9 Matching Annotations
  1. May 2024
    1. Instructor presence is required for social presence to occur, and social presence is necessary for cognitive presence (Akyol & Garrison, 2008; Garrison, et al., 2001; Shea & Bidjerano, 2009).  Furthermore, Shea & Bidjerano (2009) purport that “teaching presence predicts variance in cognitive presences directly” (p. 545). As an example, they found that when the instructor focused and participated in discussion, teaching presence correlated to higher cognitive presence.

      Instructor presence leads to social presence which leads to cognitive presence.

    2. The quadrants are cognitive presence indicators, illustrating the sequence of critical thinking: Triggering event – A question or problem; Exploration – The search for information to answer the question or solve the problem; Integration – Making sense of the knowledge found; and Resolution – Applying the idea for confirmation. Garrison et al. (2001) later refined the model and considered integration as a pivotal part of the inquiry process. They noted that it can be difficult to recognize, and must “be inferred from communication within the community of inquiry” (p. 10). In this phase, “teaching presence is essential in moving the process to more-advanced stages of critical thinking and cognitive development” (p. 10), because without it, students may remain comfortable in the exploration phase, and not move into integration or resolution.

      sequence of critical thinking

    3. Garrison et al. (2000) consider cognitive presence a “vital element in critical thinking a process and outcome that is frequently presented as the ostensible goal of all higher education”

      cognitive presence is vital in critical thinking

    4. One of the advantages for the instructor in an online environment is that there is a “concrete interactive trail” (Lamb & Callison, 2005, p. 30), leaving the instructor with a tool for analyzing the paths of cognitive presence throughout the course and among students. Several studies showed that students with high social presence also had increased perceptions of quality learning as well as satisfaction with their instructors

      online environment leaves a trail for analyzing cognitive presence

    5. the extent to which cognitive presence is created and sustained in a community of inquiry is partly dependent on how communication is restricted or encouraged” (Garrison et al., 2000, p.93). Cognitive presence is also evident when students purposefully and collaboratively construct knowledge (Garrison, et al., 2001), resulting in deep meaning, retained knowledge, and critical thinking (Nagel & Kotzé, 2010).

      cognitive presence depends on communication is restricted or encouraged

    6. Garrison et al. (2000) explain that cognitive presence “can best be understood in the context of a general model of critical thinking” (p. 98), and that “what to think…is domain-specific and context-dependent” (p.98).

      cognitive presence -

    1. cognitive presence, is “the extent to which the participants in . . . acommunity of inquiry are able to construct meaning through sustained communication”

      cognitive presence - participants are able to construct meaning through sustained communication.

  2. Nov 2018