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  1. Last 7 days
  2. Apr 2019
    1. Our culture is defined by the music we listen to, and the way it is portrayed in the media. Every culture around the world has a different style of song or dance that represents their traditions. Culture can not only be changed through popular songs, but is best represented through music. One of the best ways to understand a foreign culture is by listening to the music that is favorable among the people whose culture you are trying to understand. Music is one of the most powerful forms of art between cultures.

      Music has the power to redefine cultures. We can see this through generational differences between song preferences. For example, American country music back in the late 1900s has a much different feel and style compared to country music now in 2019. While keeping within the same genre, this style of music touches upon different subjects, and uses different instruments, sounds and lyrics. Even early hip-hop has evolved from its beginnings. Hip-hop music is considered the most popular music as of right now, but it has not always been that way. Each generation favors different types of genres of music, and it is clear which backgrounds over the years have favored certain genres of music. As much as music can differentiate cultures, and generations, music can bring people of completely different background together by its artistic flavor and general popularity throughout the mainstream media.

  3. Mar 2019
    1. The anxiety perspective and academic performance is adopted from Catastrophe theory which explains about the relationship of anxiety and performance in terms of sport performance. It is important to understand the theory and the influence of anxiety upon performance. Martin in Robb (2005) proposed that cognitive anxiety would have negative correlation with performance and physiological anxiety have curvilinear relationship with performance. The cognitive anxiety is the component that most strongly affects performance

      Providing secondary evidence helps the authors construct the basis of the research subject and support the main claims.

    2. The Relationship of Study Anxiety and Academic Performance The Pearson correlation examines the relationship between study anxiety and academic performance. The result show mean and standard deviation of STAI (M=95.53; SD=12.008) and GPA (M=2.18; SD=0.250), a significant correlation (p=0.000), the correlation coefficient is small with r=-.264, and finally the sample size yield n=205.Study anxiety is negatively related to academic performance with a Person correlation coefficient was small. Nonetheless, the result proven that students who have high anxiety levels achieve low academic performance with anxiety level > 95 and academic performance < 2.50. Therefore, it can be concluded that there is a significant relationship between high level anxiety and low academic performance among engineering students. Consistently result with previous studies found a negative correlation between high levels of anxiety and low academic performance (Soler, 2005 and McCraty, 2007). In otherwise, El-Anzi (2005) describes a positive relationship between high degrees of academic achievement and low anxiety. Small of coefficient correlation is linked with the small of sample size yield seventy participants. Others expressed the opinion that the high level of anxiety will be associated with low academic performance (Luigi et al., 2007, and Sena et al., 2007). The finding support with McCraty (2000) where anxiety plays significant role in student's learning and academic performance, moreover it was revealed that a high facilitating achievement anxiety was related to low debilitating achievement anxiety. Similar statement cites to support the finding a fair number of engineering students that there are many situations which it is appropriate and reasonable to counter with some anxiety. That they may not find jobs in the future, express these feelings with ambivalence, confusion, lack of confidence and worry (Ercan et al., 2008). Researchers generally agree that high level anxiety will construct of low academic performance. Table 4 present the finding as follows
    3. Procedure The test aimed to find the relationship of study anxiety and academic performance among engineering students. Immediately participants giving a test, testing also aims to select trainees who have been identified in high anxiety and low academic performance were to participate in this training. The participants came to the lab and fill in the questionnaire include the S-Anxiety scale (STAI Form Y-1) and T-Anxiety scale (STAI Form Y-1). The STAI has 40 items of question and took approximately 20 minutes to complete. The students first read and answered if they had problems the researcher will guide students to answer the questions. This test was based on the faculty, after two weeks who have high levels of anxiety and low academic performance were offered to participate in this study. Result of the test was used to find out correlation between anxiety and academic performance.

      The authors explain the steps and procedures of the study and gives information about the way the research experiment will be executed. This is primary evidence as it is new information formulated and analysed by the authors to generate useful outcomes.

    4. Prima Vitasari et al. / Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences 8 (2010) 490–497491Anxiety while studying is a major predictor of academic performance (McCraty, 2007 and McCraty, et al., 2000) and various studies have demonstrated that it has a detrimental effect. Little is known that there exist a possible association between high level of anxiety and low academic performance among students. Researchers revealed that high levels of anxiety influence on the decrease of working memory, distraction, and reasoning in students (Aronen et al., 2005). Tobias in Ibrahim (1996) has been recognised that anxiety plays significant role in student's learning and academic performance, moreover anxiety has been known to have both facilitating and debilitating effects on academic achievement

      The authors mention secondary evidence to discuss the correlation between high anxiety levels and academic progress. This is done to establish the main claim and building blocks of the study that is to be conducted.

    1. From this perspective, indi-viduals who are socially anxious might perceive the uni-versity/college social environment as somewhatthreatening, which, in turn, would restrict their openness tochange

      The author used a secondary source to propose a different viewpoint about the matter and why socially anxious individuals might be perceiving socially demanding situations as some sort of a threat

    2. Depending on the threshold of diagnosis,prevalence rates of social anxiety in university/collegestudents range from 10 to 33 % as compared to 7–13 % inthe general population

      The author uses secondary sources to back up his claims with evidence and support his argument

    1. They estimate that Uber’s basic ride service (UberX) generated about $2.9 billion in consumer surplus for New York, Chicago, Los Angeles and San Francisco in 2015(in 2015 dollars). Extended to the country as a whole, the authors estimate that consumer surplus gains would be about $6.8 billion. This consumer surplus value is larger than the current annual revenues of Uber worldwide, anddoes not include the benefits

      evidence with facts and figures.

    1. Lama M. Al-Qaisy (2011) conducted research on identifying the impact of mood disorder particularly depression and anxiety among a sample of students of Tafila Technical University, Jordan for their academic performance. He claimed that whenever students have medium level of concern, in which not to the extent of disturbing one’s own mood experiences, they will achieve higher in academic performances

      The author used a secondary source as evidence and to make a point that mood has an effect on the performance as well, explaining that students who were less anxious or concerned seemed to score higher grades



    1. This is a research based report (of which I have found few) that connects professional development and personalized learning. I had hoped to find links that applied to health care and have not found a great many so far, but this article, which is more oriented toward professional development for teachers, still has applications since public health education professionals participate in many of the same practices. rating; 5/5

    1. This link is for the Association of Information Science and Technology. While many of the resources are available only to those who are association members, there are a great many resources to be found via this site. Among the items available are their newsletter and their journal articles. As the title suggests, there is a technology focus, and also a focus on scientific findings that can guide instructional designers in the presentation and display of visual and textual information, often but not exclusively online. Instructional designers are specifically addressed via the content of this site. A student membership is available. Rating 5/5

  4. webstandards.hhs.gov webstandards.hhs.gov
    1. Usability guidelines This site seems a bit dated in its appearance but still provides the user the opportunity to review usability standards in general, together with a rating of the weight of evidence that supports each assertion. It would take some time to go through all the information available on this site. It is also usable enough that a designer can check up on guidelines while in the middle of designing a specific project. Rating 3/5

    1. An emerging body of evidence featuring the social side of evidence use—infrastructure, capacity, relationships, and trust—points the way toward a more nuanced understanding of evidence use.

  5. Feb 2019
    1. g likelihood or Bayesian probabilistic phylogene

      If you have a molecular data partition, you can just use total evidence approach and the standard 1-parameter Markov model.

      Potential synapomorphies will be compatible with the molecular tree and considered not likely to change. Potential homoiologies and symplesiomorphies are partly ("semi-")compatible with the molecular tree and, hence, considered less likely to change than highly homoplastic traits with (random) convergence.

      Just try out a couple of datasets, and infer the (Bio)NJ and ML trees and then compare the result with the strict consensus network (not tree) of all equally parsimonious trees and the Bayesian tree sample.

      Note that if you apply TNT's iterative character weighting procedure, what you effectively do is sorting the random convergences from parallelisms/ characters that are more compatible with the preferred tree.

    2. In principle, I do sympathize with the general idea, but the laid out approach will have little use.

      The main drawback is that you can only define homoiologies using an external data set (e.g. the molecular "gold" tree). But when you have a reliable molecular tree, you can just go for total evidence approaches to select a more likely, in a mathematical and general sense, alternative without the need to make any prior destinction between your characters. Homoiologies will be inferred, like synapmorphies or symplesiomorphies or shared apomorphies (non-stochastically distributed convergences) on the fly.

      If you define the homoiologies on a inferred (e.g. parsimony) tree only based on a morphological data matrix (e.g. for an extinct group of organisms), you will inevitably misinterpret some characters, because your clades are not necessarily monophyletic. Homoiologies like symplesiomorphies may appear as (pseudo-)synapomorphies.

      The only application left would be that the molecular tree cannot resolve certain relationships, and we use more tree-compatible morphological characters to discern between alternatives. However, the first choice would then be to maximise the number of synapomorphies. Only if that would be the same for all alternatives, one could count the number of symplesiomorphies and homoiologies (as the distinction between both via a tree-inference is very tricky; and their are often just two side of the same evolutionary process).

      However, one could also just directly change to a network-analysis framework, which will pretty much solve all these problems at once.

      For further details see my (upcoming, March 4th) post at Genealogical World of Phylogenetic Networks

    1. 1. Explore the current situation. Paint a picture in words by including the “presenting problem,” the impact it is having, the consequences of not solving the problem, and the emotions the problem is creating for those involved.

      This step is somewhat similar to the EEC (Evidence/Example Effect Change/Challenge) model, often used with Feedback?

    1. Good website explaining PICO including af videotutorial . provided by the University Library of Illinois, Chicago

  6. Nov 2018
    1. That type of optimism permeated nascent hospitalist groups. But it was time to start proving the anecdotal stories. Nearly two years to the day after the Wachter/Goldman paper published, a team led by Herbert Diamond, MD, published “The Effect of Full-Time Faculty Hospitalists on the Efficiency of Care at a Community Teaching Hospital” in the Annals of Internal Medicine.1 It was among the first reports to show evidence that hospitalists improved care
    1. It’s estimated that unneeded or unproven medical procedures cost us billions each year.
    2. Significant procedures are sometimes not nearly as effective as you might think. “In 2002, the New England Journal of Medicine published a landmark study where they found that this very common knee operation worked no better than a sham procedure in which a surgeon merely pretended to operate,” Patashnik says.
    1. So many medical publications appear worldwide every day that it is no longer possible for an individual medical professional to keep up with the latest state of knowledge. In order to offer support and to encourage new medical research, EBM provides a toolbox of different methods. These tools can be divided into three categories:The first category includes methods that serve to create reliable new knowledge: Someone who would like to compare the advantages and disadvantages of different drugs, for example, will find suitable types of studies here.The second category involves methods that help to summarize the existing knowledge on a subject: They serve to find and select the previously published studies that are best able to answer a particular question. There are now networks of researchers that specialize in looking for the latest research findings and summarizing them to provide easily accessible information.The third category covers methods for presenting information to medical professionals and laypeople in a way that helps them to find, understand and make use of it.The main aim is always to find out what kind of care is most suitable for a particular patient – and how to incorporate their individual preferences and circumstances into the treatment decision.
    2. An evidence-based approach also includes informing patients about the pros and cons of medical options so that they can actively be part of the decision.So making a treatment decision in accordance with EBM means basing it on the best available knowledge from clinical research and medical practice. A number of factors play an important role in the decision. As well as the type and severity of the health problem, these include the person's general life situation, personal values and opinions.
    3. This is the purpose of evidence-based medicine (EBM): to provide healthcare professionals, patients and those close to them with up-to-date and scientifically proven information on the various medical options that are available to them. It can help to find out what sorts of advantages or disadvantages a treatment or test has, when people might benefit from it and whether it might also be harmful.EBM uses special methods that it has developed to find the highest quality evidence for the benefits of a specific medical intervention. This evidence can be found in conclusive scientific studies. EBM also plays a part in making sure that the research that is done can help patients to answer the most important questions. This means that studies look into both the benefits of a treatment as well as how it affects quality of life, for example.
    1. “It’s about embracing the inscrutable nature of human interactions,” says Chang. Evidence-based medicine was a massive improvement over intuition-based medicine, he says, but it only covers traditionally quantifiable data, or those things that are easy to measure. But we’re now quantifying information that was considered qualitative a generation ago.

      Biggest challenges to redesigning the health care system in a way that would work better for patients and improve health

    1. The primary goal and benefit of patient-centered care is to improve individual health outcomes, not just population health outcomes, although population outcomes may also improve. Not only do patients benefit, but providers and health care systems benefit as well, through: Improved satisfaction scores among patients and their families. Enhanced reputation of providers among health care consumers. Better morale and productivity among clinicians and ancillary staff. Improved resource allocation. Reduced expenses and increased financial margins throughout the continuum of care.

      Benefits of patient-centered care

    1. Deyo et al. (8) demonstrated a reduction in the adverse impact of inadequate health literacy in the neurosurgical field. The impact of an interactive videodisc program that informs patients of their treatment options for back surgery on patient outcome and surgical choices was evaluated. The program helped facilitate decision making and ensured informed consent. It also reduced surgery rates for patients with herniated disks. The authors of this study also implemented the use of patient-oriented multimedia to augment comprehension and advocated a similar strategy for other clinicians. Further commitment is needed to put health literacy at the forefront of improving health care and reducing health expenditures, especially in neurosurgery.
  7. Oct 2018
    1. Second, and more importantly: political toleration does not require the strong and doctrine of philosophical relativism. Increased awareness of diversity together with an awareness of the historical contingency of one’s own convictions will promote political toleration just as effectively.

      This is it chief

    2. he anti-relativists counter that the very notion of a “faultless” disagreement is incompatible with our common understanding of what it means to disagree. It is a hallmark of disagreement, as commonly understood, that the parties involved find fault with the other sides’ views.

      Negative for relativism

    3. If well-informed, honest and intelligent people are unable to resolve conflicts of opinion, we should, some relativists argue, accept that all parties to such disputes could be right and their conflicting positions have equal claims to truth, each according to their own perspective or point of view.

      Good point to use

    4. To take an example, moral relativism, according to this approach, is the claim that the truth or justification of beliefs with moral content is relative to specific moral codes. So the sentence “It is wrong to sell people as slaves” is elliptical for “It is wrong to sell people as slaves relative to the moral code of …”. Or alternatively, as Kusch (2010) formulates the idea on behalf of the relativist: “It is wrong-relative-to-the-moral-code-of-…” to sell people as slaves. The resulting sentence(s) turns out to be true, according to the relativist, depending on how we fill in the “…”. So, “It is wrong to sell people as slaves” comes out true relative to the moral code of the United Nations Charter of Human Rights and false relative to the moral code of ancient Greece.

      This is an excellent way of summarizing moral relativism with a great example.

    5. A second approach to defining relativism casts its net more widely by focusing primarily on what relativists deny. Defined negatively, relativism amounts to the rejection of a number of interconnected philosophical positions. Traditionally, relativism is contrasted with:

      Could use some of these as proofs

  8. Jul 2018
  9. course-computational-literary-analysis.netlify.com course-computational-literary-analysis.netlify.com
    1. beyond any reasonable doubt

      With this key phrase of legal discourse, Cuff's takes on the role of a prosecutor in a courtroom, shouldering the burden of proof in the case at hand. What is the relationship between detective work and legal argumentation? How does the novel's language put various characters on trial, not only before other characters, but also before the novel's jury of readers? A word collocation analysis of words and phrases with legal significance would help us to determine whether or not legal language shapes standards of evidence in The Moonstone.

    2. “Facts?” he repeated. “Take a drop more grog, Mr. Franklin, and you’ll get over the weakness of believing in facts! Foul play, sir!” he continued, dropping his voice confidentially. “That is how I read the riddle. Foul play somewhere–and you and I must find it out. Was there nothing else in the tin case, when you put your hand into it?”

      The repetition of the word "facts" in this conversation reanimates the tension between absolute knowledge and shifting suspicions. As an epistolary novel, does The Moonstone present any "facts"? Or is every (alleged) "fact" refracted by memory, sentiment, and linguistic representation? What is the status of evidence (i.e., the stained nightgown) in this scene?

    3. witnessed

      As we evaluate the many forms of "evidence" that the novel presents, we should ask ourselves how important or meaningful eyewitness accounts are in relation to testimonies, object clues, hearsay, and characters' inferences. An evidence network would allow us to visualize how information interacts and spreads, and modify our epistemological questions and detective work accordingly.

    4. My diary informs me

      This is an interesting reversal of typical subject-object relations. The diary, which is an object, is grammatically positioned as an informative agent, while Miss Clack, a person, becomes an object that is acted upon. Some part-of-speech tagging in scenes that feature document evidence would help us to better understand when and why this happens, and why it might be significant.

  10. Jan 2018
  11. Oct 2017
    1. Austen’s expectation of readerly ingenuity is ultimately what sets her apartfrom other novelists of the Romantic period. As generations of critics havefound, Austen’s work is deliberately, at times even maddeningly, puzzling toreaders.

      The author claims that Austen has high expectations of "readerly ingenuity." I am not sure that the evidence here from a mystery writer quite supports the claim. I would have preferred that Murphy perform a close reading of a passage that is "deliberately, at times even maddeningly, puzzling to readers" to demonstrate her point here.

  12. Sep 2017
    1. ynthesizing qualitative research enables reviewers to ask questions that inform the development of, or the implementation of, interventions. For example, in the context of intervention evaluation, they can help define relevant and important questions, help determine appropriate outcome measures by looking at “subjective” outcomes, look in detail at issues concerning implementation or the acceptability or appropriateness of an intervention, identify and explore unintended consequences, contribute to service delivery and policy development by describing pro-cesses and contexts, and inform and illuminate quantitative studies, for example, by contributing to the design of struc-tured instruments, assessing the fairness of comparisons in experimental studies, or unpacking variation within aggre-gated data (Davies, Nutley, & Smith, 2000).

      Summary of purposes of QES

  13. Apr 2017
    1. many companies pay a lower rate by using deductions in the tax code

      Can we get a figure for an average effective corporate tax rate?

    2. “one of the biggest tax cuts in American history”

      This quotation is from...

  14. Feb 2017
    1. Progress can be measured by the accumulation of a solid, verifiable body of knowledge with a very high probability of being correct

      "Now, to apply this observation: a botanist, in traversing the fields, lights on a particular plant, which appears to be of a species he is not ac-quainted with. The flower, he observes, is mono-petalous, and the number of flowers it carries is seven. Here are two facts that occur to his ob-servation; let us consider in what way he wiIJ be disposed to argue from them: From the first he does not hesitate to conclude, not only as prob-able, but as certain, that this individual, and all of the same species, invariably produce mono-petalous ftowers. From the second, he by no means concludes, as either certain, or even prob-able, that the flowers which either this plant, or others of the same species, carry at once, will al-ways be seven. This difference, to a superficial inquirer, might seem capricious, since there ap-pears to be one example, and but one in either case, on which the conclusion can be founded. The truth is, that it is not from this example only that he deduces these inferences. Had he never heretofore taken the smallest notice of any plant, ..) he could not have reasoned at all from these re-f marks. The mind recurs instantly from the un-1 known to all the other known species of the same :t' genus, and thence to all the known genera of the same order of tribe; and having experienced in the one instance, a regularity in every species, genus, and tribe, which admits no exception; in the other a variety as boundless as that of season, soil, and culture, it learns hence to mark the dif-1,\ ference." Campbell 917

      Conspiracy theorists do the first step of Campbell's botanist, but not the second.

    1. fact

      So Campbell seems to have a lot of "causal chains," so where are the "bundles of evidence" exactly? I mean, this definitely seems to be moral reasoning, but this looks like more of a chain than a bundle.

  15. Jan 2017
    1. 'Some of them got into honours classes, not because they deserved it, but because their parents complained,' Mr Sinek said.

      How does he know this? Is it supported by evidence? What kind of evidence?

    2. 'broke the internet'

      How many page views qualifies for "broke the internet"? How many pageviews does that video have? How can you find out?

    3. dopamine is released from the brain when people interact with each other on online platforms

      Is this true? Can it be confirmed elsewhere? How would you find out?

    4. stock image

      Images are full of information. What does this image say about millennials? How does it qualify as evidence?

    5. he researched millennials

      What kind of research? Has he published the research? Is his data available? Has his research been confirmed by the findings of other researchers?

    6. (They were) thrust into the real world and in an instant, they find out they're not special, their mums can't get them a promotion. And by the way, you can't just have it because you want it.

      Evidence? Sources?

  16. Dec 2016
    1. The most recent renovation took finished in Spring 2016. The upgrading of guest rooms, restaurant, lobby and meeting facilities totalled $17 million. T


  17. Aug 2016
  18. Jul 2016
    1. who was arrested  for selling drugs when he really didn’t sell any

      they have to look for evidence before doing something to people like putting them in jail

    2. The justice system is supposed to put the criminals behind bars but yet they putting innocent people in prison.

      That the justice system is unfavor and, it doesn't look into evidence

  19. Mar 2016
    1. Only a handful of these have even been tested for human health impacts and NONE of them have been tested for synergistic health impacts, that means when they interact with all the other chemicals we’re exposed to every day
    2. we’re losing 2000 trees a minute.
    3. We [The U.S.] has 5% of the world’s population but we’re consuming 30% of the world’s resources13and creating 30% of the world’s waste
    4. 80% of the planet’s original forests are gone.
    5. one-third of the planet’s natural resources base have been consumed.
    6. less than 4% of our original forests left.
    7. What this looks like is we chop down trees, we blow up mountains to get the metals inside, we use up all the water and we wipe out the animals


    8. In fact, I spent 10 years traveling the world tracking where our stuff comes from and where it goes.
  20. Sep 2015
    1. p53 values were considered high (p53 overexpression) equal to or more than 20%; the Ki67/p53 ratio was considered high when equal to or more than 3 [14]

      another test



    1. The management of patients with ACC requires a multidisciplinary approach with initial complete surgical resection in limited disease (stage I, II and occasionally III).


  21. Sep 2013
    1. I shall present in evidence the actual words

      Insists that ultimate evidence is words, truth in words, yet he only gives part of his words. Misleading?

    1. When, therefore, the layman puts all these things together and observes that the teachers of wisdom and dispensers of happiness are themselves in great want but exact only a small fee from their students, that they are on the watch for contradictions in words(10) but are blind to inconsistencies in deeds,

      An appealing to the ethos of the common man, argues that they do not lead by example; knowledge vs. experience. There is no apparent evidence that the "goods" will as claimed produce happiness and prosperity, since the Sophists are essentially vagabonds. Further, claims their own deeds are inscrutable in attempting to secure payment up front, so how can they impart scruples, let alone, truth and wisdom?