213 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
    1. Stock, S. J., Carruthers, J., Calvert, C., Denny, C., Donaghy, J., Goulding, A., Hopcroft, L. E. M., Hopkins, L., McLaughlin, T., Pan, J., Shi, T., Taylor, B., Agrawal, U., Auyeung, B., Katikireddi, S. V., McCowan, C., Murray, J., Simpson, C. R., Robertson, C., … Wood, R. (2022). SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 vaccination rates in pregnant women in Scotland. Nature Medicine, 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41591-021-01666-2

  2. Jan 2022
  3. Dec 2021
  4. Nov 2021
    1. Karnofsky suggests that the cost/benefit ratio of how we typically think of reading may not be as simple as we intuitively expect i.e. we think that 'more time' = 'more understanding'.

      If you're simply reading to inform yourself about a topic, it may be worth reading a couple of book reviews, and listening to an interview or two, rather than invest the significant amount of time necessary to really engage with the book.

      A few hours of skimming and reviews/interviews may get you to 25% understanding and retention, which in many cases may be more than enough for your needs of being basically informed on the topic. Compared to the 50 - 100 hours necessary for a deep, analytical engagement with the text, that would only get you to 50% understanding and retention.

      That being said, if your goal is to develop expertise, both Karnofsky and Adler ('How to read a book') suggest that you need a deep engagement with multiple texts.

    1. The original critical race theorists argued for the use of a new lens to interpret the past and the present. You can dispute whether or not that lens is useful, or whether you want to look through it at all

      This is an important thing to say about critical race theory when the far conservative right is using it as a cudgel and boogeyman for all of society's problems.

  5. Oct 2021
  6. Sep 2021
    1. Critical pedagogy, among other things, borrows its ‘critical lens’ from the critical theory. It views society as divided and hierarchical (i.e. based on power relations); and education as a tool used by dominant groups to legitimise the iniquitous arrangement. By enabling the oppressed to look at the oppressor’s ideologies critically, it believes, education can assist them in ridding themselves of their ‘false consciousness’ – an important step, as we will see later, in their struggle for liberation. As is apparent, contrary to traditional claims of the ‘neutrality’ of education, “critical pedagogy views all education theory as intimately linked to ideologies shaped by power, politics, history and culture.” (Darder 1991, p. 77) And the primary function of the critical pedagogue is thus “to empower the powerless and transform those conditions which perpetuate human injustice and inequity.” (McLaren, 1988) – a concern that it shares with critical theory.8

      Critical Pedagogy (CP):

      • Sees society as divided into a hierarchy based on power relations.
      • Education is used as a tool by the dominant to uphold the hierarchy.
      • Education can also be used by the oppressed to rid themselves of false consciousness.
      • CP does not think any education is neutral. All education is shaped by power, politics, history, and culture.
      • CP can empower the powerless to change the power structures.
  7. Aug 2021
    1. The Attack on "Critical Race Theory": What's Going on?


      Lately, a lot of people have been very upset about “critical race theory.” Back in September 2020, the former president directed federal agencies to cut funding for training programs that refer to “white privilege” or “critical race theory, declaring such programs “un-American propaganda” and “a sickness that cannot be allowed to continue.” In the last few months, at least eight states have passed legislation banning the teaching of CRT in schools and some 20 more have similar bills in the pipeline or plans to introduce them. What’s going on?

      Join us for a conversation that situates the current battle about “critical race theory” in the context of a much longer war over the relationship between our racial present and racial past, and the role of culture, institutions, laws, policies and “systems” in shaping both. As members of families and communities, as adults in the lives of the children who will have to live with the consequences of these struggles, how do we understand what's at stake and how we can usefully weigh in?

      Hosts: Melissa Giraud & Andrew Grant-Thomas

      Guests: Shee Covarrubias, Kerry-Ann Escayg,

      Some core ideas of critical race theory:

      • racial realism
        • racism is normal
      • interest convergence
        • racial equity only occurs when white self interest is being considered (Brown v. Board of Education as an example to portray US in a better light with respect to the Cold War)
      • Whiteness as property
        • Cheryl Harris' work
        • White people have privilege in the law
        • myth of meritocracy
      • Intersectionality

      People would rather be spoon fed rather than do the work themselves. Sadly this is being encouraged in the media.

      Short summary of CRT: How laws have been written to institutionalize racism.

      Culturally Responsive Teaching (also has the initials CRT).

      KAE tries to use an anti-racist critical pedagogy in her teaching.

      SC: Story about a book Something Happened in Our Town (book).

      • Law enforcement got upset and the school district
      • Response video of threat, intimidation, emotional blackmail by local sheriff's department.
      • Intent versus impact - the superintendent may not have had a bad intent when providing an apology, but the impact was painful

      It's not really a battle about or against CRT, it's an attempt to further whitewash American history. (synopsis of SC)

      What are you afraid of?

  8. Jul 2021
    1. Unlike orthodox Marxism, critical theory is concerned with language and identity more than with material conditions.

      critical theory versus Marxism

    2. Critical theory upends the universal values of the Enlightenment: objectivity, rationality, science, equality, freedom of the individual. These liberal values are an ideology by which one dominant group subjugates another. All relations are power relations, everything is political, and claims of reason and truth are social constructs that maintain those in power.

      Critical theory versus Englightenment

    1. A quick overview of the basics and general history of critical race theory.

    2. Crenshaw and her classmates asked 12 scholars of color to come to campus and lead discussions about Bell’s book Race, Racism, and American Law. With that, critical race theory began in earnest.
    3. The late Harvard Law professor Derrick Bell is credited as the father of critical race theory. He began conceptualizing the idea in the 1970s as a way to understand how race and American law interact, and developed a course on the subject.
    1. Tracy noted Leslie was not conducting her reflection in a vacuum; rather, Leslie wrote to Tracy.

      Interesting observation. Connects to the earlier comment about vulnerability and trust but I'm really interested in how reflections change when they are addressed to someone.

  9. Jun 2021
    1. When you hear someone say something, stop and ask yourself "Is that true?" Don't say it out loud. I'm not suggesting that you impose on everyone who talks to you the burden of proving what they say, but rather that you take upon yourself the burden of evaluating what they say.
  10. May 2021
  11. Apr 2021
    1. The four C’s of 21st Century skills are: Critical thinking Creativity Collaboration Communication

      Convenient to have these four share an initial. (My perception is that a tendency to emphasize this type of parallelism has been strengthening over the years. At least, I don't recall this practice being common in French when I grew up.)

  12. Mar 2021
    1. Finally, any approach to evidence-based man-agement should ensure that the practices suit theindustry and functional context. For example,professionals in a biotechnology company would beexpected to follow and use industry-appropriateevidence-based practices that are likely to bemore rigorous and extensive than those adopted bya fashion-clothing company. Such practices includeencouraging or even requiring their employees todo the following four things (seePfeffer & Sutton,2006): (1) demand evidence for statements thatseem implausible; (2) examine the logic or cause-and-effect reasoning between the evidence andthe statement; (3) as needed, encourage experi-mentation to test the confidence of data and val-idity of statements; and (4) continually repeat andbuild on the first three activities to create anevidence-based learning culture that stifles theproduction and spread of bullshit.
    2. Furthermore, to help encourage and value evi-dence over opinion, managers should be carefulwhom they consult. While they should seek sub-stantive debate about statements and supportingevidence, they should only involve well-informedand value-adding experts. Social media andcrowdsourcing initiatives regularly remind us thatthe wisdom of the crowd is not as judicious as wethink.
    3. Colleagues throughout the organization, andespecially those in administrative and leadershiproles, should also practice it so that evidence canguide key decisions. This is also true in the areas ofmarketing and sales, which thrive on the creationand circulation of bullshit.

      Bill Hicks would have approved of this.

    4. Research byPennycook, Cheyne, Barr, Koehler,and Fugelsang (2015)suggests that an organiza-tion’s capacity to produce and accept workplacebullshit decreases with the prevalence of andvalue placed on critical thinking in that organiza-tion. They outline how individuals have differentsensitivities to bullshit: Those who have the abilityto stop and think analytically about the substanceof statements are less receptive to bullshit, whilethose with lower cognitive skills and less insightare more receptive.

      This is why workplaces must encourage and maintain critical thinking.

    5. What people think and state depends on how theythink. Thus, it is far more dangerous to assumepeople know what they are talking about than it isto assume they do not
  13. Feb 2021
    1. some bullshittersbullshit because they are naı ̈ve, biased, or sloppyin their handling of statements. They do notrealize they are crafting or spreading bullshit.There is a primary need therefore to be alert tothe possibility of bullshit. While accepting itsubiquity, one must avoid becoming so accustomedto bullshit as to be indifferent to its presence. Inother words, it is necessary to develop a healthycynicism about the possibility of bullshit.

      I wouldn't phrase it this way. Instead, I consider intellectual thought a healthy way to go.

      Existentialists have gone about this by considering every choice in life as reborn; by being conscious of what we do, we shape not only our own consequence but also that of others.

      In other words: behave like you're experiencing everything for the first time, except with wisdom.

  14. Jan 2021
    1. Introduce students to the “explode to explain” strategy. When students “explode to explain,” they closely read a key sentence or two in a source, annotate, and practice explaining what they are thinking and learning.

      This is a specific strategy to include in an active reading session.

  15. Nov 2020
  16. Oct 2020
    1. The data indicate that teachers in this study place tremendous value on research skills, with most reporting assigning a research paper to their students in the 2011-2012 academic year and spending class time teaching various research skills to their students. These lessons are aimed at addressing deficits they see in today’s students. Most notable among these is the inability to judge the quality of information, a skill the vast majority of teachers deem “essential” for their students’ future success.

      AP and National Writing Project teachers emphasize the importance of students' learning research skills, and discuss how they do so. They are most concerned with students learning to judge the quality of information found, but also in coaching students through the process, and dealing with online use restrictions at many schools. Aimed at Middle/ High School students. 8/10

  17. Sep 2020
    1. These lenses include interpretive frameworks such as structuralism and formalism, and deconstruction; identity- related approaches such as feminism and critical race studies; globally oriented approaches such as postco-lonialism; and many more.

      les code studies s'inscrivent d’emblée dans une pluralité d’approches – pour Marino, elles ne sont pas exhaustives – d’où leur pertinence dans des analyses intersectionnelles – elles informent les autres disciplines comme elles se nourrissent d’elles

    2. o read code critically is to explore the significance of the specific symbolic structures of the code and their effects over time if and when they are executed

      la dimension performative (code exécuté) est fondamentale dans l’étude du code, qu’on ne peut simplement étudier de manière statique: il faut le lancer, le jouer, l’exécuter.

    3. that “state” is the other key dimension to critical code studies


      state ou «état», une facette propre aux code studies

      dans un ouvrage traditionnel, cette question de l’état ne se pose pas (on lit plus ou moins linéairement un texte de bout en bout)

    4. Critical Code Studies Working Groups (CCSWGs)
  18. Aug 2020
    1. Why am I believing this? Why am I behaving this way? Have I thought it through or am I simply taking a short cut, following the party line, or justifying the effort I put in to join the group?

      These are great questions to ask oneself.

    1. What is Critical Literacy?


      • expressing or involving an analysis of the merits and faults of a work of literature, music, or art.


      • the ability to read and write
      • competence or knowledge in a specified area

      The education of individuals and groups in a way that lets them gain competence and knowledge in a specified field or area, while simultaneously being able to express or analyze the merits and faults of the current and previous works.

    1. The relationship between this diversity and the invasion of antibiotic resistance was investigated using a dilution-to-extinction approach coupled with high-capacity quantitative PCR

      It seems likely that both diversity and invasion of antibiotic resistance is regulated by initial microbial density/abundance.

      Relavant paper for - initial abundance and pervasiveness of antibiotic resistance is offered by this paper:Alexander, PNAS 2020 (Stochastic bacterial population dynamics restrict the establishment of antibiotic resistance from single cells)

      It is not clear from the fig5 but seems like the paper only tested for microbial abundance at the measurement timepoint as a confounding variable, and not initial abundance.

  19. Jul 2020
    1. The word “pedagogy,” as we use it, defines the work of education at the intersection of theory and practice — the act of teaching that derives from reflection and which inspires reflection again. Pedagogy is both where “critical” and “digital” terminate, and also the whole terrain of teaching.

      I agree with this. Creating divisions on how pedagogy relates to one age group over another takes away from the key developments around education and pedagogy, and creates a slightly more disconnected, disjointed field for education. Good education and educational practices are just that - the subject or age specificity can distract from otherwise good practices and theories that can and often do transcend the disciplines.

    1. What is it for?Mainly to make us think. But also raising awareness, exposing assumptions, provoking action, sparking debate, even entertaining in an intellectual sort of way, like literature or film.
  20. Jun 2020
  21. May 2020
  22. Apr 2020
    1. Wynants, L., Van Calster, B., Bonten, M. M. J., Collins, G. S., Debray, T. P. A., De Vos, M., Haller, M. C., Heinze, G., Moons, K. G. M., Riley, R. D., Schuit, E., Smits, L. J. M., Snell, K. I. E., Steyerberg, E. W., Wallisch, C., & van Smeden, M. (2020). Prediction models for diagnosis and prognosis of covid-19 infection: Systematic review and critical appraisal. BMJ, m1328. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m1328

    1. There are good preprints and bad preprints, just like there are with journal articles. Overall, do not be afraid to be scooped or plagiarized! Preprints also actually protect against scooping [21,22]. Preprints establish the priority of discovery as a formally published item. Therefore, a preprint acts as proof of provenance for research ideas, data, code, models, and results—all outputs and discoveries.
      • Salah satu alasan untuk tidak mengunggah preprint adalah takut idenya dicuri,

      • Ini adalah faktor budaya yang lain. Ketakutan yang tidak beralasan. Justru dengan mengunggah preprint, peneliti dapat mengklaim ide lebih awal.

      • Preprint ada yang bagus dan ada yang buruk, peninjauan akan ada di tangan pembaca. Ini adalah hambatan budaya berikutnya, ketika mayoritas pembaca ingin melimpahkan tanggungjawab untuk memverifikasi, memeriksa, dan menjamin kualitas suatu makalah kepada para peninjau.

      • Pengalihan tanggungjawab ini sulit dilakukan ketika dokumen PR sendiri tertutup, dan tidak lepas dari bias.

      • Selain itu, dosen akan menyalahi prinsip yang disebarluaskan kepada para mahasiswa, untuk membaca secara kritis.

    1. Now that he had no work to hold, he laid the knuckles of the right hand in the hollow of the left, and then the knuckles of the left hand in the hollow of the right, and then passed a hand across his bearded chin, and so on in regular changes, without a moment's intermission. The task of recalling him from the vagrancy into which he always sank when he had spoken, was like recalling some very weak person from a swoon, or endeavouring, in the hope of some disclosure, to stay the spirit of a fast-dying man. “Did you ask me for my name?” “Assuredly I did.” “One Hundred and Five, North Tower.” “Is that all?” “One Hundred and Five, North Tower.”

      Maybe the shoemaker had forgotten his name from prison?

  23. Jan 2020
  24. Dec 2019
    1. to view more on internet neutrality and other topics with a critical view, especially with corporations, who often market themselves as being “woke” to land more profits
    1. you are allowed to comment on a specific point, giving you the chance to be more critical on a specific point instead of being critical on the overall of the reading.
  • Nov 2019
    1. 11,000 students from 321 sites across the UnitedStates

      The national center for education statistics shows for fall 2016, approximately 76,238,500 students enrolled in the US. Can we say that the voice of 11000 is enough to generalize? Maybe there are some other issues in the field of education that can no reflect in this study.

  • Aug 2019
    1. Its aim is producing students who can think critically, be considerate of others, take risks, think dangerously and imagine a future that extends and deepens what it means to be an engaged citizen capable of living in a substantive democracy.

      What does Giroux's "be considerate of others" look and feel like in practice? How is it related to the problematic calls for civility?

  • Jul 2019
  • educatorinnovator.org educatorinnovator.org
    1. I, Pseudocoder

      This made me chuckle--both because I am living in a pseudocoding space myself, so I identify with the self-deprecating humor, and because of the riff on "I, Robot"

    1. for lack of a better term

      I'm not really satisfied using the term "critical theory" either, given that it could include works that aren't really "PoMo" (eg, Marxism or historical materialism). I'd use "post-structuralism", but I don't think that many folks know what it means and it's not totally accurate either. So I decided to just leave it as "critical theory" as in the original rant.

    1. A Randomized Controlled Tria

      This is randomized controlled trial and it is the correct type of intervention research design for this question

    2. The current trial aims at evaluating the efficacyof a stand-alone, unguided, Internet-based mindfulnesstreatment program for anxiety

      The purpose of the trial was to study the effectiveness of a stand-alone, unguided, internet-based mindfulness treatment programme for anxiety

    3. The fundingbody was not involved in the study design, in thecollection, analysis and interpretation of data, in thewriting of the report, or in the decision to submit thearticle for publication.

      Suggests that the funding body had no role to play in the outcomes of this study

  • Mar 2019
    1. Teaching problem solving This page is included because some of our theories indicate that problem solving should be taught specifically. This page is a bit unusual; I did not find many others like it. It is rather easy to read and also addresses the differences between novice and expert learners. rating 3/5

  • Feb 2019
  • Jan 2019
    1. For a review of such research, see Daniel T. Willingham, “Critical Thinking: Why Is It So Hard to Teach?” American Educator 31, 2 (2007): 13, http://www.aft.org/sites/default/files/periodicals/Crit_Thinking.pdf.
    2. By examining information as a product of people’s contingent choices, rather than as an impartial recording of unchanging truths, the critically information-literate student develops an outlook toward information characterized by a robust sense of agency and a heightened concern for justice.

      It seems like there's still a transfer problem here, though. There seems to be an assertion that criticality will be inherently cross-domain, but I'm not clear why that should be true. Why would the critical outlook not remain domain-specific. (To say "if it does, then it isn't critical", seems like a tautology.)

    1. posthuman times, and the posthuman subjects ofknowledge constituted within them, are producing new fields of transdis-ciplinary knowledge, which I call the critical posthumanitie

      At least she laid it out front and center. If this piece is anything like the Barad essay, then we can at least walk away with this sentence.

    1. have the knowledge and skills to help navigate the hospital system, explain your diagnosis in detail, and explain potential outcomes.  We are also here to help decipher the information from doctor visits, set up meetings with care teams, and organize home care, and medications

      Using specialist in a field saves time, and ultimately saves lives.

    1. Curiosity Is as Important as Intelligence

      This one is a pretty bold statement to make, in general.

      Mike Johansson, at Rochester Institute of Technology, makes the case that curiosity is the key to enabling both Creative and Critical Thinking for better problem solving, in general.

      What are some of your ideas?

    1. I proposed three new dimensions to considerin conceptualizations of Big Data, which are intendedto nuance and temper some of the grand claims of BigData’s affordances.Key principles from critical and feminist GIS havehere been leveraged to understand the limitations andimpacts of Big Data. Further integration of principlesfrom critical information technologies research willideally seek to show how technologies shape andreproduce uneven social and political relations. Thissort of research can have practical influence on howtechnologies are leveraged, working to ameliorate thepotentially harmful implications of new technologies.More broadly, research critiquing and situating thegeographies of humanitarianism can be integrated intostudies of Big Data digital humanitarianism. Conver-sations around technologies for development andhumanitarianism overwhelmingly bring Western ide-als into non-Western contexts, without considering theimplications of this power relation. Critiquing theserelations should be central to theories of informationtechnologies, with the goal of rectifying and

      Burns' contributions:

      • Incorporate critical and feminist critiques in humanitarian-Big Data research

      • Integrate critical scholarship into the development of technical tools

      • Consider Western contexts and political/social power relations in research and practice with vulnerable individuals and communities

    2. are certainly not limited to, continued struggles aroundknowledge politics and legitimacy (Burns2014;Elwood and Leszczynski2013), shifting understand-ings of scientific knowledge production (Dalton andThatcher2014; Crampton et al.2013), and increasedneoliberalization of humanitarian aid (Adams2013;Hyndman2009; Polman2010). In other words, theseprocesses take a form specific to Big Data digitalhumanitarianism, and exploring this case sheds greaterlight on these larger-scale processes.

      overarching critique of digital humanitarian crowd work and the artifacts it produces.

    3. signifies a new epistemology insofar as it portraysevents as discrete and isolated; knowledges as mod-ifiable, categorizable, and abstractable; and locally-situated knowledges as best understood by thoseworking remotely

      Evokes complexity of creating classifications and boundary objects that can provide relational data, e.g., report of fire and report of car bombing.

    4. Not only does the convergence of BigData and humanitarianism depend on a particularsocial shaping of technologies and data, but Big Dataitself embodies particular values, social relations, andepistemologies

      This premise feels over-stated, as seems to be evidenced in the footnotes -- presumably responses to reviewer questions/critiques.

      I don't disagree with social, methodological, and ethical concerns about "Big Data" (scare quotes, intended) but DHN groups are certainly not there (nor are they likely to be) using large data sets. The overly-enthusiastic/optimistic hype about using large, unstructured data, lacking critical examination of its many downsides, seems to be motivating this paper in ways that are unfortunate. Critique of DH work is needed but this approach seems to be chasing imaginary monsters.

    5. Digital humanitarianism can be con-ceptualized as ‘‘the enacting of social and institutionalnetworks, technologies, and practices that enable large,unrestricted numbers of remote and on-the-groundindividuals to collaborate on humanitarian managementthrough digital technologies’’ (Burns2014).

      Burns' definition of digital humanitarianism.

      I'm not convinced that DHN groups actually work with Big Data (excepting QRCI's MicroMappers algorithm training project with SBTF). I'm not aware of any group collecting large amounts of data and quantitatively analyzing it.

    6. However, discussions of the relationship between BigData and digital humanitarianism tend to be cautiouslyoptimistic. Letouze ́(2012) the challenges facingdigital humanitarianism as falling into five broadcategories: (1) privacy, (2) access/sharing, (3) extract-ing meaning from qualitative text, (4) apophenia, (5)detecting anomalies.

      Citing Letouzé, Burns raises challenge of "extracting meaning from qualitative text."

      Get Letouzé paper.

    7. Theseunderstandings of spatial technologies build on les-sons from science and technology studies (STS)research that describes the processes by which dataand technologies come to assume and reify social andpower relations, worldviews, and epistemologies(Feenberg1999; Pinch and Bijker1987; Wajcman1991; Winner1985)

      Good summation of Bijker's and Winner's STS work

    8. Bor-rowing principles from critical GIS, technologies canbe seen to embody social norms and values (Schuurman2000; Sheppard2005), often reinforcing extant powerdynamics and social inequalities rather than disruptingthem.

      Definition of critical GIS.