1,313 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
    1. The difference between PUT and POST is that PUT is idempotent: calling it once or several times successively has the same effect (that is no side effect), whereas successive identical POST requests may have additional effects, akin to placing an order several times.
  2. Jul 2021
    1. So long as the filters are only using GET requests to pull down links, there’s nothing fundamentally wrong with them. It’s a basic (though oft-ignored) tenet of web development that GET requests should be idempotent; that is, they shouldn’t somehow change anything important on the server. That’s what POST is for. A lot of people ignore this for convenience’s sake, but this is just one way that you can get bitten. Anyone remember the Google Web Accelerator that came out a while ago, then promptly disappeared? It’d pre-fetch links on a page to speed up things if you clicked them later on. And if one of those links happened to delete something from a blog, or log you out… well, then you begin to see why GET shouldn’t change things. So yes, the perfect solution to this is a 2-step unsubscribe link: the first step takes to you a page with a form on it, and that form then POSTs something back that finalizes the unsubscribe request.
    2. Idempotent just means that following a link twice has exactly the same effect on persistent state as clicking it once. It does not mean that following the link must not change state, just that after following it once, following it again must not change state further. There are good reasons to avoid GET requests for changing state, but that’s not what idempotent means.
    1. Each of them implements a different semantic, but some common features are shared by a group of them: e.g. a request method can be safe, idempotent, or cacheable.

      Which ones are in each group?

      Never mind. The answer is in the pages that are being linked to.

    2. request method can be safe, idempotent, or cacheable.
    1. How a memory palace works When we’re learning something new, it requires less effort if we connect it to something we already know, such as a physical place. This is known as elaborative encoding. Once we need to remember the information, we can “walk” around the palace and “see” the various pieces. The idea is to give your memories something to hang on to. We are pretty terrible at remembering things, especially when these memories float freely in our heads. But our spatial memory is actually pretty decent, and when we give our memories some needed structure, we provide that missing order and context. For example, if you struggle to remember names, it can be helpful to link people you meet to names you already know. If you meet someone called Fred and your grandmother had a cat called Fred, you could connect the two. Creating a multisensory experience in your head is the other part of the trick. In this case, you could imagine the sound of Fred meowing loudly. To further aid in recall, the method of loci is most effective if we take advantage of the fact that it’s easiest to remember memorable things. Memory specialists typically recommend mentally placing information within a physical space in ways that are weird and unusual. The stranger the image, the better.

      This notion of using spatial memory to encode other concepts - or even the P-A-O sytem where a 2 digit number encodes a person performing an action is an interesting idea for someone like me who forgets quite a bit.

  3. Jun 2021
    1. Soderberg, C. K., Errington, T. M., Schiavone, S. R., Bottesini, J., Thorn, F. S., Vazire, S., Esterling, K. M., & Nosek, B. A. (2021). Initial evidence of research quality of registered reports compared with the standard publishing model. Nature Human Behaviour, 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41562-021-01142-4

    1. We just cannot know all that life will throw at us, and if we want our grading contract to be fair and equitable for everyone, we need to reexamine it, reflect on how it has been working for each of us, and perhaps adjust it. 

      This idea of re-evaluating at regular time points can be a very useful and powerful tool in more areas than just writing.

      Society as a whole needs to look carefully at where it is do do this same sort of readjustment as well.

      It's the same sort of negative feedback mechanism which is at work in the scientific method and constantly improving the state-of-the art.

    1. Lynne Kelly's observation that oral cultures revised useful knowledge into their memories appears to me to be a simple precursor to annotation and the idea of the scientific method all in one...

    2. Scholars are likely familiar with the so-called “Great Conversation,” or the idea in Western thought that we collectively participate in an iterative process of knowledge production through reference, review, and refinement. As our conversation continues over time, an ever-expanding network of annotation–through notation, citation, links, and data–traces an interconnected lineage of ideas and insight.

      Again, Dr. Lynne Kelly discusses this sort of process in non-Western and primarily oral cultures as well. Songlines has some interesting discussion of this in the Australian aboriginal cultures.

    1. Yet even thisdecline is followed by an unexpected resurgence in mnemonics in the 1800s, when Connors claimsthat writing was replacing speaking in school settings (127).

      I would question this statement, as annotated separately in this article. I have a feeling that the mnemonic tradition into the 1800's was more heavily influenced by the rise of the idea of the major system and not so much by the memory palace or the method of loci. This definitely seems to be the case in the United States based on my readings.

    2. Ong puts it this way:“Ramus can adopt memory intodialectic because his entire topically conceived logic is itself a system of local memory”(Ramus280).However, it is a simplified systemunlike the classical one: The ancient precepts about images and theirfacilitation of invention have been dropped.

      What is gained and lost in the Ramist tradition versus the method of loci?

      There is some simplicity to be sure and structure/organization aid in the structured memory.

      We lose the addition work, creativity, and invention. We also loose some of the interest that students might have. I recently read something to the effect that we always seem to make education boring and dull. (cross reference this, which I haven't read: https://daily.jstor.org/why-school-is-boring/)

      How does this interact with Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi's idea of flow? Does Ramism beat out the fun of flow?

      How also, is this similar to Kelly's idea of the third archive as a means of bringing these all back together?

    3. Ramist method does away withimaginesand architecturalloci, replacing them with asystem of abstract, logical arrangement.

      Similar to Yates' theory.

    4. Memory treatises published in Europe, by half-century.

      In looking at this, I immediately wonder about the nature of the treatises. I would suspect there's a slow decline of treatises on the method of loci while the 1800's sees an increase of those writing about the major system and which I've found generally aren't aware of the method of loci or earlier methods.

    5. Todate, however, no scholar has taken advantage of bibliographic resources to verify whether or notmemory treatises did in fact decline in England in the latter sixteenth and early seventeenthcenturies, a period that coincides with the continuing influence of iconoclasm and the risinginfluence of English Ramism. In this article I provide such bibliographic evidence, demonstratingthat the publication of memory treatises abated in England following Henry VIII’s reforms andduring the English Civil War

      When reading Yates and thinking about the disappearance of these traditions in the West, I've wanted to delve into this exact question!

      Glad to see the work has already been done for me.

  4. May 2021
    1. This study reveals several subtle, but important advantages for teaching of the Australian Aboriginal memorization method as compared to the more widely known memory palace technique. In particular the Australian Aboriginal method seems better suited to teaching in a single, relatively short instruction period. This is evidenced by the increased probability of obtaining complete recall of the target list after a 20 minute teaching period, and the pronounced improvement in correct sequencing of information which was observed compared to the memory palace approach.

      Here's the tl;dr version of the study:

      Australian Aboriginal memorization methods >> Western method of loci methods

    2. Both methods of loci improved upon the already high level of recall among medical students relative to those who received no memory training.

      I'm saddened to see the erasure of the Australian Aboriginal approach (possibly better termed Songlines or Dreaming for specificity) here only to have it lumped into the Western method. This is worse when their general results show the Australian approach to be significantly better.

      This may be due to over-familiarity with the techniques which are broadly similar, but for rigor and respect they should remain separate in this paper.

    3. A full description of the classical memory palace technique can be found in [12].

      A full one, but not necessarily a good one, particularly for beginners.

    1. As someone who knows both methods and has likely practiced them in reasonable depth, I'm curious what Dr. @LynneKelly thinks. I'd love to see this same study done to include song, dance, painting, etc. to expand the potential effects.

      If nothing else, it's good to see some positive research on the methods which will hopefully draw more attention to the pedagogy and classroom use.

      Dr. Reser said the Monash School of Rural Health is considering incorporating these memory tools into the medical curriculum once teaching returns to a post-COVID normal. “This year we hope to offer this to students as a way to not only facilitate their learning but to reduce the stress associated with a course that requires a lot of rote learning,” he said. —https://scitechdaily.com/ancient-australian-aboriginal-memory-tool-superior-to-memory-palace-learning-technique/

    1. My wife taught me to add some color after some pages are filled and the more I do that, the more I like browsing through the journal. Watercolor is still too heavy for most notebooks and I don’t bother to bring colored pencils on location. That’s a relaxing activity to do at home.

      Color also adds creativity and additional loci to one's pages which also can help to make them more memorable.

    1. Long before Vannevar Bush, Francis Bacon cited Seneca to describe a similar ambition for his scientific method, which he hoped would “abridge the infinity of individual experience ... and remedy the complaint of vita brevis, ars longa.”
    2. Blair’s previous work demonstrated that the practices of literary reading and writing were central to the rise of scientific method. Focusing on the lawyer and scientist Jean Bodin in the sixteenth century, she meticulously examined how Bodin collected commonplace reading notes and then stored and analyzed them as scientific evidence.

      I really do need to create a historical timeline for commonplace books already.

      Georg Christoph Lichtenberg also did this in the late 1700's and became famous for it after his death and the publication of his Waste Books. Worth looking into who his influences may have been?

    1. Cringing at your own memories does no one any good. On the other hand, systematically reviewing your older work to find the patterns in where you got it wrong (and right!) is hugely beneficial — it’s a useful process of introspection that makes it easier to spot and avoid your own pitfalls.

      This idea is far from new and is roughly what Georg Christoph Lichtenberg was doing with the science portions of his Waste Books in the late 1700's where he was running experiments, noting wins, losses, and making progress using the scientific method.

    1. The scrapbooks reveal a critical and analytical way of thinking and emphasis on experimental evidence in physics, through which he became one of the early founders and advocates of modern scientific methodology. The more experience and experiments are accumulated during the exploration of nature, the more faltering its theories become. It is always good though not to abandon them instantly. For every hypothesis which used to be good at least serves the purpose of duly summarizing and keeping all phenomena until its own time. One should lay down the conflicting experience separately, until it has accumulated sufficiently to justify the efforts necessary to edifice a new theory. (Lichtenberg: scrapbook JII/1602)

      Georg Christoph Lichtenberg used his notebooks as thinking tools with respect to scientific methodology.

    1. This approach also splits email development for modern email clients and older clients in two. You can use Safari/Chrome to test and develop modern techniques for WebKit-supported clients while using Firefox for your baseline experience for older clients like Outlook.
  5. Apr 2021
    1. Evaluating computerised health information systems: hard lessons still to be learnt

      The article used a Qualitative study design method as it only highlights the problems within the health system in South Africa which is posing threat to the use of health information system in our healthcare centres.

    1. Goal, is to figure out if I can do this with Notion.

      The zettel is the smallest unit, a note entered into the system. It requires a unique identifier, the body/content for the note, and footer/references.

      Actively include citations to other Zettels.

      Two types of structures depicted graphically

    2. To make the most of a connection, always state explicitly why you made it. This is the link context. An example link context looks like this:

      So ACTIVELY include the equivalent of citations to other ZETTELS.

    3. The most important aspect of the body of the Zettel is that you write it in your own words. There is nothing wrong with capturing a verbatim quote on top. But one of the core rules to make the Zettelkasten work for you is to use your own words, instead of just copying and pasting something you believe is useful or insightful. This forces you to at least create a different version of it, your own version. This is one of the steps that lead to increased understanding of the material, and it improves recall of the information you process. Your Zettelkasten will truly be your own if its content is yours and not just a bunch of thoughts of other people.

      If you enter the content in your own words you take active ownership. Also, as a grad student, you don't want the extra work of not only finding the reference you'd like to allude to but additionally having to rephrase it at the time of writing a paper or book.

    4. A Zettelkasten is a personal tool for thinking and writing. It has hypertextual features to make a web of thought possible. The difference to other systems is that you create a web of thoughts instead of notes of arbitrary size and form, and emphasize connection, not a collection


    1. Communicating with Slip Boxes An Empirical Account Niklas Luhmann

      Manual for the Zettelkasten method from the man himself.

    1. Indians were not to be appeased—and certainly not brought into British public life.
      • Indians were kept from entering politics or public life
      • After the British gov take over in 1858, the British gov seeked to not only have direct control instead of a company's control, but also direct control instead of letting Indians have control
    2. India Company violated its treaty obligations
      • The East India Company used excuses to violate treaties and conquer more land
      • Ex: In 1856, the British took Nawab Wajid Ali Shah's territory on grounds that he was weak and immoral
    3. The government also decided to collect taxes directly from peasants, displacing the landed nobles as intermediaries.
      • British took taxes from peasants without letting Indian previous positions of power interfere
      • Peasants had to take out loans from moneylenders
      • Peasants who couldn't pay their loans would have to give up their land
    4. replacing East India Company rule by crown government in 1858,
      • The British government took over ruling India instead of the EIC in 1858
      • Perhaps the British government took over ruling India instead of the East India Company because after the uprising, ruling over colonial states was viewed as a more militant and political task than an economic one.
    5. In return, the Mughal emperor would receive a hefty annual pension.
      • People originally in power in colonized territories striking a deal with the colonizers for their benefit is a common pattern
    6. The East India Company’s Monopoly
      • The British started off trying to control just India's trade by setting trading posts on the ocean
      • Around the early 1800s, the East India Company conquered many areas in India and surrounding areas

      Economic control -> political, military control

    7. During the first half of the nineteenth century the British rulers of India had dismantled most of the traditional powers of the nobility and the rights of peasants.

      The first half of the 1800s saw:

      • the disappearance of original Indian positions of power
      • the disappearance of original Indian state boundaries and sovereignties in 1848 by governor-general Lord Dalhousie
    1. Read chapter 11 "Memorizing Number" to see what Gardner says about available techniques. He only covers the phoenetic major system and some basic associative techniques.

      No mention of the method of loci. Some interesting references listed for the chapter however.



  6. Mar 2021
    1. ‘bold’ means to have many observational consequences

      As I said at the wiki I saw this link from, you don't test the hypothesis directly, you test the predictions, the "observational consequences", from the hypothesis.

    1. Cailin O’Connor. (2020, November 10). New paper!!! @psmaldino look at what causes the persistence of poor methods in science, even when better methods are available. And we argue that interdisciplinary contact can lead better methods to spread. 1 https://t.co/C5beJA5gMi [Tweet]. @cailinmeister. https://twitter.com/cailinmeister/status/1326221893372833793

  7. Feb 2021
  8. Dec 2020
    1. A scientist who does not utilize the scientific method is as much use as a carpenter who cannot make chairs or a plumber who cannot fix toilets. A science that exists as a fixed absolute, whose premises are not to be questioned, whose data is not to be examined and whose conclusions are not to be debated, is a pile of wood or a leaky toilet. Not the conclusion of a process, but its absence.

      Understanding science is a process.

  9. Nov 2020
    1. This is fascinating. I recognize it as something that is common knowledge to trained Feldenkrais Method practitioners. I have gained similar benefits from visiting a Feldenkrais practitioner and many more musculo skeletal benefits as well. They use very gentle, gradual and time-consuming "movement training" to "reset" muscular habits, many of which are harmful. It is amazing how much they can improve in every part of the musculo-skeleture, there are hundreds of muscles in complex patterns that can be getting inefficiently and parasitically employed. It can make a massive difference to the ease of daily life.When it comes to posture, trying to force the correct posture is hopeless; what is needed, is to "switch off" the muscles that shouldn't be "on", and vice versa. Most people can't just do that by mimicking a position. In Feldenkrais, mostly you are relaxed and lying on your back, and the practitioner gently performs repetitive counter-intuitive movements of your limbs etc which "persuade" muscles a certain way. Then when you sit up or stand up again, you tend to be "relaxed in the correct posture" rather than trying to force yourself into it.
    1. What is the STAR interview method?The STAR interview method is a technique you can use to prepare for behavioral and situational interview questions. STAR stands for: situation, task, action and result.This method will help you prepare clear and concise responses using real-life examples.Hiring managers ask behavioral interview questions to determine whether you are the right fit for a job. By using the STAR strategy, you can make sure you’re fully addressing the interviewer’s question while also demonstrating how you were able to overcome previous challenges and be successful.

      The [[STAR method]] can help people prepare for [[behavioural interview]] questions

    1. Case study analysis of the communities of Shishmaref, Newtok,Kivalina, and Quinhagak, Alaska, USA, was the primary methodused to understand the environmental impacts



    1. διαδικασία Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary Jump to navigation Jump to search Greek

      Greek Noun

      διαδικασία • (diadikasía) f (plural διαδικασίες)

      1. procedure, process, method, protocol
      2. (computing) function, subroutine, procedure
  10. Oct 2020
    1. An Evaluation of Problem-based Learning Supported by Information and Communication Technology: A Pilot Study

      (Under "Viewing Options", select PDF.) In this article, Ernawaty and Sujono (2019) summarize results of a study funded by the Research and Higher Education Directorate of Indonesia. The study aimed to evaluate the cogency of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in problem based learning (PBL) and traditional teaching methods (TTM) based upon learner test scores. The concepts of PBL, TTM, and implications of ICTs are briefly reviewed. Results of the study revealed that PBL with the support of an ICT yielded the highest test scores. (6/10)

    1. But thirdly, and most valuably, the template gives you a big space at the bottom to write sentences that summarise the page.  That is, you start writing your critical response on the notes themselves.

      I do much this same thing, however, I'm typically doing it using Hypothes.is to annotate and highlight. These pieces go back to my own website where I can keep, categorize, and even later search them. If I like, I'll often do these sorts of summaries on related posts themselves (usually before I post them publicly if that's something I'm planning on doing for a particular piece.)

    1. Weber notes that according to any economic theory that posited man as a rational profit-maximizer, raising the piece-work rate should increase labor productivity. But in fact, in many traditional peasant communities, raising the piece-work rate actually had the opposite effect of lowering labor productivity: at the higher rate, a peasant accustomed to earning two and one-half marks per day found he could earn the same amount by working less, and did so because he valued leisure more than income. The choices of leisure over income, or of the militaristic life of the Spartan hoplite over the wealth of the Athenian trader, or even the ascetic life of the early capitalist entrepreneur over that of a traditional leisured aristocrat, cannot possibly be explained by the impersonal working of material forces,

      Science could learn something from this. Science is too far focused on the idealized positive outcomes that it isn't paying attention to the negative outcomes and using that to better define its outline or overall shape. We need to define a scientific opportunity cost and apply it to the negative side of research to better understand and define what we're searching for.

      Of course, how can we define a new scientific method (or amend/extend it) to better take into account negative results--particularly in an age when so many results aren't even reproducible?

    1. Fieldwork usually means living with and living like those who are studied
    2. Fieldwork usually means living with and living like those who are studied
    3. o be sure, ethnography has a long history, and its techniques, goals, and representational styles mean different things, not always complementary, to its many cu-rious readers.
    4. o be sure, ethnography has a long history, and its techniques, goals, and representational styles mean different things, not always complementary, to its many cu-rious readers.



  11. link-springer-com.uaccess.univie.ac.at link-springer-com.uaccess.univie.ac.at
    1. This leads me to my bet: by analyzing the form and content of futures talk in such sitesof hyperprojectivity, we can understand the mechanisms by which future projectionsaffect decisions, relations, and institutions
    2. I have made a number of theoretical arguments and placed somemethodological bets for future researc
    3. I have made a number of theoretical arguments and placed somemethodological bets for future researc
    4. This leads me to my bet: by analyzing the form and content of futures talk in such sitesof hyperprojectivity, we can understand the mechanisms by which future projectionsaffect decisions, relations, and institutions
  12. Sep 2020
    1. he PSH,1 at present year, counts with a tower of 36 m height, a control room and a field of 29 heliostats. The total of the installed heliostats can be separated in two sizes, as follows: 12 heliostats of 36 m2 (each one having 25 flat mirrors of 1.2 m × 1.2 m); 17 heliostats of 37.44 m2 (each one with 32 flat mirrors of 1.3 m × 0.9 m). The total reflecting-area is close to 1,070 m2. The heliostats installed on the field allow reaching a theoretical solar radiation concentration factor of 25, which corresponds to a thermal power of approximat

      method, control

    2. Table 2. Reference values for WBGT (°C) at corresponding work intensity.

      foundational research to base heat stress on productivity analysis: reference values for WBGT to work intensity