372 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
    1. For example, the new theories' focus onface-to-face instruction eliminates the advantage of time-independentlearning that traditional theories of distance education value.

      I see the reasoning for advocating face to face instruction or or things that bring the educator and learner within the same same time and virtual place, somehow.

      It de-industrializes some of the industrialization of education. It creates an intrapersonal relationship. It creatives learning pleasure and learner motivation. It helps personalize education. It allows for equivalent learning experiences as local learners.

    2. Recent emerging theories based on the capabilities ofnew interactive telecommunications-based audio and video systems sug-gest that distance education may not be a distinct field of education

      what happens when your virtual classroom is held in a VR experience fundamentally identical to a real classroom. What would be the separating barrier, other than the instrument through which you observe or interact in the learning event?

    3. Keegan (1986)

      an author with suggestions for evaluating theory/events of learning in distance education.

    4. Distance education is a more industrialized form ofeducation.

      industrialization of education is a dirty word, it should be seen as a highly critical adjective.

    5. The equivalency approach is uniquely American. It is based on corevalues held almost sacred in American education, such as the use of reg-ular classroom teachers to facilitate the teaching and learning process,local control, small class size, rapport between teacher and learner, andpersonalized learning.

      equivalency is drawn from uniquely american values, according to the writing.

    6. The objective of theinstructional designer of distance education is to provide for appropriate,equivalent learning experiences for each student

      Keep this in mind with Anatomy and Physiology.

    7. The more equivalent the learning experiences ofdistant learners are to those of local learners, the more equivalent will bethe outcomes of the educational experiences for all learners. Thisapproach to distance education advocates designing a collection ofequivalent learning experiences for distant and local learners, eventhough they may be different for each student.

      create equivalent activities from those of local learners for distance learners.

    8. The theoretical analyses of virtual education, however, have not yetbeen addressed by the literature: Is virtual education (interactive, livetelevised instruction) a subset of distance education or to be regardedas a separate field of educational endeavor? (p. 18)

      it would be a subset of dist. education.

    9. Equivalency Theory

      another tag ?

    10. Perraton's (1988) theory of distance education is composed of ele-ments from existing theories of communication and diffusion as well asphilosophies of education.

      Perraton's theory 1988

    11. Holmberg, distance education ischaracterized by the following statements:

      Holmberg distance education is characterized by the following:

    12. Holmberg's (1989) theory of distance education, what he calls "guid-ed didactic conversation," falls into the general category ofcommunication theory. Holmberg noted that his theory had explanatoryvalue in relating teaching effectiveness to the impact of feelings ofbelonging and cooperation as well as to the actual exchange of ques-tions, answers, and arguments in mediated communication

      Holmberg proposed theory

    13. Theory of Interaction and Communication


    14. Peters concluded that for distance teaching to be effective, the princi-ple of division of labor is a critical element.

      the division of labour also produces a rather insidious effect of knowledge producers and knowledge deliverers becoming separate and therefore easier to replace.

    15. Based on economic and industrial theory,Peters proposed the following new categories (terminology) for the anal-ysis of distance education:

      Peter's theory/terminology/analysis

    16. Peters stated that from many points ofview, conventional, oral, group-based education was a pre-industrialform of education,

      supposedly pre-industrial

    17. Theory of Industrialization of Teaching

      another tag.

    18. He notes that in traditional school settings learners are very dependenton teachers for guidance and that in most programs, conventional anddistance, the teacher is active while the student is passive.

      traditional vs distance

    19. Moore classifies distance education programs as "autonomous"(learner-determined) or "non-autonomous" (teacher-determined)
    20. three questions

      moore questions can help define or plan out how the program functions

    21. Moore's theory of distance education is a classification methodfor distance education programs.

      moore's theory of distance education

    22. it examines two variables ineducational programs: the amount of learner autonomy and the distancebetween teacher and learner.For Moore (1994), distance education is composed of two elements,each of which can be measured. The first element is the provision fortwo-way communication (dialog); some systems or programs offergreater amounts of two-way communication than others. The second ele-ment is the extent to which a program is responsive to the needs of theindividual learner (structure);

      two components, dialog - structure

    23. 1. The student and teacher are separated.2. The normal processes of teaching and learning are carried out inwriting or through some other medium.3. Teaching is individualized.4. Learning takes place through the student's activity.5. Learning is made convenient for the student in the student's ownenvironment.6. The learner takes responsibility for the pace of learning, withfreedom to start and stop at any time.

      Wedemeyer space-time barriers

    24. 1. Be capable of operating any place where there are students—evenonly one student—whether or not there are teachers at the sameplace, at the same time;2. Place greater responsibility for learning on the student;3. Free faculty members from custodial-type duties so that moretime can be given to truly educational tasks;4. Offer students and adults wider choices (more opportunities) incourses, formats, and methodologies;5. Use, as appropriate, all the teaching media and methods proveneffective;6. Mix and combine media and methods so that each subject or unitwithin a subject is taught in the best way known;7. Cause the redesign and development of courses to fit into anarticulated media program;8. Preserve and enhance opportunities for adaptation to individualdifferences;9. Evaluate student achievement simply, not by raising barriersregarding the place, rate, method, or sequence of student study;and10. Permit students to start, stop, and learn at their own pace.

      10 components

    25. American Theory of Independent Study.

      1st theory

    26. fourth category seeks to explain distance education through a synthesisof existing theories of communication and diffusion as well as philoso-phies of education.

      theories of communication and diffusion

    27. Keegan classified theories of distance education into threegroups: theories of independence and autonomy, theories of industrial-ization of teaching, and theories of interaction and communication.

      theories of independence and autonomy

      theories of industrialization of teaching

      theories of interaction and communication

    28. In his landmark work, The Foundations of Distance Education(1986),

      reading recommendation?

    29. One consequence of such understanding and explanation will be thathypotheses can be developed and submitted to falsification attempts.This will lead to insights telling us what in distance education is to beexpected under what conditions and circumstances, thus paving theway for corroborated practical methodological application,

      the need for understanding of frameworks so you can create experiments and obtain evidence.

    30. Many cringe at the thought of a discussion of theory.

      reading motherfucking theory!

    31. Theory and Distance Education:A New Discussion

      [Insert Citation Here]

      reminder to get Zotero or EndNote today

    1. Traditional paper platforms. for example. arc more accessible. ubiquitous. and easier to use than Internet tech-nologies.

      you don't have to charge the batteries of a book.

    2. Examples include the research and notable contribution to distance education theory of Garrison ( 1989. 2000). Holmberg ( 1989. 2003). Keegan ( 1990), Moore ( 1990. 1991. 1993). Peters ( 1994, 2003), Saba ( 1989. 2003) and Wedem-eyer ( 1971 )

      might come up again, look into these.

    3. e- learning includes a wu.k set o l computer applica11om, and pro-cesses. including computer-based learning. Web-based learning. , irtual classroo1m. and digital collahoration.

      vocab word

    4. technologically aggregated

      Course components are all in a central location?

      i'm spaced out.

    5. technologically reliant

      can't see the lecture if the livestream fails.

    6. re!-.ource enrichme nt

      vocab words ex. your images now have pop up videos

    7. information dissemi-nation

      vocab word

    8. The di,tributed learning ,1rmcg1c,. "h1ch 111cludc distance learning. offer ;1 radical 11<''' direction ror cduca11on The} mcnrpo-rmc flexible and open learning method, a, ,,ell w, modified and specaall~ created lcammg rc,ource,. The) abo mcKltf) and mcorporJte th.: ~• prncuces of the trad1-11onal :approachc, 10 lcam1ng I Una, crsn) of Plymouth. :!0021

      distributed learning claims to be more flexible.

    9. Di!>tance education is the organi1..a1ional apparat u, and process of providing educational cxpencncc, ro learners at a d1c;1ance

      another def.

    10. Current I). however. distance learning is used. with im:reasing frequency. in place of distance ed11ca1io11.

      Shift part of the responsibility to the learner themselves.

    11. Thoma..,·s o hse n ·aiion ( 1991) that etlucation floats on a sea of learning. represented one wa) to differ-e ntiate the organizational apparatus and the process of education from the larger. more inclm,ivc. and ubiquitou.., notion o f learning.

      We learn from everyone and everywhere, but education is perhaps the more structured approach?

    12. Is education the same as learning'>

      Interesting question...

    13. !D1,ta11<:cj karnmg p111s an cmphns1, on 1he --ieamcr ·· Indeed. lhc conccpl of ,1u-dc11H:cn1cred learning ha, hecomc popular lor all form,, of educauon. di,iance or 01h-er\\l\C. but " cspeciall) appropn:nc ,, hen student, nt'cd to ta~c on g.rc:atcr rc,pon,1-b1li1) for their lcammg.. a,, 1, the ca,c "hcn tining ,o from a dl\lancc. Ip. 41

      To make the distinction that the some of the responsibility is on the learner, the teacher may provide information, assignments, reviews, but ultimately the student does most of the work.

    14. Common to each author·s definition of di s-tance education i:, the idea that learner and in'>tructors are somehow separated from each other and communication Lechnolog) i'> used to facilitate learning tran action'>.

      here is the commonality between all.

    15. Other defs.

      Read more thoroughly and find the common pattern

    16. distance educario11 has been most widcl) used to de ·cribe the phenomenon com-monly described as a learning transaction where instructors arc 111 omc way removed from students and there is mediated interaction bet ween students and im,tructors

      distance education

    17. As in the exam-ple of the Tower of Babel

      Tower of Babel

      The Tower of Babel (Hebrew: מִגְדַּל בָּבֶל‎, Migdal Bavel) narrative in Genesis 11:1–9 is an origin myth meant to explain why the world's peoples speak different languages

      According to the story, a united human race in the generations following the Great Flood, speaking a single language and migrating westward, comes to the land of Shinar (שִׁנְעָר). There they agree to build a city and a tower tall enough to reach heaven. God, observing their city and tower, confounds their speech so that they can no longer understand each other, and scatters them around the world.

      Some modern scholars have associated the Tower of Babel with known structures, notably the Etemenanki, a ziggurat dedicated to the Mesopotamian god Marduk in Babylon. A Sumerian story with some similar elements is told in Enmerkar and the Lord of Aratta.

      Biblical Narrative

      1 And the whole earth was of one language, and of one speech. 2 And it came to pass, as they journeyed from the east, that they found a plain in the land of Shinar; and they dwelt there. 3 And they said one to another, Go to, let us make brick, and burn them throughly. And they had brick for stone, and slime had they for morter. 4 And they said, Go to, let us build us a city and a tower, whose top may reach unto heaven; and let us make us a name, lest we be scattered abroad upon the face of the whole earth. 5 And the LORD came down to see the city and the tower, which the children of men builded. 6 And the LORD said, Behold, the people is one, and they have all one language; and this they begin to do: and now nothing will be restrained from them, which they have imagined to do. 7 Go to, let us go down, and there confound their language, that they may not understand one another's speech. 8 So the LORD scattered them abroad from thence upon the face of all the earth: and they left off to build the city. 9 Therefore is the name of it called Babel; because the LORD did there confound the language of all the earth: and from thence did the LORD scatter them abroad upon the face of all the earth.

      — Genesis 11:1–9

    18. Following Vygots k

      there he comes up again! Really gotta read him.

    19. tdelearning

      ok we get it.

    20. to he hoth thoughtful and del1her'Jle when naming their cnicrpnse

      Glossary/Quizlet project

    21. the mcon,1,1enc} of tcnmnology among rc,carcher,, and within Lhc lttcraturc di,honnr; paM pracuce, and ,light, di,tam:e educa11on·, pedagogical her-11age

      Stop using the wrong words!

    22. THE NAME OF THE GAME Why "Distance Education" Says It All

      [insert citation here]


    1. it is not self-study or a nonacademic learning environment.

      Important distinction.

    1. 1. What is your definition of distance education? Which definition(s) from the textbook and other resources did you resonate the most (or least) with? Why (or why not)? 2. What drove the expansion of distance education or the need for distance education in the different countries? Think about geographic, economic, political situations or technological advancements that drive educational development. 3. What are the various kinds of distance education? 4. What are the fundamental characteristics of distance education? 5. What is your vision of distance education for your own educational or training context 10 years from today?

      Reading Check 1 questions 3 out of 5

    1. Apply effective instructional design principles and planning and development strategies to generate a course syllabus.Curriculum Design Plan, Course Syllabus

      designing courses syllabuses would humongous step up for me.

    2. (Virtual) every Wednesday8:00-9:00PM(CT) and by appointment

      set up recurring calendar events for every wednesday 8-9pm


  2. Jan 2020
  3. Dec 2019
    1. The same goes for facts and figures in other subjects; don’t know who someone was in history class? Just look ‘em up and read their bio.

      that's part of how learning works

    2. That way, teachers won’t be pressured into stuffing a large amount of content into a small amount of time, and students won’t feel pressured to keep up with ungodly pacing.

      block schedules

    1. Phase 2






    2. EDIT 5326Instructional Systems Evaluation

      Taught by Dr. Kelly, next semester

    3. 5322: Authoring Systems for Educational Software

      Interested in most likely

    4. EDIT 7000Research

      would someone in a master be involved in taking EDIT 7000?

    5. 5320: Educational Network Applications

      Interested in

    6. Phase 2 courses with focus areas are listed below

      I have tried looking at the syllabus for the various courses, and I can't seem to find them in the schedule builder area. Is there a place where I could preview them? Could I request specific syllabuses for review?

    7. 5321: Computer Programming for Educators

      how good should your programming skills be for taking 5321

    8. Phase 1.

      Should all of the phase 1 classes be taken on the first semester or should it be split between 5316 one semester and 5317 on another.


    1. The Committee reiterates its view that the Israeli settlements in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, in particular the West Bank, including East Jerusalem, are not only illegal under international law but are an obstacle to the enjoyment of human rights by the whole population, without distinction as to national or ethnic origin. Actions that change the demographic composition of the Occupied Palestinian Territory and the Occupied Syrian Golan are also of concern as violations of human rights and international humanitarian law

      where israel is breaking international law and violating human rights.

    1. Problem-centered:  Learning is promoted when learners are engaged in a problem-centered strategy involving a progression of whole real-world tasks.

      Give students assignments like "paint a pastoral landscape using what you've learned". Draw several figures in a composition, etc. Use Charcoal to do several figures, etc.

    2. Another learning event that facilitates deep processing is when learners go public with their knowledge in an effort to critique other learners or to defend their work when it is critiqued by other learners.

      a support for the idea of sharing the work in social media.

    3. The result was the publication in 2002 of my often-referenced paper on First principles of Instruction  (Merrill, 2002)

      sounds like a hell of a humblebrag

    4. In the preface to this book he indicates that there are many different kinds of instructional theories and that instructional designers need to be familiar with these different approaches and select the best approach or combination of approaches that they feel are appropriate for their particular instructional situation.

      Need to know a buuuunch of different theories and tools in order to assess what's the most useful theory and tool to do so.

    5. Instructional Events

      Tell, Ask, Practice, Explain

    6. the greatest motivation comes when people learn.

      See your progress and track it.

    7. we really need to find a way to motivate out students

      How do we get this done?!

    1. McKinsey had been awarded $18.6 million for the project, but the watchdog wrote in an April 2018 report that it had been able to find just one piece of related work product: a 50-page report on the economic potential of the city of Herat.


    2. agricultural industry


    3. identify small and medium-size businesses to nurture so that they could employ Afghans, providing an attractive alternative to joining the Taliban while fueling economic growth.
    4. “I had protested the Iraq war,” Mr. Buttigieg said in an interview with The Times. “But I also believed that it was important to try to do my part to help have good outcomes there.”


    5. At Harvard, his senior thesis had drawn parallels between the United States’ seeking to “save” Vietnam from “godless Communism,” and the 17th-century Puritan ministers who had come to America to civilize “savage lands.”

      It is honestly amazing how these idiots will write, get a passing mark and then go off to make the exact same mistakes and fucked up decisions they are supposedly writing about.

    6. The idea was to provide employment for men who might otherwise join the insurgency against the American-led occupation.

      They effectively lowered the minimum wage in Iraq to near 0, so this was just a way to exploit the Global South in the midsts of an occupation and upcoming (already developing) civil war.

    7. McKinsey’s focus in Iraq during the latter part of George W. Bush’s presidency and the early years of Barack Obama’s was to help the defense department identify Iraqi state-owned enterprises that could be revived.

      The amount of ink, blood, and cash that has been spilled in Iraq to fund NGOs and other corporate ghouls makes this clearly a horrible fucking move.

    8. will make up for their lack of M.B.A.s from traditional recruiting grounds like Harvard Business School.

      What a great sign

    9. But interviews with six people who were involved in projects that Mr. Buttigieg worked on at McKinsey, along with gleanings from his autobiography, fill in some of the blanks.

      It just goes to show that deciding not to step in front of this has been his worst move. Letting people fill in and speak for him, makes it all sound much much worse. Fucking idiot. This is who they want in power?!

    10. Just this week, ProPublica, copublishing with The Times, revealed that McKinsey consultants had recommended in 2017 that Immigration and Customs Enforcement cut its spending on food for migrants and medical care for detainees.

      Ghoulish fascist shit

    11. The firm has long advocated business strategies like raising executive compensation, moving labor offshore and laying off workers to cut costs.

      Neoliberal policies that make american workers objectively poorer.

    12. Speaking in Waterloo, Iowa, that evening, Mr. Buttigieg reiterated his request for McKinsey to release him from the nondisclosure agreement.

      You are running for President dude, what are they gonna do? Merc you?

    13. As Mr. Buttigieg explains it, that is not a matter of choice. For all of his efforts to run an open, accessible campaign — marked by frequent on-the-record conversations with reporters on his blue-and-yellow barnstorming bu

      He refuses to let journalists in his billionaire fundraisers, but sure.

    1. References

      further reading

    2. Furthermore, someone who has just learned something is often better at helping someone else learn it, than is someone who learned it long ago. In addition to older students teaching slightly younger ones, peers can learn from each other in collaborative projects, and they can also serve as peer tutors.

      This definitely supports my idea of peer mentors

    3. Third, it is often said

      who says this?

    4. Second, to prepare the student for lifelong learning, the teacher helps each student to become a self-directed and self-motivated learner.

      One of the things that future courses could do is develop strategies for students to keep track of their drawing progress, self-evaluate, etc.

    5. the teacher is a facilitator of the learning process

      demonstrate and show ways to do something. Indicate how to think, how to observe, how to behave.

    6. First, the teacher is a designer of student work (Schlechty, 2002). The student work includes that which is done in both the project space and the instructional space

      one of the things the instructors at NMA might want to think of is what sort of exercises you would assign your students to repeat for a given number of times.

    7. For application (skills), tutorials with generality, examples, practice, and immediate feedback are most effective (Merrill, 1983; Romiszowski, 2009).

      Art skills, investigative skills, writing, etc.

    8. Finally, much learner time can be wasted during PBI

      A video or lesson preceding the problem based instruction. Blended or flipped classroom.

    9. This makes it difficult for them to learn to use the skill in the full range of situations in which they are likely to need it in the future. Many skills require extensive practice to develop to a proficient or expert level, yet that rarely happens in PBI.

      spaced and interleaved practice of skills.

      Studying information or practicing problems over sessions that are spaced in time (A1....A2.....A3) results in better learning than if the sessions are grouped together into a single session or closely timed sessions (A1A2A3). Studying related concepts in an interleaved fashion so that a problem is followed by a different problem type (A1B1C1B2C2A2C3A3B3) leads to higher learning gains than if practicing problems grouped by types (A1A2A3B1B2B3C1C2C3). Although spacing and interleaving can be separated into two different interventions, interleaving results in the spacing of the same problem types. Therefore, interleaving and spacing practice are linked and often used together (A1B1C1....B2C2A2....C3A3B3). Although spacing and interleaving can mean slower initial learning, they result in both increased retention and better ability to descriminate problem types.


    10. criterion-referenced assessment

      Criterion referenced assessment (CRA) is the process of evaluating (and grading) the learning of students against a set of pre-specified qualities or criteria, without reference to the achievement of others (Brown, 1998; Harvey, 2004). ... Thus, CRA is assessment that has standards which are 'referenced' to criteria.


    1. Participation in other arts forms,such as dance or visual arts, also lends itself to the development of thinkingskills, as evidenced in these examples, which also ask the question whethersuch skills transfer to other subjects

      Observational skills, spatial thinking skills, abstract understanding of light and how it works.

    2. Based on these findings, the compendium has identified six major typesof benefits associated with study of the arts and student achievement:141. READING AND LANGUAGE SKILLS2. MATHEMATICS SKILLS3. THINKING SKILLS4. SOCIAL SKILLS5. MOTIVATION TO LEARN6. POSITIVE SCHOOL ENVIRONMENT

      Opening to a possible sales pitch

    3. In schools across the country, opportunities for students to participate in high-quality arts instruction and activities are diminishing, the result of shifting priorities and budgetcuts. Poor, inner-city and rural schools bear a disproportionateshare of the losses. Studies show children from low-incomefamilies are less likely to be consistently involved in arts activitiesor instruction than children from high-income families

      A good opportunity to open up a site license process where students can get supplemental or wholesale learning from NMA.art

    1. Mehdiabadi, A. H. & Li, J. (2016). Understanding talent development and implications for human resource development: An integrative literature review. Human Resource Development Review. 15(3), 263-294. DOI: 10.1177/1534484316655667

      further reading

    2. Branch, R. M., & Dousay, T. A. (2015). Survey of instructional design models (5th ed.). Bloomington, IN: Association for Educational Communications & Technology.

      further reading

    1. Bruce D. Homer, Jan L. Plass, and Linda Blake. 2008. The effects of video on cognitive load and social presence in multimedia-learning. Computers in Human Behavior 24.3, 786-797

      further reading

    2. Tim N. Höffler and Detlev Leutner. 2007. Instructional animation versus static pictures: A meta-analysis. Learning and Instruction 17, 722–738

      further reading

    3. Philip J. Guo, Juho Kim, Rob Rubin. 2014. How video production affects student engagement: an empirical study o f MOOC videos. In Proceedings of the first ACM conference on Learning @ scale conference, 41-50.

      further reading

    4. we had presented the deep dives in a separate section of the courseware from the lecture videos. We hypothesized that this organization sent the message to learners that the deep dives were less important than the lecture video

      Spoiler did this not affect watching rate.

    5. We found no correlation between video segment length and completion rate in either run of the course. Moreover, in disagreement with the literature, we observe no drop off in learner engagement at 6 minutes of video length.

      Interesting point.

    6. For example, Richard Mayer has developed a set of principles for multimedia learning that takes into account factors such as minimizing extraneous cognitive load to optimize the effectiveness of multimedia
    7. Among Mayer’s principles are that audio and visual should work seamlessly together, and that on-screen text should be minimal and in close proximity to the graphics [1]

      keep visuals clean, mostly. audio should not distract.

    8. Thus, our model is that learners with a higher degree of knowledge about the subject matter may feel that they do not need to complete the deep dive videos, while they feel the lecture videos are valuable.

      Why not create adaptive release rules that show these videos only to students who are underperforming?

    9. As the deep dives take pains to follow evidence-based best practices and are more labor-intensive to make, further study of this difference in viewer retention would inform future course development decisions

      One could tie those deep dives to high stakes activities?

    10. Criteria for Video Engagement in a Biology MOOC

      One of the things I ought to be doing is creating citations as soon as I get into a new paper. Save me time if I decide to use them. What would be the possibility of Hypothes.is also working as a citation machine as well?

    1. Jonathan Meador watched the transition from his position loading boxes into big rig trailers. The robots at the Tracy warehouse were so efficient that humans could barely keep up. Suddenly, the pickers and packers were expected to move more products every minute, and more boxes shot down the conveyor belt toward Meador.

      Karl Marx Capital, Chapter 15

    2. “And they will not waste time hanging on to people who can’t perform,” he said.

      Extraction of surplus value is PARAMOUNT. This falls under the category of relative surplus value. As Amazon is the most aggressive of the lot, they cannot waste time, as it is only a matter time until other logistic and supply chains catch up to them, to the detriment of everyone involved.

    3. The root of Amazon’s success appears to be at the root of its injury problem, too: the blistering pace of delivering packages to its customers.

      They could easily hire more people!

    1. Table 2

      Table 2 is relevant to our interests.

    2. Brower, 2003; Dennen, 2005; Hostetter & Busch, 2006; Xie, Debacker, & Ferfuson, 2006

      further research

    3. Learning activities focused ex-tensively on readings and discussion boards might become a chore, rather than motivating students to actively learn and interact, if the quality of in-teractions is not guaranteed (Dennen, 2008)

      Important aspect and something we want to avoid going forward.

    4. Even if the amount of course content is large, chunking it into smaller units may help reduce students’ cognitive load and better pace their learning (Cheon, Crooks, & Chung, 2014)

      Looking into chunking content each week or over several days per week. Might be helpful for students to learn better.

    5. students might have felt less stressed being assessed on their performance multiple times.

      case in point

    6. erhaps, small-er chunks of assignments (e.g., module quizzes and reading summaries) would have been more effective than fewer and bigger assignments (e.g., mid-term and final projects

      this supports the idea of formative assessments with only one or two summative assessments to reduce stress when the student completes them or doesn't do so well.

    7. This does not indicate that every course should have the exact same design; nonetheless, a certain level of consis-tency in exterior design and organization across a program may establish a program’s identity as well as help students who take multiple online courses at a time by reducing confusion and time spent on figuring out each course’s design every semester (Machado & Tao, 2007; Selim, 2007)

      argument for consistency in each program.

    8. Even within an academic program, it was difficult to find consisten-cy in design that might contribute to the program’s identity or easy navi-gation throughout multiple courses within the program.

      this could be anything from uniformity in navigation menus or just aesthetic appeal. The college of business does this very well!

    9. Only a few instructors attempted to incorporate new technology tools or different learning activities other than reading, discus-sion, or content presentation for both graduate and undergraduate courses.

      we are looking to implement new technology tools that allow for discussion while readings.

    10. We found that other course elements, such as module’s learning ob-jectives, instructor’s self-introduction, quizzes, group projects, Q/A space, number of discussion forums and instructor’s postings, had no significant relationship to students’ course satisfaction, as shown in Tables 4 and 5.

      That said, this is still a crucial aspect of design and openness for the students.

    11. urthermore, the number of modules ranged from 3 to 17 modules (an overall mean of 9.7 modules per course) across 90 courses.

      I'd recommend a module/unit per week of the semester, with about 16 weeks +/- course entry page, user resources, etc.

    12. Inconsistent Organization of LMS

      Or the case for a better default course template.

    13. It was revealed that nearly half of the in-structors provided a rubric or feedback on assignments.

      So that's a surprisingly low amount of faculty in 90 courses, using rubrics.

    14. case studies, presentations, or term papers were associated with group project

      Important aspect of classes nowadays is collaboration and group participation.

    15. exams

      there's an actual type of assessment for exams and quizzes. So I'm annoyed they are not making a distinction here.

    16. visual mapping, research papers, and pre-sentations

      these can be submitted using the assignment type in blackboard.

    17. quizzes

      essay quizzes or are they referring to just multiple choice and the student submits them by assignment type.

    18. case studies

      case studies as an assignment would be to analyze and reflect on the issue at hand.

    19. The most com-monly used assignment type was essays, summaries, and reports

      writing used to express understanding and an organization of ideas in such a way it makes sense.

    20. Czerkawski & Lyman III, 2016; Koehler, Mishra, Hershey, & Peruski, 2004

      research on promoting inquiry and interaction in online environments.

    21. Brindley, Blaschke, & Walti, 2009; Brower, 2003; Hostetter & Busch, 2006; Leeds et al., 2013; Young & Norgard, 2006

      further research

    22. International Jl. on E-Learning (2019)18(2), 147-164Assuring Student Satisfaction of Online Education: A Search for Core Course Design Elements

      So using QM rubric guidelines they look at the design elements that appear to increase student satisfaction and hopefully make them part of core course design.


  4. Nov 2019
    1. Edwards-Groves, Christine Joy. 2011. “The multimodal writing process: changing practices in contemporary classrooms.” Language and Education 25, no. 1: 49-64. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ910840 Huang, Cheng-Wen and Arlene Archer. 2017. “’Academic literacies’ as moving beyond writing: Investigating multimodal approaches to academic argument.” London Review of Education, 15, no. 1: 63-72. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1160035 Wahleithner, Juliet Michelsen. 2014. “The National Writing Project’s Multimodal Assessment Project: Development of a framework for thinking about multimodal composition.” Computers and Composition 31, no. 1: 79-86. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compcom.2013.12.004

      check these out

    2. Multimodal assignments and assessments offer faculty and students the opportunity to flex their creative muscles, engage with emerging forms of media, and complete work in areas where they feel confident.

      Think about the future of communication for students. Youtube channels like Philosophy Tube, Contrapoints, IdeaChannel, etc. These all use multimodal processes to script, pick images, and edit things to make a concise video essay.

    3. Another option is to offer specific criteria that hold across any type of assignment: an introduction with a clear argument, 6-8 pieces of scholarly evidence, analysis of at least 2 data points, etc.

      having rigorous criteria regardless of whether they are written or a video is important.

    1. The McElroy Brothers

      comedians and podcasters - hence the new media-, they made a name for themselves with adventure zone, my brother my brother and me, etc.

    1. The encrypted messaging app Telegram serves as the town hall for the support network, with dozens of channels that match volunteers to those in need.

      encrypted communication, managing networks.

      How do you manage a network of volunteers?

    1. For some of them the struggle of learning is more consistently satisfying and rewarding than their previous achievements. There is a struggle in being a student, a struggle in creation, and perhaps that is a gift of meaningful work.

      People are meant to be learning and developing. We are not built to be only experts on one thing.

    2. He noted that although income in the Western world has tripled since the 1950’s there was no corresponding rise in the percentage of people who describe themselves as happy- leading him to believe it is something other than the size of our income which makes the difference.

      the wealth has also gone disproportionately to the people at the top.

    3. A healthy personality can be grim and constantly challenging themselves to move beyond their comfort level.

      the ability to cope with failure, resilience, discipline?

    1. Ok, so now that stuff is out of the way, let’s talk pedagogy.  The $85 dollars that I saved for each of my students seemed to be the least of what was exciting to me about the open anthology (and that was pretty exciting, given that many of my students struggled to afford our previous book– to the point that it often took them weeks to raise enough funds to get their own copy)

      Teaching Naked author Jose Bowen mentioned in a presentation that if you make the book immediately available you reduce the amount of Ds and Cs in class substantially.

    1. Aleshia Hayes

      VR, Augmented Reality, etc.

    2. gamified Learning Technology tools for commercial and military partners.


    1. Research Interests Dr. Cox's areas of research interest include message design in support of organizational learning, project-based learning, career education, and supply chain management in learning organizations.

      message design sounds interesting

    1. Research Interests Dr. Baker’s research interests include financial forecasting of workplace learning investments, impact of career and technology education, management techniques and statistical applications for operations and performance improvement, economic analysis, occupational forecasting, benchmarking, survey and evaluation design, evaluation of training outcomes, training needs assessment, and job task analysis.

      sounds like the logistical aspect of managing a learning technologist team.

    1. Research Interests Dr. An's research interests include digital game-based learning, gamification, constructionist gaming (game design by students), scaffolding complex problem solving in virtual/augmented environments, learner-centered technology integration, and teacher professional development.

      Always curious about gamification done right.

    1. social presence

      social presence doesn't have to always be involved media like voicethread or other elaborate multimedia, it can sometimes be messages for students opened through adaptive release. It can be messages from the instructor by using the retention center.

    2. Research Interests Dr. Tyler-Wood's research interests include assessing and determining the appropriate curriculum for special needs populations.


    1. 1Critical Inquiry in a Text-Based Environment:Computer Conferencing in Higher Education



    1. Venezuelan Revisionist Political History, 1908-1958: New Motives and Criteria forAnalyzing the Past

      thinking of doing a podcast on Venezuela, My life, and American history.

    1. However, animations can be designed to reduce cognitive overload (Ayres & Paas, 2007) by visually cueing important information (e.g., de Koning, Tabbers, Rikers, & Paas, 2007), presenting related information before animations (e.g., Mayer, Mathias, & Wetzell, 2002), or dividing animations into segmented pieces (e.g., Mayer, 2009; Spanjers et al., 2010).

      Plan animations better, present the info before the animation (text/reading, then demo), break the animation into segments.

    2. animations are not always superior to static graphics, because they may impose additional cognitive load (Hegarty, Kriz, & Cate, 2003; Mayer, Hegarty, Mayer, & Campbell, 2005; Phan,2011; Spanjers, Wouters, van Gog, &van Merriënboer, 2011; Tversky, Morrison, & Betrancourt, 2002

      how fast is the animation? Is the student being "WOWed" or the animation is required? could this be done with a static image?

  5. Oct 2019
    1. We are misunderstood. Many of us (about 62%) feel as though our role is not understood by others in our institutions (Rubley, 2016). This means that our help is often not sought or, worse yet, ignored. 

      yep, happens at uhd as well.

    2. Instructional designers are a diverse group, and we wear many hats. In addition to designing courses, we manage projects, train others on technology, conduct research, and teach pedagogy (Intentional Futures, 2016).

      all of this is pretty much a thing.

    1. Exploring the Use of Faded Worked Examples as a Problem Solving Approach for Underprepared Students

      main gist of this research paper is the use of both solved problems and faded worked examples, especially for students that are under-prepare. It might be difficult to define who is underprepared unless they are marked as remedial students, take an exam before entering the system, or your class happens to be remedial.

      MY Recommendation would be to have a pre-assessment that measures, in a few questions, some basic skills students ought to be familiar with. Analyze student results. The result being used to set up adaptive release for under-performing students.

      You can also make those assignments or worked and faded examples available for everyone as a way to level the playing field. Make the class easier for everyone.

    2. www.ccsenet.org/hes Higher Education Studies Vol. 5, No. 6; 2015 43 Figure 4. Average number of correct responses in mutiple choice questions and open ended questions on final exam 4. Discussion

      continue here

    3. faded worked example

      primary focus of this research article is calculation heavy assignments. What of things like writing and reading intensive courses?

    4. Figure 2. A general representation of a series of faded worked examples where blank steps are completed

      A faculty could have a couple of worked examples, a couple of faded work examples and lastly a set of blank practice assignments. You could set up an adaptive release to scaffold and support their use depending on the student's learning capability and course performance.

    5. aded worked examples has been introduced, where worked steps are faded out and instead completed by the student with an explanation of procedural importance of the step

      definition and explanation

    6. aded worked examples

      reference, worked example below

    7. Worked Examples

      When non-experts learn new concepts, it is more effective for them to study step-by-step solutions to solved problems (worked examples) than to attempt solving problems. Worked examples are effective only when learners self-explain the solutions and when multiple, varied worked examples of the same concept are provided. Worked examples are most effective for non-experts (i.e. most of our students most of the time). Experts benefit more from attempting to solve problems than from studying worked examples.

      Provide learners fully worked examples and require them to self-explain solutions through asking students follow-up questions (ex: ‘Why was this strategy used?’, ‘What principle is being applied and why?’), annotating solutions, identifying an error in a solution or asking students to compare solutions of two contrasting examples. As learners become more expert with a concept, fade support by asking them to solve more and more steps within a problem.


      The worked-example effect is a learning effect predicted by cognitive load theory (Sweller, 1988). Specifically, it refers to the learning effect observed when worked-examples are used as part of instruction, compared to other instructional techniques such as problem-solving (Renkl, 2005) and discovery learning (Mayer, 2004). According to Sweller: "The worked example effect is the best known and most widely studied of the cognitive load effects" (Sweller, 2006, p. 165).

      Worked-examples improve learning by reducing cognitive load during skill acquisition, and "is one of the earliest and probably the best known cognitive load reducing technique" (Paas et al., 2003). In particular, worked-examples provide instructions to reduce intrinsic cognitive load for the learner initially when few schemas are available. Extraneous load is reduced by scaffolding of worked-examples at the beginning of skill acquisition. Finally, worked-examples can increase germane load when prompts for self-explanations are used (Paas et al., 2003).

      Renkl (2005) suggests that worked-examples are best used in "sequences of faded examples for certain problem types in order to foster understanding in skill acquisition," and that prompts, help system, and/or training be used to facilitate the learners' self-explanations. This view is supported by experimental findings comparing a faded worked-example procedure and a well-supported problem solving approach (Schwonke et al., 2009). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Worked-example_effect

    8. concept mapping, reading approaches, the study cycle, distributed practice, peer instruction and group problem solving (Boylan & Saxon, 2005; Hoffman & McGuire, 2010; Rickey & Stacy, 2000)
      • concept mapping is an assignment at the start of the semester where you lay out in a graphical way, all of the concepts you understand.

      • Reading approaches, like annotations, the cornell study method.

    9. At a larger level, universities that do not adequately address college-readiness experience a decrease in retention rates for students (Chan, 2013)

      We should be looking into how we address student readiness and experience for first time students.

    10. Overall, students reported that faded worked examples enhanced their overall learning and problem solving abilities in chemistry and the step by step process allowed for a better understanding of the course material

      so the problem examples are faded out using javascript?

    11. faded worked examples as a problem solving approach to students identified as mathematically underprepared in a college chemistry course

      I assume the students would be tested to measure their entry level knowledge?

    12. In computational based classes, such as math, engineering, chemistry or physics, this support often includes an introduction to effective problem solving strategies

      so videos or guides on how to solve problems, cool.

    1. Several adaptive systems have been designed and developed in order to accommodate learner individual differences. Examples of such systems include AHA! (Stash, Cristea, & de Bra, 2006) and INSPIRE (Papanikolaou, Grigoriadou, Kornilakis & Magoulas, 2003) which adapts instruction based on student learning styles; ELM-ART II which adapts instruction based on knowledge levels and student preferences (Weber & Specht, 1997); INTERBOOK (Brusilovsky, Eklund, & Schwarz, 1998) which adapts instruction based on knowledge level; and AES-CS (Triantafillou, Pomportsis, & Georgiadou, 2002) which adapts instruction based on student cognitive style.

      List of adaptive systems of education (?)

    2. Although web-based environments offer many advantages such as the ability to offer more interactivity, personalized instruction, and more independent learning (Brusilovsky, Sosnovsky, & Yudelson, 2009; Inan, Flores, Ari, & Arslan-Ari, 2010),

      you can . create more assignments. In the lms you can refine rules for showing material. There's the ability to guide them without being constantly near them.

    3. which individualized instruction based on student motivation and prior knowledge, were being met (i.e. knowledge gains and motivation gains) and to identify weak or problematic areas, in terms of usability, where the tutorial could be improved.

      so we would create assessments, pre-tests, to tackle prior knowledge assessment. This is probably a 2-3 semesters set of data accumulation (?)

    1. Howard Tinberg

      look up his work

    2. I asked them to “read a page”  of a difficult text in class aloud and then, in dialogue with other students and with my guidance, to highlight, annotate, and discuss their reasons for selecting key passages from the text

      something that can be done in perusall as well

    3. Institute for Reading and Writing Pedagogy
    4. I. A. Richards’ view of reading as active exploration, knew full well that reading, like writing, amounts to an act of “constructing,” a creative act of the mind.

      more references

    5. It seems odd, does it not, to describe readers as “activists.” After all, reading is a private act, done mostly in silence and apart from others. 

      doesn't have to be the case.

    6. routinely re-enact the practice of curating the information that comes their way.

      how can we curate information?