responsiveness is an essential componentofparticipatoryin participatory democracy.
    10. We must learn to trust our democracy, giant-like andthreatening as it may appear in its uncouth strength and untried applica-tions”
    11. Democracy was a method of discovering truth through the combinationof rational thought with equal participation of all citizens in communityprocess
    12. John Dewey’s process of inquiry begins and ends in experience
    13. A practitioner who uses a working hypothesis as a tool of inquiry mustbe prepared for the unexpected
    14. Dewey oftenused the termworking hypothesisto emphasize the provisional nature ofhypotheses
    15. The technical-rational approach rewards profes-sionals dedicated to their specialized field. It also disconnects the techni-cal expert from the people and an ethical framework.
    16. Inquiry is an open-ended process with positive feedback.
    17. Positivism isdisconnected from values and is individualistic. In contrast, classicalpragmatism links the scientific attitude with a rich participatorycommunity.

    Annotators

    1. It was more because in the modern world the RomanCatholic Church has lost its explicit power over kings
    2. This set Roman Catholics at odds both with their King and with themselves,which prompted faction and war.
    3. Modern international relations theory begins withHobbes, who provides the proper way to understand the relationshipsbetween states in the world that Westphalia is said to have given us.
    4. How does Calvin’s Reformation rejection of analogical ordering yield the pro-blem of radical-particularism, as I have called it, even if only inadvertently?
    5. A world orderedanalogically meant, on the one hand, that the lower orders enjoyed a certainsubsidiary autonomy
    6. Through the RomanCatholic Church, God’s vicegerent on earth, man is lifted up to the Divine; andthe world, made luminous by God’s Light, is now understood to be orderedin accordance with that Light, with the Church at the apex of the world
    7. The only way Hobbes thought this intractable tension could be resolvedwas for citizens to obey the sovereigns who were the authorizedpersonatorsoftheir various nations.
    8. Rather than understanding God’s creation to be ordered analogically, withman located in an ordered cosmos with a dispositive nature that reason cancomprehend, Calvin strips away the created world entirely, along with thefaculty of reason that can comprehend it.
    9. In thehands of Calvin, the Roman Catholic Church is merely an earthly institutionthat presumptuously claims universal authority over nations and over souls.

    Annotators

    1. The first author of speech was God himself, that instructed Adam how to name such creatures as he presented to his sight; for the Scripture goeth no further in this matter.
    2. For after the object is removed, or the eye shut, we still retain an image of the thing seen, though more obscure than when we see it. And this is it, the Latins call imagination, from the image made in seeing; and apply the same, though improperly, to all the other senses
    3. Special uses of speech are these; first, to register, what by cogitation, we find to be the cause of any thing, present or past; and what we find things present or past may produce, or effect: which in sum, is acquiring of arts. Secondly, to show to others that knowledge which we have attained; which is, to counsel, and teach one another. Thirdly, to make known to others our wills, and purposes, that we may have the mutual help of one another. Fourthly, to please and delight ourselves, and others, by playing with our words, for pleasure or ornament, innocently
    4. This decaying sense, when we would express the thing itself, (I mean fancy itself) we call imagination, as I said before: but when we would express the decay, and signify that the sense is fading, old, and past, it is called memory.
    5. our dreams are the reverse of our waking imaginations; the motion when we are awake, beginning at one end; and when we dream, at another
    6. without words, there is no possibility of reckoning of numbers; much less of magnitudes, of swiftness, of force, and other things, the reckonings whereof are necessary to the being, or well-being of mankind.
    7. The imaginations of them that sleep, are those we call dreams
    8. Much memory, or memory of many things, is called experi-ence
    9. Which kind of thoughts, is called foresight, and prudence, or providence; and sometimes wisdom; though such conjecture, through the difficulty of observing all circumstances, be very fallacious.
    10. For between true sci-ence, and erroneous doctrines, ignorance is in the middle. Natural sense and imagination, are not subject to absurdity
    11. The present only has a being in nature; things past have a being in the memory only, but things to come have no being at all; the future being but a fiction of the mind, applying the sequels of actions past, to the actions that are present; which with most certainty is done by him that has most experience; but not with certainty enough.

    Annotators