189 Matching Annotations
  1. May 2020
    1. Not building a static site? No worries there, React Static works as an SPA too, even if there is only a single index.html file.
    1. Online Video Streaming Application

      Netflix app is one of the most downloaded & popular videos streaming apps across the globe. Looking at its success we have kept it our App of the Week space.

    1. the expanding selection of CMS options for site generators remove the need to maintain a separate stack for content and marketing.
    1. In mathematical contexts, duality has numerous meanings[1] although it is "a very pervasive and important concept in (modern) mathematics"[2] and "an important general theme that has manifestations in almost every area of mathematics".[3]
    1. This scope effectively covers almost all companies and, therefore, means that the GDPR can apply to you whether your organization is based in the EU or not.
  2. Apr 2020
    1. Isomorphism itself is not purely a JavaScript thing. You can also build an isomorphic application in Dart or even use two different languages/stacks to render the same result. In fact there are many “isomorphic” applications which render a full HTML document on the server using PHP, Java or Ruby and use JavaScript and AJAX to create a rich user experience in the browser. This was the way things were done before the rise of Single Page Applications. The only real reason isomorphism is tied to JavaScript is because it’s the only language widely supported in the browser, and so at least part of the whole thing will use JavaScript. There’s no such thing as Isomorphic JavaScript, only isomorphic applications.
    1. COVID-19 Tracking Mobile Application

      Arogya Setu is an app created by the Government of India for the people of India to fight against and prevent themselves from getting infected with COVID-19.

    1. Web Application Architecture – Its Components & TypesYou are here:HomeApps & SoftwareWeb Application Architecture – Its…

      A web application that works on the remote server with the help of the internet. The app is stored on the remote server and gets delivered over the browser interface.

    1. Devise-Two-Factor only worries about the backend, leaving the details of the integration up to you. This means that you're responsible for building the UI that drives the gem. While there is an example Rails application included in the gem, it is important to remember that this gem is intentionally very open-ended, and you should build a user experience which fits your individual application.
    1. It will allow anyone to annotate anything anywhere, be it a web page, an ebook, a video, an image, an audio stream, or data in raw or visualized form
    1. L’application Affluences, Grand Prix de l’Innovation Digitale 2018 dans la catégorie « Ville Connectée », permet de suivre en temps réel le taux d’occupation des musées partenaires et le temps d’attente pour y accéder.

      Argument en faveur de l'utilisation du numérique sous forme d'applications. Argument épistémique inductif (Cette appli numérique permet de réduire l'attente donc le numérique est une solution au problème)

      // nous émettons des réserves quant à l'enthousiasme que suscite la notion de "ville connectée" https://www.lepoint.fr/editos-du-point/laurence-neuer/ville-intelligente-le-risque-est-que-les-donnees-se-retournent-contre-les-personnes-03-11-2017-2169630_56.php

  3. Mar 2020
    1. Single Page Applications: The Rise of Web Apps in 2020

      If you want an excellent user engagement between your application and them, single page web apps is the best choice. To offer the best real-time experience to the users, web apps like Google-Maps use single page application.

    1. How Single Page Application Can Benefit Your Business?

      The definition of single-page web apps lies exactly in their words. It has only one page, which means the whole page gets load only for one time. Later when users request any data only that data will be updated not the whole page.

  4. Feb 2020
  5. Dec 2019
    1. with how Much Can I create An Online Retail Website And APP?

      If you want to know the actual cost of your application then you can refer to article. From this guide, you can get all the features cost and overall cost. You can also get a few tips about how you can decrease the cost up to 45%. You can also get the answer to a few famous mobile application clone solutions.

    1. iPad App Development Company

      At being a bespoke iPad App Development company - Vnnovate Solutions, we’re strategists and full stack iPad app developers, who know how to develop latest iOS 12 compatible mobile applications and deliver comprehensive iOS app development services.

    1. How much does it cost to make an app in 2019-20

      Uber, Ola, Tiktok, Instagram and infinity number of apps became an inspiration for businesses to start a business online. You can also get ideas about what it cost to make a clone application like Instagram, Tiktok, Spotify, Netflix and much more.

  6. Nov 2019
    1. It is challenging to study how pneumococci control virulence factor expression, because cues of natural environments and the presence of an immune system are difficult to simulate in vitro
  7. Oct 2019
    1. We also show how our toolbox can be used to deploy the FBP in planta to build auto-luminescent reporters for the study of gene-expression and hormone fluxes
    1. This paper explores how the Internet of Things and blockchain technology can benefit shared economy applications. The focus of this research is understanding how blockchain can be exploited to create decentralised, shared economy applications that allow people to monetise, securely, their things to create more wealth. Shared economy applications such as Airbnb and Uber are well-known applications, but there are many other opportunities to share in the digital economy. With the recent interest in the Internet of Things and blockchain, the opportunity exists to create a myriad of sharing applications, e.g. peer-to-peer automatic payment mechanisms, foreign exchange platforms, digital rights management and cultural heritage to name but a few

      This article sheds light into shared economy, have highlighted just the abstract, but this entire article is so interesting and the application it talks about is great, like how can airbnb or uber use blockchain to protect it's clients privacy. Must read

    1. A technique common in rodents is the use of Cre recombinase lines that are inducible at specific developmental time points (Figure 3b). The most common form of inducible Cre is CreERT2, which contains a modified estrogen receptor binding domain that prevents Cre from entering the nucleus in the absence of a ligand
    1. creating improved technologies for large-scale recordings of neural activity in the live brain is a crucial goal in neuroscience
    1. new toolkits for chronic labeling of active ensembles will provide a much awaited experimental basis to interrogate various aspects of neuronal circuits underlying long-term plastic changes of the brain, such as during nervous system development, during establishment of long-lasting remote memory over months, or in association with age-related neuronal changes over several years.
    2. new direction of functional labeling involves conversion of transient expression from activity-dependent promoters into a permanent labeling based on tamoxifen-dependent recombinases
    1. This gene fusion approach will allow us to assay the induction of gene expression in as few as one cell

      Recombinase memory as a reporter for expression in 1 cell

    1. Because growth conditions (i.e., fluid dynamics and nutrient composition) can also have a profound effect on when QS is important,(71-75) there is a need to study biofilm formation and QS of BNR bacteria under various potential operating conditions.
    1. difficult to observe in situ at the microscale, hence mechanisms and time scales relevant for bacterial spatial organization remain largely qualitative.
    1. For in situ studies of AHL-dependent signaling in complex habitats, biosensors utilizing fluorescent proteins (GFP and RFP) as reporter genes have been developed
    2. biosensors were employed to demonstrate AHL-mediated communication in swarm colonies of Serratia liquefaciens
    1. it is unclear to what extent these results are relevant in natural habitats, as the standard assays neglect the different surface chemistries, interactions with other species, and physical constraints of natural environments.
  8. Sep 2019
    1. This biosensor will help identify organic substrates that potentially support microbial growth and activity before and during nodulation
    2. Such biosensors can reveal intriguing aspects of the environment and the physiology of the free-living soil S. meliloti before and during the establishment of nodulation, and they provide a nondestructive, spatially explicit method for examining rhizosphere soil chemical composition
    1. quantifying biogeochemical fluxes resulting from these reactions remains a challenge
    2. These tools provide insights into processes such as N uptake at the scale of individual root tips, allowing observation of plant–microbe interactions on scales at which they actually occur, instead of being masked by a whole‐core average
    1. Now synthesized microbial biosensors are able to target specific toxins such as arsenic, cadmium, mercury, nitrogen, ammonium, nitrate, phosphorus and heavy metals, and respond in a variety of ways. They can be engineered to generate an electrochemical, thermal, acoustic or bioluminescent signal when encountering the designated pollutant.
  9. Aug 2019
    1. Now we can ask, ‘Have I seen iron at some threshold?’ ‘Have I seen some nitrate?’ And have every microbe write it down. As one thinks about long-term incubation, this is a really powerful tool, because even six months later we can pull out the DNA and see what happened.”
    1. Centric web solution is the renowned best web development company.

      We have a very highly experienced and expert development team who are experts in web design & development.

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      • PHP Web Development
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  10. Jun 2019
    1. For example, bacteria could be engineered to seek out hazardous chemicals or heavy metals in the environment, perform cleanup and return to their origin to report on the number of hazardous sites encountered via analysis by microfluidic devices
  11. May 2019
    1. Web Application Development

      Samaj Infotech is dedicated to delivering dynamic solutions as an honoured company for Web Application Development Services USA.

  12. Apr 2019
    1. The technology stack for web applications mentioned here are not the only ones that you have to choose from. We have tried to bring you the best of the technology stacks for web development that are prevailing in 2019.

      The technology stack for web applications mentioned here are not the only ones that you have to choose from. We have tried to bring you the best of the technology stacks for web development that are prevailing in 2019.

    1. SaaS Application Development

      This blog is going to change your business perspective if you have a SaaS business idea, but if you are still in search of that million dollar idea, then this blog is an even better fit for you.

  13. Mar 2019
    1. microlearning This app, edume, is supposed to help people with microlearning. Apparently it is endorsed by large companies. At this point, I do not have the background to assess the product but am saving it for my own use later. rating 3/5

    1. This is Bloom's taxonomy of cognitive objectives. I selected this page because it explains both the old and new versions of the taxonomy. When writing instructional objectives for adult learning and training, one should identify the level of learning in Blooms that is needed. This is not the most attractive presentation but it is one of the more thorough ones. rating 4/5

    1. Top 10 Web Developers

      When it comes to expand the business brands, you can hire the top 10 web development companies. In this post, it is clearly mentioned the top 10 web development companies to fulfill the requirements and have ideas to expand the operations.

    1. Importance of Customized Web and Software Applications for Business's Growth

      Using the internet for business promotion is increasing at an accelerated rate. Having a dedicated website has become a basic necessity for almost all organizations. With the growing competition online, you might find your business websites facing a tough time. Despite investing adequate time and money, you might not be getting satisfactory output out of your online presence. If you are facing such a situation, then it's time for you to implement customized web applications and software solutions in your business websites.

  14. Jan 2019
    1. Big Data is a buzzword which works on the platform of large data volume and aggregated data sets. The data sets can be structured or unstructured.  The data that is kept and stored at a global level keeps on growing so this big data has a big potential.  Your Big Data is generated from every little thing around us all the time. It has changed its way as the people are changing in the organization. New skills are being offered to prepare the new generated power of Big Data. Nowadays the organizations are focusing on new roles, new challenges and creating a new business.  
    1. Efficacy of interventions

      It would be really interesting to see what a social network would look in a summer camp, for example, pre- and post- team-building as an intervention.

      As a teacher at an expeditionary learning school, I get the feeling that putting my students on expeditions with each other gives them stronger bonds with one another. But - is my intuition correct?

    2. Now, you could ask questions such as, how does being on the outside (periphery) or inside (center) of a friendship network correlate with one's grade point average? Or, do birds of a feather flock together? That is, are students with similar grade point averages likely to nominate each other?

      What variables are more important in the determination or change of friendship in different stages, grades, gender, interest, or similar economic background or experience? What self-identity cognition would be reflected from it?

    3. strength

      what constitute a tie? direction, same-sex, other-sex, specific subgroups, strength(very subjective to define the strength of a friendship).

  15. Nov 2018
    1. Learning needs analysis of collaborative e-classes in semi-formal settings: The REVIT exampl

      This article explores the importance of analysis of instructional design which seems to be often downplayed particularly in distance learning. ADDIE, REVIT have been considered when evaluating whether the training was meaningful or not and from that a central report was extracted and may prove useful in the development of similar e-learning situations for adult learning.

      RATING: 4/5 (rating based upon a score system 1 to 5, 1= lowest 5=highest in terms of content, veracity, easiness of use etc.)

    1. List of web 2.0 applications

      EDUTECH wiki is a site that contains a variety of links to lists to hep educators with web 2.0 applications improving productivity Caution: some of the links are not active!

      RATING: 4/5 (rating based upon a score system 1 to 5, 1= lowest 5=highest in terms of content, veracity, easiness of use etc.)

  16. Oct 2018
    1. Instead of continuing the millennia old search for the universal ontology, different types of ontologies have been proposed in computer science. [.] [C]lassification of ontologies [is] based on their granularity and [their] thematic scope [differs] into top-level, domain, task, and application ontologies ... (Hitzler, Janowicz, Berg-Cross, Obrst, Sheth, Finin, Cruz 2012)
  17. Jun 2018
    1. Raccomandazione 3.6g - Definire un modello di governance del dato e progettare automatismi organizzativi e tecnologici

      ogni applicativo gestionale in uso nelle Pubbliche Amministrazioni centrali e locali DEVE(!) fare uso di [API (Application Programming Interface)] (https://pianotriennale-ict.readthedocs.io/it/latest/search.html?check_keywords=yes&area=default&q=api) al fine di pubblicare, in modalità automatica, dati tematici aggiornati in tempo reale. Senza l'uso di API pubbliche (e documentate) non ci sarà mai un sistema di dati pubblici in formato aperto su cui poter fare riferimento per creare qualsiasi tipo di riuso costante ed utile alla società e per la nascita di nuove forme di economia. Senza API pubbliche continueranno ad esserci soltanto isolati esercizi di stile di qualche rara Pubblica Amministrazione (nel contesto nazionale) sensibile alla pubblicazione dei dati, soltanto perchè fortunatamente vede al suo interno del personale dirigente/dipendente sensibile culturalmente all'obbligo (non sanzionato in caso di non rispetto) della pubblicazione dei dati.

      Oggi (2018) l'uso delle API pubbliche nei software delle PA non va raccomandato, va imposto! Diversamente si continua a giocherellare come si fa per ora. Ma niente dati di qualità e su cui fare riferimento senza API pubbliche nei software della PA!

  18. Sep 2017
    1. Failing that, how might we test the claim?

      This rhetorical question makes me think of Descartes' claim, in that we honestly cannot be sure of reality

  19. Apr 2017
    1. Appendix. Technical demonstration of the SOMprocedure

      This is a great example of Kohonen's Self-organizing Maps and the use of the U-Matrix. The authors were very thorough in explaining how it can be used.

    2. The SOM consisted of 360 neurons on a 24by 15 map grid, with hexagonal lattice andGaussian neighborhood function.

      Data Structure

    1. Ryu, S., & Lombardi, D. (2015). Coding Classroom Interactions for Collective and Individual Engagement. Educational Psychologist, 50(1), 70–83. http://doi.org/10.1080/00461520.2014.1001891 (Note: An attempt to combine SNA with critical discourse analysis.)

      I really like this concept and application of SNA with integration of critical discourse analysis (CDA), which is a course I am taking in the fall!! In another class, we read about critical quantitative approach, and I now think what makes it truly critical might be the integration of a mixed method approach, where something like ethnographic case studies or in this case discourse analysis is used in combination with SNA/statistical analyses to give it more robust findings.

    1. methodological transactionalism

      This paradigm shift may be supported by a similar shift from individualized learning theories to socio-cultural theorning theories too.

    2. whether even inferential results are generalizable to other populations

      a huge limitation to the application of SNA in general, in my opinion. while it's fascinating to look at particular networks and see some other structures in some of the studies i was reading to better understand my own issues, the findings weren't something i would be comfortable applying to my situation. people are so unique and add a social network of other individuals on top of that, plus environment, plus any number of other factors and it feels very limiting.

    3. isn't too large and dense

      yeah, this wasn't so useful for an interconnected network of over 400 individuals.....

    4. You will be somewhat surprised how expanding your search in these ways will yield a bigger, better, and deeper pool of literature that can be used to inform your research questions and design

      Since no one had "done" what I was looking to do I also found it helpful to look for studies that had the same general goal as mine. Even if we were talking about departments in a huge corporation or different professional development groups and how they shared knowledge it was pretty easy to find things in common with my own information.

    5. analyses presented throughout this book

      I would be interested in trying this especially because this textbook provides some good step-by-step examples using this package.

    6. hypothetical example of a questionnaire

      I would love to see more of these - in published papers, for example - or just tutorials that take us from raw data to tidy data to analysis/computations in R.

    7. Likert-type scales

      I hope to use survey design as a component of my data collection for a future project.

    8. If you are observing faculty members in a teachers’ lounge, are you interested in who speaks with whom, or are you also interested in who initiated the conversation? Who initiated the conversation and who responded might be more interesting than just recording the pairs of teachers who engaged in conversations.

      This is certainly applicable to my own study. My original thought was that my data could be undirected, but I'm now questioning that. For example, it would be interesting to see if an initial contact between two students was then reciprocated, or if there were other contacts that seemed to follow from the initial.

    1. In this respect, these models are closely related to logistic regression in that they analyze a dichotomous dependent variable (1/0) that is assumed to follow a binomial distribution.

      This makes a connection to my prior knowledge about traditional statistics, binary Logistic regression(dependent variable is binary, 0 or 1) and multiple Logistic regression(dependent variable has multiple levels, just like the school leader network example, four possible outcomes).

    2. we cannot reject that null hypothesis that the number of collaboration ties sent in year 1 does not vary by the level of leaders’ trust.

      This is (unfortunately) reminding me that I need to finish my stats exam due later this week and try to come to some conclusions like this after spending probably the next 8 hours staring at awesome output in R... but I digress... yes, this seems like it would be very applicable to my study. :)

    3. This hypothesis can be tested by comparing the average out-degree (number of dichotomized collaboration ties sent) of district- and school-level leaders.

      I have a background in quantitative statistics. The use of a t-test assumes normality of data. I know that normality does not matter for SNA, but is this particular section referring to a nonparametric test that works like a t-test or is it actually referring to the use of a t-test and just ignoring the assumption of normality?

    4. This section shifts the analytical lens to predict an individual actor's outcome, whether it is an attribute variable (e.g., a student's test score) or a structural variable (e.g., a teacher's betweenness centrality score), using relational data. For example: does a teacher's gender predict his or her influence (as measured by degree centrality)?

      Ok... So now this is making a little more sense for my own data. In my case, I could analyze the countries geographic loaction as an attribute varibale that predicts the probability of certain industries having multiple companies in a given country. Does this make sense?

    5. the focal variable is the actor's group membership expressed as an unobserved, latent variable whose value is the result of the observed ties among actors

      Ahhhh... This makes sense. I asked about this in the previous chapter.

    6. Do a leader's collaboration ties vary by their level of trust?

      Ooh! This seems like it would be very useful for my divvided up SP and CP, which I have categorized at L, M, and H as well. So, "Do students' ties vary by their level of SP?" would be the question I would ask.

    7. How well does a leader's perceived level of trust in his or her colleagues predict the number of alters to whom the person sent a collaboration tie in year 1, controlling for gender and the level at which the person works (district vs. school)? This question requires three vectors of independent variables (trust score, an indicator for gender, and an indicator for level) and one dependent variable vector (collaboration year 1 out-degree).

      Oy. This (multiple linear regression) is much harder for me to wrap my brain around, but I'm going to give it a go (especially since I have so many variables and it might be useful for tying them together). Again, I have SP, CP, and discussion forum type. If I did the surveys, I'd also have perceived sense of belonging. How well does a student's perceived sense of belonging predict his/her level of CP in discussion posts, controlling for discussion forum type (for example, only looking at large group discussions)? That doesn't get the SP in there though, and may not actually be a great model of regression. :/ Help?

    8. We might even be interested in the relationship between two individual attributes among a set of actors who are connected in a network. For example, in a school classroom, is there an association between students’ engagement and their academic achievement?

      This is very similar to what my research is doing, where engagement is defined as SP and academic achievement as CP. :)

    9. P* models are often employed to take this further by including actor- and network-level covariates.

      Again, if I were to try to apply this (p) to my own data, I could look at things like gender, race, etc, but it would make more sense to see if SP was tied in--in other words, take the same scenario from p1 (if a student respond to another (say, in a large group discussion), is that student more likely to respond back when higher levels of SP are involved? I think* I applied that correctly.

    10. Using directed and dichotomized relational data, a p1 model can be used, for example, to test whether school leaders tend to reciprocate relationship choices.

      Again, attempting to apply to my own study. This one (p1)seems straightforward. If one student responds to another (in a large group discussion), is the other student more likely to reciprocate by responding to that student in future discussions?

    11. The question, therefore, is whether school leaders prefer to collaborate with those with whom they have collaborated in the past or with those that they have turned to discuss confidential issues.

      I have next to no stats knowledge, so I'm going to try to extrapolate this out in regards to my own research to try to better understand it (hopefully!). In using my own research with SP (social presence) and CP (cognitive presence). I'm going to start with the varibles: levels of SP, levels of CP, discussion forum type. A question I have been asking is whether discussion forum type affects SP and/or CP. Modeling the question the same way as this one, it might be whether students are more likely to show higher CP with students they were in a programmatic small group discussion with versus just large group. I think this models this line of questioning, at least. This probably doesn't get the SNA part in. So, trying again... Are students more likely to respond to a student in a large group discussion that they formed a connection with in a programmatic small group discussion or a random small group discussion? This doesn't get the SP or CP working in there, but it gets the SNA. So part of what I'm studying. But, since I'm graphing SP as a weighted measure for SNA, maybe it could be whether students are more likely to demonstrate higher SP in an ensuing large-group discussion with students they were in small programmatic group discussion with in a previous module. Does that get all the parts working approporiately in a MR-QAP-procedure question??

    1. networks change, and in some instances quickly

      this is something i've been struggling with this entire course. in particular, for my network, one or two members who are always participating and holding these networks together could very easily get a new job, move onto a new opportunity etc. how to keep the networks so intertwined that one or two people leaving wouldn't make the whole thing fall apart is what interests me.

    2. Even the tools of predictive modeling are commonly applied to network data (e.g. correlation and regression)

      Would running such tests require a need for assessing latent variables that emerge from network analysis? I will keep reading, but from what I know of SNA, it seems like you are only analyzing observable variables and it would be difficult to obtain a correlation from such unique variables. Am I way off here?

    3. limiting the types of questions that could be asked,

      I have been dealing with this issue all semester. I am really struggling to determine which questions are appropriate and which can be answered using SNA techniques. Perhaps this is due to the type of data I am working with, but I am still working on developing sound research questions.

  20. Mar 2017
    1. These measures convey the image of a fixed network with attitudes or behaviors passing through it,

      Since my own study takes these measures weekly, I'm curious to see how the statistical aspect may help draw connections between weeks and predict what could happen in future weeks.

      Although, I will say I think this is only true in a broad sense. For example, I think I may be able to predict from a couple weeks of SNA data who the central players in future weeks will be (rock star students tend to retain that status throughout), but it may not be able to predict who responds to whom. Though such a measure may not be all that useful anyway.

      Coming back to this after reading the chapter, I'm having a difficult time deciding whether statistical approaches make sense for me. I am trying to make generalizations, but it's not around categories (like gender, race, etc.). Unless maybe my category is SP (social presence)? To make a prediction about students with high SP having high CP (cognitive presence)?

    2. Explain in plain language how simulations are used to create a probability distribution that enables you to make a statistical inference with network data.

      If your network differs from a typical random creation, then you can perhaps make a claim about unique properties.

    3. According to this emphasis, the main question asked is: If a study is repeated on a different sample (drawn by the same method), how likely is it that you would get the same answer about what is going on in the whole population from which both samples have been drawn?

      For my own study, this would be making a claim about the connection of SP to CP in certain discussion forum types to suggest that you can get the biggest bang for your SP and CP buck by adopting a certain discussion forum type.

    4. So, let's say you are interested in the number of collaborative exchanges that occur between teachers from two different grade levels in a complete network of teachers within one elementary school. First, you count the number of times these types of exchanges occur in the observed network and then permute these relational data lots and lots of times. With each permutation, you calculate the number of times this type of tie (collaborative exchanges between teachers from two different grade levels) occurs and compare this result to the original observed network. After this process of permuting and comparing, you can see how often the results of these permutations are the same as the original observed results: The more often the results of the permutations are the same as your observed data, the more likely that the pattern of exchanges in the observed data was due to chance. If, however, the results from the observed data are so unlikely when compared to the results of the permutations, then you are to conclude that your results are not the byproduct of chance. Therefore, this result would be considered statistically significant.

      In terms of my project (looking at racial and gender-based biases in communication between undergarduate students in an online class), then I could use this same rationale and process in order to make generalizations to a broader population?

    1. How ego-centric networks could be applied to your research projects?

      In my case, ego-centric networks are particularly interesting. I am looking forward to see how different individuals from first language groups interact with learners from other first language groups. Also, how does this correlate to their English proficiency, grades etc.

    2. definition(s) of the neighborhood

      Since my groups are small with four to six participants, a one-step neighborhood probably makes most sense, but if I were to look at an egocentric analysis with the moderator as the ego, the larger or complete network would be more applicable?

    3. What definition(s) of the neighborhood will make sense for your research projects?

      I would prefer to define the "neighborhood" for my ego-centric analysis to one-step, because I am most interested in who that person is directly connected to, instead of looking at the larger network that the ego is nearly connected to.

    4. How ego-centric networks could be applied to your research projects?

      If I were to apply ego-centric networks to my project, I would focus in on studying members of the game development community that have gone through a public education program to see if they have become more well-connected in the community since going through the program.

    1. Alternately, you would also use an egocentric approach if your research question is about different patterns of interaction within defined groups

      Comparing different groups with the same or similar structure? Or differing patterns of interaction within the groups? Or both?

    2. Summary

      When looking at my data set, I'm most curious to analyze the ego networks of particular students that either do not feel connected to the school or regularly struggle to academically achieve. Perhaps individual interventions can be designed to aid the educational experience of these students.

    3. advantage

      The term 'advantage' seems to be used loosely. I understand the power that A may be able to exert over students B & C, but given the various values of weak/strong ties and dense/disperse networks, I do not totally see how the term 'advantage' always applies in this scenario.

    4. Stated another way, weak ties are important for transmitting information but less so for transmitting behavioral influence (Valente, 2010)

      This is the most succinct description of the value of strong and weak ties I have heard yet.

    5. Viewed from this perspective, dense networks reinforce prevailing norms and behaviors and insulate one from outside influences (these can be, however, either good or bad)

      A similar theoretical foundation may apply to 'echo chambers' noted recently throughout social media.

    6. Brokerage

      This whole concept is a huge part of what I want to get out of my data set! This is exciting and also terrifying because I will have to figure out how to actually get these measurements....

    7. so that the ego networks of tenured teachers could be compared to the ego networks of untenured teachers

      I am going to see if it makes sense to do something like this with my data in terms of OIT v. non-OIT or instructional designers v. other types of employees. So many potential ideas!!!

    8. Ego actors can be individual persons, groups, or even some larger entity

      I had not thought of that until they spelled this out. that actually makes a lot of sense.

    9. The first is an “out neighborhood,” which includes all the actors to whom ego sends a tie. Conversely, a directed ego network can be defined as an “in neighborhood,” which simply includes all those actors who send ties to ego.

      Thinking about direction makes sense for my study. It could be interesting to compare an ego-centric network to look at one student (Student A) to see if Student A's out and in neighborhoods are the same or mostly overlap. From what I've seen in my data so far, this has only been the case when students are placed into small groups. When it's the discussion forum as a full class, there is significantly less overlap.

      It could be interesting to compare students' sense of belonging/community on the basis of whether they have a strong in or out neighborhood. I could see students who have high out but low in as feeling disconnected, and students with high in but low out maybe not even paying attention/not really caring about sense of belonging. Methinks I need to add a survey to my research...

    10. Why Study Ego Networks?

      This may or may not make sense for my research. Since my network is small (19 students; 20 if you count me, the instructor), it's easy enough to look at the whole network (socio-centric) and then decide if it makes sense to zero in on particular students. Reasons I may want to use ego-centric: To study high-performing (vs low-performing) students' networks; to isolate students showing high cognitive presence (one of the aspects I'm researching) to see what their individual networks look like; to explore students with high social presence to see what their networks look like--does quality of SP go along with quantity of SP?

      If I were administering surveys (which I do not believe I'll have time to do), then I might want to look at egos based on survey results, for example, to a ask like "Do you feel a sense of belonging in this online class?" to study how students' perceptions of belonging align with their actual quantity and quality of ties.

    11. Table 7.1

      The data presented in these tables is often kind of confusing, if it is generated from the program they are using.

    12. Whereas the previous chapter focused on concepts and measures most appropriate for complete network analysis, this chapter shifts the perspective to the analytical level of a sole focal actor—ego.

      Is it common to perform both types of analyses on a dataset?

    13. This was calculated by summing the geodesic distances between School Leader 1 and the other 42 actors in the network, dividing this by 1, and then multiplying it by 42, (g – 1).

      I think we calculated closeness centrality of vertices (and also the closeness centralization of complete network) two week s ago, it used the similar computation method as this egocentric network closeness centrality. It seems like that when calculate closeness and betweenness, you have to include indirect connections of a given ego, not just direct connections in the egocentric network.

    14. Tie strength has been a core idea throughout the network field, with weak ties serving as important bridges between different groups and strong ties being influential in behavioral adoption. Generally, weak ties are important for the spread of instrumental resources (e.g., work-related advice), while strong ties are important for expressive resources (e.g., guidance on personal matters) (Lin, 2001a). Stated another way, weak ties are important for transmitting information but less so for transmitting behavioral influence (Valente, 2010). Granovetter's (1973) classic work has laid much of the foundation for much of the work that has focused on the tie strength.

      I can see some application of tie strength both in my project for this course (analyzing the effects of gender and race on interaction between actors) and beyond my dissertation research: how do technology integration processes disseminate through a network of teachers?

    15. Egocentric network data generated in this manner, however, cannot be used to describe the overall embeddedness of the networks in some larger population.

      Seems similar to a caution when using Case Study qualitative research methods - it's best to use caution when generalizing from case study research.

    16. These less dense networks, often referred to as radial networks, can also be favorable or unfavorable, depending on the behavior or attitude that you are interesting in studying

      This reminds me of strong ties theory and weak ties theory(also called structure hole) we had read before which are competitive theories , but both theories can explain some certain social phenomenon. Strong ties theory can explain how strong ties affect people's behavior or attitudes etc., and weak ties play a role of bridge to disseminate (non-redundant) information. So I think what matters is your research question/interest, your research question will drive you to apply appropriate theory and interpretation.

    17. able 7.2 Types of Questions Used to Elicit Egocentric Network Data.

      This is useful. Sometimes I wish different studies would just show us the surveys they used so I can get a clear idea of types of questions and what is visualized.

    1. There is no assumption that groups are the building blocks of society: the approach is open to studyingless-bounded social systems, from nonlocal communities to links among websites.Rather than treating individuals (persons, organizations, states) as discrete units of analysis, it focuses on howthe structure of ties affects individuals and their relationships.In contrast to analyses that assume that socialization into norms determines behavior, network analysis looksto see the extent to which the structure and composition of ties affect norms.

      This is important for my own understanding of the "Why" of SNA. It made sense to disengage the social portion of the practice and focus on the composition of the ties. An ah-ha.

    1. It should be informed by theory

      I'm not sure what theory I should be leveraging to make cut-offs in my analysis of Slack interactions.

    2. However, you might also want to reveal how groups are distributed in the network and which actors belong to which groups. A clique analysis is one way to satisfy these purposes. A clique is a maximally connected subgraph of nodes (> 2) in which all nodes are connected to each other.

      It may be interesting to apply this after I've had students in the same small groups for a couple weeks for their discussions and then return to a whole-class discussion (to see if the students respond more so to the students they had been in a group with previously).

    3. Therefore, a 3K-core is a substructure, a subset of actors, in which each node is connected to at least three other nodes; a 2K-core would be a subset in which a node is connected to two others, and so forth. Those nodes that do not meet K, which is defined by you, are dropped from the network

      I could see this being useful for looking at my own research. Not many of the students are interacting beyond the minimum requirements for responses (typically, 2), so I could use this to separate out those who are a bit more easily (so doing a 3K-core).

    4. A Visual Comparison of Structural, Automorphic, and Regular Equivalence. Consider this a graph of a hypothetical hierarchy of a school district's organizational chart, which consists of three levels linked by supervisory relation. Depending on your preferred definition of equivalence, different positions will be identified.

      Moving forward into post-dissertation work, I can see how the idea of equivalence might apply in looking at technology integration processes across schools. But, for my research questions posed in this class, this isn't very useful.

  21. Feb 2017
    1. Reciprocity

      This one was easy! Getting good a good directed network to play around with it with into R and able to be modified was... way harder than getting this info.

      reciprocity(g, ignore.loops = TRUE)

      There is an additional mode operator where if you put the mode = ("ratio") it calculates (unordered) vertex pairs are classified into three groups: (1) not-connected, (2) non-reciprocaly connected, (3) reciprocally connected. The result is the size of group (3), divided by the sum of group sizes (2)+(3).

    2. The length of the longest path between two actors is five. To “get from” Student 15 to 16 in this directed network requires five steps: 15 ? 5 ? 17 ? 4 ? 2 ? 16. This is the only five-step path in the network and is the maximum distance between any two actors.

      This reminds me of 7 degrees of Kevin Bacon or using Facebook to find how connected you are to a complete stranger.

    3. First, you identify the main structural properties of a network, including those related to its size, density, and connectivity.

      Step 1.

    4. Centralization

      Centralization interests me for analyzing discussion forums--are there key players, and do these key players show higher degrees of cognitive presence?

      Calculating for centralization by number of connections seems quite straightforward in R: centralization.degree

    5. it is more sensible to report what is referred to as effective density, which is the number of lines (ties) multiplied by the number of possible alters:where L again is the number of lines (directed ties) in the network, N is network size, and λ is the maximum number of alters requested or permitted. Using this formula, the density of the Fraternity Data is 1.0: All possible relations are present, which is unsurprising given that the original ranked data were recoded (1–3 = 1, all others = 0) and each respondent had the maximum number of three friendship nominations.

      For examining either my original project idea or my new one, I think this will be a useful equation. For example, in my current project idea, it would be interesting to see the density of a given network where I have limited them to two responses total within a given assignment.

    6. Clustering

      I am very interested in clustering measures, because I plan to analyze data from a Slack group that I am a part of, where I suspect there are many subgroups who only interact with each other.

      After looking around for some different clustering algorithms, I found the "cluster_label_prop" function in the igraph package, which seems to do what I would like to do. To summarize, this function automatically detects groups within a network by initially labeling every node with a unique label and at every step each node adopts the label that most of its neighbors currently have. In this iterative process densely connected groups of nodes form a consensus on a unique label to form communities.

      There seem to be many different ways to define clustering though, so I am sure that I will need to do more research on the topic of clustering as I move forward with my research project.

    1. betweenness centrality

      This video was a great and simple explanation for calculating Betweenness centrality. It will be interesting to look at this in my data set (eventually).

    1. If an individual opts out, this should mean that their name appears nowhere on the social network diagram (even if they are identified by another individual as being part of their social network). For instance, in the sample map, you can see that the map would be very disjointed if John and Holly opted out of the SNA.

      Are we allowed to include nodes for John and Holly if they are identified by others, but without using their name? For example, we would refer to John as Anonymous 1 and Holly as Anonymous 2. Or would we have to exclude any data that involves them, regardless of anonymity?

    2. the purpose of the network analysis may be to identify areas of the firm that just aren’t critical to its mission, vision, and strategy. As social network researchers Steve Borgatti and Jose-Luis Molina note, “This introduces dangers for the respondents because management may make job or personnel changes (e.g., firing non-central workers) based on the network analysis. In fact, in the case of a consulting engagement, this may be the explicit purpose of the research, at least from the point of view of management (Borghatti & Molina, 2005).”

      This seems similar to conducting a program evaluation. I guess the only difference would be the application of network analysis.

    1. For example, using the public Facebook profiles of a set of students in the same school, it is possible to construct a network of who bullies whom, so long as you can precisely define how bullying is measured.

      I think this is a really good example of SNA research. It would take a lot of thinking to operationally define bullying as identified on facebook, but I bet the results would be interesting. I wonder if something of this nature has already been studied.

    2. It is possible to then collapse participants across all events, thereby producing a more representative network that can address the study's guiding question(s)

      This is the hard part! Who/what participants at the University represent range from "college" to "department" to "faculty groups" to "student union" to "tight knit group of people who happen to teach online courses". how to collapse them is hard to quantify, even if you know who they are and how they're related to various things.