124 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
    1. That said, once a new platform is identified as a target you don’t want to wait too long to pounce. There are benefits to being early. It can show platform representatives that you’re a believer in the product and the company, which may make them more willing to work with you or build products to help you. For instance, publishers who were early to Twitter, such as The New York Times, were marked “suggested follows” for users and saw huge audience growth.
  2. May 2019
  3. Apr 2019
    1. Heywoods were a thoroughly respectable family

      Similar to all the other families that Austen's characters happen to interact with - all "respectable" families of probably the gentry class. In Pride and Prejudice, the Bingleys were "of a respectable family in the north of England" (P12) while in Northanger Abbey, Mr Tilney was also "of a very respectable family in Gloucestshire" (p17).

    2. modern Sanditon

      Modernity and fashionability are desirable characteristics that Mr. Parker is actively trying to cultivate in Sanditon. This is a marked departure from the value system that is practiced by characters in previous Austen novels. Pride and Prejudice's Darcy or Northanger Abbey's General Tilney are concerned with a preservation of inherited wealth and status, rather than the active generation of new wealth.

    1. The creation of a successful status game is so mysterious that it often smacks of alchemy. For that reason, entrepreneurs who succeed in this space are thought of us a sort of shaman, perhaps because most investors are middle-aged white men who are already so high status they haven't the first idea why people would seek virtual status
  4. Mar 2019
  5. May 2018
  6. Mar 2018
    1. MUST conform to the OSLC Core Guidelines for JSON
      1. normative reference
      2. I think it should be MUST support JSON-LD and
      3. SHOULD support deprecated JSON (https://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-json/)
    2. OSLC Core Guidelines for XML

      Normative reference?

    3. integration use cases documented by the OSLC-RM workgroup

      normative reference?

    4. Requirements Management

      I think Requirements Management as a discipline includes more things. How about The RM specification...

    5. The specification is modified to build on the [OSLCCore3] Specification.

      compatibility: "is modified"... What is that supposed to mean? Is 2.1 RM provider a fully compliant 2.0 RM provider? Vice versa?

    6. ??

      what are the substaintial changes in 2.1-WD01 compared to 2.0?

    7. Working Draft 01

      is it possible to tag the origina commit on Git with rm2.1-wd01 or something similar, please?

    8. RESTful web services interface

      Is the domain a RESTful interface?

    1. when you ask the same people to do something FOR you, e.g. lend you a book or sign a recommendation letter for you, you can’t just use ください.

      This is like a homeless person saying "give me money, sir." It is still an order.

  7. Feb 2018
    1. Governmental Regulation–National Emergency11. This contract is subject to federal or state legislation, regulations,executive or other official orders or other governmental action, now orhereafter in effect respecting military, naval, air or other governmentalservice, which may directly or indirectly affect the Player, Club or theLeague and subject also to the right of the Commissioner to suspendthe operation of this contract during any national emergency duringwhich Major League Baseball is not played.

      However, the legal precedent around Major League Baseball's anti-trust exemption means professional baseball is not required to comply with other federal or state laws, regulations, or procedures.

    2. ATTACHMENT 52Joint Domestic Violence, Sexual Assault and Child Abuse Policy

      No minor league player, club, or association representatives were included in the parties that formulated these policies, although these policies and procedures have been adopted by minor league baseball.

    3. ATTACHMENT 512017–2021 International Play Plan, Rate Card and Funding

      As noted earlier in this CBA, Major League Baseball and the MLBPA were paying increased attention to the growth of organized baseball outside the United States. Rather than establish a collaborative relationship with foreign leagues that would create additional opportunities for player advancement, this CBA outlines the ways MLB and the MLBPA were actively looking to control and capitalize on foreign markets.

    4. ATTACHMENT 50Daniel R. Halem, EsquireChief Legal OfficerMajor League BaseballOffice of the Commissioner245 Park AvenueNew York, New York 10167Re: Rookie Hazings, Pranks and Clubhouse RitualsDear Dan:I write to confirm our agreement concerning the Office of the Commis-sioner’s adoption of a policy addressing rookie “hazing” or “initia-tions” or other clubhouse rituals involving Players (the “Policy”).

      Since no grievance procedure is outlined or articulated for minor league players and teams, the protections outlined in this attachment are not necessarily afforded to minor league players.

    5. ATTACHMENT 46International Amateur Talent System

      As noted earlier in this CBA, Major League Baseball and the MLBPA were paying increased attention to the growth of organized baseball outside the United States. Rather than establish a collaborative relationship with foreign leagues that would create additional opportunities for player advancement, this CBA outlines the ways MLB and the MLBPA were actively looking to control and capitalize on foreign markets.

    6. ATTACHMENT 46International Amateur Talent System

      No minor league player, club, or association representatives were to be included in this subcommittee.

    7. MAJOR LEAGUE PLAYER TOBACCO POLICY

      Facing increased pressure to curb player performance-enhancing and recreational drug use, Major League Baseball and the MLBPA moved proactively to institute a joint treatment program. Minor League baseball adopted the program outlined in this CBA, even though no minor league club, player, or organization representatives were involved in negotiating the CBA.

    8. ATTACHMENT 12This will set forth the understanding of the Parties regarding ArticleXX(A), of the Basic Agreement:With respect to a Minor League Player with no existing Major LeagueContract, whose Minor League contract has been assigned to a MajorLeague Club, it is understood that the placing of such a Player on theMajor League Club’s Active Reserve List (40-man Roster) and the ten-dering to such a Player of a Major League Contract without the neces-sity of renewing the Minor League contract will provide the MajorLeague Club with reservation rights to such a Player. Thus, such aPlayer will not become a free agent under Article XX(A)(2)(d), whichprovides that a Player will become a free agent if his Club fails to exer-cise its contract renewal rights, there being no prior Major LeagueContract to renew

      Although relatively minor, this attachment lays out an exception to an earlier portion of the CBA, and in effect further restricts minor league players' access to free agency. If a minor league player who is not currently under any contract is signed by a Major League club, free agency rules would not apply should the club choose not to renew his contract.

    9. ARTICLE XXV—International Play

      As noted earlier in this CBA, Major League Baseball and the MLBPA were paying increased attention to the growth of organized baseball outside the United States. Rather than establish a collaborative relationship with foreign leagues that would create additional opportunities for player advancement, this CBA outlines the ways MLB and the MLBPA were actively looking to control and capitalize on foreign markets.

    10. (4)Interests of the AssociationThe Revenue Sharing Plan may have a significant impact on theindustry globally as well as on individual Clubs. Accordingly, theParties acknowledge that the Association has a significant interest inany aspect of any of the components of the Revenue Sharing Planor its operation materially affecting either: (a) the overall industry-wide transfer of revenue among Clubs; or (b) the amounts of pay-ments made by individual Clubs and the amounts of receiptsreceived by individual Clubs. This paragraph shall not be construedto limit the Association’s right to assert that it has other legitimateinterests in the operation of the Plan.

      As noted here, the revenue sharing plan also impacted the level of resources clubs had to invest in foreign scouting and talent development, an established practice by 2017.

    11. D. Outright Assignment to Minor League Club

      Again, the salary protections and playing time incentives included in free agency procedures were available only to Major League players with the required minimum service time.

    12. ARTICLE XX—Reserve System

      As noted in the 1980 CBA, the 1975 Messersmith/McNally ruling overturned Major League Baseball's reserve clause and created a clear path for certain players to negotiate as free agents. However, the MLBPA's success in negotiating for the rights of free agents also came with a reserve system that severely limited minor league players' autonomy and access to the benefits and opportunities of free agency.

    13. D. Foreign AssignmentsExcept for the return of conditional assignments from outside theUnited States and Canada, the contract of a Player shall not be assignedotherwise than within the United States and Canada, without thePlayer’s written consen

      In the 1980 CBA, a player's consent was not necessary if he was being assigned to a team in his native country. This change in the language which first appeared in the 1997 CBA offered greater stability for foreign-born players.

    14. M. Family and Medical Leave ActThe Clubs will comply with the requirements of the Family and Med-ical Leave Act (29 U.S.C. 2601 et seq.) and will allow Players to uti-lize the Bereavement, Medical Emergency and Paternity leavesprovided in Major League Rules 2(n) and (o). Medical Emergency andPaternity leaves shall run concurrently with any leave available underthe Family and Medical Leave Act

      While this CBA reflects compliance with the 1993 federal law, the legal precedent around Major League Baseball's anti-trust exemption means professional baseball is not required to comply with other federal or state laws, regulations, or procedures.

    15. A. No DiscriminationThe Clubs will not interfere with, restrain or coerce Players because ofmembership in or lawful activity on behalf of the Association, nor willthey discriminate because of Association activity in regard to hire,tenure, or employment, or any term or condition of employment.The provisions of this Agreement shall be applied to all Players cov-ered by this Agreement without regard to race, color, religion, nationalorigin, sexual orientation, or any other classification protected underFederal Law

      In a notable shift from the 2003 CBA, the non-discrimination language in the CBA expanded to include sexual orientation, but still did not include gender or gender identity.

    16. ARTICLE XI—Grievance Procedure

      No grievance procedure is outlined or articulated for minor league players and teams, meaning the legal protections the MLBPA provides for major league players are not a benefit available for minor league players.

    1. Governmental Regulation-National Emergency11. This contract is subject to federal or state legislation, regulations,executive or other official orders or other governmental action, now orhereafter in effect respecting military, naval, air or other governmentalservice, which may directly or indirectly affect the Player, Club or theLeague and subject also to the right of the Commissioner to suspendthe operation of this contract during any national emergency duringwhich Major League Baseball is not played

      However, the legal precedent around Major League Baseball's anti-trust exemption means professional baseball is not required to comply with other federal or state laws, regulations, or procedures.

    2. 265ATTACHMENT 46International Amateur TalentI. International Talent Committee

      No minor league player, club, or association representatives were to be included in this subcommittee.

    3. ATTACHMENT 46International Amateur Talent

      As noted earlier in this CBA, Major League Baseball and the MLBPA were paying increased attention to the growth of organized baseball outside the United States. Rather than establish a collaborative relationship with foreign leagues that would create additional opportunities for player advancement, this CBA outlines the ways MLB and the MLBPA were actively looking to control and capitalize on foreign markets.

    4. SMOKELESS TOBACCO POLICY

      Facing increased pressure to curb player performance-enhancing and recreational drug use, Major League Baseball and the MLBPA moved proactively to institute a joint treatment program. Minor League baseball adopted the program outlined in this CBA, even though no minor league club, player, or organization representatives were involved in negotiating the CBA.

    5. With respect to a Minor League Player with no existing Major LeagueContract, whose Minor League contract has been assigned to a MajorLeague Club, it is understood that the placing of such a Player on theMajor League Club’s Active Reserve List (40-man Roster) and the ten-dering to such a Player of a Major League Contract without the neces-sity of renewing the Minor League contract will provide the MajorLeague Club with reservation rights to such a Player. Thus, such aPlayer will not become a free agent under Article XX(A)(2)(d), whichprovides that a Player will become a free agent if his Club fails to exer-cise its contract renewal rights, there being no prior Major LeagueContract to renew.

      Although relatively minor, this attachment lays out an exception to an earlier portion of the CBA, and in effect further restricts minor league players' access to free agency. If a minor league player who is not currently under any contract is signed by a Major League club, free agency rules would not apply should the club choose not to renew his contract.

    6. ARTICLE XXV—The Industry Growth Fund

      As noted earlier in this CBA, Major League Baseball and the MLBPA were paying increased attention to the growth of organized baseball outside the United States. Rather than establish a collaborative relationship with foreign leagues that would create additional opportunities for player advancement, this CBA outlines the ways MLB and the MLBPA were actively looking to control and capitalize on foreign markets.

    7. (4)Interests of the AssociationThe Revenue Sharing Plan may have a significant impact on theindustry globally as well as on individual Clubs. Accordingly, theParties acknowledge that the Association has a significant interest inany aspect of any of the components of the Revenue Sharing Planor its operation materially affecting either: (a) the overall industry-wide transfer of revenue among Clubs; or (b) the amounts of pay-ments made by individual Clubs and the amounts of receiptsreceived by individual Clubs. This paragraph shall not be construed

      As noted here, the revenue sharing plan also impacted the level of resources clubs had to invest in foreign scouting and talent development, a practice that was growing in widespread adoption in the early 2000s.

    8. D. Outright Assignment to Minor League club

      Again, the salary protections and playing time incentives included in free agency procedures were available only to Major League players with the required minimum service time.

    9. ARTICLE XX—Reserve System

      As noted in the 1980 CBA, the 1975 Messersmith/McNally ruling overturned Major League Baseball's reserve clause and created a clear path for certain players to negotiate as free agents. However, the MLBPA's success in negotiating for the rights of free agents also came with a reserve system that severely limited minor league players' autonomy and access to the benefits and opportunities of free agency.

    10. D. Foreign AssignmentsExcept for the return of conditional assignments from outside theUnited States and Canada, the contract of a Player shall not be assignedotherwise than within the United States and Canada, without thePlayer’s written consent

      In the 1980 CBA, a player's consent was not necessary if he was being assigned to a team in his native country. This change in the language which first appeared in the 1997 CBA offered greater stability for foreign-born players.

    11. N. Family and Medical Leave ActThe Clubs will comply with the requirements of the Family and Med-ical Leave Act (29 U.S.C. 2601 et seq.) and will allow Players to uti-lize the Bereavement, Medical Emergency and Paternity leavesprovided in Major League Rules 2(n) and (o). Medical Emergency andPaternity leaves shall run concurrently with any leave available underthe Family and Medical Leave Act.

      While this CBA reflects compliance with the 1993 federal law, the legal precedent around Major League Baseball's anti-trust exemption means professional baseball is not required to comply with other federal or state laws, regulations, or procedures.

    12. A. No DiscriminationThe Clubs will not interfere with, restrain or coerce Players because ofmembership in or lawful activity on behalf of the Association, nor willthey discriminate because of Association activity in regard to hire,tenure or employment or any term or condition of employment.The provisions of this Agreement shall be applied to all Players cov-ered by this Agreement without regard to race, color, religion, nationalorigin, sexual orientation, or any other classification protected underFederal Law

      In a notable shift from the 2003 CBA, the non-discrimination language in the CBA expanded to include sexual orientation, but still did not include gender or gender identity.

    13. ARTICLE XI—Grievance Procedure

      No grievance procedure is outlined or articulated for minor league players and teams, meaning the legal protections the MLBPA provides for major league players are not a benefit available for minor league players.

    1. Governmental Regulation-National Emergency11. This contract is subject to federal or state legislation, regulations,executive or other official orders or other governmental action, now orhereafter in effect respecting military, naval, air or other governmentalservice, which may directly or indirectly affect the Player, Club or theLeague and subject also to the right of the Commissioner to suspendthe operation of this contract during any national emergency duringwhich Major League Baseball is not played.

      However, the legal precedent around Major League Baseball's anti-trust exemption means professional baseball is not required to comply with other federal or state laws, regulations, or procedures.

    2. ATTACHMENT 24Donald M. Fehr, Esquire Executive Director and General Counsel Major League BaseballPlayers Association 12 East 49th Street New York, New York 10017Re: World-Wide Draf

      As noted earlier in this CBA, Major League Baseball and the MLBPA were paying increased attention to the growth of organized baseball outside the United States. Rather than establish a collaborative relationship with foreign leagues that would create additional opportunities for player advancement, this CBA outlines the ways MLB and the MLBPA were actively looking to control and capitalize on foreign markets.

    3. 2. The World-Wide Draft Subcommittee shall be composed ofan equal number of representatives of the Players Association andthe Office of the Commissioner, and shall include at least oneAssociate General Counsel of the Players Association and at leastone senior representative of the Labor Relations Department ofthe Office of the Commissioner

      No minor league player, club, or association representatives were to be included in this subcommittee.

    4. ATTACHMENT 18MAJOR LEAGUE BASEBALL’SJOINT DRUG PREVENTION ANDTREATMENT PROGRAMThe Major League Baseball Joint Drug Prevention and TreatmentProgram (the “Program”) is established by agreement of the Office ofthe Commissioner and the Major League Baseball Players Association(the “Commissioner’s Office,”the “Association”and, jointly, the “Par-ties”) (1) to educate Players on the Major League Clubs’40-man ros-ters (“Players”) on the risks associated with using ProhibitedSubstances (defined in Section 2 below); (2) to deter and end the useby Players of Prohibited Substances; and (3) to provide for, in keepingwith the overall purposes of the Program, an orderly, systematic, andcooperative resolution of any disputes that may arise concerning theexistence, interpretation, or application of this agreement. Except asotherwise provided herein, any dispute arising under this Program shallbe subject to resolution through the Grievance Procedures of the BasicAgreement

      Facing increased pressure to curb player performance-enhancing and recreational drug use, Major League Baseball and the MLBPA moved proactively to institute a joint treatment program. Minor League baseball adopted the program outlined in this CBA, even though no minor league club, player, or organization representatives were involved in negotiating the CBA.

    5. ARTICLE XXV—The Industry Growth Fund

      As noted earlier in this CBA, Major League Baseball and the MLBPA were paying increased attention to the growth of organized baseball outside the United States. Rather than establish a collaborative relationship with foreign leagues that would create additional opportunities for player advancement, this CBA outlines the ways MLB and the MLBPA were actively looking to control and capitalize on foreign markets.

    6. (4)Interests of the AssociationThe revenue sharing plan may have a significant impact on theindustry globally as well as on individual Clubs. Accordingly, theParties acknowledge that the Association has a significant interest inany aspect of any of the components of the revenue sharing plan orits operation materially affecting either: (a) the overall industry-wide transfer of revenue among Clubs; or (b) the amounts of pay-ments made by individual Clubs and the amounts of receiptsreceived by individual Clubs. This paragraph shall not be construedto limit the Association’s right to assert that it has other legitimateinterests in the operation of the plan.

      As noted here, the revenue sharing plan also impacted the level of resources clubs had to invest in foreign scouting and talent development, a practice that was growing in widespread adoption in the early 2000s.

    7. D. Outright Assignment to Minor League club

      Again, the salary protections and playing time incentives included in free agency procedures were available only to Major League players with the required minimum service time.

    8. ARTICLE XX—Reserve System

      As noted in the 1980 CBA, the 1975 Messersmith/McNally ruling overturned Major League Baseball's reserve clause and created a clear path for certain players to negotiate as free agents. However, the MLBPA's success in negotiating for the rights of free agents also came with a reserve system that severely limited minor league players' autonomy and access to the benefits and opportunities of free agency.

    9. D. Foreign AssignmentsExcept for the return of conditional assignments from outside the Unit-ed States and Canada, the contract of a Player shall not be assignedotherwise than within the United States and Canada, without the Play-er’s written consent.

      In the 1980 CBA, a player's consent was not necessary if he was being assigned to a team in his native country. This change in the language of the 1997 CBA offered greater stability for foreign-born players.

    10. M. Family and Medical Leave ActThe Clubs will comply with the requirements of the Family and Med-ical Leave Act (29 U.S.C. 2601 et seq.).

      While this CBA reflects compliance with the 1993 federal law, the legal precedent around Major League Baseball's anti-trust exemption means professional baseball is not required to comply with other federal or state laws, regulations, or procedures.

    11. . No DiscriminationThe Clubs will not interfere with, restrain or coerce Players because ofmembership in or lawful activity on behalf of the Association, nor willthey discriminate because of Association activity in regard to hire,tenure or employment or any term or condition of employment.The provisions of this Agreement shall be applied to all Players cov-ered by this Agreement without regard to race, color, religion ornational origin

      In a notable omission, organized baseball's CBA did not prohibit discrimination based on sex or gender, which legal precedent at this time had expanded to include gender identity and sexual orientation.

    12. ARTICLE XI—Grievance Procedure

      No grievance procedure is outlined or articulated for minor league players and teams, meaning the legal protections the MLBPA provides for major league players are not a benefit available for minor league players.

    1. D. Foreign AssignmentsExcept for the return of conditional assignments from outside the United States and Canada, the contract of a Player shall not be -assigned otherwise than within the United States and Canada, without the Player’s written consent

      In the 1980 CBA, a player's consent was not necessary if he was being assigned to a team in his native country. This change in the language of the 1997 CBA offered greater stability for foreign-born players.

    2. The Clubs and the Association will jointly request and cooperate in lobbying theCongress to pass a law that will clarify that Major League Baseball Players are covered under the antitrust laws (i.e., that Major League Players will have the same rights under the antitrust laws as do other professional athletes, e.g., football and basketball players), along with a provision that makes it clear that the passage of that bill does not change the application of the antitrust laws in any other context or with respect to any other person or entity. If such a law is not enacted by December 31, 1998 (the end of the next Congress), then this Agreement shall terminate on December 31, 2000 (unless theAssociation exercises its option to extend this Agreement as set forth in Article XXVII)

      These combined lobbying efforts resulted in the 1998 Curt Flood U.S. Congressional Act, which specified Major League Baseball's anti-trust exemption was still applicable to Major League clubs and players, in effect forcing minor league teams to also operate under that exemption while not benefiting from the legal protections and representation the MLBPA provided for Major League players.

    3. The revenue sharing plan may have a significant impact on the industry globally as well as on individual Clubs.

      As noted here, the revenue sharing plan also impacted the level of resources clubs had to invest in foreign scouting and talent development, a practice that was starting to begin in earnest during the late 1990s.

    4. D. Outright Assignment to National Association Club

      Again, the salary protections and playing time incentives included in free agency procedures were available only to Major League players with the required minimum service time.

    5. ARTICLE XXReserve System

      As noted in the 1980 CBA, the 1975 Messersmith/McNally ruling overturned Major League Baseball's reserve clause and created a clear path for certain players to negotiate as free agents. However, the MLBPA's success in negotiating for the rights of free agents also came with a reserve system that severely limited minor league players' autonomy and access to the benefits and opportunities of free agency.

    6. L. Family and Medical Leave ActThe Clubs will comply with the requirements of the Family and Medical Leave Act (29 U.S.C. 2601 et seq.)

      While this CBA reflects compliance with the 1993 federal law, the legal precedent around Major League Baseball's anti-trust exemption means professional baseball is not required to comply with other federal or state laws, regulations, or procedures.

    7. A. No DiscriminationThe Clubs will not interfere with, restrain or coerce Players because of membership in or lawful activity on behalf of the Association, nor will they discriminate because of Association activity in regard to hire, tenure or employment or any term or condition of employment.The provisions of this Agreement shall be applied to all Players covered by thisAgreement without regard to race, color, religion or national origin.

      The 1997 CBA was an early moment the MLBPA successfully advocated for standard workplace non-discrimination protections to be applied to professional baseball, a measure that supported both U.S. and foreign-born players.

    8. ARTICLE XIGrievance Procedure

      No grievance procedure is outlined or articulated for minor league players and teams, meaning the legal protections the MLBPA provides for major league players are not a benefit available for minor league players.

    1. Governmental Regulation-National Emergency 11. This contract is subject to federal or state legislation, regula-tions, executive or other official orders or other governmental action, now or hereafter in effect respecting military, naval, air or other governmental service, which may directly or indirectly affect the Player, Club or the League and subject also to the right of the Com-missioner to suspend the operation of this contract during any na-tional emergency during which Major League Baseball is not played.

      However, the legal precedent around Major League Baseball's anti-trust exemption means professional baseball is not required to comply with other federal or state laws, regulations, or procedures.

    2. ATTACHMENT 15 This will set forth the understanding of the parties regarding Article XX(A), of the Basic Agreement: With respect to a National Association Player with no existing Ma-jor League Contract, whose National Association Contract has been assigned to a Major League Club, it is understood that the placing of such a Player on the Major League Club's Active Reserve List (40-man Roster) and the tendering to such a Player of a Major League Contract without the necessity of renewing the National Association Contract will provide the Major League Club with reservation rights to such a Player. Thus, such a Player will not become a free agent under Article XX(A)(2)(d), which provides that a Player will become a free agent if his Club fails to exercise its contract renewal rights, there being no prior Major League Contract to renew.

      Although relatively minor, this attachment lays out an exception to an earlier portion of the CBA, and in effect further restricts minor league players' access to free agency. If a minor league player who is not currently under any contract is signed by a Major League club, free agency rules would not apply should the club choose not to renew his contract.

    3. Outright Assignment to National Association Club

      Again, the salary protections and playing time incentives included in free agency procedures were available only to Major League players with the required minimum service time.

    4. ARTICLE XX-Reserve System

      As noted in the 1980 CBA, the 1975 Messersmith/McNally ruling overturned Major League Baseball's reserve clause and created a clear path for certain players to negotiate as free agents. However, the MLBPA's success in negotiating for the rights of free agents also came with a reserve system that severely limited minor league players' autonomy and access to the benefits and opportunities of free agency.

    5. D. Foreign Assignments

      In the 1980 CBA, a player's consent was not necessary if he was being assigned to a team in his native country. This change in the language of the 1990 CBA offered greater stability for foreign-born players.

    6. A. No Discrimination The Clubs will not interfere with, restrain or coerce Players because of membership in or lawful activity on behalf of the Association, nor will they discriminate because of Association activity in regard to hire, tenure or employment or any term or condition of employment. The provisions of this Agreement shall be applied to all Players covered by this Agreement without regard to race, color, religion or national origin.

      The 1990 CBA was an early moment the MLBPA successfully advocated for standard workplace non-discrimination protections to be applied to professional baseball, a measure that supported both U.S. and foreign-born players.

    7. ARTICLE XI-Grievance Procedure

      No grievance procedure is outlined or articulated for minor league players and teams, meaning the legal protections the MLBPA provides for major league players are not a benefit available for minor league players.

    8. E. All-Star Game A Player who is a member of his League's All-Star team shall, in addition to being reimbursed in accordance with past practice, be reimbursed by the League for the first-class jet air fare within the continental United States and Canada to and from the site of the All-Star Game for one guest, and for hotel accommodations for a max-imum of three days for such guest.

      Since the CBA only articulates "leagues" governed by this CBA as the National League and American League, the various affiliated minor leagues (collections of minor league clubs) and their all-star games are not covered by this sub-article.

    1. Governmental Regulation -National Emergency 11. This contract is subject to federal or state legislation, regulations, executive or other official orders or other governmental action, now or hereafter in effect respecting military, naval, air or other governmental service, which may directly or indirectly affect the Player, Club or the League and subject also to the right of the Commissioner to sus-pend the operation of this contract during any national emergency during which Major League Baseball is not played.

      However, the legal precedent around Major League Baseball's anti-trust exemption means professional baseball is not required to comply with other federal or state laws, regulations, or procedures.

    2. G. Outright Assignment to National Association Club ( 1) Election of Free Agency. (a) Any Player who has at least 3 years of Major League service and whose contract is assigned outright to a National Association Club may elect, in lieu of accept-ing such assignment, to become a free agent. ( b) In the event that such Player does not elect free agency in lieu of accepting such assignment, he may eleot free agency between the end of the then current Major League season and the next following October 15, unless such Player is returned to a Major League roster prior to making such election. ( 2) A Player who becomes a free agent under this Section G shall immediately be eligible to negotiate and contract with any Club without any restrictions or qualifications. Such Player shall not be entitled to receive termination pay. Such a free agent shall receive transportation and travel expenses in the same manner as he would if he had been unconditionally released except he shall be limited to receiving travel expenses to his new club if he reports to it directly, provided such expenses are less than to his home city. ( 3) Procedure. Not earlier than 4 days0 prior to the contem-plated date of an outright assignment, the Club shall give written notice to the Player, with a copy to the Players Association, which shall advise the Player that he may either (a) accept the assign-ment or ( b) elect to become a free agent, and that in the event he accepts the assignment, he may elect free ,agency between the end of the then current Major League season iand the next following October 15, unless he is returned to a Major League roster prior to making such election. The Player shall also be informed in the notice that, within 3 days0 after the date of the notice, he must advise the Club in writing as to his decision whether to accept the assignment. If the Club fails to give written notice, as set forth herein, to the Player prior to the date of such assignment, the Player may, at any time, elect to become a free agent pursuant to this Section G, provided, however, that if the Club subsequently gives such written notice to the Player, he shall, within 3 days0 thereafter, advise the Club in writing as to his decision

      However, the salary protections and playing time incentives included in free agency procedures did not include any immediate substantive changes for minor league players who had not achieved the minimum service time to be eligible as free agents. In this sub-article, only Major League players with the required minimum service time who are assigned to a minor league team are eligible to declare as free agents.

    3. ARTICLE XVIII-Reserve System

      After arbitor Peter Seitz's ruling in the 1975 Messersmith/McNally case, Major League Baseball's reserve clause was effectively overturned. The 1980 CBA was one of the early legal documents in which the specifics of free agency were articulated and negotiated.

    4. D. Foreign Assignments The contract of a Player shall not be assigned otherwise than within the United States and Canada, without the Player's written consent, provided, however, that the Player's consent is not necessary if he is a Native of such foreign country

      Even as the MLBPA was making some early efforts to advocate on behalf of the interests of foreign-born players, that population still experienced significant precarity in their conditions of labor.

    5. The provisions of this Agreement shall be applied to all Players covered by this Agreement without regard to race, color, religion or national origin.

      The 1980 CBA was one of the first times the MLBPA had pushed for standard workplace non-discrimination protections to be applied to professional baseball, a measure that supported both U.S. and foreign-born players.

    6. ARTICLE X -Grievance Procedure

      No grievance procedure is outlined or articulated for minor league players and teams, meaning the legal protections the MLBPA provides for major league players are not a benefit available for minor league players.

    7. E. All-Star Game A Player who is a member of his League's All-Star team shall, in addi-tion to being reimbursed in accordance with past practice, be reim-bursed by the League for the first-class jet air fare within the con-tinental United States and Canada to and from the site of the All-Star Game for one guest, and for hotel accommodations for a maximum of three days for such guest.

      Since the CBA only articulates "leagues" governed by this CBA as the National League and American League, the various affiliated minor leagues (collections of minor league clubs) and their all-star games are not covered by this sub-article.

    1. 1. This contract is subject to federal or state legislation, regulations, executive or other official orders or oilier governmental action, now or hereafter in effect respecting military, naval, air or other governmental service, which may directly or indirectly affect the Player, Club or the League and subject also to the right of the Commissioner to sus-pend the operation of this contract during any national emergency during which Major League Baseball is not played.

      However, the legal precedent around Major League Baseball's anti-trust exemption means professional baseball is not required to comply with other federal or state laws, regulations, or procedures.

    2. ARTICLE XVII -Reserve System

      After arbitor Peter Seitz's ruling in the 1975 Messersmith/McNally case, Major League Baseball's reserve clause was effectively overturned. The 1976 CBA was the first legal document in which the specifics of free agency were articulated and negotiated.

    3. F. Outright Assignment to National Association Club (I) Election of Free Agency. Any Player who has at least 3 years of Major League service and whose contract is assigned out-right to a National Association Club may elect, in lieu of accepting such assignment, to become a free agent. A Player who becomes a free agent under this Section F shall immediately be eligible to negotiate and contract with any Club without any restrictions or qualifications. Such Player shall not be entitled to receive termina-tion pay. Such a free agent shall receive transportation and travel expenses in the same manner as he would if he had been uncondi-tionally released except he shall he limited to receiving travel ex-penses to his new club if he reports to it directly, provided such expenses are less than to his home city. ( 2) Procedure. Not earlier than 4 days0 prior to the contem-plated date of an outright assignment, the Club shall give written notice to the Player, with a copy to the Players Association, which shall advise the Player that he may either (a) accept the assign-ment or (b) elect to become a free agent. The Player shall also be informed in the notice that, within 3 days0 after the date of the notice, he must advise the Club in writing as to his decision. If the Club fails to give written notice, as set forth herein, to the Player prior to the date of such assignment, the Player may, at any time, elect to become a free agent pursuant to this Section F, provided, however, that if the Club subsequently gives such written notice to the Player, he shall, within 3 days°' thereafter, advise the Club in writing as to his decision.

      However, the salary protections and playing time incentives included in free agency procedures did not include any immediate substantive changes for minor league players who had not achieved the minimum service time to be eligible as free agents. In this sub-article, only Major League players with the required minimum service time who are assigned to a minor league team are eligible to declare as free agents.

    4. C. Foreign Assignments The contract of a Player shall not be assigned otherwise than within the United States and Canada, without the Player's written consent, provided, however, that the Player's consent is not necessary if he is a Native of such foreign country.

      Even as the MLBPA was making some early efforts to advocate on behalf of the interests of foreign-born players, that population still experienced significant precarity in their conditions of labor.

    5. ARTICLE X -Grievance Procedure

      No grievance procedure is outlined or articulated for minor league players and teams, meaning the legal protections the MLBPA provides for major league players are not a benefit available for minor league players.

    6. . All-Star Game

      Since the CBA only articulates "leagues" governed by this CBA as the National League and American League, the various affiliated minor leagues (collections of minor league clubs) and their all-star games are not covered by this sub-article.

    7. E. Salary Arbitration Effective with the 1976 championship season, the following salary arbitration procedure shall be applicable:

      Salary arbitration was a key victory for the MLBPA in this CBA. However, the salary protections and playing time incentives included in arbitration procedures did not include any immediate substantive changes for minor league players who had not achieved the minimum service time to be eligible for arbitration.

    8. B. Maximum Salary Reduction

      While the gains made by the MLBPA could be applied to minor league players, the lack of a formal grievance procedure for minor league players limits players' ability to advocate for or compel that interpretation of the CBA.

    1. This contract is subject to federal or state legislation, regulations, executive or other official orders or other governmental action, now or hereafter in effect respecting military, naval, air or other govern-mental service, which may directly or indirectly affect the Player, Club or the League and subject also to the right of the Commissioner to suspend the operation of this contract during any national emergency during which Major League Baseball is not played

      However, the legal precedent around Major League Baseball's anti-trust exemption means professional baseball is not required to comply with other federal or state laws, regulations, or procedures.

    2. ARTICLE XV-Reserve System

      Again, the Supreme Court's decision in MLB's favor in Flood v. Kuhn meant the MLBPA had limited power to advocate for full free agency in this contract. Minor league players continued to have only marginal control over their labor conditions and contract assignments.

    3. ARTICLE XIV-Assignment of Player Contracts

      Curt Flood's free agency case went to the U.S. Supreme Court in 1972, and the Court's decision in MLB's favor meant the MLBPA had limited power to advocate for full free agency in this contract. However, the advantages they were able to secure around contract assignment were only available to players with extensive Major League service time. Minor league players continued to have only marginal control over their labor conditions and contract assignments.

    4. ARTICLE X-Grievance Procedure

      No grievance procedure is outlined or articulated for minor league players and teams, meaning the legal protections the MLBPA provides for major league players are not a benefit available for minor league players.

    5. D. Salary Arbitration Effective with the 1974 championship season, the following salary arbitration procedure shall be applicable:

      Salary arbitration was a key victory for the MLBPA in this CBA. However, the salary protections and playing time incentives included in arbitration procedures did not include any immediate substantive changes for minor league players who had not achieved the minimum service time to be eligible for arbitration.

    6. B. Maximum Salary Reduction No Player's contract shall be renewed pursuant to, paragraph 10( a) of the Uniform Player's Contract in any year for a salary which consti-tutes a reduction in excess of 20% of his previous year's salary or in excess of 30% of his salary two years previous. C. Representation Daring Individual Salary Negotiations A Player may be accompanied, if he so desires, by a representative of his choice to assist him in negotiating his individual salary with his employing Club,

      While the gains made by the MLBPA could be applied to minor league players, the lack of a formal grievance procedure for minor league players limits players' ability to advocate for or compel that interpretation of the CBA.

    1. Regardless of any provision herein to the contrary, this Agreement does not deal with the reserve system. The parties have differing views as to the legality and as to the merits of such system as presently constituted. This Agreement shall in no way prejudice the position or legal rights of the Parties or of any Player regarding the reserve system. It is agreed that until the final and unappealable adjudication ( or voluntary discontin-uance) of Flood v. Kuhn et al., now pending in the federal district court of the Southern District of New York, neither of the Parties will resort to any form of concerted action with respect to the issue of the reserve system, and there shall be no obligation to nego-tiate with respect to the reserve system. Upon the final and unappealable adjudication (or voluntary discontinuance) of Flood v. Kuhn et al., either Party shall have the right to reopen negotiations on the issue of the reserve system as follows:

      While this CBA was being negotiated, the result of Curt Flood's legal battle for free agency rights was yet undetermined. The ultimate success of the MLBPA in securing free agency for players would radically transform the conditions of labor in Major League Baseball, while also further complicating the legal status and financial stakes of minor league baseball labor.

    2. For the purpose of providing an orderly and expeditious procedure for the handling and resolving of certain grievances and complaints, as hereinafter provided, the following shall apply as the exclusive remedy of the Parties.

      No grievance procedure is outlined or articulated for minor league players and teams, meaning the legal protections the MLBPA provides for major league players are not a benefit available for minor league players.

      The parties for a grievance procedure are constructed and articulated in a way that excludes minor league players and teams.

    3. B. Maximum Salary Reduction No Player's contract shall be renewed pursuant to paragraph lO(a) of the Uniform Player's Contract in any year for a salary which constitutes a reduction in excess of 20% of his previous year's salary or in excess of 30% of his salary two years previous. C. Representation During Individual Salary Negotiations A Player may be accompanied, if he so desires, by a representative of his choice to assist him in negotiating his individual salary with his employing Club.

      While the CBA's ambiguity for how it applies to minor league clubs and players could extend these sub-articles to apply to minor league players, the lack of a formal grievance procedure for minor league players gives players limited opportunities to that interpretation or enforcement of the CBA.

    4. The Clubs recognize the Association as the sole and exclusive collective bargaining agent for all Major League Players, and individuals who may become Major League Players dur-ing the term of this Agreement, with regard to all terms and conditions of employment except (1) individual salaries over and above the minimum requirements established by this Agreement and (2) Special Covenants to be included in individual Uniform Player's Contracts, which actually or potentially provide additional benefits to the Player.

      By creating a definition for players represented by the MLBPA that included "individuals who may become Major League Players during the term of this Agreement," the MLBPA and the CBAs it negotiated made it difficult for minor league players to argue for a distinct legal standing and the need for a union that represented their distinct interests.

    1. All disputes between the Player and the Club which are covered by the Grievance Procedure as set forth in the Agreement between the twenty Clubs and the major league baseball players, as represented by the Major League Baseball Players Association, dated February 19, 1968, shall be resolved in accordance with such Grievance Procedure, which is incorporated herein by reference

      No grievance procedure is outlined or articulated for minor league players and teams, meaning the legal protections the MLBPA provides for major league players are not a benefit available for minor league players.

      The parties for a grievance procedure as outlined in Schedule C (starts on page 18) are constructed and articulated in a way that excludes minor league players and teams.

    2. This contract is subject to federal or state legislation, regulations, executive or other official orders or other govern-mental action, now or hereafter in effect respecting military, naval, air or other governmental service, which may directly or indirectly affect the Player, Club or the League and subject also to the right of the Commissioner to suspend the operation of this contract during any national emergenc

      However, the legal precedent around Major League Baseball's anti-trust exemption means professional baseball is not required to comply with other federal or state laws, regulations, or procedures.

  8. Oct 2017
    1. While it would be stupid to deny the importance of constituencies and audiences in the construction of an intellectual argument, I think it has to be supposed that many arguments can be made to more than one audience and in different situations. Otherwise we would be dealing not with intellectual argument but either with dogma or with a technological jargon designed specifically to repel all but a small handful of initiates or coteries.

      The irony of the student's statement against Said is that by attacking him for not having the name of not including names of scholars of a specific background, the student ends up purely appealing for the interest of a specific group of individuals rather than speaking of how to make the message itself more universally accepted. Her statement of attack clearly displays how she cares more about the status of the names mentioned rather than the messages they offer which is a mentality similar to the priorities of most upper class elites in every civilization who end up creating an unnecessary divide between people of different backgrounds.

  9. Sep 2017
    1. that to secure Ourselves where we are, we must tread with awfull reverence in the footsteps of Our fathers.

      The word "secure" demonstrates a need for status and purpose. This seems interesting in reflecting on the document as a whole, which is essentially a declaration of establishment and is securing the meaning of the university. "Tread with awful reverence" prompts a reflection upon what is considered a good and valuable life in this situation. Do we need to keep this reverence in mind with all decisions that come with the progression of the school? Tana Mardian

  10. Aug 2017
    1. The real doozy that hit me was the question about handwritten note cards. I love these but did not know that possibly doing these, by hand, was a directive from the mothership. Interesting.

      I think the notecards are pretty dumb. How do you even know who wrote them?

  11. Jul 2017
  12. Jun 2017
    1. These growing feathers pluck’d from Caesar’s wing Will make him fly an ordinary pitch, Who else would soar above the view of men, And keep us all in servile fearfulness.

      Shakespeare utilises this extended metaphor to highlight the apprehensive sentiment that many higher class Romans had towards the newfound power Caesar had gained, and the upper class' incredulity of Caesar’s overwhelming support with the plebeians. In context, this scene is a dialogue between two Tribunes, Flavius and Murellus, with them fearing the ever-increasing power and arrogance of Caesar, and their concern that the blind worship of him would elevate Caesar to an untouchable god-status.

      They discuss about plucking the feathers from Caesar’s wing to make him fly an ordinary pitch, which is to tow Caesar back from the lofty status of power he has assumed. In this scene, they disrobe the lavish ornaments placed on the monuments of Caesar in an attempt to bring Caesar down to the level of an ordinary man, and in a bid to remove the perception of a deity the plebeians had towards Caesar. The uneasiness they had was that if they did not bring Caesar down, he would ‘soar above the view of men’, and would rule over the people by keeping them in a subservient status.

      It is debatable whether or not the Tribunes and Senators who were against Caesar did so in fear of him gaining too much power, or if they were against him to further their own ambitions and desires. However, this scene helps foreshadow the further conflicts that will occur, and helps define the higher classes and their viewpoints. In fact, in Act1 Scene2, it is stated that Murellus and Flavius were put to silence for defacing Caesar’s images, which helps solidify the concerns of many Romans as to whether or not Caesar’s rule would be dictatorial.

  13. Mar 2017
    1. Where does one draw the 'community lines'? How much do people need to 'care' for each other to be part of a 'community'? Who decides who is in and who is out? What are the criteria? I am getting the distinct impression that 'community' is a problematic pattern  which hides more than it reveals

      Politics power and community.

      Who is in, who is out.

  14. Feb 2017
    1. Right, well of course people don’t look up product information now because the government regulates that for them. In a real libertarian society, they would be more proactive.

      Most people don't care, or trust the big companies. I do that. I also think that the existence of some government regulation incentive companies to not sell poisoned food.

      On the other hand, there is certification, independent certification, and these are being used today and trusted by people today. It's reasonable to supposed independent certification would be much much greater in a libertarian world.

      Of course certification would not cover every field, every product and every possible problem, but neither does the State.

    2. For a boss to fire a worker is at most a minor inconvenience; for a worker to lose a job is a disaster. The Holmes-Rahe Stress Scale, a measure of the comparative stress level of different life events, puts being fired at 47 units, worse than the death of a close friend and nearly as bad as a jail term. Tellingly, “firing one of your employees” failed to make the scale.

      Because of State labor laws, stupid. They make it hard to change jobs, hard to fire workers and hence hard to hire workers. In a libertarian world this would in principle be much smoother.

    3. Once the employee is hired, the boss may ask on a moment’s notice that she work a half hour longer or else she’s fired, and she may not dare to even complain. On the other hand, if she were to so much as ask to be allowed to start work thirty minutes later to get more sleep or else she’ll quit, she might well be laughed out of the company. A boss may, and very often does, yell at an employee who has made a minor mistake, telling her how stupid and worthless she is, but rarely could an employee get away with even politely mentioning the mistake of a boss, even if it is many times as unforgivable.

      Here and after the author treats as a libertarian problem what happens today under the rule of the State labor laws.

      In a world without State labor laws, contracts would apply. Contracts could evolve and have all these situations expected in their clauses. Also, this seems to me to be a case for actually working law (which the criticism imagines as unexisting in a libertarian society): https://hypothes.is/a/PBirDvnYEeaWvjeIs4H9kg.

  15. Dec 2015
    1. If you've ever felt bad about working a very low-status job, or looked down on someone else for it, this might change your attitude.

      • It's ironic that many low-wage jobs are jobs that many people couldn't tolerate.
      • These days, one should be embarrassed to admit working for Wall Street, the NSA, or Congress.
      • Our government is full of people who should be mopping floors and wiping tables instead.
      • The military shouldn't be the only obvious opportunity for working-class kids.
  16. Sep 2015
  17. plato.stanford.edu plato.stanford.edu
    1. ontological status

      ontological status - they ways in which people define, characterize, and categorize a lived/experienced/observed phenomenon is that phenomenon's "ontology." The observed phenomena in this case are physical differences between various social groups from different geographic locations.

  18. Jul 2015
    1. he launches into an extended claim that “privileged groups” will always oppose action that threatens the status quo. They will always consider attacks on their privilege as “untimely,” especially because groups have a tendency towards allowing immorality that individuals might oppose (173).
  19. Feb 2014
    1. Interest in using the internet to slash the price of higher education is being driven in part by hope for new methods of teaching, but also by frustration with the existing system. The biggest threat those of us working in colleges and universities face isn’t video lectures or online tests. It’s the fact that we live in institutions perfectly adapted to an environment that no longer exists.
    2. Arguing that we need to keep the current system going just long enough to get the subsidy the world owes us is really just a way of preserving an arrangement that works well for elites—tenured professors, rich students, endowed institutions—but increasingly badly for everyone else.
  20. Jan 2014
    1. Less than half (45%) of the respondents are satisfied with their ability to integrate data from disparate sources to address research questions

      The most important take-away I see in this whole section on reasons for not making data electronically available is not mentioned here directly!

      Here are the raw numbers for I am satisfied with my ability to integrate data from disparate sources to address research questions:

      • 156 (12.2%) Agree Strongly
      • 419 (32.7%) Agree Somewhat
      • 363 (28.3%) Neither Agree nor Disagree
      • 275 (21.5%) Disagree Somewhat
      • 069 (05.4%) Disagree Strongly

      Of the people who are not satisfied in some way, how many of those think current data sharing mechanisms are sufficient for their needs?

      Of the ~5% of people who are strongly dissatisfied, how many of those are willing to spend time, energy, and money on new sharing mechanisms, especially ones that are not yet proven? If they are willing to do so, then what measurable result or impact will the new mechanism have over the status quo?

      Who feel that current sharing mechanisms stand in the way of publications, tenure, promotion, or being cited?

      Of those who are dissatisfied, how many have existing investment in infrastructure versus those who are new and will be investing versus those who cannot invest in old or new?

      10 years ago how would you have convinced someone they need an iPad or Android smartphone?