140 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
    1. ers. Much of this work has focused on both personal characteristics of these students (such as motivation, self-discipline, or self-efficacy) andtheir level of computer experience or access to technology,and has found that students’ motivation and self-discipline predict success in online courses (

      so what can annotations tools do for discipline and self-efficacy?

      Self-efficacy refers to an individual's belief in his or her capacity to execute behaviors necessary to produce specific performance attainments (Bandura, 1977, 1986, 1997). Self-efficacy reflects confidence in the ability to exert control over one's own motivation, behavior, and social environment.


      There's the motivating factor of not falling behind in homework, if the annotations are a required aspect. Of helping to contribute to the rest of the class, by answering questions or providing context to other students. Perhaps?

    2. Results of this study found that while online students reported lower levels of motivation compared to face-to-face students, motivation variables were more strongly correlated with course performance than learning strategies, particularly for online courses.

      interesting for online course students to have less motivation.


    1. The students were encouraged to watch an instructional video as a prerequisite to taking the online quizzes.This video briefly summarized the benefits of active recall and spaced retrieval on long-term retention and advised the students to learn the material in advan

      So providing advice on effective learning strategies.

    2. Learning Analytics to Inform the Learning Design: Supporting Instructor’s Inquiry Into Student Learning in Unsupervised Technology-Enhanced Platform

      Very obvious iterative and cyclical design.

    3. heycan monitor learning behaviors and intervene by timely and meaningful feedback to support metacognitive awareness among students(Black & Wiliam, 2009; Black & Wiliam, 1998a; Govaerts, Verbert, Duval, & Pardo, 2012; Kaendler, Wiedmann, Rummel, & Spada, 2015).

      One class I need to come up with is related around activity tracking, or using previous data from other semesters to try and predict student behavior.

    4. rs through mindful designand implementation of formative assessments (Knight & Sydney, 2018; Wise & Shaffer, 2015)

      i'd hope these articles have examples?

    5. The metacognitive awareness among learners assumes special importance in higher education,where students have to take an autonomous and active role in learning outside classrooms, such as self-directed environments where there is less guidance from instructors(Bjork et al., 2013; McMahon, 200

      Definitely becomes an issue as faculty take a more hands off approach. So there has to be encouragement from the faculty, and hopefully, guidance.

    6. Feedback fromexternal sources,such as an instructor,can play a vital role in encouragingthe use ofeffective learning strategiesamong students who have poor metacognitive awareness

      Self-monitor, and feedback about learning how to learn.

    7. However, the majorityof students may lack metacognitive awareness regarding the benefits of effective learning strategies (Bjork et al., 2013; Karpicke, Butler, & Roediger, 2

      One of the things we don't see often is faculty teaching people how to learn.

    8. e study strategies like active retrieval of information via self-testing and distributed or spaced practice of information (Bjork, Dunlosky, & Kornell, 2013).Robust evidencefrom cognitive psychology literature confirmsthat learning strategies like active retrieval of information and spaced practiceenhancelong-term retentionwhencompared torereading or massed practice of study materia

      Retrieval activities can be filling out study questions.

    9. In this study,wedesigned and extracted fivevariables from the Canvas quiz-logdata,whichcan provideinsights into students’learning behaviors.

      find similar data in the Blackboard log data


  2. Sep 2019
    1. Are You Assigning Too Much Reading? Or Just Too Much Boring Reading?

      Who is deciding that the readings are categorically boring?

    1. U.S. Latino/a


    2. with many discretely placed extras that explain and augment the novel and poem. You can watch a video of Fiona Shaw performing Eliot’s dense masterpiece; listen to readings by Eliot, Alec Guinness, Jeremy Irons, and others; watch a video of Seamus Heaney speaking about the poem; see the manuscript with Eliot’s handwritten revisions and related photographs; and read the many explanatory notes. Immersion in Shaw’s exquisite performance makes the poem come alive, an inkling of our ancestors’ pleasurable experiences of oral performance.

      where to cop

    3. One student told me that pairing such a dynamic medium with the old-fashioned "words on the page" was an obvious recipe for disengagement with the less-dynamic medium

      That's an interesting argument, but the instructor should respond with "how would you make it better?"

    4. In effect, they spend more time avoiding literature than it would have taken to read it.

      like if you cry evrytiem

    5. I often require students to write three paragraphs of analytical commentary for a reading assignment. Yet rather than actually read and analyze the text, some students instead spend their time combing the internet for summaries and then copying vague language they’ve clearly lifted from online sources. That happens no matter how short the reading.

      A lot to unpack here: Are the students given examples for close readings? do they practice in class or are given a guide on how to do it?

      The students are asked to do three paragraphs, which they do not know how actually complete, so they have no choice but to look for other people's analysis out on the web.

      Some of this also sounds like plagiarism, so a plagiarism checker would be ideal in these situations. Also teaching them how to cite sources is equally important.

    6. I have gradually decreased the length of my reading assignments — from long novels to short stories and poetry — yet students still balk.

      Wrong way to do this.

    7. they are increasingly reluctant to engage with course readings.

      I personally think they a) do not know how to do it properly, b) procrastinate because of a).

    1. My students’ literary analyses were indisputably enriched by Hypothes.is. It facilitated easy online interaction with a variety of texts and each other, and it required students to anchor their comments rigorously in specific textual passages.

      I would be interested in finding a way to review those comments. Perusall does let you download the comments to your computer.

    2. Annotations disappear from the sidebar if their original text ‘anchor’ has been deleted from the page code.

      this is why an alternative like Perusall might be helpful, static documents that only change depending on when or why they are provided by the instructor. It looks like this instructor already had pre-determined documents to point students to, and only a few websites as an aside.

    3. Students’ two major problems were not technological but practical. First, they posted to the wrong websites.

      I had not thought of this!

    4. No student accepted my offer to confer via Collaborate on Blackboard (through screen sharing) but I will require this in the future.

      that kinda sucks.

    5. who were generally well motivated but from diverse disciplinary backgrounds and unfamiliar with online annotation – I have compiled some lessons to consider for future semesters.

      again, where to cop?

    6. he staff at Hypothes.is emailed with students, and Jeremy Dean provided a Student Resource Guide and video tutorial.

      Where to cop?

    7. Jeremy Boggs has noted three roles for instructors using technology in the classroom: role model; tech support; and cheerleader.1212. ‘Three Roles for Teachers Using Technology’, in Hacking the Academy: New Approaches to Scholarship and Teaching from Digital Humanities, ed. by Daniel J. Cohen and Tom Scheinfeldt (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2013), DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.3998/dh.12172434.0001.001> [accessed 20 May 2016].View all notes

      often times all at once!

    8. focused annotation along a number of axes:

      Something to think about my future book club assingments: Prompts that focus on historical, linguistic, literary, ethical, multimedia.

    9. For this course, I simply required students to post literary, historical, or ethical annotations, sometimes guiding them with a broad prompt.

      The instructor still has an active role by providing guidance.

    10. The students spread out among all the different pages of this site as though wandering through a many-roomed museum.

      I like this simile, treating the pages of primary sources as the equivalent of a museum room, and then becoming the curator for your own project. There is an aspect of digital curation here, which I defined as: Adding value to something that already exists by putting it in relation to other things.

    11. In the other assignments, students annotated Victorian texts that had not already been discussed in class, although they were expected to draw upon and refer to knowledge they had gained from the course. These assignments asked students to pull together two to five weeks’ new knowledge to make sense of a difficult new text, acting as capstone assignments at the end of each of the main segments of the course.

      Assignments that act as a way to test student retention and recall of facts learned from previous weeks.

    12. In one assignment, the students group-annotated an e-text of George Eliot’s novella The Lifted Veil, an assigned text, which had been discussed in other course materials such as my video lecture and discussion questions. Annotation in Hypothes.is requires students to attach their response to a specific element in the text.

      The Lifted Veil is a novella by George Eliot, first published in 1859. Quite unlike the realistic fiction for which Eliot is best known, The Lifted Veil explores themes of extrasensory perception, the essence of physical life, possible life after death, and the power of fate. The novella is a significant part of the Victorian tradition of horror fiction, which includes such other examples as Robert Louis Stevenson's The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde (1886), and Bram Stoker's Dracula (1897).

      Plot summary

      The unreliable narrator, Latimer, believes that he is cursed with an otherworldly ability to see into the future and the thoughts of other people. His unwanted "gift" seems to stem from a severe childhood illness he suffered while attending school in Geneva. Latimer is convinced of the existence of this power, and his two initial predictions do come true the way he has envisioned them: a peculiar "patch of rainbow light on the pavement" and a few words of dialogue appear to him exactly as expected. Latimer is revolted by much of what he discerns about others' motivations.

      Latimer becomes fascinated with Bertha, his brother's cold and coquettish fiancée, because her mind and motives remain atypically closed to him. After his brother's death, Latimer marries Bertha, but the marriage disintegrates as he recognizes Bertha's manipulative and untrustworthy nature. Latimer's friend, scientist Charles Meunier, performs a blood transfusion from himself to Bertha's recently deceased maid. For a few moments the maid comes back to life and accuses Bertha of a plot to poison Latimer. Bertha flees and Latimer soon dies as he had himself foretold at the start of the narrative.

      Lifted Veil (Novella))

    13. Jeremy Dean

      Director of education at Hypothesis. He does a lot of Web Conferences and conferences.

    14. And I wanted to require students to make links to our assigned Victorian texts. I wanted our tool to anchor students’ analysis in specific words, phrases, passages, and images so they were forced to engage with the language of the period.

      Anchoring, the focusing on specific parts of the text, it allows students to debate, discuss, and elaborate on an idea while having the factor that yielded such a response remain at the forefront.

    15. Literature and Medicine: Diseases and Debates, Then and Now

      sounds fascinating

    16. students working independently drift into general statements that do not support their claims.

      Key word is independently, if there's someone there to push back on the initial claim, a more refined concept can emerge.

    17. in class, we turn to specific pages in a novel and discuss how the words on the page do or do not align with our ideas about the novel.

      talking about concepts, ideas, philosophies, while using the text in the novel to see what is and what isn't supported.

    18. Whether through new techniques for visualizing the nuances of a line of text or through our ability to discover the multilayered history of a single word or phrase, literary analysis has reached a new sphere.

      On your browser nowadays you can highlight a word or phrase, right click and select "Look up..." on chrome. You will often find wikipedia articles or additional resources almost immediately. Annotation can bring you back from the "rabbit hole" and put that into the text for future reading and context.

    19. close reading
    20. digital reading tools

      hypothesis, perusall, even your epub readers have new and helpful features.

    21. Observers of the digital humanities often see them as shifting literary study away from close reading.

      Reticent to move into the digital realm as it often feels like you are losing some important aspect from the physical.

    1. Video Annotation Assignment

      This can be done with voicethread.

    2. It illustrates the value of social annotation for teaching students to read images as well as text

      Annotate images is also pretty important and useful.

    3. Pointing out that commentary is a genre

      Genres are sort of the overall structure a writing or movie can follow in its beats and approach to the story or subject they are communicating about. For this comment writing genre's include abstracts, book reviews, commentaries, critiques, etc.


    4. Working in teams, students select passages from the assigned reading that they consider "rich in figurative language, curious in form or otherwise abundant in detail,

      Assigned reading: look for figurative language curious in form abundant in detail

    5. How News Genius Silences Writers
    6. By giving student writers the ability to "talk back" collectively to texts, social annotation has the potential to advance a pedagogy committed to questioning authority and asserting democratic ownership of knowledge and culture.

      questioning the author, letting students assert themselves from the get go, is good practice.

    7. Online, annotators can build on one another's insights, share contextual knowledge they find through research, and argue with each other as well as the text.

      When you offer an interpretation. Another reader can immediately bounce off that idea, or offer an alternative, or point to further research and resources.

    1. One creative writing exercise might be to have students annotate in the voices of a characters from a novel being read.

      that's a pretty neat idea.

    2. 10. Annotation as Creative Act

      Annotations can also be a way of noting who made it to the very end of the article!

    1. Instructional Design in Higher Education3Summary of Findings

      Found a cool group of people from reading this document and using hypothes.is.

    1. However, what we won’t know is how many high-school seniors opted out of the four-year college pathway in favor of shorter-term, anytime, lower-cost credentialing.

      what's stopping universities from offering lower-priced credential certifications for students that need to get training and then go out into the workforce.

    2. Consider this comment from May 2019 by Tim Cook, Apple’s chief executive: “I don’t think a four-year degree is necessary to be proficient in coding. I think that is an old, traditional view.”

      I don't think that has ever been a view in coding, unless you are specifically applying for a more research-focused job.

    3. For too long, colleges — public and private, liberal arts and research-driven, rural and urban — have operated as if they’re solely in the higher-education business rather than in the broader postsecondary-education sector.

      I was just having this conversation with a colleague. The rise of college cost, might drive institutions to put out certificates and 2year degrees.

    4. but they can trim the institutional sails.

      Of course...

    5. Some preprofessional majors are faring no better: Bachelor’s degrees in education declined by 15 percent between 2005 and 2015. It is little wonder that the Pennsylvania System of Higher Education, significantly dependent on teacher education, has seen its 14 state-owned universities lose 20 percent of their collective enrollment since 2010.

      A sad byproduct of the status of teacher pay.

    6. Up and down the selectivity ladder, especially among private colleges

      Sad trombone

    7. father of enrollment management, the science

      Didn't know there was a science to enrollment. Neat.

    1. he top-cited competency found in the literature was collaborationfollowed closely by communicationand theoretical knowledge, course design, and problem-solving.

      collaborate with SME and other aspects of the instititution; communicate your knowledge effectively and candidly, be an expert on the theory that grounds instructional design, course design, be creative enough to come up with solutions to problems.

    2. ter depth and breadth of knowledge, skill, and general competenci

      Understanding of learning theory and course design

      Design Processes

      Project Management

      Good communications skills

      Technical skills

      Video and Multimedia Production

      Assessment training

    3. Mel Edwards Purdue University

      I know her! :D


    1. Introduction

      Discussion Questions

      The authors propose a conceptual framework to determine what is ‘open enough’ to help educators estimate workload when developing open courses (p.4). Do you find the framework helpful? How would you have framed it differently?

      The authors break down open education into eight factors. Are there other factors you would have added? Eliminated/combined?

      In Step 2 of the framework, the authors propose how much willingness/effort is required to implement each of the eight factors (pp. 10-11). Do you agree with their assumptions? Would you reassign willingness/effort differently?

      In Step 3 of the framework, the authors argue that accessibility/usability considerations, language, and cultural considerations require the most knowledge from educators when transitioning from closed to open courses (pp 11-12). Do you think this is accurate?

      The authors argue that maximizing openness for assessment, language, and support costs can have negative pedagogical trade offs (pp. 7-8). Eg. Instructor feedback (closed & mixed) vs. self-assessment (most open). What do you think of this argument?

      In the “Limitations and discussion” (pp. 12-14), the authors propose goal posts around openness (‘open enough’). Are there other suggestions that could have been included?

    1. An Outline For The Instructional Design Document

      Important work to be done is lay out all of this stuff in a course template (?) or in a guide for faculty.

    1. Course Design Document This is one of the more important deliverables for an ID project as it outlines in detail what the final course package will look like

      So I am really thinking that the creation of a template would bring about some benefits for the University.

    2. Agree upon metrics for measuring project outcomes

      Courses with content or implementation of LMS tools, courses reviewed and marked with 80%+ of exemplary or OSCQR rubric

    3. Get key sponsors onboard early on in the project's life cycle

      Our project manager, our CTLE, faculty, other staff, and students.

    4. Clearly understand the learning challenges within the organization

      We have a lot of courses that could use some implementation of LMS and course design concepts.

  3. Aug 2019
    1. Technologies are used creatively in ways that transcend traditional, teacher-centered instruction

      Creatively? how do you define that? How could we list ways for more creative ways of using tools?


    1. UW-La Crosse Online Course Evaluation Guidelines

      A lot of these guidelines are helpful and good, but they are no different than the ones we have at UHD...I dunno where I'm going with this I guess.

    2. Here isa tutorialwith several idea

      A rubric should have the qualifiers, although this seems more of a table guide of things the instructor should do, so now we should get into the question of whether this is really a rubric or just an organized guide. You can see if you scroll down later it just lets you check boxes, rather than have them as part of the Qualifiers. Also if you are gonna have detailed descriptions for most of the table, having only one link to suggestions seems like it is missing something.

    3. t writing measurable learning objectives.

      Dead Link

    4. with the same layout, content areas and activity types,

      saying "ALL" and Same layout and activities hmm...

    5. time management skills, expected hours required for course, deadlineawareness

      actually good things to provide when doing an evaluation. I think these are good factors to keep in mind while evaluating the course.

    1. valuative, predictive model that lets instructors and support staff—including instructional designers and courseware developers—evaluate technologies for their appropriate fit to a course's learning outcomes and classroom contexts.

      Flexible rubric depending on the profession/role

    2. ad hoc

      when necessary or needed, I assume this is meant in the "impromptu" sense of the word.

    1. the rude quantification of learning, the reduction of teaching to widgets and students to data points.

      we don't even use our data as we ought to.

    2. “Ceding authority is an active endeavor. Dichotomies of leaders and learners, teachers and students, are only helpful when they facilitate rather than frustrate dialogue, and when we acknowledge these roles are permeable, transparent, and flexible.”

      simply are social relations that can change.

    3. bell hook

      Gloria Jean Watkins (born September 25, 1952), better known by her pen name bell hooks,[1] is an American author, professor, feminist, and social activist. The name "bell hooks" is borrowed from her maternal great-grandmother, Bell Blair Hooks.[2]

      The focus of hooks' writing has been the intersectionality of race, capitalism, and gender, and what she describes as their ability to produce and perpetuate systems of oppression and class domination. She has published over 30 books and numerous scholarly articles, appeared in documentary films, and participated in public lectures. She has addressed race, class, and gender in education, art, history, sexuality, mass media, and feminism.[3] In 2014, she founded the bell hooks Institute at Berea College in Berea, Kentucky.[4] http://thecheapestuniversity.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/08/bell-hooks-teaching-community-a-pedagogy-of-hope.pdf https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bell_hooks

  4. sites.fas.harvard.edu sites.fas.harvard.edu
    1. When students feel a note makes an important contribution to the collective knowledge base, they can propose the note for publication. An editorial group and the teacher then decide whether to publish the note. At the end of the school year the class may decide on a selection of notes to remain in the knowledge base for classes that come after them.

      This is actually pretty awesome.

    2. The central activity of the community is contributing to the communal knowledge base

      Wikis are gonna be a recurring theme

    3. Students can read through the knowledge base adding text, graphics, questions, links to other notes, and comments on each other’s work. When someone has commented on another student’s work, the system automatically notifies themabout it.

      social learning, participating in collaborative, asynchronous work.

    4. The model involves students investigating problems in different subject areas over a period of weeks or months. As students work, they enter their ideas and research findings as notes in an on-line knowledge base.

      could be done with trello and blackboard wikis.

    5. 2) sharing what they learn with other students in their research group and in other groups, and (3) preparing for and participating in some “consequential task”

      why group assignments might need double the amount of groups.

    6. (1) carrying out research on the central topics in small groups where each student specializes in a particular subtopic area

      similar to jigsaw stuff

    7. overall structure

      organizing things ahead of time

    8. Her technique of asking students to explain other student’s ideas is particularly effective in making them listen to and respect other students.

      I do this at work to make sure I understood the the problem the person has laid out. This is a good way to make sure you are paying attention.

  5. Jul 2019
  6. sites.fas.harvard.edu sites.fas.harvard.edu
    1. For instance, social learning techniques such as cooperative learning and collaborative learning (Cohen, 1985; Damon & Phelps, 1989; Slavin, 1986)

      look into these.

    2. chooling needs to construct a learning environment that fosters students’ abilities to work and learn with other people.

      tolerance, respect, etc.

    3. argues that children will learn to read and write if the people they admire read and write. That is, they will want to join the "literacy club" and will work hard to become members. Brown, Ellery, and Campione (1998) argue that there has been a change in the demand on schools, toward a goal of producing expert learners or "intelligent novices." This change has been brought on by (1) increasing knowledge, such that no one can absorb in school everything they will need to know in life, and by (2) the changing demands of work, where technology can carry out low-level tasks, requiring workers who can think abstractly and learn new skills.

      the rise of an information flood, requires that the student learn how to apply universal skills rather than memorize facts that can change or be modified at any time.

    1. connectivism (Downes, Siemens),written by Insung Jung community of inquiry model (Garrison, Anderson), written by Karen Swan extended spatial model of e-learning (Jung and Latchem), written by Mimi Miyoung Lee a pedagogy-andragogy-heutagogy continuum (Blaschke), written by Lisa Blaschke

      read about them

    2. Jung, I. (ed.) Open and Distance Education Theory Revisited

      check the book out

    3. autonomy and independence (e.g. Knowles, Wedemeyer, Holmberg), written by Colin Latchem, who sadly died just after submitting his chapter industrialized teaching and learning (e.g. Peters), written by Olaf Zawicki-Richter,  transactional distance (Moore), written by Rick Shearer and Eunsung Park openness, written by Marcus Diemann,which includes a discussion of OER and MOOCs and their relationship to openness, but not any direct discussion of open pedagogy.

      look into these.

    1. Learning through communities of practice in a digital age

      It just proves my point we should start a community of learning.

    2.  a step-by-step guide

      404 error

    3. Create a rhythm for the community: there needs to be a regular schedule of activities or focal points that bring participants together on a regular basis, within the constraints of participants’ time and interests.

      This is what I think is the most important aspect of having a community.

    4. Communities of practice are one of the ways in which experiential learning, social constructivism, and connectivism can be combined, illustrating the limitations of trying to rigidly classify learning theories. Practice tends to be more complex.
      • Constructivism - roots in the philosophical and psychological viewpoints of this century, specially Piaget, Bruner and Goodman. Learning occurs when the mind filters inputs from the world to produce its unique reality. The mind is believed to be the source of all meaning, direct experiences with the environment are considered critical. It crosses both categories by emphasizing the interaction between learner and the real world.

      • Social constructivism would emphasize critical experiences between the learner and other learners and mentors.

      • Connectivism is the integration of principles explored by chaos, network, complexity and self-organization theory. A lot of the content is now offloaded to the machine that was previously residing within the learner.

    1. Figure 1 presents a density plot of the time students indicated that they would watch the first video after it was released (time as a continuous variable on the x-axis, the number of students who committed to watching at that time on the y-axis). We see consistent temporal patterns: Scheduled watching peaks the day after the video was released and then falls over time. There are distinct peaks in the evening of each day (we have labeled 9:00 p.m. each day). Among students who completed the survey and actually watched the first video, Figure 2 depicts the day and time at which students watched the first video relative to when they committed to watching it. The left histogram confirms that the majority of students watch the video on the day they scheduled with a significant number watching either a day early or late. The right panel shows that for students who watched on the day they scheduled to watch, the majority watched it within an hour of the time they scheduled. Students who commit to watching the video on a specific day and time are mostly adhering to their schedule.

      the first figure looks at how many people are watching the video when it is released, and fig 1 shows a peak every day at 9pm. However, as students completed the pre-scheduled survey and made a commitment to watching the video. Fig 2 shows they actually watched the video either a few hours early, most of them on time, and a few times, a bit late.

    2. Similarly, Macan, Shahani, Dipboye, and Phillips (1990) found that scores on a robust time management scale were positively related not only to higher college GPA but also to students’ self-perceptions of performance and general satisfaction with life.

      better time management scale scoring means you are more likely to get better gpas and be happy with their performance.

    1. It is also a reason why awarding grades for participation in discussion forums misses the point.

      Not simply to assign point values to forums, but tailor the discussion forum to the problems or concepts gained from the book.

    2. discussion forums are not an addition or supplement to core teaching materials, such as textbooks, recorded lectures, or text in an LMS, but are the core component of the teaching.

      So discussions are a "most necessary" aspect of Online Collaborative Learning.

    3. some instructors have focused heavily on the communication affordances of the Internet (see for instance, Hiltz and Turoff, 1978)

      the ability for students to communicate and discuss things synchronously and asynchronously has been very important.

    4. Pask, 1975

      research or read up on the highlighted references.

    5. In the OCL theory, the teacher plays a key role not as a fellow-learner, but as the link to the knowledge community, or state of the art in that discipline. Learning is defined as conceptual change and is key to building knowledge.

      The instructor works as a facilitator but they also have the latest information and knowledge for the field in which they are participating.

    6. OCL theory provides a model of learning in which students are encouraged and supported to work together to create knowledge: to invent, to explore ways to innovate, and, by so doing, to seek the conceptual knowledge needed to solve problems rather than recite what they think is the right answer

      the use of learning to create knowledge rather than recite facts.

    1. And, Mazur found, students read beyond what was required: The software showed students coming back to the text after it was no longer assigned.

      Review of content is another benefit.

    2. So they drew on one of the lessons of Peer Instruction, a method that Mazur had developed in the 1990s to encourage students to discuss conceptual questions with one another during lectures.

      look into this research.

    3. Kelly Miller, by posting readings on an online platform. It allowed them to track how students read online.

      read research from Kelly Miller

    4. Eric Mazur, a professor of physics and applied physics at Harvard University, started noticing issues with his students’ reading habits many years ago.

      help found Perusall

    5. Hoeft found a possible old-school fix, the same one Burchfield and Sappington praised 12 years earlier: quizzes. By adding quizzes or graded assignments, like handouts and journals, she could improve their reading rate by double digits.

      Or...we could provide internal motivation or better alternatives for the reading they'd do on their own.

    6. "We quickly realized that unless you actually assign a grade for the out-of-class component, students just won’t do it.”

      having a carrot and a stick as external motivation.

    7. “Students these days are not as capable as students were in previous generations as critical readers,” Jolliffe says. 

      I think it's a little condescending.

    1. Reihmanusesbasicquestionsprompts,thenbeginstodigdeeper,involv-ingthestudentsinrecon-structingargumentsorleav-ingoutstepsonpurposetoletstudentsfillinthelogicgaps.Finally,studentsdemonstratetheirabilitytoidentify,reconstruct,andevaluateargumentsthroughshortpapers.

      create mental models, then work on embedding those models into working memory, then prompt recall, and assess their procedures.

    2. wantsstudentstobeabletoanalyzeandevaluatearguments


    3. activelearning,problem-basedlearning,learner-centeredteaching,inquiry-basedteaching,andra-gogy,learningstyles,left-andright-brainedthinking,cooperativelearning,collaborativelearning,flippedclassrooms,aswellashybridandonlineteaching

      Good list of various learning styles

    1. Connectivism is the theory behind massive open online courses, MOOCs

      the author doesn't really elaborate as to how or why connectivism is the guiding theory behind moocs.

    2. earning is primarily online, open, learners engage within network Learning objectives are not pre-determined, emerge throughout the course, determined by learners’ needs Variety of content sources on web, extensive, accessible Learners are self-directed, independent, know how-to-learn Prerequisites not required Learning is often disorganized, chaotic
      • the student is doing a lot of online or web 2.0 research.

      • I have issues with the idea of not determining objectives ahead of time. How do you know what you'll eb doing? This feels like it would be more useful for a grad class than a elementary class or a college undergrad class.

      • one would still want to make sure the sources are verifiable and trustworthy.

      • I like the idea of independence but without some guidelines or requirements, it can just turn into vagrancy.

      • Doubtful, pre-requisites are always a thing.

      • See even if the learning feels chaotic, I would say it's quite the opposite, the measured approach is still important, and whiel it might be fast-paced, that is not the same as chaotic.

    3. Tam, M. “Constructivism, Instructional Design, and Technology: Implications for Transforming Distance Learning”, Educational Technology & Society 3(2) 2000 The Learning Design Framework, Online Learning Insights

      look into these resources.

    4. Learning is not linear, often exploratory in nature Prerequisite knowledge not always required or considered Instruction emphasizes learning in experiential contexts Learning is social Assessment varies

      students can learn concepts before or after others have done so. they are exploring first and foremost.

      The pre-requisite knowledge is identified but the student might re-master it or finally master it during the learning process.

      Instruction offers examples on how it is applicable or how it can be applied.

      Learning requires collaboration and participation.

      Essays, group presentations, Peer Reviews (probably).

    5. Students generate knowledge through collaborative group work

      there is a social aspect to the work the students have to do.

    6. Universal goals such as problem solving and critical thinking

      the concepts are learned in class are just a way of teaching critical thikning or problem solving.

    7. Instruction is directive Instructors transmit body of knowledge/skills to learners Assessments: multiple choice, short answer tests, or essays and projects graded by rubrics or checklists Students require prerequisite skills for advancing through curriculum Instruction is sequential, linear, standardized Efficient

      "Do this"

      "This is why or how it works"

      "Recall Assessments for testing their memorization".

      "concept scaffolding".

      1 => 2 => 3 => 4 etc.

      "if you say so".

    1. Cognitive psychology postulates that information is stored in long-term memory in the form of nodes which connect to form relationships; that is, in networks. So, information maps that show the major concepts in a topic, and the relationships between those concepts, should be included in the online learning materials.

      graphically demonstrate how concepts connect to one another. The way memory works is that neurons build connections that get stronger as those concepts become reinforced throughout time.

    2. Online learning strategies must present the materials and use strategies that enable students to process the materials efficiently. Since working memory has limited capacity

      one must be aware of cognitive load and overload when creating online activities and assignments.

    3. Online instruction must use strategies to allow learners to attend to the learning materials so they can be transferred from the senses to the sensory store and then to working memory.

      create recall assignments that have value but it is not too heavily weighted.

    4. , the three schools of thought can, in fact, be used as a taxonomy for learning. Behaviorists’ strategies can be used to teach the what (facts); cognitive strategies can be used to teach the how (processes and principles); and constructivist strategies can be used to teach the why (higher-level thinking that promotes personal meaning, and situated and contextual learning)

      I really don't get the point of spending all this ink discussing the separate schools when you end up comibining them with "what" "how" and "why" of learning.

    5. Some knowledge will reside in machines while some will reside in humans.

      the only thing they are correct on, is that the aid of machines will make learning certain things completely useless. I have a suspicion that long divisions will become a lost concept as computers and calculators become available on everything.

      The use of calligraphy is another lost learning concept/act of learning that matters little now.

    6. ccording to Siemens, connectivism is the integration of principles explored by chaos, network, complexity and self-organization theories

      the more i read about this, the more i think it's kinda bs.

    7. we can use a combination of theo-ries to develop online learning materials.

      whatever works best.

    8. The development of effective online learning materials should be based on proven and sound learning theories.

      With online learning since the instructor might only have a few times where they can provide feedback. They must find ways to constantly track the student's self-direction, acitivity, or participation. They also must find assignments that while challenging they do not drain their cognitive load so quickly. Small discussions veruss long papers every week, can help gauge progress without feeling stressful or too difficult.

    9. For organizations and insti-tutions to make this often expensive move, there must be a perception that using online learning provides major benefits. Some of the benefits for learners and instructors are detailed below.

      The content created lives on even after the faculty has moved on. The technology advances and provides new resources, like data tracking, automatic grading, etc. The ease of access makes someone hesitant to take an online class, maybe more likely to do so.

    10. students gain significant learning benefits from audiovisual or computer media, as opposed to conventional instruction; however, the same studies also suggest that the reason for those benefits is not the medium of instruc-tion, but the instructional strategies built into the learning materials.

      Why would students gain more from media or computer videos? Well they can be replayed multiple times without tiring out the instructor. They can take notes when needed. They can come back to it when they are less distracted. If a student is distracted or lost in thought, they could lose 10-15 minutes of important information in a real classroom.

    11. Clark (1983) claims that technologies are merely vehicles that deliver instruction, and do not themselves influence student achievement.

      What comes first the chicken or the egg? the use of a technology forces the instructor to change their teaching method, which may or may not improve the results of learning.

    1. “Reasoned and validated theoretical eclecticism has been a key strength of our fi eld because no single theoretical base provides complete prescriptive principles for the entire design process.

      basically doing what works with a reason and purpose is more effective than dogmatic adherence to a single theory.

    2. As one moves along the behaviorist—cognitivist—constructivist con-tinuum, the focus of instruction shifts from teaching to learnin

      it moves from an external motivator or actor applying a transformative act on the student/learner, versus and intrinsic action made by the learner.

    3. Although the acquisition of “habits” is dis-cussed, little attention is given as to how these habits are stored or recalled for future use.

      A Writing Professor recommended a book by a Dog Trainer (crazy I know), that pointed out how you should be focusing on building new habits rather than correct the wrong ones.

    4. No attempt is made to determine the structure of a student’s knowledge nor to assess which mental processes it is necessary for them to use (Winn, 1990).

      At this point in time there is no such thing as a "strictly behavioralist" approach to education.

    5. a third category, constructive, is added here because of its recent emphasis in the instructional design literature (e.g., Bednar, Cunningham, Duff y, & Perry, 1991; Duff y & Jonassen, 1991; Jonassen, 1991b; Winn, 1991).

      Look into these research articles.

    6. behavioral, cognitive, and constructivis

      there's a fourth theory now called Connectivism introduced by Siemen and Downes.


    7. Is it better to choose one theory when designing instruction or to draw ideas from dif-ferent theories?

      I would think it makes sense to choose from various theories and tailor the approach as necessary.

    8. Th erefore, as emphasized by Snelbecker (1983), individuals addressing practical learning problems cannot aff ord the “luxury of restricting themselves to only one theoretical position . . . [Th ey] are urged to examine each of the basic science theories which have been developed by psychologists in the study of learning and to select those principles and conceptions which seem to be of value for one’s particular educational situation” (p. 8).

      Basically agreeing with me.