1,425 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
    1. S-)$+"#$91*+$+H-$0#&+=)'#*$*0"-81)*$"1(#$0-&0#9+=18'O#4$+"#$4"#$%"&3"("$9)'C1)'8,$1*$1&$-7Z#0+Y$4)1H'&2$0-C91)I'*-&*$7#+H##&$1$*"##+$-.$919#)$1&4$-+"#)$-7Z#0+I$71*#4$C#+19"-)*$+"1+$8'@#&$+"#$C'&4$+-$1$017'&#+Y$1$+"#1+#)Y$1$)--CY$-)$1$"-=*#Vf

      Most of the object-based metaphors for the mind over the past two centuries are spaces or location-based: a cabinet, a theater, a room, or a house. This would seem to show a close association of our prior uses of mnemotechniques, particularly the method of loci, for remembering anything with the mind.

      Are there any non-object/non-location based metaphors other than the tabula rasa mentioned by Matthew Daniel Eddy?



  2. May 2022
    1. When chatting with my father about the proton research he summed it up nicely, that two possible responses to hearing that how we measure something seems to change its nature, throwing the reliability of empirical testing into question, are: “Science has been disproved!” or “Great!  Another thing to figure out using the Scientific Method!” The latter reaction is everyday to those who are versed in and comfortable with the fact that science is not a set of doctrines but a process of discovery, hypothesis, disproof and replacement.  Yet the former reaction, “X is wrong therefore the system which yielded X is wrong!” is, in fact, the historical norm.
  3. Apr 2022
    1. The connections will still make it easier to remember and understand.

      Linking one's ideas together is a means of contextualizing them as well as situating them in a particular location with respect to your other knowledge. This creation of structure and place (loci) helps to quicken one's memory of not on the new item, but the items to which it is attached.

    1. Dr Ellie Murray, ScD. (2021, September 19). We really need follow-up effectiveness data on the J&J one shot vaccine, but not sure what this study tells us. A short epi 101 on case-control studies & why they’re hard to interpret. 🧵/n [Tweet]. @EpiEllie. https://twitter.com/EpiEllie/status/1439587659026993152

    1. In this way the pressures of the multitude and diversity of authorita-tive opinion, already articulated in the previous century by Peter Abelard (1079–1142), were heightened by the development of reference books, from indexes and concordances that made originalia searchable and to the large compilations that excerpted and summarized from diverse sources.

      Prior to the flourishing of reference materials, Peter Abelard (1079-1142) had articulated the idea of "the multitude and diversity of authoritative opinion" to be found in available material. How was one to decide which authority to believe in a time before the scientific method?

      link to https://hypothes.is/a/oMSaKLb2EeyXOE_0Yh1Chw

    2. Even if the Speculum was copied only in parts, Vincent of Beauvais exposed the reader to multiple opinions on any topic he discussed. Neither the concordance nor the encyclo-pedic compendium resolved the textual difficulties or contradictions that they helped bring to light. Vincent explicitly left to the reader the task of reaching a final conclusion amid the diversity of authoritative opinions that might exist on a question: “I am not unaware of the fact that philosophers have said many contradictory things, especially about the nature of things. . . . I warn the reader, lest he perhaps be horrified, if he finds some contradictions of this kind among the names of diverse authors in many places of this work, especially since I have acted in this work not as an author, but as an excerptor, that I did not try to reduce the sayings of the philosophers to agreement but report what each said or wrote on each thing; leaving to the judgment of the reader to decide which opinion to prefer.”161

      Interesting that Vincent of Beauvais indicates that there were discrepancies between the authors, but leaves it up to the reader to decide for themself.

      What would the reader do in these cases in a culture before the scientific method and the coming scientific revolutions? Does this statement prefigure the beginning of a cultural shift?

      Are there other examples of (earlier) writers encouraging the the comparison of two different excerpts from "expert" or authoritative sources to determine which should have precedence?

      What other methods would have encouraged this sort of behavior?

    1. You should avoid such items whenever possible due to the high cost of retaining memories based on sets.

      Piotr Wozniak recommends against avoiding memorizing sets and prefers enumerations.

      Is this a result of his not knowing the method of loci as a means of travelling through sets and remembering them easily? It's certainly evidence he wasn't aware of the as a general technique.

      He does mention peg techniques, mind maps, and general mnemonic techniques.

  4. Mar 2022
    1. ReconfigBehSci on Twitter: ‘@alexdefig are you really going to claim that responses to the introduction of passports on uptake across 4 other countries are evidentially entirely irrelevant to whether or not passports are justified or not?’ / Twitter. (n.d.). Retrieved 31 March 2022, from https://twitter.com/SciBeh/status/1444358068280565764

    1. James Heathers. (2021, October 26). Perish the thought I would be as peremptory as @GidMK. No, I’m going to hector, mock, or annoy those replies, THEN ask for money, THEN block you when I get bored. See, these aren’t rebuttals. No-one’s said anything about the actual work. Nothing. Not a sausage. [Tweet]. @jamesheathers. https://twitter.com/jamesheathers/status/1452980059497762824


      Elizabeth Filips has digital versions of medical school notes online. She's drawn them (in software) by hand with color and occasional doodles in them (there's an image of Einstein's head with an E=mc^2 under it on one page) which makes them more memorable for having made them in the first place, but with the color and the pictures, they act as a memory palace.

      I've found no evidence (yet) that she's using direct mnemonics or that she's been specifically trained in the method of loci or other techniques. This doesn't, however, mean that she's not tangentially using them without knowing about them explicitly.

      One would suspect that this sort of evolutionary movement towards such techniques would have been how they evolved in the first place.

    1. Topic A topic was once a spot not a subjecttopic. to ̆p’ı ̆k. n. 1. The subject of a speech, essay, thesis, or discourse. 2. A subject of discussion or con-versation. 3. A subdivision of a theme, thesis, or outline.*With no teleprompter, index cards, or even sheets of paper at their disposal, ancient Greek and Roman orators often had to rely on their memories for holding a great deal of information. Given the limi-tations of memory, the points they chose to make had to be clustered in some meaningful way. A popular and quite reliable method for remembering information was known as loci (see Chapter 9), where loci was Latin for “place.” It involved picking a house you knew well, imagining it in your mind’s eye, and then associating the facts you wanted to recall with specifi c places inside of that house. Using this method, a skillful orator could mentally fi ll up numerous houses with the ideas he needed to recall and then simply “visit” them whenever he spoke about a particular subject. The clusters of informa-tion that speakers used routinely came to be known as commonplaces, loci communes in Latin and koinos topos in Greek. The great Greek philosopher Aristotle referred to them simply as topos, meaning “places.” And that’s how we came to use topic to refer to subject or grouping of information.**

      Even in the western tradition, the earliest methods of mnemonics tied ideas to locations, from whence we get the ideas of loci communes (in Latin) and thence commonplaces and commonplace books. The idea of loci communes was koinos topos in Greek from whence we have derived the word 'topic'.

      Was this a carryover from other local oral traditions or a new innovation? Given the prevalence of very similar Indigenous methods around the world, it was assuredly not an innovation. Perhaps it was a rediscovery after the loss of some of these traditions locally in societies that were less reliant on orality and moving towards more reliance on literacy for their memories.

    1. These ways of knowinghave inherent value and are leading Western scientists to betterunderstand celestial phenomena and the history and heritage thisconstitutes for all people.

      The phrase "ways of knowing" is fascinating and seems to have a particular meaning across multiple contexts.

      I'd like to collect examples of its use and come up with a more concrete definition for Western audiences.

      How close is it to the idea of ways (or methods) of learning and understanding? How is it bound up in the idea of pedagogy? How does it relate to orality and memory contrasted with literacy? Though it may not subsume the idea of scientific method, the use, evolution, and refinement of these methods over time may generally equate it with the scientific method.

      Could such an oral package be considered a learning management system? How might we compare and contrast these for drawing potential equivalencies of these systems to put them on more equal footing from a variety of cultural perspectives? One is not necessarily better than another, but we should be able to better appreciate what each brings to the table of world knowledge.

  5. Feb 2022
    1. 9/8g Hinter der Zettelkastentechnik steht dieErfahrung: Ohne zu schreiben kann mannicht denken – jedenfalls nicht in anspruchsvollen,selektiven Zugriff aufs Gedächtnis voraussehendenZusammenhängen. Das heißt auch: ohne Differenzen einzukerben,kann man nicht denken.

      Google translation:

      9/8g The Zettelkasten technique is based on experience: You can't think without writing—at least not in contexts that require selective access to memory.

      That also means: you can't think without notching differences.

      There's something interesting about the translation here of "notching" occurring on an index card about ideas which can be linked to the early computer science version of edge-notched cards. Could this have been a subtle and tangential reference to just this sort of computing?

      The idea isn't new to me, but in the last phrase Luhmann tangentially highlights the value of the zettelkasten for more easily and directly comparing and contrasting the ideas on two different cards which might be either linked or juxtaposed.

      Link to:

      • Graeber and Wengrow ideas of storytelling
      • Shield of Achilles and ekphrasis thesis

      • https://hypothes.is/a/I-VY-HyfEeyjIC_pm7NF7Q With the further context of the full quote including "with selective access to memory" Luhmann seemed to at least to make space (if not give a tacit nod?) to oral traditions which had methods for access to memories in ways that modern literates don't typically give any credit at all. Johannes F.K .Schmidt certainly didn't and actively erased it in Niklas Luhmann’s Card Index: The Fabrication of Serendipity.

    1. To create trails  When we are studying a text we need to take the time to understand more than just the storyline. During your second reading, any comments made during the first reading (marginal comments or summaries) will quickly give you the gist of your first reading, so that you can take advantage of your second.

      While multiple readings of a text in antiquity may have been rarer, due to the cheap proliferation of books, one can more easily "blaze a trail" through their reading to make it easier or quicker to rebuild context on subsequent readings.

      Look at history of reading to see which books would have been more likely re-read, particularly outside of one's primary "area" of expertise.

      Link to the trails mentioned by Vannevar Bush in As We May Think.

    1. 苏轼给的建议是,一本史书,要读很多遍,每一遍都只专注于一个层面,所谓“每书数过,一意求之”。想研究政治政策,就着重于书中的奏章言论;想搞懂典章制度,就着重于书中官职升迁礼仪往来,想看明白地理建制,就着重于书中的地名沿革山河变动。


    1. The linear process promoted by most study guides, which insanelystarts with the decision on the hypothesis or the topic to write about,is a sure-fire way to let confirmation bias run rampant.

      Many study and writing guides suggest to start ones' writing or research work with a topic or hypothesis. This is a recipe for disaster to succumb to confirmation bias as one is more likely to search out for confirming evidence rather than counter arguments. Better to start with interesting topic and collect ideas from there which can be pitted against each other.

    1. Deepti Gurdasani. (2022, January 29). Going to say this again because it’s important. Case-control studies to determine prevalence of long COVID are completely flawed science, but are often presented as being scientifically robust. This is not how we can define clinical syndromes or their prevalence! A thread. [Tweet]. @dgurdasani1. https://twitter.com/dgurdasani1/status/1487366920508694529

    1. Deepti Gurdasani. (2022, January 30). Have tried to now visually illustrate an earlier thread I wrote about why prevalence estimates based on comparisons of “any symptom” between infected cases, and matched controls will yield underestimates for long COVID. I’ve done a toy example below here, to show this 🧵 [Tweet]. @dgurdasani1. https://twitter.com/dgurdasani1/status/1487578265187405828

  6. Jan 2022
    1. Generally, bootstrap involves the following steps:
      1. A sample from population with sample size n.
      2. Draw a sample from the original sample data with replacement with size n, and replicate B times, each re-sampled sample is called a Bootstrap Sample, and there will totally B Bootstrap Samples.
      3. Evaluate the statistic of θ for each Bootstrap Sample, and there will be totally B estimates of θ.
      4. Construct a sampling distribution with these B Bootstrap statistics and use it to make further statistical inference, such as:
        • Estimating the standard error of statistic for θ.
        • Obtaining a Confidence Interval for θ.
    1. Survivals of this spatially oriented technique still mark our language when we say “in the first place” and “passing on to the next point.”

      The use of mnemonic techniques through history have been crystalized into our language with phrases like "in the first place" and "passing on to the next point".

    1. The effect was beautifully suggested by Victor Hugo in a familiar passage in Notre-Dame de Paris (183 1) when the scholar holding his first printed book turns away from his manuscripts, looks a t the cathedral, and says "This will kill that" (Ceci tuera cela). Print also destroyed "the invisible cathedrals of memory." For the printed book made it less nec- essary to shape ideas and things into vivid images and then store them in Memory-places.

      In Notre-Dame de Paris (1831) Victor Hugo depicts a scholar holding his first printed book. He turns away from his manuscripts to look at the cathedral and says "This will kill that" (Ceci tuera cela). Similarly the printed book made it far less necessary to store one's knowledge into cathedrals of memory.

    1. 後來藉由Reading note的方式,發現能讓閱讀後的記憶持續更久,忘記時也能藉由筆記迅速找到需要的資訊
    2. 文章篇幅長就比較容易有看了就忘的情況,常常一個段落要重複看幾次才能掌握其中的訊息,抑或是在文獻綜述階段閱讀的參考文獻等到要實際寫論文時記憶已經模糊
    3. 看這類句子先看動詞部分,能夠更理解句子的主要意思而非糾結於專業單字上,閱讀速度也有所提升
    4. 在大學以前所閱讀的英文文章大多是考試時的短文抑或是詞彙較日常的小說,而學術型論文中有大量不同專業領域的單字,若還是保持著以往邊看邊查單字的的習慣,閱讀速度則大幅降低,也比較難記住文章的重點內容



  7. Dec 2021
    1. Hobbes and Rousseau told their contemporaries things that werestartling, profound and opened new doors of the imagination. Nowtheir ideas are just tired common sense. There’s nothing in them thatjustifies the continued simplification of human affairs. If socialscientists today continue to reduce past generations to simplistic,two-dimensional caricatures, it is not so much to show us anythingoriginal, but just because they feel that’s what social scientists areexpected to do so as to appear ‘scientific’. The actual result is toimpoverish history – and as a consequence, to impoverish our senseof possibility.

      The simplification required to make models and study systems can be a useful tool, but one constantly needs to go back to the actual system to make sure that future predictions and work actually fit the real world system.

      Too often social theorists make assumptions which aren't supported in real life and this can be a painfully dangerous practice, especially when those assumptions are built upon in ways that put those theories out on a proverbial creaking limb.

      This idea is related to the bias that Charles Mathewes points out about how we treat writers as still living or as if they never lived. see: https://hypothes.is/a/VTU2lFvZEeyiJ2tN76i4sA

    1. Every serious (academic) historical work includes a conversation with other scholarship, and this has largely carried over into popular historical writing.

      Any serious historical or other academic work should include a conversation with the body of other scholarship with which argues for or against.

      Comparing and contrasting one idea with another is crucial for any sort of advancement.

    1. Object of the study is the case of urban planning and policyexperiments in land management and reuse, food productionand local procurement in the city of Cleveland.

      The authors use "situated and articulated qualitative research strategies" (p. 241) through a case study approach to analyze experimentation with land management, food production and procurement strategies in Cleveland, Ohio, through the lens of post-capitalism and social -innovation theories, and offered up by traditional community development actors, city administrators and anchor institutions.



    1. Tom Moultrie. (2021, December 12). Given the comedic misinterpretation of the South African testing data offered by @BallouxFrancois (and many others!) last night ... I offer some tips having contributed to the analysis of the testing data for the @nicd_sa since April last year. (1/6) [Tweet]. @tomtom_m. https://twitter.com/tomtom_m/status/1469954015932915718

    1. Drexel, for instance, held those teach-ers ridiculous who taught students to build up houses and rooms by means of imagination and stock them with images of memorable subjects (imagines agentes).16 According to the German Jesuit, the effort was not only huge but students wasted their time because images escape from these artificial places

      much as prisoners escape from jails without guards.17 16 Drexel, Aurifodina, 258 17 Drexel, Aurifodina, 3–4.

      Jeremias Drexel (1581 – 1638) recommended against the method of loci during the explosion of information in the late 16th and early 17th centuries.

      Add Drexel to the list of reformers against the ars memoria in the early 1600s.)

      While dealing with the information overload, educators may have inadvertently thrown out the baby with the bath water. While information still tends to increase and have increased complexity, some areas also show compression and concatenation and new theories subsume old information into their models. This means that one might know and understand Einstein which means that memorizing Newton's work is no longer needed at some point. Where should one draw the line of memorization for subsuming the knowledge of their culture? Aren't both old and new methods for memory usable? Keep the ars memoria while also using written methods.

    1. The analysis pro-vides a picture of how to measure success and sustainability. Table 3 demon-strates one option for how to translate the findings from this study into ameasurement framework that can be tested in other cases of local-to-nationalalliances.

      Dependent variables and their operationalization

    2. The study was developed in collaboration with the organization’s seniorleadership to examine its practices of alliance building,

      Co-research design



    1. Cox, a classically trained British stage actor, has a “turn it on, turn it off” approach to acting, and his relationship with Strong recalls a famous story about Laurence Olivier working with Dustin Hoffman on the 1976 film “Marathon Man.” On learning that Hoffman had stayed up partying for three nights before a scene in which he had to appear sleep-deprived, Olivier said, “My dear boy, why don’t you try acting?”

      Brian Cox

    1. Foucault proclaimed in a footnote: “ Appearance of the index card and development of the human sciences: another invention little celebrated by historians. ”

      from Foucault 1975, p. 363, n. 49; see Foucault 1966, pp. XV and passim for discourse analysis.

      Is he talking here about the invention of the index card about the same time as the rise of the scientific method? With index cards one can directly compare and contrast two different ideas as if weighing them on a balance to see which carries more weight. Then the better idea can win while the lesser is discarded to the "scrap heap"?

  8. Nov 2021
    1. Grimmer & Stewart (2013) - Text as Data: The Promise and Pitfalls of Automatic ContentAnalysis Methods for Political Texts

    1. tack towards discovery, towards truth

      This sailing metaphor is a useful one. Buffeted on all sides by distraction. Constantly shifting pressures, but generally going in the same direction. There maybe an ideal path forward, but the variables are too numerous to know where the ideal path lies.

    1. if the scholar wishes to understand the actions of people it is necessary forhim to see their objects as they see them’

      A method of symbolic interactionism...



    1. 2. MethodFour scales of parenting styles and other psychosocial adjustment measures were administered to 118 gifted (38 males and 77 females) and 115 normal (36 males and 82 females) adolescents between 11 and 14 years old. The study was conducted in three academic grades (sixth, seventh and eighth and ninth) of students' junior high school in Amol city. In the gifted children's school to which they had been admitted, the gifted subjects were administered an IQ test by the Ministry of Education, while the normal subjects were administered the text from the normal children's school.

      The method

    1. wn oral cultures the sorting function canbe performedW for exampleW by integration into a narrative Sstorytelling orbardic poetryTY

      The sorting function is also done by mental links from one space to another similar to the method of loci in Western culture. cross reference the idea of songlines

  9. Oct 2021
    1. Contingent valuation has become very prevalent in the last decade or so as method of assigning monetary values to non-market ‘goods and services so that those values can be included in a benefit cost or other policy analysis (Mitchell and Carson 1989).

      Discusses contingent valuation as an alternative to Cost-benefit analysis because it allows for the assignment of monetary values to non-market goods and services, such as ecosystem services.



    1. rank correlation analysis, using Kendall's tau-c. For this purpose the three urban renewal status classes are assumed to constitute a scale. Evidence that such an assumption is reasonable is present in Tables 1 and 3.

      Kendall's tau-c

      a non-parametric measure of relationships between columns of ranked data. The Tau correlation coefficient returns a value of 0 to 1, where: 0 is no relationship, 1 is a perfect relationship. source: https://www.statisticshowto.com/kendalls-tau/)



  10. Sep 2021
    1. Institutional Post-Secondary Educational Data System (IPEDS) to identify a population of eligible universities.

      Sampling of existing data - to ID universities likely to be involved in revitalization because of problematic urgan conditions + the orga capacity. Accredited Non-profit four-year, degree Urban pop >100K

      FRAME 2 referenced the literature and cross referenced with Carnegie Classifiaction fo rCommunity engagement , Anchor Instition Task Force and Coalition of Urban Serving Univesities.

      Self-identification by the universities. For accuracy.

      22/65 response rate. Covering every region in US but under represented in the South and West. Even dispersal amount city pop size.

    2. This study uses these frameworks to consider the normative question posed by the lit-erature: what are and/or what should anchor institutions be pursuing?

      Their framework borrows on the concept of redistribution of university wealth talent etc to neighborhood

    3. This study uses contemporary anchor institution frameworks

      What is the contemporary anchor institutional framework??



    1. three major categories of indicators.

      Indicators: demographic trends - pop and race; 2) socioeconomic trends (Pov, media hh income; 3) housing trens (units, vacancy, tenure, values.

    2. two subareas (Figure 1). The first is comprised of the 10 block groups located in the Sadie Tanner Mossell Alexander University of Pennsylvania Partnership School catchment area, more commonly referred to as the Penn Alexander School (PAS). These 10 block groups received the full array of WPI interventions, including access to enrollment in the Penn-sponsored neighborhood public school. The second subarea includes the portions of University City outside of the PAS catch-ment, defined as all block groups located in the University City boundary, exclusive of those groups also in the PAS catchment. These block groups received most of the WPI interventions, excluding access to the PAS

      Catchment definition in ACS five-year And Outside the Catchment

    3. five-year estimates from the ACS provide continuity in the socioeconomic indicators.

      five-year ACS at block group level has a wide margin of error. The census blocks and tracts may not accurately reflect the actual catchment area of the school. (approximate)

    4. The University of Pennsylvania (Penn)

      Why UPenn as the point of examination? Previous research: cass on UPenn's WPI 0 West Philadelphia Initiatives. But NON have looked at the neighborhood impacts Etienne - Among most sign qual research - but narrow subset - not comprehensive - no stats or measures of broader NH Change.

    1. It draws upon material from a significant number of interviews that the author has conducted with this group in a variety of economic sectors and



    1. articipant observation and 30 interviews conducted over three yearsfrom 2011 until 2014 on and around the High Line with visitors, FHL staff and volunteersand local business owners.




    1. snowball sample of quali- tative researchers and sent them an informal survey, asking them about methods of qualitative data analysis they had been using, and inviting them to send specific examples, B. The Nature of This Book =» 3 exhibits, and suggestions. Many of the ideas from these 126 colleagues have been included.

      Asked other researchers by informal survey about qual methods of analysis that they use and to send examples.



    1. Methodology

      where the data came from

    2. This survey looked at the 20 largestcities in America and focused on thetop 10 private firms in each (see Table1). T

      Survey of 20 top US cities - 10p 10 private firms.

    1. Voice is lost

      Can we, like Shepherds, tell a merry Tale? Stephen Duck, The Thresher's Tale (poem)

      There's a link here to shepherds and a bardic tradition. In some sense, shepherds have lots of time to kill during the day and thus potentially tell stories. But they're also moving around their environment which also makes it easier for them to have used songline-like methods for attaching their memories to their environment.

      How far back might this tradition go in our literate culture?

      I also wonder at the influence of time on oral traditions as the result of this. Lynne Kelly describes calendrical devices in a variety of indigenous settings in Knowledge and Power in Prehistoric Societies for potential use in annual spaced repetition. What about the spaced repetition within daily cycles of regular work as described in this paper with respect to shepherds, fishing communities, and crofting?

      The daily cycle of life may have been a part of the spaced repetition for memory.

      How might we show this?

      A quick example that comes to mind is the French children's song Alouette, Gentille Alouette which details how one kills, cleans, and dresses a chicken for cooking.

    1. he term 'partic

      Participatory research - make the research useful for the community of focus and involve them in its design and execution.

    2. s. However, in regard to outcomes, I would add two more bench-marks, namely whether (v) the research enables both researchers and respondents to be more fully aware of the issues being investigated; (vi) the poor use the research findings for their own purpose

      Outcomes criteria.

    3. i) they (the poor) define the issues to be researched; (ii) they contribute to deciding how the topic should be researched; (iii) they participate in collecting the research material; (iv) they interpr

      Criteria for judging if research benefits the vulnerable.



    1. While itis important to recognize the value of respondents’ time andcontributions to our research, inappropriate levels of remunera-tion can be either coercive or extractive (Paradis, 2000).

      Renumeration of interviewees for time can be extractive.

    2. remuneration. Weargue that it can be unethical to ask low-income workers tointerrupt their work to participate in research activities withoutcompensating them for their time.

      Pay low-wage people for their time.

    3. en exploitative in terms of the time andenergy requested of low-i

      Design research based on community priorities so as to avoid exploitation and be authentically engaged

    4. Ethnography as a method2 is suitable for use in doublyengaged social science research because of one important fea-ture: Researchers must embed themselves in the communitiesthey study, and this immersive approach gives scholars a better,clearer, and more in-depth view of the particular policy chal-lenges facing those populations.

      Embedding research - immersive approach - good for descovering policy challenges.

    5. Ethnography: A Doubly Engaged SocialScience Research Method Suited toVulnerable Populations?

      Theoretic Context begins here.



    1. Bigger is better.

      Research shows that high-resolution monitors make thinking easier. This also seems true of classrooms which use large posters and maps as teaching aids at lower grades.

      Why don't we use these methods as we grow older?

      When used in mnemonic traditions, one can use vast spaces to create memory palaces that become thinking vistas within the brain. How can we better leverage these effects while still maintaining the effectiveness of focused journeys?

    2. Valorize motion, not sitting still.

      I wonder how much of our genetic programming is based on centuries of evolution with humans moving around their landscapes and attaching their memories to them?

      Within Lynne Kelly's thesis about stone circles, henges, etc. most of the locations have roads and entryways into them which require movement much less the idea of dancing and singing attached to memory performance as well.

    1. At the same time that we were trying to find some fruitful categories in which to group our inter- viewees, we were analysing issues or themes in the in- terviews.

      iterative methodological process.

    2. This attempt to make sense out of our information by placing the women into categories of ‘changers’ and ‘non-chang

      Categorization of womens' roles ignored complexities of their situations.

    3. However, we recognized a usually unarticulated tension between friendships and the goal of research.3 The researcher’s goal is always to gather information; thus the danger always exists of manipulating friendships to that end.

      Mentions weakness of the method of the study - manipulation.

    4. is As we pointed out, our commitment to minimizing the power differentials of the relationship in the research was further confounded when it came to the analysis. We found that we had to assume the role of the people with the power to define. The act of look- ing at interviews, summarizing another’s life, and placing it within a context is an act of objectification.

      Weakness of method in upholding feminist ideals - the fundamental objectification of the participants during the analysis. What is objectification.. depersonalization of women, perpetuating historical harms?

    5. er part of the attempt to deal with the subject-object problem was to try to establish some reciprocity by offering, at the end of the first inter- view, to tell the women something about ourselves if we had not done so earlier. Often we didn’t have to offer - it was a request made to us. We always responded as honestly as we could, talking about aspects of our lives that were similar to the things we had been discussing about the experience of the inter- viewee - our marriages, our children, our jobs, our parents. Often this meant also that our relationship was defined as something which existed beyond the limits of the interview situation. We formed friend- ships with many of the women in the study.

      "Subject-object problem" addressed.

    6. The women were interviewed in their own homes by one of the three of us as investigators. We had in- terviews with 65 women and followed a sub-group of 30 women for four to five years. We tried not to im- pose our ideas about what was important; our inten- tion was to let the concepts, explanations and inter- pretations of those participating in the study become the data we would analyse (Glazer and Strauss, 1973). While we tried to avoid determining what was to be considered in the content of consciousness, we were still aware of our own theoretical ideas. In our continual process of analysis we had to confront discrepancies between our ideas and interpretations and those of the women we interviewed. As the inter- view process proceeded, we decided to bring up cer- tain questions if they did not emerge in the inter- views.

      65 women interviewed in their own home... HOW WERE THEY SELECTED?

    7. e decided to look at the experiences of women who had been primarily mothers and wives and were attempting to move into the labor market.

      Research sample: Women who were first mother's and wives entering the job market.

    8. We chose repeated, unstructured, individual interviews as well as some group interviews.

      Unstructed interviews of individuals and group interviews. (sampling structure???)

    9. The following is an account of our research process and the problems we encountered. The feminist critique of social

      Methods section begins here - an account of the research process.

    10. n this analysis, we use a dialectical method, in order to arrive . . . ‘at adequate descrip- tion and analysis of how it actually works. Our methods cannot rest in procedures for deciding among different formalized “opinions” about the world’ (Smith, 1977). Rather, this is a method of ex- ploration and discovery, a way to begin to search for understandings that may contribute to the goals of liberation. E

      Dialectical method? Qual research method aimed at finding the "truth"through interrogation of complex ideas, perspectives or arguments. Not about a hypothesis, rather, an attempt to generate a new understanding. Works with ideas rather than data. Applications: organizational processes, or to understand the philosophy of a movement. (WIKI)

      In this case, it's about understanding the goals of liberation.

    1. Bracher, J., Wolffram, D., Deuschel, J., Görgen, K., Ketterer, J. L., Ullrich, A., Abbott, S., Barbarossa, M. V., Bertsimas, D., Bhatia, S., Bodych, M., Bosse, N. I., Burgard, J. P., Castro, L., Fairchild, G., Fuhrmann, J., Funk, S., Gogolewski, K., Gu, Q., … Xu, F. T. (2021). A pre-registered short-term forecasting study of COVID-19 in Germany and Poland during the second wave. Nature Communications, 12(1), 5173. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-25207-0

  11. Aug 2021
    1. Then there are the really exotic hands, which are turned into a visual feast. Fig. 7 shows and an arm that was turned into the body of a dragon, while the hands in Fig. 8 (which look like ladies’ gloves) are attached to the wrong location on the human body. These hands are not just meant to point out an important passage, they must also have been intended to bring a smile on the reader’s face.

      Far beyond this, they're most likely used as mnemonic devices to associate the important information with a more memorable image for storing in one's memory palace.

    1. I'd start with the basics of 0-9 of the Major System and then introduce the method of loci. Once they've got those two basics down reasonably I'd expand their Major system up to 99 at a minimum.

      The tougher part then is expanding your pedagogy to build these tools into the curriculum so that you're actively using them with your content.

      You might appreciate the experience from Lynne Kelly here: https://www.lynnekelly.com.au/?p=4794. Her excellent book Memory Craft also has some interesting examples and stories for children including the use of what she calls rapscallions for use in multiplication tables, languages, and other educational applications. Her book also has a wealth of other methods and potential applications depending on the subjects you're teaching.

      I'd love to hear your experiences as you progress with your class.

    1. commonplace tabulae effectively functioned as memory aids to beused in conjunction with other texts and the direct observation of objects.

      The commonplace tabulae created by Linnaeus used spatial layout which also served as memory aids.

    2. This connection between the topical space of book pages andcabinet interiors was reinforced by the very word, loculus, which Linnaeus generally used to referto cabinet compartments. This term was diminutive of locus, that is, the word employed by clas-sical orators to denote a ‘place’ in the mind reserved for related ideas or concepts. Early modernhumanists drew direct analogies between the label assigned to such places in the mind and theheads that they used to gloss the content of quotations and personal observations. This relationshipbetween the ‘space’ of the mind and space on the page facilitated the logic of commonplacing all

      the way through the eighteenth century.

      Direct linguistic analogies for commonplacing one's notes and the placing of ideas into the memory via the word locus.

    1. It was today as I was doing Chinese vocabulary that it struck me. I tried to add words using the locations from memory because it was cold, and I didn’t want to go out. I know each of the houses in the songline, but adding vocabulary is way way easier when I walk and do the learning in the physical space. I couldn’t do it from home.

      I seem to recall reading anecdotes of aboriginal peoples who knew areas and water holes in places they'd never visited in their lives. I'm wondering how they may have encoded these in songlines for places they'd never been to and physically seen.

      It would seem that it's better to use a physical space when you have access to it, but I don't think I have as much issue adding things to pre-existing palaces/songlines as Kelly describes here. I wonder how this works out for others?

    2. I am beginning to think that the significant difference is that with songlines, learning is always done in the physical ‘memory palace’ which is constantly revisited. It can be recalled from memory, but is encoded in place. For me, that is way more effective, but I have aphantasia and very poor visualisation, so it may not be as big a factor for others. So recalling your childhood home can be a memory palace, but not a songline.

      Lynne Kelly is correct here that we need better delineations of the words we're using here.

      To some of us, we're taking historical methods and expanding them into larger super sets based on our personal experiences. I've read enough of Kelly's work and her personal experiences on her website (and that of many others) that I better understand the shorthand she uses when she describes pieces.

      Even in the literature throughout the middle ages and the Renaissance we see this same sort of picking and choosing of methods in descriptions of various texts. Some will choose to focus on one or two keys, which seemed to work for them, but they'd leave out the others which means that subsequent generations would miss out on the lost bits and pieces.

      Having a larger superset of methods to choose from as well as encouraging further explorations is certainly desired.

    1. Anecdotal mention here of someone using sketchnotes or doodling as a mnemonic device.

      Sketchnotes could be a means of implementing visual method of loci in one's note taking. Like creating a faux memory palace. Also somewhat similar, expecially in the case of the leaf doodle mentioned above, to the idea of drolleries, but in this case, they're not taking advantage of the memory's greater capacity of imagination to make things even more memorable for long term retention.

    1. https://www.reddit.com/r/commonplacebook/comments/jb8x3d/what_does_your_indexing_system_look_like/

      Brief discussion of indexing systems for commonplace books. Locke's system is mentioned. Another person uses a clunky system at the bottom of pages to create threaded links.

      Intriguingly, one person mentions visiting theirs often enough that they remember where things are. (spaced repetition with a bit of method of loci going on here)

    1. After a long and influential career, commonplace books lost their influence in the late seventeenth century. Classical passages were relegated to the anti- quarian scholar; they no longer molded discourse and life. Men who sought confirmation in empirical evidence and scientific measurement had little use for commonplace books.

      I believe that Earle Havens disputes the idea of the waning of the commonplace book after this.

      I would draw issue with it as well. Perhaps it lost some ground in the classrooms of the youth, but Harvard was teaching the idea during Ralph Waldo Emerson's time during the 1800s. Then there's the rise of the Zettelkasten in Germany in the 1700s (and later officially in the 1900s).

      Lichtenberg specifically mentions using his commonplace as a scientific tool for sharpening his ideas.

      Can we find references to other commonplacers like Francis Bacon mentioning the use of them for science?

  12. Jul 2021
    1. Psychologist BJ Fogg is the founder and director of the Behavior Design Lab at Stanford University — he’s coached over 40,000 people in his behavior change methods and influenced countless more. His Tiny Habits method states that a new behavior happens when three elements come together: motivation, ability and a prompt.
    1. The difference between PUT and POST is that PUT is idempotent: calling it once or several times successively has the same effect (that is no side effect), whereas successive identical POST requests may have additional effects, akin to placing an order several times.
    1. So long as the filters are only using GET requests to pull down links, there’s nothing fundamentally wrong with them. It’s a basic (though oft-ignored) tenet of web development that GET requests should be idempotent; that is, they shouldn’t somehow change anything important on the server. That’s what POST is for. A lot of people ignore this for convenience’s sake, but this is just one way that you can get bitten. Anyone remember the Google Web Accelerator that came out a while ago, then promptly disappeared? It’d pre-fetch links on a page to speed up things if you clicked them later on. And if one of those links happened to delete something from a blog, or log you out… well, then you begin to see why GET shouldn’t change things. So yes, the perfect solution to this is a 2-step unsubscribe link: the first step takes to you a page with a form on it, and that form then POSTs something back that finalizes the unsubscribe request.
    2. Idempotent just means that following a link twice has exactly the same effect on persistent state as clicking it once. It does not mean that following the link must not change state, just that after following it once, following it again must not change state further. There are good reasons to avoid GET requests for changing state, but that’s not what idempotent means.
    1. Each of them implements a different semantic, but some common features are shared by a group of them: e.g. a request method can be safe, idempotent, or cacheable.

      Which ones are in each group?

      Never mind. The answer is in the pages that are being linked to.

    2. request method can be safe, idempotent, or cacheable.
    1. How a memory palace works When we’re learning something new, it requires less effort if we connect it to something we already know, such as a physical place. This is known as elaborative encoding. Once we need to remember the information, we can “walk” around the palace and “see” the various pieces. The idea is to give your memories something to hang on to. We are pretty terrible at remembering things, especially when these memories float freely in our heads. But our spatial memory is actually pretty decent, and when we give our memories some needed structure, we provide that missing order and context. For example, if you struggle to remember names, it can be helpful to link people you meet to names you already know. If you meet someone called Fred and your grandmother had a cat called Fred, you could connect the two. Creating a multisensory experience in your head is the other part of the trick. In this case, you could imagine the sound of Fred meowing loudly. To further aid in recall, the method of loci is most effective if we take advantage of the fact that it’s easiest to remember memorable things. Memory specialists typically recommend mentally placing information within a physical space in ways that are weird and unusual. The stranger the image, the better.

      This notion of using spatial memory to encode other concepts - or even the P-A-O sytem where a 2 digit number encodes a person performing an action is an interesting idea for someone like me who forgets quite a bit.

  13. Jun 2021
    1. Soderberg, C. K., Errington, T. M., Schiavone, S. R., Bottesini, J., Thorn, F. S., Vazire, S., Esterling, K. M., & Nosek, B. A. (2021). Initial evidence of research quality of registered reports compared with the standard publishing model. Nature Human Behaviour, 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41562-021-01142-4

  14. www.nature.com www.nature.com