99 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
    1. There is a distinction between a tree as an abstract data type and as a concrete data structure, analogous to the distinction between a list and a linked list.
    2. In graph theory, a tree is a connected acyclic graph; unless stated otherwise, in graph theory trees and graphs are assumed undirected. There is no one-to-one correspondence between such trees and trees as data structure.
    1. Free software thus differs from: proprietary software, such as Microsoft Office, Google Docs, Sheets, and Slides or iWork from Apple. Users cannot study, change, and share their source code. freeware, which is a category of proprietary software that does not require payment for basic use.
  2. Jul 2020
    1. What is the difference between an acronym and an initialism?
    2. Both acronyms and initialisms are made up of the first letter or letters of the words in a phrase. The word acronym typically applies when the resulting thing can be read as a word; for example, radar comes from "radio detection and ranging" and scuba comes from "self-contained underwater breathing apparatus."
    3. The word initialism only applies when the resulting thing is read as an abbreviation; for example DIY, which comes from "do it yourself," is pronounced by saying the names of the letters.
    1. Whether or not you find the use case for JavaScript unit tests compelling, it helps to know that Webpacker does not make any distinction between your development and test environments beyond the settings in your webpacker.yml; both are local concerns that target the same runtime, i.e., the browser.
    2. RAILS_ENV determines which Webpacker YAML settings are used and NODE_ENV determines which webpack configuration is used.
    3. Unlike the webpack config, webpacker.yml settings are determined by the current RAILS_ENV.
    4. This finally brings us to the use case for NODE_ENV=test: JavaScript unit testing By this I mean executing tests, written in JavaScript, against your application JavaScript code within a Node.js process.
    1. The term "modal" is sometimes used to mean "dialog", but this is a misnomer. A modal window describes parts of a UI. An element is considered modal if it blocks interaction with the rest of the application.
  3. Jun 2020
    1. In addition, if the option, An administrator must always approve the comment, is set in Administration > Settings > Discussion, this e-mail address will receive notification that the comment is being held for moderation. Please note this is different than the address you supplied for the admin user account; the admin account e-mail address is sent an e-mail only when someone submits a comment to a post by admin.

      They're trying to make a distinction between "administrator" address and "admin" (short for administrator) account. Hmm. Maybe they should have called them different words. Anyway, this could be made less confusing.

    1. hypothes.is is an exciting project, but not a commenting system. It belongs, therefore, to a different category of software (annotation systems).
    1. In systems engineering and requirements engineering, a non-functional requirement (NFR) is a requirement that specifies criteria that can be used to judge the operation of a system, rather than specific behaviors. They are contrasted with functional requirements that define specific behavior or functions

      This is a strange term because one might read "non-functional" and interpret in the sense of the word that means "does not function", when instead the intended sense is "not related to function". Seems like a somewhat unfortunate name for this concept. A less ambiguous term could have been picked instead, but I don't know what that would be.

    1. Sometimes, the line between 'bug' and 'feature' is a hard one to draw. Generally, a feature is anything that adds new behavior, while a bug is anything that causes incorrect behavior. Sometimes, the core team will have to make a judgment call.
  4. May 2020
    1. more developers are becoming DevOps skilled and distinctions between being a software developer or hardware engineer are blurring
    1. In a basic configuration, GitLab runs a pipeline each time changes are pushed to a branch. If you want the pipeline to run jobs only when merge requests are created or updated, you can use pipelines for merge requests.
    1. In progressive enhancement (PE) the strategy is deliberately reversed: a basic markup document is created, geared towards the lowest common denominator of browser software functionality, and then the designer adds in functionality or enhancements to the presentation and behavior of the page, using modern technologies such as Cascading Style Sheets, Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG), or JavaScript.
    1. In 1970 Michener et al. defined "systematic biology" and "taxonomy" (terms that are often confused and used interchangeably) in relationship to one another as follows:
    1. Services generally fall into two categories: Services related to your own data collection activities (eg. contact forms)Services related to third-party data collection activities (eg. Google Analytics)
    1. The main difference between a decoupled CMS and a headless CMS is that the decoupled architecture is active—it prepares content for presentation and then pushes into the delivery environment—whereas a headless CMS is reactive—it sits idly until a request is sent for content.
    2. There is some confusion around what makes a headless CMS truly “headless”, as vendors use the term somewhat loosely to label their decoupled or hybrid CMS systems. But a true headless CMS is one that was built from the ground up to be API-first, not a full monolith CMS with APIs attached afterwards.
    1. sorry but it's not what I asked for. Hiding recaptcha when user didn't agree on cookies is something that everyone knows that they can do. Many 3rd parties has some magic parameter which blocks the cookie, but doesn't block the functionality of the element, and I'm looking for something like that
    1. In the context of first-order logic, a distinction is maintained between logical validities, sentences that are true in every model, and tautologies, which are a proper subset of the first-order logical validities. In the context of propositional logic, these two terms coincide.

      A distinction is made between the kind of logic (first-order logic) where this other distinction exists and propositional logic, where the distinction doesn't exist (the two terms coincide in that context).

    2. In the context of first-order logic, a distinction is maintained between logical validities, sentences that are true in every model, and tautologies, which are a proper subset of the first-order logical validities.
    1. It may be the case that several sufficient conditions, when taken together, constitute a single necessary condition (i.e., individually sufficient and jointly necessary)
    2. being a male is a necessary condition for being a brother, but it is not sufficient—while being a male sibling is a necessary and sufficient condition for being a brother
    1. It’s worth saying though that while the law may give you up to 30 days to honor these requests, most subscribers won’t. It is therefore prudent to honor opt-out requests promptly or risk being marked as spam and compromising the total legitimacy of your associated address.
    1. Though not always legally required, terms & conditions (also called ToS – terms of service, terms of use, or EULA – end user license agreement) are pragmatically required
    1. So what’s the difference between returning a product on the grounds of withdrawal and returning it on the grounds of a guarantee?
    2. EU consumer law applies to contracts or other legal relationships between consumers (on one side) and professionals, businesses, companies on the other (B2C). It does not apply to B2B (e.g. a supermarket places an order with its fruit supplier) or C2C relationships (e.g. I sell my old bike over eBay).
    3. A real-world example of this would be an e-commerce site that allows users to “hold” items in their cart while they’re using the site or for the duration of a session. In this scenario, the technical cookies are both necessary for the functioning of the purchasing service and are explicitly requested by the user when they indicate that they would like to add the item to the cart. Do note, however, that these session-based technical cookies are not tracking cookies.

      I'm not sure I agree with this:

      [the technical cookies] are explicitly requested by the user when they indicate that they would like to add the item to the cart.

      The only thing they requested was that the item be held in a cart for them. They didn't explicitly request that cookies be used to store information about items in the cart. They most likely don't understand all of the options for how to store data like this, and certainly wouldn't know or expect specifically that cookies be used for this.

      In fact, localStorage could be used instead. If it's a single-page app, then even that would be necessary; it could all be kept in page-local variables until they checked out (all on the same page); such that reloading the page would cause the cart data held in those variables to be lost.

    4. The question is: do you have to treat the consent to the use of cookies the same way as the “regular” consent to specific data processing activities e.g. sending out newsletters?
    1. This right only applies to personal data and as such does not apply to genuinely anonymous data (data that can’t be linked back to the individual).
    1. But whereas pseudonymisation allows anyone with access to the data to view part of the data set, encryption allows only approved users to access the full data set.
    1. However, please note the following: it will depend on how those subdomains are defined. Are they just subsections of a project that belongs together like help.example.com or blog.example.com (and many other possible arrangements that are part of one and the same setup)? In such a case, using the same policy is appropriate. Problems arise when completely different projects which have little to do with one another and whose data collection practices also differ so significantly that they require different privacy policies.
  5. Apr 2020
    1. Additionally, the information should be clearly differentiated from other non-privacy-related information, such as contractual provisions or general terms of use.
    1. Every arborescence is a directed acyclic graph (DAG), but not every DAG is an arborescence.
    1. Running the same code in the browser and on the server in order to avoid code duplication is a very different problem. It is simply a matter of good development practices to avoid code duplication. This however is not limited to isomorphic applications. A utility library such as Lodash is “universal”, but has nothing to do with isomorphism. Sharing code between environments does not give you an isomorphic application. What we’re referring to with Universal JavaScript is simply the fact that it is JavaScript code which is environment agnostic. It can run anywhere. In fact most JavaScript code will run fine on any JavaScript platform.
    2. Isomorphism itself is not purely a JavaScript thing. You can also build an isomorphic application in Dart or even use two different languages/stacks to render the same result. In fact there are many “isomorphic” applications which render a full HTML document on the server using PHP, Java or Ruby and use JavaScript and AJAX to create a rich user experience in the browser. This was the way things were done before the rise of Single Page Applications. The only real reason isomorphism is tied to JavaScript is because it’s the only language widely supported in the browser, and so at least part of the whole thing will use JavaScript. There’s no such thing as Isomorphic JavaScript, only isomorphic applications.
    3. Having the server render the HTML on first page load is the functional part, the thing that provides for a better user experience. The technical part is where we use the same code in both environments, which no user ever asked for, but makes a developer’s life easier (at least in theory).
    1. Maybe we should distinguish between: The technique of asssembling pages on either client or server. Here, “isomorphic” and “full stack” (as proposed by Rodrigo Medeiros) seem good choices. JavaScript that runs in all (or most) JavaScript environments, especially browsers and Node.js. Here, “universal” seems a good choice.
    1. In math, idempotence describes only unary functions that you can call on their own output. Math-idempotence is, “If you take the absolute value of a number, and then you take the absolute value of that, the result doesn’t change on the second (or subsequent) operations.” Math.abs is math-idempotent. Math-idempotence only applies to functions of one parameter where the parameter type and return type are the same. Not so useful in programming.
    2. Programming-idempotence is about side effects. It’s about stuff that happens to the outside world when you call a function. Idempotence says “If you’ve called me once, it doesn’t matter whether you called me again.”
    1. 1- Validation: you “validate”, ie deem valid or invalid, data at input time. For instance if asked for a zipcode user enters “zzz43”, that’s invalid. At this point, you can reject or… sanitize. 2- sanitization: you make data “sane” before storing it. For instance if you want a zipcode, you can remove any character that’s not [0-9] 3- escaping: at output time, you ensure data printed will never corrupt display and/or be used in an evil way (escaping HTML etc…)
    1. What Is Input Validation and Sanitization? Validation checks if the input meets a set of criteria (such as a string contains no standalone single quotation marks). Sanitization modifies the input to ensure that it is valid (such as doubling single quotes).
    1. There is a fundamental difference between these two kinds of content: the user comments are stored in our databases, which means their Markdown syntax can be normalized (e.g. by adding or removing whitespace, fixing the indentation, or inserting missing Markdown specifiers until they render properly). The Markdown documents stored in Git repositories, however, cannot be touched at all, as their contents are hashed as part of Git’s storage model.
    1. I believe it's still useful to differentiate between hackers and security crackers
    2. When two different phenomena acquire the same label, as in the case of hackers in the classic sense on one hand and malicious security crackers on the other, either something has to give or discussion is bound to suffer from confusion that could easily have been avoided.
    3. Maintaining distinct terms for distinct phenomena is an important aspect of communication
    4. Many hackers and security crackers turn their talents toward professional ends, of course, and some security crackers got where they are only through professional advancement, but one definitely need not have a professional interest to pursue the path of either a hacker or a security cracker.
    1. Therefore, when there is no market there can never be a monopoly because you cannot be in exclusive control of a non-existent market, and you cannot manipulate prices when no one is willing to buy what you are offering.
    1. data liberation is best provided through APIs, and data portability is best provided by building code using those APIs to perform cloud-to-cloud migration
    1. Some separate aesthetics and philosophy of art, claiming that the former is the study of beauty and taste while the latter is the study of art proper, in the form of materialized works of artists
  6. Mar 2020
    1. Piwik PRO is an independent organization. We diverged from our open source cousins, focusing on serving larger organizations with a multifaceted analytics and marketing suite distinct from our roots in straightforward analytics.
    1. A single consent form is useful when consent is requested for a single purpose. Here: analytics

      This seems like an important distinction:  Probably (?) you can only use a simple Agree/Disagree consent request if you only have a single purpose/category that you are obtaining consent for.

      As soon as your site has multiple categories to need consent, then you must allow individual consent/refusal of consent for each individual category/purpose.

      This is alluded to just a little bit further on:

      Consent should also be granular; users must be allowed to selectively decide what types of tracking, analytics and other activities their data can be used for.

    1. Are cookies governed by the GDPR? Cookie usage and it’s related consent acquisition are not governed by the GDPR, they are instead governed by the ePrivacy Directive (Cookie Law) which in future will be repealed by the up-coming ePrivacy Regulation.
    1. Robots are currently suffering extreme discrimination due to a few false assumptions, mainly that they’re distinctly separate actors from humans. My point of view is that robots and humans often need to behave in the same way, so it’s a fruitless and pointless endeavour to try distinguishing them.
    2. As technology improves, humans keep integrating these extra abilities into our cyborg selves
  7. Jan 2020
    1. Ever since Plato, there have been people who worried about whether we can gain access to Reality, or whether the finitude of our cognitive faculties makes such access impossible.

      The question!

    2. We would express our sense of finitude not by comparing our humanity with something nonhuman but by comparing our way of being human with other, better ways that may someday be adopted by our descendants.

      How does getting rid of the Reality-Appearance distinction help us do this?

  8. Dec 2019
  9. Nov 2019
    1. If you used browser JS DOM APIs (that have nothing to do with React itself), you know they don’t automatically update attributes
    2. In the case above, :checked is a reasonable thing to search for, but [checked] is not.
  10. Jul 2019
    1. PMI® describes three types of PMOs that each have varying degrees of control and influence over the project. These include
    2. For the PMP® exam, it is important that you can compare and contrast projects and operations. Here are the common characteristics held by projects:

      distinguish projects and operations -

    3. It is different from iterative development because it does not focus on a single release of the product, service or result and it typically makes use a complete team instead of one broken by functional areas.

      distinction from Iterative styles

    4. PMI® describes life cycles as generally either being adaptive or predictive. In the simplest terms, these two concepts represent constantly evolving planning where the project is broken into small components over a less determined timeline versus project planning that is done in a linear fashion with a specific development plan structured specific scope, schedule and cost estimates.

      Key distinction - adaptive vs. predictive

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  11. Dec 2018
    1. il n'est pas possible d'identifier plusieurs niveaux d'énonciation

      Attention, là je crois que tu t'avances trop! Tu dis à la fin du paragraphe: "Selon la théorie de l'éditorialisation il y a des dynamiques scripturales qui font émerger des organisations spatiales desquelles émergent ensuite des éléments qu'on peut hypostasier en auteur, éditeur, support, architexte etc." et je suis d'accord avec cette phrase, qui est un peu le noyau de la méta-ontologie. Mais si les énonciateurs, l'énonciation, voire les dispositifs collectifs d'énonciation émergent, alors ils existent. Mais s'ils existent, pourquoi interdire l'identification de niveaux? Pourquoi appauvrir a priori la description, l'analyse...?

  12. Nov 2016
    1. "There is not a writer in our classrooms today who will not be producing something with a digital writing tool in her or his lifetime."

      Almost all of the tools that I think most folks put in the digital writing camp are binary doppelgangers of their analogues. For example, Power point as used is mostly a flip chart with more bells and whistles. Note taking apps are 3X5 cards with a digital twist. Even hypothes.is is just marginalia with a social bent. So what I propose is that what we teach is how to apply ANY tool to the task at hand. What that means is that we need worthwhile work for our students and we need to do that work using the tools at hand. And by 'tools' I mean digital, analog, and any other that can be pressed into the larger service of gather, making sense of and sharing the problems and questions and solutions and stories of the world.

  13. Feb 2014
    1. nctions A. A case brief is a dissection of a judici al opinion -- it contains a written summary of the basic components of that decision. B. Persuasive briefs (trial and appella te) are the formal documents a lawyer files with a court in support of his or her client’s position

      Distinctions

    1. I t i s t h i s b e d r o c k p r i n c i p l e o f c o p y r i g h t t h a t m a n d a t e s t h e l a w ' s s e e m i n g l y d i s p a r a t e t r e a t m e n t o f f a c t s a n d f a c t u a l c o m p i l a t i o n s . " N o o n e m a y c l a i m o r i g i n a l i t y a s t o f a c t s . " I d . , § 2 . 1 1 [ A ] , p . 2 - 1 5 7 . T h i s i s b e c a u s e f a c t s d o n o t o w e t h e i r o r i g i n t o a n a c t o f a u t h o r s h i p . T h e d i s t i n c t i o n i s o n e b e t w e e n c r e a t i o n a n d d i s c o v e r y : T h e f i r s t p e r s o n t o f i n d a n d r e p o r t a p a r t i c u l a r f a c t h a s n o t c r e a t e d t h e f a c t ; h e o r s h e h a s m e r e l y d i s c o v e r e d i t s e x i s t e n c e . T o b o r r o w f r o m B u r r o w - G i l e s , o n e w h o d i s c o v e r s a f a c t i s n o t i t s " m a k e r " o r " o r i g i n a t o r . " 1 1 1 U . S . , a t 5 8 . " T h e d i s c o v e r e r m e r e l y f i n d s a n d r e c o r d s . " N i m m e r § 2 . 0 3 [ E ] .

      No one may claim originality to facts because facts do not owe their origin to an act of authorship. The distinction is one between creation vs discovery.

  14. Nov 2013
    1. What men avoid by excluding the liar is not so much being defrauded as it is being harmed by means of fraud. Thus, even at this stage, what they hate is basically not deception itself, but rather the unpleasant, hated consequences of certain sorts of deception.

      Critical distinction regarding the process of "selection"; from his central thesis.

  15. Sep 2013
    1. Of the modes of persuasion some belong strictly to the art of rhetoric and some do not.

      unlike, say, a paintings, which could be said to persuade, do not belong to the art of rhetoric?

    2. But rhetoric we look upon as the power of observing the means of persuasion on almost any subject presented to us; and that is why we say that, in its technical character, it is not concerned with any special or definite class of subjects.

      further defined

    3. Rhetoric may be defined as the faculty of observing in any given case the available means of persuasion. This is not a function of any other art.

      definition and distinction

    1. The argumentative modes of persuasion are the essence of the art of rhetoric: appeals to the emotions warp the judgement.

      Distinguishing legitimate rhetoric from and deceptive.

    1. Then why, if you call rhetoric the art which treats of discourse, and all the other arts treat of discourse, do you not call them arts of rhetoric?

      it is a fine distinction to classify art and other forms of expression as "arts of rhetoric". "A picture paints a thousand words"

    2. Then rhetoric does not treat of all kinds of discourse?

      defining and distinguishing rhetoric and dialogue

    3. a maker of rhetoricians

      wouldn't that make him a sophist?