57 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
    1. ding and writing classes. Specifically, students difficulties were based on a mismatch between how they are taught to write in first-year composition courses versus how this text from The New Yorker is wri

      Different types/genres

    2. In the following section, we first illustrate our subcategories with ex- amples from our corpus of student difficulty papers , which all fit under the main category of mismatch between reader and w

      This would create the difficulties of reading.

    1. Too little time is devoted to explaining how to ac-tively read an essay or how to transfer and assimilate the reading into effective composition.

      nice point

    2. However, Jolliffe (2007) contends, “Students have to read in college composition, but rarely does anyone tell them how or why they should read”

      The problem that we need to pay attention while design.

    1. Rhetorical reading peda-gogies seek to guide students in analyzing and evaluating rhetorical choices and genre conventions, often through self (LeVan and King, 2017) and peer review (Bunn, 2013; Mendenhall and Johnson, 2010) and through the study of published texts (Adler-Kassner and Estrem, 2007; Bunn, 2013; Foster, 1997; Keller, 2013; Sweeney and McBride, 2015


  2. Jul 2020
    1. rapeutic efficacy and phase-III studies to demonstrate or confirm therapeutic benefit of the drug. Phase-IV stu


  3. Apr 2020
  4. Mar 2020
    1. intent community participation assembly-line instruction guided repetition


    1. The agent is not only passively influenced by the context, but as active agent, he/she shapes the learning context by refining the meaning of learning, the problem identification and trouble shooting. The context, community and individual are mutually impacted/influenced. That highlights how crucial it is to observe the learning process of learners.

    2. ent, we have focused on the idea that social interaction and the related coordination of perspectives, activities, and cognitive efforts contribute to creating the task at hand, to defin- ing the problem to be solved, and thereby to shaping the context of learning as well as the meaning of what learn

      redefine the task, problem and solution. Redefine what learning is.

    3. on, it is as important to investigate what learners are doing in various learning activities and settings as it is to investi- gate what they actually learn in these se

      learning trajectory

    4. . Results showed that the children were performing the tasks very differently from con- text to context, depending on their own inter- pretation of the setting and on the social rela- tions developed in each of

      situated? Is there any tips for transferring?

    5. of transposing tasks from one context to another

      interesting topic

    6. ities. In other words, the learners themselves can be mediators with regard to the experts' tas

      self regulation skills?

    7. of me

      Important. language

    8. socio-interactionist view of learning that we draw from is the sociocultural appro

      interactionist and socio-culture

    9. s and how these compe- tencies intermesh with other types of socio-insti- tutional capa

      communication could be difficult in addition to the language acquisition.

    1. Essentially, all models are wrong, but some are useful,


    2. Model 3 is then the model that best balances the quality of the information included in the model with the information lost by introducing unnecessary variables


    3. given this data


    4. the price for a product is positively correlated to its rating.

      whether or not? what are significant variables? Marketing

    5. The best model is then the model with the lowest AICc (or AIC) score

      Choose the lowest value

    6. AIC is then a way to select the model that best balances these drawbacks. Once a best model is selected, traditional null-hypothesis testing can then be used on the best model to determine the relationship between specific variables and the outcome of interest.

      AIC = Deviance + 2(k). k= predictor(including intercept an RMSE).

    7. the price of the wine, the type of grape used, or the region the wine was produced in may all play a role in determining the rating of a wine.


    8. parsimonious model


  5. Aug 2019
    1. Add Block

      one block means one page shown on the screen of respondents. Let's say we have 3 questions. we could set 3 questions in one block, so it shows all in one page. we could set 1 question in one block, so it show one question on one page, three page all together.

    1. Add Block

      one block means one page shown on the screen of respondents. Let's say we have 3 questions. we could set 3 questions in one block, so it shows all in one page. we could set 1 question in one block, so it show one question on one page, three page all together.

    1. Add Block

      one block means one page shown on the screen of respondents. Let's say we have 3 questions. we could set 3 questions in one block, so it shows all in one page. we could set 1 question in one block, so it show one question on one page, three page all together.

  6. Feb 2019
    1. such "light" or "superficial" paraphrasing could lead to a charge of plagiarism.


  7. Jan 2019
    1. Now, you could ask questions such as, how does being on the outside (periphery) or inside (center) of a friendship network correlate with one's grade point average? Or, do birds of a feather flock together? That is, are students with similar grade point averages likely to nominate each other?

      What variables are more important in the determination or change of friendship in different stages, grades, gender, interest, or similar economic background or experience? What self-identity cognition would be reflected from it?

    2. While you might assume that being on the periphery of a network is disadvantageous, often these peripheral members have ties to other people within or external to the network in which they may occupy important positions. In these instances, the actor serves as bridge to other groups or networks.

      Interesting. The unlimited extension of connectionism in the social network.

    3. strength

      what constitute a tie? direction, same-sex, other-sex, specific subgroups, strength(very subjective to define the strength of a friendship).

    4. computational models

      A computational model is a mathematical model in computational science that requires extensive computational resources to study the behavior of a complex system by computer simulation.

    5. a group

      the characteristics and relation in subgroups/sub-clustering, and the relation or information transmission among subgroups.

    6. If this is the way that people get clustered, how do we step out and reach more?

  8. Nov 2018
    1. One of the most striking features of the quantitative and qualitative data from first- and second-semester German students is that the students interact directly with each other, as opposed to interacting mainly with the teacher. The changed role of teacher and students

    1. 2.1.1 Cognitive and psycholinguistic theories of SLA One of the main theoretical frameworks on the cognitive side is the input–interactionist paradigm (Long, 1996), and the early research on online interaction in FL/SL contexts focused on the development of linguistic competence in in-class interaction, e.g., comparing online synchronous interaction with face-to-face student interaction. Many of these studies used a quantitative methodology, involving control groups of students engaged in face-to-face interaction that were compared to experimental groups of learners participating in online interaction or intra-class studies in which the same students took part in both face-to-face and online interaction (Warschauer, 1996b). What was often counted and categorized were linguistic features and language functions (e.g., Chun, 1994; Kern, 1995), and researchers showed how negotiation for meaning occurs in intra-class online chat (e.g., Blake, 2000). Similarly, studies of online interaction based on psycholinguistic theories of SLA (e.g., Ellis’ (2006) Associative Cognitive CREED and Schmidt’s (1990) Noticing Hypothesis) have found that text-based chat promotes noticing of grammatical and lexical features or errors (e.g., Lai & Zhao, 2006; Lee, 2008). Other studies of interclass interactions between learners and native speakers (Tudini, 2003) or tandem learning partnerships (Kötter, 2003; O’Rourke, 2005) have investigated form-focused interaction, negotiation of meaning and code switching, primarily linguistic aspects of SL/FL learning.

    2. In both SLA and CALL (computer-assisted language learning) research, a new perspective may be found in ecological approaches, e.g., van Lier (2004), who takes an ecological world view and applies it to language education. Ecology broadly studies organisms in their relations with their environment. Van Lier’s approach thus incorporates many different perspectives with regard to language learning, e.g., sociocultural theory, semiotics, ecological psychology, and the concepts of self and identity. Key constructs in this approach to language learning are affordances and scaffolding, with an affordance defined as the relationship between an organism and something in the environment that can potentially be useful for that organism. Technology is viewed as a source of affordances and learning opportunities for language learners. Appropriate scaffolding, i.e., help from peers, teachers, or technology itself, might also be necessary, and this is a core feature of telecollaboration.

    3. 2.1.2 Sociocultural theories of SLA In contrast to interactionist research, Block (2003) proposed the “social turn” taken by the field of SLA, and variations of socially based theories and approaches have flourished. For example, socio-cognitive paradigms (Kern & Warschauer, 2000), which view language as social and place emphasis on the role of cultural context and discourse, are often used in the research on telecollaboration. Many studies have been influenced by sociocultural theory (Belz, 2002; Thorne, 2003; Ware, 2005). In the Vygotskian perspective, language is viewed as a mediating tool for learning, and the entire language learning process must by necessity be a dialogic process (see, e.g., Basharina, 2007; Blin, 2012, who rely on Activity Theory and Cultural Historical Activity Theory, respectively, for their analyses of telecollaboration). Other studies make visible the development of linguistic, pragmatic, and intercultural competence in both intra-class telecollaboration (e.g., Abrams, 2008) and inter-class interactions (e.g., Belz & Thorne, 2006; Jin & Erben, 2007). Chun (2011) reports on advanced German learners in the United States engaging online with advanced English learners in Germany, as they used different types of speech acts to indicate their pragmatic ability and to show their developing ICC. Specifically, some learners realized that they could exhibit curiosity and interest (a component of ICC) by engaging in multi-turn statements and did not need to use questions to convey their intent.

    1. The results of the paired-groups experimental study proves "are interpreted as being supportive for the interactionist perspective on SLA, especially the importance of attention". The study focuses on the acquisition of lexical meaning through negotiated interaction on NNS-NNS synchronous CMC. Check into Long's Interaction Hypothesis.

      The benefits of CMA in language learning: interactionist perspective.

    1. phases of cognitive presence rating rubric from Park

    2. structured strategy & triggering event/ debate and role & exploration and integration/ scaffolding & resolution

    3. "Using mixed methods, we examined the contribution of four scenario-based online discussion strategies -structured, scaffolded, debate and role play – to the learners’ cognitive presence, the outcome of the discussion. "

    1. Kern 2006 Chapelle recommends the interactionist approach to SLA (see Pica, 1994) Egbert and Petrie (2005): expand the theory from the interactionist to sociocultural perspective.

      "Sociocultural theory, like interactionist SLA, emphasizes the importance of learner interaction, but it is interested less in negotiation evoked adjustments in input than in the social and cultural situatedness of learner activity, learners’ agency in co-constructing meanings (as well as their own roles), and the importance of mediation by tools and signs."

      Systemic-functional linguistics framework for CMC; Anthropology; Semiotic theory; Plass cognitive theory while inputting the language with multi-media;

    1. 2009 Chapelle C.A. Four general approaches: cognitive linguistic; psycholinguistic; human learning; social context Problems in the four categories.

    1. "Researchers have found that cognitive interactionist and sociocultural SLA theories offer a means of interpreting prior research on CALL and suggest a point of departure for designing future studies of CALL activities that are based on human–computer interaction and computer-mediated communication."

      Chapelle. C. A 2007. theories expand from interactionist to cognitive interactionist and sociocultural theory cognitive interactionist: Human-computer interaction. sociocultural: CMC (Computer-Mediated Communication)

    1. Sociocultural Approaches to SLA and Technology (Steven Thorne): Sociocultural approaches (SCT) to second language acquisition draw from a tradition of human development emphasizing the culturally organized and goal-directed nature of human behavior and the importance of external social practices in the formation of individual cognition. This paper describes the principle constructs of the theory, including mediation, internalization, and the zone of proximal development, and will describe technology-related research in these areas. Vygotskian SCT shares foundational constructs with distributed and situated cognition, usage-based models of language acquisition, language socialization, and ecological approaches to development, all of which have contributed to new applications of SCT in the areas of language research and pedagogical innovation. A discussion of methodological challenges and current practices will conclude the presentation.

    2. Ecological Approaches to SLA and Technology (Leo van Lier): Ecological approaches to SLA are premised on a holistic view of human-world interrelations and the notion of affordance-effectivity pairings that help to better understand human activity and functioning. To many educators, technology and ecology are irreconcilable opposites. Yet, educationally speaking, they turn out to be perfectly compatible. This presentation examines the ways in which the Internet is an emergent resource, a social tool, and a multimodal repository of texts. The ecological affordances of CALL will be illustrated in terms of activity through, with, at and around computers.

    3. The Interaction Approach and CMC (Bryan Smith): The Interaction Approach(IA) in second language acquisition studies suggests that there is a link between interaction and learning. This approach focuses on three major components of interaction — exposure (input), production (output), and feedback. Many CALL researchers have adopted this theoretical perspective in exploring the relationship between CMC and instructed second language acquisition, exploiting many of the argued affordances offered by this medium in relation to the key tenets of the IA. This paper will provide a conceptual overview of the IA and explore specifically how CALL researchers have sought to study SLA from this theoretical perspective. We will discuss several methodological hurdles facing researchers engaged in this type of research and will offer some suggested strategies for conducting sound SLA/CALL research from an IA.

      the interaction approach overlaps with psycholinguistic approach under the cognitive theory

    4. Psycholinguistics, SLA, and Technology (Scott Payne): Investigating second language acquisition and CALL from a psycholinguistic perspective entails examining how language learners process, store, and retrieve information from memory and how cognitive capacity impacts acquisition and influences performance. This paper will provide an overview of psycholinguistic approaches to SLA research highlighting research findings relevant to the field of CALL. This discussion will include some of the challenges and opportunities for researchers interested in employing psycholinguistic methods for studying SLA in classroom and computer-mediated contexts.


  9. Oct 2018
    1. "If MOOCs are thought of as communities, how do educators position themselves in these learning environments? " Ferguson and Whitelock (2014)