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  1. Last 7 days
  2. Jan 2022
    1. ike Jungius, Boyle made use of loose folio sheets that he called memorials or adversaria; yet he did not worry too much about a system of self-referential relationships that enabled intentional knowl-edge retrieval. When he realized that he was no longer able to get his bearings in an ocean of paper slips, he looked for a way out, testing several devices, such as colored strings or labels made of letters and numeral codes. Unfortunately, it was too late. As Richard Yeo clearly noted, ‘this failure to develop an effective indexing system resulted from years of trusting in memory in tandem with notes’.69

      69 Yeo, ‘Loose Notes’, 336

      Robert Boyle kept loose sheets of notes, which he called memorials or adversaria. He didn't have a system of organization for them and tried out variations of colored strings, labels made of letters, and numerical codes. Ultimately his scrap heap failed him for lack of any order and his trust in memory to hold them together failed.

      I love the idea of calling one's notes adversaria. The idea calls one to compare one note to another as if they were combatants in a fight (for truth).

      Are working with one's ideas able to fit into the idea of adversarial interoperability?

    1. And no child in highschool regardless should be able to do that either because of dresscode, horny hormone infused teenage boys, and you never know if some of the teacher are attracted to children.

      The writer of this argument does not use a specific type of evidence (first-hand, second-hand, and quantitative). The writer does not use facts proven by trustworthy authority, personal experience that would be reasoning for the writers opinion, or data that can be measured, but rather simply stating their opinion as evidence.

    2. So

      Chloe Nelson: Types of Evidence: This argument does not contain any evidence, inserting first-hand evidence here should have been done in order for the claim to be supported and make the reader trust the argument.

    3. because of dresscode, horny hormone infused teenage boys, and you never know if some of the teacher are attracted to children.

      The speaker uses confirmation bias, providing evidence as to why minors should not be allowed to exercise or be on school property without shirt without providing any reason as to why a child in school may do so, and providing a counter argument. The speaker uses first hand evidence that supports the speaker claim while also ignoring contradictory evidence.



    1. One photograph showing an emaciated man is next to another of a starving cow.

      Quantitative Evidence:

      This evidence has statistics that can be measured and counted, giving Peta's argument actually facts and numbered data. Whether or not the data is accurate or trustworthy is up for debate. Considering the number of fallacies and faulty authority there seems to be in their argument, it is likely this too may not be accurate.

    2. The campaign, he added, was funded by a Jewish philanthropist, who wished to remain anonymous.

      Second-Hand evidence:

      Peta did not experience this themselves, they had to do research and get the words of other people in order to make a point. Not only is this information not as trustworthy because it is second-hand but it is also anonymous which lowers its credits even more.

    1. Prof. Gavin Yamey MD MPH. (2022, January 7). Thank you @j_g_allen for continuing to advocate for childhood vaccination & for sharing evidence on masks Yesterday, the U.S. saw a record number of COVID-19 pediatric hospital admissions, almost 1,000 Unvaxxed kids are 10 X more likely to be hospitalized than vaxxed kids 1/2 [Tweet]. @GYamey. https://twitter.com/GYamey/status/1479265484562386944

    1. Natural News covered this story on September 20, 2021, with a headline: CONFIRMED: Gov. Inslee setting up covid concentration camps in Washington state, issuing job listings for “strike team” coordinators.

      First-hand evidence, straw-man fallacy: Citing their own website again, and warping what the COVID-19 strike teams actually are.

    2. I covered this in great detail in a Situation Update podcast entitled, “Situation Update, Sep 21, 2021 – Washington State hiring “strike teams” for COVID quarantine camps.” It is available here

      First-hand evidence, false authority: Mike Adams cites a podcast ...made by Mike Adams.

    3. Over the next decade, we now know, nearly 1.5 billion people will die from vaccine-related injuries, cancers, neurological disorders, organ damage and economic collapse. Each day, another 30 million vaccines are being administered, leading to the eventual deaths of another 10 million people over the next decade or so. They are essentially murdering 10 million people per day. This is a Holocaust-scale event every 14.4 hours.

      Qualitative evidence, first-hand evidence: Citing their own website rather than a reliable secondary source.

    4. As Jen Psaki said herself, “Our work doesn’t stop there and we are going to continue to press to get 12-18-year olds vaccinated… that’s one of the reasons why we initiated these strike forces to go into communities…” Here’s the video of Psaki saying this, in case you find it hard to believe:

      Straw man fallacy, second-hand evidence: While it is true that Psaki said this, NaturalNews is misrepresenting what she is truly saying. According to WebMD, the COVID-19 strike forces are "...made up of health and logistics experts from several federal agencies, will conduct coronavirus testing, distribute medicines designed to fight the virus and boost local and state efforts to increase vaccinations,". They are not forcing people to take "KILL SHOTS".

    5. From that article: It’s official: The White House has publicly and un-apologetically announced the deployment of “strike forces” — a military term — to go door-to-door across America, targeting unvaccinated people in their own homes. This was proudly announced yesterday by Jen Psaki. Very quickly, this program will be ramped up to full mandatory status, which means gunpoint enforcement of deadly shots, essentially meaning the U.S. government is unleashing death squads across America.

      First-hand evidence. NaturalNews citing NaturalNews.

    1. Whereas once the area was sufficient for both sides, there’s now only room for one. (There’s no hint of the fact that San Juan Hill was, in fact, a predominantly Black neighborhood.) The filmmakers’ attempt to pin down a cause for the Jets-Sharks rivalry reflects their more general shift, in the new film, toward facile psychologizing.

      The speaker is mostly just talking about a specific topic here and why the filmmaker has not done a great job with the racial problem.

    1. “Holcaust on Your Plate”

      Quantitative Evidence:

      This evidence has statistics that can be measured and counted, giving Peta's argument actually facts and numbered data. Whether or not the data is accurate or trustworthy is up for debate. Considering the number of fallacies and faulty authority there seems to be in their argument, it is likely this too may not be accurate.

    2. The campaign, headded, was funded by a Jewish philanthropist, who wished to remain anonymous.

      Second-Hand evidence:

      Peta did not experience this themselves, they had to do research and get the words of other people in order to make a point. Not only is this information not as trustworthy because it is second-hand but it is also anonymous which lowers its credits even more.



    1. 17-track album during lockdown.

      Quantitative evidence

    2. Salt air, and the rust on your doorI never needed anything more

      First hand evidence

    3. I’m doing good, I’m on some new sh*tBeen saying “yes” instead of “no”I thought I saw you at the bus stop, I didn’t though.

      First hand evidence. Heard this himself

    1. According to procon.org, students who look at a screen all day can develop computer vision syndrome.  This syndrome can cause dry eyes, blurred vision, eyestrains, and headaches.

      Type of Evidence: Second-Hand Evidence

      The author is citing evidence from an article he read so he is getting information from the author who got information elsewhere, making the evidence be second-hand.

  3. Dec 2021
    1. A Marm Kilpatrick. (2021, November 24). How do we get broad immunity to SARS-CoV-2 that will protect against future variants? 2 studies (are there more?) suggest that vaccination followed by infection gives broader protection than infection followed by vaccination. @florian_krammer @profshanecrotty @GuptaR_lab https://t.co/rqdf6rE9ej [Tweet]. @DiseaseEcology. https://twitter.com/DiseaseEcology/status/1463391782742335491

  4. Nov 2021
    1. being an insider to a cul-tural group necessarily means that the insiderresearcher has intimate knowledge of the par-ticular and situated experiences of all membersof the group or that generalizations can orshould be made about the knowledge the re-searcher holds about her own culture. A

      Being an insider doesn't equate to intimate knowledge of situated experience.

    2. I did not pursue vague statements, gener-alities, or even participant-initiated leads withfollow-up probes. “The observations . . . easily. . . overlooked” along with “the many taken-for-granted assumptions about social behavior

      Not diving deeper into vague statement, because she thought she could infer based on her own experience.

    3. tancing emotionally and intellectuallyfrom the substance of the material to enhance“abstraction of models or patterns of and forbehavior” as a native researcher (Ohnuki-Tierney, 1984 p. 584) resulted instead in dis-tancing from the process of the research and theability to att

      Challenge - trying to be distant didn't obtain thick description.



    1. COVID-19 Living Evidence. (2021, November 12). As of 12.11.2021, we have indexed 257,633 publications: 18,674 pre-prints 238,959 peer-reviewed publications Pre-prints: BioRxiv, MedRxiv Peer-reviewed: PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO https://t.co/ytOhLG90Pi [Tweet]. @evidencelive. https://twitter.com/evidencelive/status/1459163720450519042

    1. It’s even possible that future window stickers on new cars may point out that a vehicle meets cybersecurity standards.

      Evidence of hacking evolution

    2. The best-known vehicle takeover occurred in 2015 when security researchers on a laptop 10 miles away caused a Jeep Cherokee to lose power, change its radio station, turn on the windshield wipers and blast cold air. Jeep’s parent company, FCA, recalled 1.4 million vehicles to fix the vulnerability.

      Demonstrative evidence

    3. In 2019, the automotive cybersecurity company Karamba Security posted a fake vehicle electronic control unit online. In under three days, 25,000 breach attempts were made, and one succeeded.

      Demonstrative evidence of hacking evolution

    4. Karamba has been working with a South American trucking company whose fleet was hacked to hide it from its tracking system, allowing thieves to steal its cargo unnoticed.

      Evidence: actual committed crime

    1. The goal of fast fashion is the optimization of the supply chain. Globaliza-tion in particular has provided the low-cost labour and international markets neces-sary for the creation of a global assembly line, which allows for cheaper and faster production of clothing.

      Ledezma introduces an economic perspective into the growth of fast fashion. This is important as the reason behind company's decisions regarding fast fashion are based on economic opportunity. Ledezma specifically states that globalization has facilitated the production of fast fashion since companies can produce clothes in third world countries where they are able to pay low wages. This allows clothing to be sold for a lower price, while generating a large profit. This idea ties into the idea of variable cost, and opportunity cost in economics. The rhetor's idea is to appeal to the audience's logos since she is highlighting the economic approach to fast fashion, rather than relying on emotions to appeal to her audience. This is effective since this claim can be further backed up by statistics and other forms of data.

    2. n 2007, a research team from MIT, Stanford, and Carnegie Mellon conducted a study studying using fMRI technology to examine how the brain reacts when Western customers shop for clothing. They discovered that the brain shows greatly increased activity when we shop (Knutson, Rick, Wimmer, Prelec, and Loewenstein 149). The researchers concluded that consumers gain direct pleasure from shopping but they gain an even greater pleasure from receiving a bargain.

      Not only does Ledezma lay out the argument that the culture of the U.S. elevate the popularity and success of fast fashion, but she provides readers scientific evidence of the impact our culture has on our very minds. Because the ideal of cheap, in style clothing is so desirable to westerners and so deeply ingrained in our psyche, are we totally at fault for buying into an unsustainable way of life? Will humanity be able to move away from fast fashion despite the strong emotions we as humans hold towards it? The rhetor's simple language makes this study easy to understand and interestingly applicable to the understanding of globalization and fast fashion.

    1. hearchitect did not follow the principles used in the planningof the "Eleanor Roosevelt" complex other than the orthogonal

      Morell Campus development didn't follow the community development ideals of Greenbelt Towns. for reasons unknown.

    2. In Ponce, to the south of the island, the PRRAallocated $500,000 for the development and construction of aworkers' settlement as part of the Slum Clearance Program.

      Slum clearance in Ponce -

    3. was a tract housing complex or"urbanizacion" of which two were developed, the "EleanorRoosevelt" and the "Morell Campos" housing complexes.

      Morell Campus has a tract housing style.

    4. o her the planners' ideas of community wassynonymous with village.6

      The village of rht Greenbelt Towns was community development, per Christensen.

    5. The American GardenCity and the New Town Movement, "the decision to buildcities was of profound importance since it signified anunderstanding that housing was only one dimension of theproblem. More fundamental was the generaldisenfranchisement of the poor who lacked voice andinfluence.1,6

      Greenway new towns were to not just deal with housing, but the disenfranchisement of the poor....

  5. Oct 2021
    1. The average acreage involved in urban renewal projects in the 253 cities that were in the program in mid- 1959 was 78.6 per city, or about one-eighth of a square mile. But one-fourth of all ur- ban renewal acreage was contained in five cities; half the total was in nineteen cities. In the remaining cities the average acreage per city was 42.5, or a little over one- sixteenth of a square mile.

      Descriptive statistics on urban renewal projects in cities.

    2. Whether urban renewal is a form of col- lective action that would call into opera- tion the organization of the entire com- munity may be debatable

      She concedes that urban renewal may not actually involved community collective action.



    1. ReconfigBehSci. (2021, May 26). @Richard_Florida this is the Giesicke argument from Sweden- it makes sense only if you assume there will be no medical progress in the delay period. With vaccines and treatment improvements we know this to be empirically false. [Tweet]. @SciBeh. https://twitter.com/SciBeh/status/1397341753590489090

  6. Sep 2021
    1. university anchor as city developer and planner

      Planning initiatives of universities that influence the city - esp in problematic deteriorating districts.

    2. Kellogg Commission on the Future of State and Land Grant Universities in 1996

      redefined engagement - establishing two-way relations between university and its neighbors as the new paradigm.

    3. he first was the designation of the Office of University Partnersqhips (OUP) and federal grants for Community Outreach Partnerships Centers (COPC) by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development

      Federal resources helped to increase the community-engaged university under HUD.

    4. fourth period largely emphasized outreach (and avoided physical intervention), including civic engagement, academic-based community research, and service learning

      engaged community, community research, service learning.

    5. World War II, as university anchors pursued direct intervention in neighborhoods to eliminate blight and expand the campus footprint.

      Urban blight elimination

    6. University and the Urban Laboratory

      Laboratory for addressing social problems and infrastructure issues.

    7. Morrill Act of 1862 (Act) represents the first federal intervention

      Morrll Act of 1862 creates land-grant colleges. meaning important in industry and agricultural contributions of land-grant universities. -- connection between regional economy and universities.



    1. While the Census figures suggest a $34,000 gap between homes inside and outside of the PAS catchment, a more detailed assessment of real estate transactions in University City (Steif, 2013) esti-mated a $100,000+ price differential.

      Price differential of $100,000 inside and outside of PAS catchment.

    2. Despite the WPI’s emphasis, the neighborhood’s homeownership rate remained steady.

      WPI didn't increase hoeownership.

    3. ing to Penn’s Department of Residential Services, in 2013, approximately 27% of Penn undergraduates (2,800) and 30% of graduate students (3,500) lived off-campus in University City—a stark improve-ment over the mid-1990s. Yet, Penn’s estimated off-campus student popu-lation accounts for less than 15% of the neighborhood’s total population and, geographically speaking, the concentration of students tends to dimin-ish as one moves beyond a three- to four-block radius from campus.

      The students live off campus. rate of student occupancy tight around three- to four-block radius of campus.



    1. 2015, c. 3, s. 108(E)

      Miscellaneous Statute Law Amendment Act, 2014, SC 2015, c 3, https://canlii.ca/t/52m35, s. 108(E) amends the English version of IRPA s. 16(3) to read:

      Evidence relating to identity (3) An officer may require or obtain from a permanent resident or a foreign national who is arrested, detained, subject to an examination or subject to a removal order, any evidence — photographic, fingerprint or otherwise — that may be used to establish their identity or compliance with this Act.

      Previously it had read:

      Evidence relating to identity (3) An officer may require or obtain from a permanent resident or a foreign national who is arrested, detained or subject to a removal order, any evidence — photographic, fingerprint or otherwise — that may be used to establish their identity or compliance with this Act.

    1. subsidizing new investment at a particular place merelymakes that place more attractive to in-migrants (Marston,).

      new investments benefit new migrants seeking jobs. Thus little impact to local jobs base.



    1. reas. In fact, the tendency is for rapid growth to be associated with higher rates of unemployment (for general documentation, see Follett 1976; Appelbaum 1976; Hadden and Borgatta 1965, p. 108; Samuelson 1942; Sierra Club of San Diego 1973).

      growth creates unemployment



    1. l limits to growthin favor of an optimistic, pro-growth narrative

      the 3 e's don't consider limits to growth.

    2. most resolute and avant-garde municipal socialists will find themselves in the end, playingthe capitalists game and performing as agents of discipline for the very processes they aretrying to resist’’ (Harvey, 1989: 5). Given such conditions, the participation of non-profitssuch as the FHL in the creation and governance of public space goes hand in hand withincreasing pressure to follow the rules dictated by the growth machine. Its efforts form aprotective layer that abets and legitimates the city’s neoliberal sustainable growth agenda(Mayer, 2007)

      LU projects like High Line promote the growth machine...

    3. hat particular sustainability fixes alwaysresult in winners and losers (Marcuse, 1998).

      Supports argument by qoting Marcuse.

    4. Indeed, the worldwide proliferation of a host of new urbansustainability strategies such as smart growth, New Urbanism, Transit-OrientedDevelopment and LU, is taking place in tandem with state sponsored, marketfundamentalist discourses (Gibbs et al., 2013)

      These are all pro-growth strategies, according to the author,.

    5. Cranz and Boland refer to as a ‘‘sustainable park’’ (Cranz and Boland, 2004)

      Sustainability of parks .

    6. principles ofLandscape Urbanism

      Theoretical underpinning



    1. I was really annoyed and frustrated at universitybecause we were taught to do specification sheets tosend to China, but we weren't educated as to who wasactually receiving those specification sheets, so everychance I got, I tried to do assignments that would edu-cate me about sustainable practices.

      Here is a good example of qualitative data being used through a direct quote.

    2. This article references data from 17 in-depth interviews con-ducted between October 2014 and February 2017 with Australian SFentrepreneurs

      Using qualitative secondary research that others have gathered.

    3. TABLE 1

      More data is used in a table. I think the author uses these because it is an easy way to put a lot of important information into something easy to understand. Most data so far seems to be qualitative.

    4. Figure 1

      Some data about the common elements are used in a diagram! This makes it a lot easier to process since there are many parts. This data seems to be outside research that is widely known in the fashion community.



    1. Bargar and Duncan (1982) note that research is a process “that. religiously uses logical analysis as a critical tool in the refinement of ideas, but which often begins at a very different place, where imagery, metaphor and. analogy, intuitive hunches, kinesthetic feeling states, and even dreams and. dream-like states are prepotent”

      Logical analaysis is the tool that allows for the refinement of ideas. but begins with hunches, feelings, dreams.

    2. he role of intuition-in- this phase of the research process cannot be underestimated. Studies of eminent scientists reveal the central role of creative - insight—intuition—in their thought processes (Hoffman, 1972; Libby, 1922; — Mooney, 1951).

      Intuition as research process congeals.

    3. This complex process of conceptualizing, framing, and focusing a study is depicted in Figure 2.5.

      The process of conceiving, framing and focusing a study.

    4. Figure 2.4 illustrates this funnel metaphor, drawing from the study by Benbow (1994) about the development of commitment to social action. The | large end of the funnel represents the general conceptual f focus—the issue of social activism and its rolein: ameliorating oppressive ‘ctreumiStances. Midway down the funnel, the focus narrows to a concern with individuals who have demonstrated and lived an intense commitment to social causes. An alternative ’ choice at this point would have been to focus on social movements as group | phenomena rather than on individuals whose lived experiences embody social consciousness, The small en end d of t the conceptual funnel focuses even ‘more closel ely ona research q question (or set of questions) about how life ex experiences helped shape and develop a lifelong, intensive commitment to social activism.

      How the research question develops.

    5. e cycle of inquiry

      The Cycle of Inquiry - the relationship between theory practice, research question, and personal experience



    1. unequivocal determination of the validity of findings is impossible (Becker, 1958; Bruyn, 1966; Lofland, 1971; Wolcott, 1992). More pro- foundly, for some phenomenologically oriented, inter- pretivist, and constructivist researchers, there is no unam- biguous social reality “out there” to be accounted for, so there is little need to evolve methodological canons to help explicate its laws (see Dreitzel, 1970).

      Constructivist approach -- there is no ONE social reality - it's temporal, fluctuates and relates to other "social actors"

    2. problem of confidence in findings has not gone away.

      concedes there's a problem with confidence in the findings.

    3. methods of analysis are not well formulated.

      Methods are poor - no clear conventions. easy to get to wrong conclusions for science and policy-making.

    4. Seen in traditional terms, the reliability and validity of qualitatively derived findings can be seriously in doubt (Dawson, 1979, 1982; Ginsberg, 1990; Kirk & Miller, 1986; Kvale, 1989a; LeCompte & Goetz, 1982

      Qual findings may not be reliable of valid

    5. et, in the flurry of this activity, we should be mindful of some pervasive issues that have not gone away.

      labor intensive - long duration for data collection, too much data demanding coding of data. researcher bias. etc.



    1. University of Pennsylvania Cen-ter for Community Partnerships

      Penn has a Center for Community Partnerships

    2. renovateaffordable homes and a nearby school,and facilitate homeownership in thearea.

      home renovations and school renovations.

    3. annual donation of $80,000to a neighborhood association to hire afull-time worker who organizes joblessresidents to keep the area clean andsafe.

      Community investment to NH association to hire jobless.

    4. Yale University conducted an eco-nomic assessment of its impact onNew Haven and found that “Yale’sstrength and the health of the City, fiscally and socially, are inextricablylinked” (Economic Impact: Yale andNew Haven, 1993). The study’s find-ings motivated the University to com-mit over $41 million to a variety ofneighborhood revitalization projects in the city.

      University and the success and the social and fiscal health of city are linked.

    5. Between20 to 50 homes are reconstructed

      home construction

    6. The impact of such investments issubstantial. On average, the univer-sity spends over $2 billion a year onpurchasing contracts for goods andservices. Penn’s spending in WestPhiladelphia quadrupled from $10million in 1993 to $42 million in1998. More than three-quarters ofthe university’s construction con-tracts in 1997 went to local busi-nesses that employed city residents.The new retail and commercial activ-ity alone is creating nearly 400 newconstruction jobs and 4,250 long-term jobs. More information can befound at www.upenn.edu

      Economic impact

    1. The major strength of the theory of change approach is its inherent common sense. Its major competitive advantage is the inability of other currently available approaches to do the job. We have described the potential benefits of the theory of change approach from the initial planning of a CCI, through the measurement of its outcomes and activities, to the analysis and interpretation of the data. It should generate useful learning over the life span of the initiative and could spawn cross-initiative learning as well. But perhaps its most powerful contribution to the evaluation endeavor is its emphasis on understanding not only whether activities produce effects but how and why, throughout the course of the initiative.

      Evidence to support theory

    2. Chen (1990) and Patton (1986) describe a process in which stakeholders and evaluators "co-construct" the initiative's theory so as to maximize its utility for all, as a planning and management tool

      Other theorists say do the design of a project through a co-construction process with stakeholders and evaluators.

    3. Clearly, this will not be as powerful as evidence resulting from randomly assigned control and treatment groups,

      random trials better. with control and treatment groups



    1. How is the minimum wage calculated in India? India offers the most competitive labor costs in Asia, with the national-level minimum wage at around INR 176 (US$2.80) per day, which works out to INR 4,576 (US$62) per month. This is a national floor-level wage – and will vary depending on geographical areas and other criteria. More broadly, a global ranking of average wages recently prepared by Picodi.com showed that India had an average monthly wage of INR 32,800 (US$437).
  7. Aug 2021
  8. Jul 2021
    1. Sand–in respect of its printing off people’s footsteps–is one of the best detective officers I know. If we don’t meet with Rosanna Spearman by coming round on her in this way, the sand may tell us what she has been at, if the light only lasts long enough.

      If they found footsteps on the sand, then it will become a solid evidence. Rosanna

  9. Jun 2021