164 Matching Annotations
  1. Apr 2021
    1. A crucial difference between representations of relative error inthese equations compared withEquations 6and7 for the single-facet designs is that three sources of measurement error varianceare separately represented, withpt2ntequaling specific-factor error,po2noequaling transient error, andpto,e2ntnoequaling random-responseerror. Effects fortasks, occasions, and their interaction are includedin the denominator for the D-coefficient but not the G-coefficientbecause those effects can change the absolutemagnitude of scoresbut not their relative differences.
  2. Mar 2021
    1. Content validity primarily rests upon logical argument and expert judgment, and frequently empirical research.
    2. Face validity

      Face validity is the extent to which a test is subjectively viewed as covering the concept it purports to measure. It refers to the transparency or relevance of a test as it appears to test participants.

    3. Target p-values should be between 0.40 and 0.60, generally
    4. Systematic erroris that error which is consistent across uses of the measurement tool(i.e., test or scale) and is likely to affect validity, but not reliability.
    5. An examinee’s true score is unrelated to measurement errors which affect the examinee’s observed score.
    6. A measure can be reliable without being valid.A measure cannot be valid with out being reliable.

      interesting

  3. Jan 2021
    1. This unintended consequence can be traced to construct underrepresentation—a source of invalidity—and is thus relevant to valid-ity concerns.Of course, unintended consequences are not always negative.
    2. Thus, the presence of DIF suggests that some irrelevant construct (such as language ability) is being measured along with the intended construct.
    3. IRT methods constitute another set of procedures for examining the degree to which test items conform to a hypothesized structure.
    4. Finally, through its reference to “the accumulated evidence,” the definition in the Standards emphasizes that obtaining validity evidence is a process rather than a sin-gle study from which a dichotomous “valid/not valid” decision is made
    5. but rather to a relationship between the test, the test scores, the test interpretation, and the test use. That is, a test can be considered valid in the context of one scoring/interpretation/use but not another.

      ok

    6. Underrepresentation can result from a narrowing of the content of a test. For example, a test of managerial skills might include many items mea-suring knowledge of budgeting processes but only two items on personnel management.
    7. For instance, some examinees might obtain higher scores on essay questions because of a greater ability to bluff their way through an answer, not because they have greater knowledge or skill.
    8. Validity is a unitary concept. It is the degree to which all the accumulated evidence supports the intended interpretation of test scores for the proposed use. Like the 1999 Standards, this edition refers to types of validity evidence, rather than distinct types of validity. To empha-size this distinction, the treatment that follows does not follow historical nomenclature (i.e., the use of the terms content validity or predictive validity). (
    9. Instead, all available evidence should be integrated into an overall judgment about the meaning of test scores.

      validity together

    10. Concurrent validity was defined in a similar fashion, except that, as the name implies, scores on the predictor and on the criterion were obtained at the same time.

      concurrent and predictive validity

    11. “a test is valid for anything with which it correlates” (p. 429). The idea here was that, if there were a “gold standard” of the con-struct (often, an earlier test), and if scores on the test correlated with that gold standard, the test could be inferred to be a measure of the construct. Note that this is a variety of the “if it walks like a duck and quacks like a duck, it must be a duck” argument.

      influenced by positivism

    12. Validity refers to the degree to which evidence and theory support the interpretations of test scores for proposed uses of tests”
    13. validity evidence:
      • content
      • criterion-related
      • construct
    14. Validity is arguably the most important quality of a test because it has to do with the fundamental measurement issue of what our mea-surement instruments are really measuring.

      Validity is arguably the most important quality of a test because it has to do with the fundamental measurement issue of what our measurement instruments are really measuring.

    15. Normalized Scores

      First, comparison of standardized scores from tests with different distributions is not appropriate, strictly speaking.

      The second reason that normal distributions are desirable is that these distribu-tions have known percentages of cases falling above or below each score point that can be obtained from any standard normal z-score table.

      Third, normalized scores might be preferred because many commonly used sta-tistical procedures are based on assumptions of normality.

    16. Standardized scores are those that use the standard deviation of the norm group to express an individual’s distance from the mean. A common example is the z-score that is often learned in introductory statistics courses.

      standardized score Standardized scores are those that use the standard deviation of the norm group to express an individual’s distance from the mean. A common example is the z-score that is often learned in introductory statistics courses.

      normalized score

      There are, however, methods that can be used to transform any distribution of scores into a distribution that is normally distributed. Such transformations are aptly called normalizing functions, and the resulting scores normalized scores. Such transfor-mations are nonlinear, however, and will not necessarily preserve the original raw score differences

    17. Among these issues is the need for careful articulation of the content domain of the test. Because of this need for clear definitions of the content domain, criterion-referenced tests tend to cover a narrower range of material than norm-referenced tests, but to cover this material in more detail.

      Among these issues is the need for careful articulation of the content domain of the test. Because of this need for clear definitions of the content domain, criterion-referenced tests tend to cover a narrower range of material than norm-referenced tests, but to cover this material in more detail.

    18. However, it is important to note that, if scores in different subjects are not normed on the same group, score differences will be due, at least in part, to differences in the norm groups. If separate but comparable norm groups are used, scores can still be compared as long as the user keeps in mind the possibility of distortion due to norm group differences.

      a potential problem.

    19. Other limitations of GE (and AE) scores include the following
      • linearity
      • interpolation-within; extrapolation-beyond
      • same grade level and focus on the content
      • the interval is not the same
      • not indicating "normative"
    20. developmental-level scores

      between groups

      • grade and age equivalent scores (in the same grade)
      • could not cross groups for the domain content covered in the
    21. This is because, although interpolation is error prone, it is at least based on observed data. Extrapolation, in contrast, is based on no real data at all.

      make sense

    22. percentile ranks

      relative position status scores (within groups)

      • percentile ranks
      • standard (z-score, t-score, ets score, deviation quotient scores = IQ score)
      • normalized scores (Normal curve equivalents)
      • stanines
    23. the “three r’s

      for norm groups

      • recent
      • representative
      • relevant
    24. If scores are to be used to determine how an individual compares to others, norm-referenced scores are most appropriate, whereas if the object of testing

      context to use norm-reference and criteria-reference

    25. the former by relating students’ per-formance to that of a national norm group and the latter by reporting on the number of questions students answered correctly for various content domains.

      norm and criterion

    26. Otis developed what was then the first intelligence test that could be objectively scored, relying heavily on use of an early form of the multiple-choice item. The development of this test proved to be serendipitous because at about the same time Robert Yerkes, as president of the American Psychological Association, had focused his attention on determining how that organization could best help the country in its prepara-tions for World War I.

      why use grouping test?

    27. As part of his involvement with this group, he organized a working group concerned with the best way to educate what were then called “mentally retarded” children. This group recommended that such children should not be sent to special schools for the retarded unless an examination showed that the child would be unable to profit from regular education.

      impetus for Binet:

      this intelligent test is more comprehensive than the memory capacity test.

    28. Because many early students of psychology were also trained in such “hard” sciences as biology and physiology, it is not surprising that these researchers turned to such physical measures in their attempts to understand mental functioning. Unlike today’s testing efforts, however, individual differences were not the focus of these studies. On the contrary, such differences were generally considered to be the result of imperfect control of experimental conditions, and every effort was made to design stud-ies in which such differences were minimized.
      • hard science
      • origin of species
      • eugenics

      individual difference

    29. In contrast to the Chinese civil service examinations, tests in ancient Greek societ-ies were not written but were typically oral or performance based. Examinations were conducted for the purpose of determining whether men (and of course then it was only men) were qualified for various aspects of Greek life and citizenship; examinations were not, as far as we know, used to select citizens for government positions.
    30. A researcher assigns the numbers 1, 2, and 3 to distinguish urban, suburban, and rural areas, respectively. a. Does this constitute measurement according to Stevens’s definition? Why or why not?b. Does this constitute measurement according to Michell’s definition? Why or why not?

      Yes, it does to stevens's definition but not to Michell's definition.

    31. more likely interpretation is that a student earning a score of zero has some knowledge but does not have knowledge of the particular questions included on the test.

      this is the problem of measurement

    32. A related issue is that there is no one “correct” method of measuring a construct.

      Another problem:

      • limited samples of behavior
      • no "correct" method of measuring a construct
      • many things can interfere with our measurement of the construct of interest.
    33. One issue is that tests are usually based on limited samples of behavior; we cannot ask every possible question or observe every instance of behavior.
    34. A construct is a theoretical entity hypothesized to account for particular behaviors or characteristics of people. Examples of constructs abound in the social sciences and include creativity, intelligence, various abilities and attitudes, personality characteris-tics, and value systems.
    1. Theownerentitysetandtheweakentitysetmustparticipateina one-to-manyrelationshipset(oneownerentityisassociatedwithoneormoreweakentities,buteachweakentityhasa singleowner).Thisrelationshipsetiscalledtheidentifyingrelationshipsetoftheweakentityset
    2. KeyConstraintsforTernaryRelationships

      There are three types of key constraints that are most common.

      Primary Key constraint Foreign Key constraint Unique Key constraint

    3. Thegapbetweenhowusersthinkoftheirdataandhowthedataisul-timatelystoredisbridgedthroughseverallevelsofabstract1:onsupportedbytheDBMS.

      It's very interesting

    1. "their actual patterns of use will greatly differ and provide an understanding of use this is impactful for design updates, training, and even marketing."

      knowing the pedagogical intent/learning objectives is the start. Just like what the design studio functions.

    1. Learners’ practices, for example, should develop from low-level procedures such as sharing initial ideas to mid-level comparing and evaluatingsequences and eventually toward high-level challenging/debating and synthesizingroutines.

      The surface to in-depth learning. Related to Expansive framing written by Andrews et al.

    2. identify invariant (i.e., constant) characteristics of subsequent transfer domains

      The "bone" of the body. In the design of social annotation activities, what are the bones?

    1. The web annotations can also help us make connections to prior experiences you may have had, current experiences you are having, or potential future experiences you may have (e.g., your field experience, future classroom, or work-related experiences).

      Connection

    2. Students were, however, asked to reflect on peers’ and their own annotations on a weekly reflection which was graded. The prompt for engaging in the annotation activity was deliberately worded to encourage students to expansively frame their engagement and their annotations

      It's important to reflect and review peers' and their own annotations.

    3. (1) to what extent were students’ interactions expansively framed, (2) how was expansive framing related to individual learning outcomes, and (3) what was it about expansively framed interactions that appeared generative.
    4. Expansive framing pushes learners to (a) be publicly recognized as authors of the connections they are making to other learning contexts, (b) be held accountable for their contributions, and (c) feel encouraged to adapt and generate new connections.

      This could be used in the application of theories.

    Tags

    Annotators

  4. Dec 2020
    1. begin critically to take circumstances and relationships into consideration rather than merely reacting to them

      difference btw reflective vs reflexivity

  5. Nov 2020
    1. bibliometrics

      Bibliometrics is the use of statistical methods to analyse books, articles and other publications. Bibliometric methods are frequently used in the field of library and information science. The sub-field of bibliometrics which concerns itself with the analysis of scientific publications is called scientometrics.

    2. most of which have not included gender as an analytic lens.

      invisible. Power discursive in every part of life. Computer-science-technology-reason-men. Wondering what women's closely connected words in academic field projected by the journals if any.

    3. as‘a way of balancing competing identities as successfulresearchers and women

      very interesting topic because there is no competing identity between men and researchers.

    4. hold only 31% of all full-professor positions and 44% of associate professor positions

      why? Guess women spent so much time on housework and baby-caring

    Annotators

  6. Oct 2020
    1. Learning designs provide a board picture of a series of planned pedagogical actions rather than detailed accounts of a particular instructional event (as might be described in a traditional lesson plan). As such, learning designs provide a model for intentions in a particular learning context that can be used as a framework for design of analytics to support faculty in their learning and teaching decisions.

      definition of design pattern and language

    2. learning analytics patterns expected from particular learning designs can be considered an essential step in improving eval-uation effectiveness and to build the foundation for pedagogical recommender systems in the future.

      it's so interesting because we talk about design pattern, and we also have corresponding learning analytic patterns, both of which depends on the pedagogical goals.

    3. This leads to questions surrounding how analytics can begin to bridge the technical–educational divide to provide just-in-time, useful, and context-sensitive feedback on how well the learning design is meeting its intended educational outcomes

      bridge

    4. Visualizations of student and group online event activity (Leony et al., 2012)

      interesting. GLASS? If have time, check this visualization tool about the student and group activity. Also the LOCO-Analyst

    5. In particular, graphical representations of learning designs have been found to stimulate design ideas for teachers who are engaged in designing a course

      Mark

    6. checkpoint and process analytics

      curious

    7. he challenge posed by learning ana-lytics is interpreting the resulting data against pedagogical intent and the local context to evaluate the success or otherwise of a particular learning activity (Dawson, Bakharia, Lockyer, & Heathcote, 2010).

      challenge

    8. there is a need to establish a contextual framework that helps teachers interpret the information that analytics provides

      bridge between the learning analytics and instructional design.

    Tags

    Annotators

    1. Fef, Indonesia, the capital of Tambrauw Regency,

      test

    1. Through the use of analytics, educational institutions can restructure learning design processes.

      connection

    2. A single data source or analytics method is insufficient when considering learning as a holistic and social process.

      important aspects

    3. either modify or extend the range of features within estab-lished products.

      Under what theoretical assumption.

    4. Academic analytics is also more concerned with organizational operation and “describes[s] the intersection of technology, information, management culture, and the application of information to manage the academic enterprise (Goldstein, 2005, p. 2).

      From the macro-/meso- to micro.

    5. the historical roots of analytics in relation to human interaction and the education system.

      analytics to human interaction and the educational system.

    6. EDM has a more specific focus on reductionist analysis

      EDM - reductionist analysis LA - more holistic process

    7. The current legal system is immature in relation to privacy and ethics concerns in analytics.

      Important issue

    Annotators

    1. In order to design effective learning analytics visualizations and dashboards, it is essential to consider instructional, learning and sensemaking benefits for learning.

      Exploratory research. Survey among instructors in K-12 to see what they would love to see on the dashboard.

    2. The use of text mining and natural language processing methods to conduct based content and discourse analysis is a critically important research direction (McNamara et al., 2014).

      Natural language processing method could be used to identify the emotional aspects in texts.

    3. Not only can this type of instrumentation increase the theoretical foundation of the measurement in learning analytics, but this type of measurement provides valuable contributions to educational research to overcome the well-known limitations of self-reported measures

      I agree. Self-report is not enough to corroborate the findings. The perception of a tool might not be related to the learning outcomes.

    4. Coh-Metrix

      http://www.cohmetrix.com/ It seems that Coh-Metrix measures more on the syntax-level. How did it measure the understanding and thinking of students? In addition, the blackbox is not transparent. What factors are in the model and how much weight is given to each factor?(Indexed words?)

    5. Thus, critical insights of such learning analytics could hardly be used to inform the course learning designs

      connection of LT with instructional design

    6. That is, instructors expressed their preferences of learning analytics features that offer insights into learning processes and identify student gaps in understanding over simple performance measures. With such insights, instructors can identify weak points in the learning activities performed by their students; topics the students have struggled with, and provide instructive and process related feedback on how to improve their learning.

      tackle the common confusing points to improve the understanding and contribute to the domain-related content.

    7. The authors noted that instructive or process feedback types were rarely observed in the instructors’ messages to students.

      Why?

      • time-consuming
      • the sense-making of students' learning
      • the ways to provide formative feedback
      • the sense-making of feedback by students What kind of feedback would be most useful to students? How can we make sure that students interpret the feedback correctly?
    8. a dearth of empirical studies that have sought to evaluate the impact and transferability of this initial work across domains and contexts

      interesting. Possibly the index in each discipline might be different. Domain feature is one factor we need to consider. Empirical studies

    9. In so doing, we argue that learning analytics needs to build on and better connect with the existing body of research knowledge about learning and teaching.

      That's the key.

    10. As such, the computational aspects of learning analytics must be well integrated within the existing educational research.

      Learning analytics are about learning

    Tags

    Annotators

    1. create disruptions to student, staff, and faculty lives, outside their association with the university.

      The psychological influence in this emergency.

    2. Thus, the distinction is important between the normal, everyday type of effective online instruction and that which we are doing in a hurry with bare minimum resources and scant time: emergency remote teaching.

      It brings me back to my first semester of teaching online. It's under much pressure and no wonder what teachers would face right now.

    3. Ultimately, effective online education requires an investment in an ecosystem of learner supports, which take time to identify and build.

      That is so true.

    4. For example, decisions around class size will greatly constrain what strategies you can use.

      Exactly. The class size decides the change of strategy.

    5. emergency remote teaching

      Teaching presence is not confined to teachers but also to peers/students. (reciprocal teaching)

  7. Sep 2020
    1. then discuss the knowledge-related biases that may come with expertise.

      That could be. Always self-reflex and be open

    2. This integration of memories allows you to create new knowledge.

      similar and different

    3. as the new memory is consolidated, the old memory may be reconstructed and undergo consolidation again

      Continuously reconstructing. It's not add-on but a process of interpenetrating.

    4. Attention will be given to methodological advances and designs that permit the integration of knowledge from multiple fields (e.g., network modeling, multilevel modeling, simulation modeling) and that enable study of the complexities of learning across various contexts

      The integration is really important

    1. practical implications

      practical implication

    2. However, beyond the challenges, we also see a renewed conviction from teachers to adopt technology for interaction with and for orchestrating collaboration among students.

      orchestrating collaboration among students.

    1. disabilities

      I admire this point

    2. usability, the functionality, the aesthetics, thecontent, the look and feel, and the sensual and emotional appeal.

      important factors in the interactive design.

    3. answering machine
    4. What is problematic with this voice mail system

      easy entry is very important. I will choose one that is most convenient to access.

    1. in constructing representations of how to supportlearning in particular cases

      It reminds me of conjecture mapping. Are we going to make the similar thing?

    2. Educational design and networked learning:Patterns, pattern languages and design practice

      Design pattern

    1. solve() function.

      To compute the inverse of a matrix

    2. A2×2=[abcd]A2×2−1=1det(A)[d−b−ca]

      inverse

    3. Determinant

      The determinant is useful for solving linear equations, capturing how linear transformation change area or volume, and changing variables in integrals. The determinant can be viewed as a function whose input is a square matrix and whose output is a number.

  8. Aug 2020
    1. ding and writing classes. Specifically, students difficulties were based on a mismatch between how they are taught to write in first-year composition courses versus how this text from The New Yorker is wri

      Different types/genres

    2. In the following section, we first illustrate our subcategories with ex- amples from our corpus of student difficulty papers , which all fit under the main category of mismatch between reader and w

      This would create the difficulties of reading.

    1. Too little time is devoted to explaining how to ac-tively read an essay or how to transfer and assimilate the reading into effective composition.

      nice point

    2. However, Jolliffe (2007) contends, “Students have to read in college composition, but rarely does anyone tell them how or why they should read”

      The problem that we need to pay attention while design.

    1. Rhetorical reading peda-gogies seek to guide students in analyzing and evaluating rhetorical choices and genre conventions, often through self (LeVan and King, 2017) and peer review (Bunn, 2013; Mendenhall and Johnson, 2010) and through the study of published texts (Adler-Kassner and Estrem, 2007; Bunn, 2013; Foster, 1997; Keller, 2013; Sweeney and McBride, 2015

      definition

  9. Jul 2020
    1. rapeutic efficacy and phase-III studies to demonstrate or confirm therapeutic benefit of the drug. Phase-IV stu

      problem

  10. Apr 2020
  11. Mar 2020
    1. intent community participation assembly-line instruction guided repetition

    Annotators

    1. The agent is not only passively influenced by the context, but as active agent, he/she shapes the learning context by refining the meaning of learning, the problem identification and trouble shooting. The context, community and individual are mutually impacted/influenced. That highlights how crucial it is to observe the learning process of learners.

    2. ent, we have focused on the idea that social interaction and the related coordination of perspectives, activities, and cognitive efforts contribute to creating the task at hand, to defin- ing the problem to be solved, and thereby to shaping the context of learning as well as the meaning of what learn

      redefine the task, problem and solution. Redefine what learning is.

    3. on, it is as important to investigate what learners are doing in various learning activities and settings as it is to investi- gate what they actually learn in these se

      learning trajectory

    4. . Results showed that the children were performing the tasks very differently from con- text to context, depending on their own inter- pretation of the setting and on the social rela- tions developed in each of

      situated? Is there any tips for transferring?

    5. of transposing tasks from one context to another

      interesting topic

    6. ities. In other words, the learners themselves can be mediators with regard to the experts' tas

      self regulation skills?

    7. of me

      Important. language

    8. socio-interactionist view of learning that we draw from is the sociocultural appro

      interactionist and socio-culture

    9. s and how these compe- tencies intermesh with other types of socio-insti- tutional capa

      communication could be difficult in addition to the language acquisition.

    1. Essentially, all models are wrong, but some are useful,

      interesting

    2. Model 3 is then the model that best balances the quality of the information included in the model with the information lost by introducing unnecessary variables

      useful

    3. given this data

      important

    4. the price for a product is positively correlated to its rating.

      whether or not? what are significant variables? Marketing

    5. The best model is then the model with the lowest AICc (or AIC) score

      Choose the lowest value

    6. AIC is then a way to select the model that best balances these drawbacks. Once a best model is selected, traditional null-hypothesis testing can then be used on the best model to determine the relationship between specific variables and the outcome of interest.

      AIC = Deviance + 2(k). k= predictor(including intercept an RMSE).

    7. the price of the wine, the type of grape used, or the region the wine was produced in may all play a role in determining the rating of a wine.

      variables

    8. parsimonious model

      balance

  12. Aug 2019
    1. Add Block

      one block means one page shown on the screen of respondents. Let's say we have 3 questions. we could set 3 questions in one block, so it shows all in one page. we could set 1 question in one block, so it show one question on one page, three page all together.

    1. Add Block

      one block means one page shown on the screen of respondents. Let's say we have 3 questions. we could set 3 questions in one block, so it shows all in one page. we could set 1 question in one block, so it show one question on one page, three page all together.

    1. Add Block

      one block means one page shown on the screen of respondents. Let's say we have 3 questions. we could set 3 questions in one block, so it shows all in one page. we could set 1 question in one block, so it show one question on one page, three page all together.

  13. Feb 2019
    1. such "light" or "superficial" paraphrasing could lead to a charge of plagiarism.

      agree.

  14. Jan 2019
    1. Now, you could ask questions such as, how does being on the outside (periphery) or inside (center) of a friendship network correlate with one's grade point average? Or, do birds of a feather flock together? That is, are students with similar grade point averages likely to nominate each other?

      What variables are more important in the determination or change of friendship in different stages, grades, gender, interest, or similar economic background or experience? What self-identity cognition would be reflected from it?

    2. While you might assume that being on the periphery of a network is disadvantageous, often these peripheral members have ties to other people within or external to the network in which they may occupy important positions. In these instances, the actor serves as bridge to other groups or networks.

      Interesting. The unlimited extension of connectionism in the social network.

    3. strength

      what constitute a tie? direction, same-sex, other-sex, specific subgroups, strength(very subjective to define the strength of a friendship).

    4. computational models

      A computational model is a mathematical model in computational science that requires extensive computational resources to study the behavior of a complex system by computer simulation.

    5. a group

      the characteristics and relation in subgroups/sub-clustering, and the relation or information transmission among subgroups.

    6. If this is the way that people get clustered, how do we step out and reach more?

  15. Nov 2018
    1. One of the most striking features of the quantitative and qualitative data from first- and second-semester German students is that the students interact directly with each other, as opposed to interacting mainly with the teacher. The changed role of teacher and students

    1. 2.1.1 Cognitive and psycholinguistic theories of SLA One of the main theoretical frameworks on the cognitive side is the input–interactionist paradigm (Long, 1996), and the early research on online interaction in FL/SL contexts focused on the development of linguistic competence in in-class interaction, e.g., comparing online synchronous interaction with face-to-face student interaction. Many of these studies used a quantitative methodology, involving control groups of students engaged in face-to-face interaction that were compared to experimental groups of learners participating in online interaction or intra-class studies in which the same students took part in both face-to-face and online interaction (Warschauer, 1996b). What was often counted and categorized were linguistic features and language functions (e.g., Chun, 1994; Kern, 1995), and researchers showed how negotiation for meaning occurs in intra-class online chat (e.g., Blake, 2000). Similarly, studies of online interaction based on psycholinguistic theories of SLA (e.g., Ellis’ (2006) Associative Cognitive CREED and Schmidt’s (1990) Noticing Hypothesis) have found that text-based chat promotes noticing of grammatical and lexical features or errors (e.g., Lai & Zhao, 2006; Lee, 2008). Other studies of interclass interactions between learners and native speakers (Tudini, 2003) or tandem learning partnerships (Kötter, 2003; O’Rourke, 2005) have investigated form-focused interaction, negotiation of meaning and code switching, primarily linguistic aspects of SL/FL learning.

    2. In both SLA and CALL (computer-assisted language learning) research, a new perspective may be found in ecological approaches, e.g., van Lier (2004), who takes an ecological world view and applies it to language education. Ecology broadly studies organisms in their relations with their environment. Van Lier’s approach thus incorporates many different perspectives with regard to language learning, e.g., sociocultural theory, semiotics, ecological psychology, and the concepts of self and identity. Key constructs in this approach to language learning are affordances and scaffolding, with an affordance defined as the relationship between an organism and something in the environment that can potentially be useful for that organism. Technology is viewed as a source of affordances and learning opportunities for language learners. Appropriate scaffolding, i.e., help from peers, teachers, or technology itself, might also be necessary, and this is a core feature of telecollaboration.

    3. 2.1.2 Sociocultural theories of SLA In contrast to interactionist research, Block (2003) proposed the “social turn” taken by the field of SLA, and variations of socially based theories and approaches have flourished. For example, socio-cognitive paradigms (Kern & Warschauer, 2000), which view language as social and place emphasis on the role of cultural context and discourse, are often used in the research on telecollaboration. Many studies have been influenced by sociocultural theory (Belz, 2002; Thorne, 2003; Ware, 2005). In the Vygotskian perspective, language is viewed as a mediating tool for learning, and the entire language learning process must by necessity be a dialogic process (see, e.g., Basharina, 2007; Blin, 2012, who rely on Activity Theory and Cultural Historical Activity Theory, respectively, for their analyses of telecollaboration). Other studies make visible the development of linguistic, pragmatic, and intercultural competence in both intra-class telecollaboration (e.g., Abrams, 2008) and inter-class interactions (e.g., Belz & Thorne, 2006; Jin & Erben, 2007). Chun (2011) reports on advanced German learners in the United States engaging online with advanced English learners in Germany, as they used different types of speech acts to indicate their pragmatic ability and to show their developing ICC. Specifically, some learners realized that they could exhibit curiosity and interest (a component of ICC) by engaging in multi-turn statements and did not need to use questions to convey their intent.

    1. The results of the paired-groups experimental study proves "are interpreted as being supportive for the interactionist perspective on SLA, especially the importance of attention". The study focuses on the acquisition of lexical meaning through negotiated interaction on NNS-NNS synchronous CMC. Check into Long's Interaction Hypothesis.

      The benefits of CMA in language learning: interactionist perspective.

    1. phases of cognitive presence rating rubric from Park

    2. structured strategy & triggering event/ debate and role & exploration and integration/ scaffolding & resolution

    3. "Using mixed methods, we examined the contribution of four scenario-based online discussion strategies -structured, scaffolded, debate and role play – to the learners’ cognitive presence, the outcome of the discussion. "

    1. Kern 2006 Chapelle recommends the interactionist approach to SLA (see Pica, 1994) Egbert and Petrie (2005): expand the theory from the interactionist to sociocultural perspective.

      "Sociocultural theory, like interactionist SLA, emphasizes the importance of learner interaction, but it is interested less in negotiation evoked adjustments in input than in the social and cultural situatedness of learner activity, learners’ agency in co-constructing meanings (as well as their own roles), and the importance of mediation by tools and signs."

      Systemic-functional linguistics framework for CMC; Anthropology; Semiotic theory; Plass cognitive theory while inputting the language with multi-media;

    1. 2009 Chapelle C.A. Four general approaches: cognitive linguistic; psycholinguistic; human learning; social context Problems in the four categories.

    1. "Researchers have found that cognitive interactionist and sociocultural SLA theories offer a means of interpreting prior research on CALL and suggest a point of departure for designing future studies of CALL activities that are based on human–computer interaction and computer-mediated communication."

      Chapelle. C. A 2007. theories expand from interactionist to cognitive interactionist and sociocultural theory cognitive interactionist: Human-computer interaction. sociocultural: CMC (Computer-Mediated Communication)

    1. Sociocultural Approaches to SLA and Technology (Steven Thorne): Sociocultural approaches (SCT) to second language acquisition draw from a tradition of human development emphasizing the culturally organized and goal-directed nature of human behavior and the importance of external social practices in the formation of individual cognition. This paper describes the principle constructs of the theory, including mediation, internalization, and the zone of proximal development, and will describe technology-related research in these areas. Vygotskian SCT shares foundational constructs with distributed and situated cognition, usage-based models of language acquisition, language socialization, and ecological approaches to development, all of which have contributed to new applications of SCT in the areas of language research and pedagogical innovation. A discussion of methodological challenges and current practices will conclude the presentation.

    2. Ecological Approaches to SLA and Technology (Leo van Lier): Ecological approaches to SLA are premised on a holistic view of human-world interrelations and the notion of affordance-effectivity pairings that help to better understand human activity and functioning. To many educators, technology and ecology are irreconcilable opposites. Yet, educationally speaking, they turn out to be perfectly compatible. This presentation examines the ways in which the Internet is an emergent resource, a social tool, and a multimodal repository of texts. The ecological affordances of CALL will be illustrated in terms of activity through, with, at and around computers.

    3. The Interaction Approach and CMC (Bryan Smith): The Interaction Approach(IA) in second language acquisition studies suggests that there is a link between interaction and learning. This approach focuses on three major components of interaction — exposure (input), production (output), and feedback. Many CALL researchers have adopted this theoretical perspective in exploring the relationship between CMC and instructed second language acquisition, exploiting many of the argued affordances offered by this medium in relation to the key tenets of the IA. This paper will provide a conceptual overview of the IA and explore specifically how CALL researchers have sought to study SLA from this theoretical perspective. We will discuss several methodological hurdles facing researchers engaged in this type of research and will offer some suggested strategies for conducting sound SLA/CALL research from an IA.

      the interaction approach overlaps with psycholinguistic approach under the cognitive theory

    4. Psycholinguistics, SLA, and Technology (Scott Payne): Investigating second language acquisition and CALL from a psycholinguistic perspective entails examining how language learners process, store, and retrieve information from memory and how cognitive capacity impacts acquisition and influences performance. This paper will provide an overview of psycholinguistic approaches to SLA research highlighting research findings relevant to the field of CALL. This discussion will include some of the challenges and opportunities for researchers interested in employing psycholinguistic methods for studying SLA in classroom and computer-mediated contexts.

      (https://paperpile.com/view/d6077af8-b494-0c5b-bcbe-71ea1d198029)

  16. Oct 2018
    1. "If MOOCs are thought of as communities, how do educators position themselves in these learning environments? " Ferguson and Whitelock (2014)