398 Matching Annotations
  1. Jan 2023
    1. Collaborates with apercentage teachers

      A percentage of teachers?

    1. Nice try, but it's still full of exceptions. To make the above jingle accurate, it'd need to be something like: I before e, except after c Or when sounded as 'a' as in 'neighbor' and 'weigh' Unless the 'c' is part of a 'sh' sound as in 'glacier' Or it appears in comparatives and superlatives like 'fancier' And also except when the vowels are sounded as 'e' as in 'seize' Or 'i' as in 'height' Or also in '-ing' inflections ending in '-e' as in 'cueing' Or in compound words as in 'albeit' Or occasionally in technical words with strong etymological links to their parent languages as in 'cuneiform' Or in other numerous and random exceptions such as 'science', 'forfeit', and 'weird'.
  2. Dec 2022
  3. Nov 2022
  4. Oct 2022
    1. grammar Parser { rule TOP { I <love> <lang> } token love { '♥' | love } token lang { < Raku Perl Rust Go Python Ruby > } } say Parser.parse: 'I ♥ Raku'; # OUTPUT: 「I ♥ Raku」 love => 「♥」 lang => 「Raku」 say Parser.parse: 'I love Perl'; # OUTPUT: 「I love Perl」 love => 「love」 lang => 「Perl」
    2. Definable grammars for pattern matching and generalized string processing

      annotation meta: may need new tag: "definable __"?

    1. Rhetoric should be taken at aboutfourteen, the first category of pupil should study Grammar from about nineto eleven, and Dialectic from twelve to fourteen;



    1. Machines understand languages, that are formal and rigid, with unique and unambiguous instructions that are interpreted in precisely one way. Those formal, abstract languages, and programming languages in general, are hard to understand for humans like ourselves. Primarily, they are tailored towards the requirements of the machine. The user is therefore forced to adapt to the complexity of the formal language.


    2. Instead of forcing humans to understand the complex inner workings of machines, we should construct machines in a way, so they better understand us humans!


  5. Sep 2022
  6. Aug 2022
    1. The most challenging theoretical problem in linguistics is that of discoveringthe principles of universal grammar that interweave with the rules of particulargrammars to provide explanations for phenomena that appear arbitrary andchaotic.
    2. I use the asterisk in the conventional way, to indicate a sentence that deviates in some respectfrom grammatical rule.
    3. In practice, the linguist is always involved in the study of both universal andparticular grammar.
    4. The death-knell of philosophical grammar was soundedwith the remarkable successes of comparative Indo-European studies, whichsurely rank among the outstanding achievements of nineteenth-century science.
    5. such major figures of renaissancegrammar as the Spanish scholar Sanctius. Sanctius, in particular, had developeda theory of ellipsis that had great influence on philosophical grammar.
    6. It seems that one of the innovations of the Port-RoyalGrammar of 1660 – the work that initiated the tradition of philosophical gram-mar – was its recognition of the importance of the notion of the phrase as agrammatical unit.
    7. the Port-RoyalGrammar and Logic,
    8. Leonard Bloom-field gives an account of philosophical grammar in his major work, Language,
  7. Jul 2022
    1. there has been a tendency in popular discussion to confuse “deep structure”with “generative grammar” or with “universal grammar.” And a number of pro-fessional linguists have repeatedly confused what I refer to here as “the creativeaspect of language use” with the recursive property of generative grammars, avery different matter.

      Noam Chomsky felt that there was a tendency for people to confuse the ideas of deep structure with the ideas of either generative grammar or universal grammar. He also thought that professional linguists confused what he called "the creative aspect of language use" with the recursive property of generative grammars.

  8. May 2022
  9. Apr 2022
    1. In most cases, you need not use a comma before too at the end of a sentence or commas around it midsentence:


  10. Mar 2022
    1. Capitalization conveys a certain distinction, the elevated position of humans and their creations in the hierarchy of beings. Biologists have widely adopted the convention of not capital-izing the common names of plants and animals unless they include the name of a human being or an official place name. Thus, the first blossoms of the spring woods are written as bloodroot and the pink star of a California woodland is Kellogg’s tiger lily. This seemingly trivial grammatical rulemaking in fact expresses deeply held assump-tions about human exceptionalism, that we are somehow different and indeed better than the other species who surround us. Indigenous ways of understanding recognize the personhood of all beings as equally important, not in a hierarchy but a circle.

      Rules for capitalization in English give humans elevated hierarchical positions over animals, plants, insects, and other living things. We should revise this thinking and capitalize words like Maple, Heron, and Mosquito when we talking of beings and only use only use the lower case when referring to broad categories or concepts like maples, herons, and humans.

  11. Feb 2022
    1. ut

      purpose clause

    2. eo minus

      adverbial - "that much less", "because of that...less"

    3. pluris esse a Syracusanis istius adventu deos quam victoria Marcelli homines desideratos

      pluris...quam sets up a comparison between deos and homines desideratos

    4. habetote

      2nd person plural imperative - "think of it this way," "understand the situation this way"

    5. esto

      archaic imperative - "let it be so," "granted"

    6. honestius

      comparative neuter singular adjective: "a more respectable thing"

    7. dictu

      supine form - "unbelievable to say/in saying"

    8. ornamento urbi

      double dative - ornamento is a dative of purpose, urbi a dative of advantage

    9. victoriae
    10. periculi nihil

      periculi is a partitive genitive with nihil: no amount of danger

  12. Jan 2022
    1. qui

      adverbial - =quo or quomodo

    2. plurimum valet

      internal accusative - plurimum "the most", "to the greatest degree"

    3. tam servi illi dominorum quam tu libidinum

      tam...quam are correlatives, "as...as" (comparing dominorum with libidinum)

    4. Venit enim mihi fani, loci, religionis illius in mentem

      venit in mentem + gen

      With gen. (so mostly in Cic.): non minus saepe ei venit in mentem potestatis, quam aequitatis tuae, he bethought himself of, Cic. Quint. 2, 6: tibi tuarum virtutum veniat in mentem, id. de Or. 2, 61, 249: venit mihi Platonis in mentem, id. Fin. 5, 1, 2: solet mihi in mentem venire illius temporis, id. Fam. 7, 3, 1.—

    5. ad muliebrem vestem conficiendam

      gerundive expressing purpose - muliebrem vestem is the object

    6. infitiandi

      gerund, active in voice infitior, ari - to deny

    7. classe quondam Masinissae regis ad eum locum adpulsa

      ablative absolute

    8. quo

      antecedent is Eo [loco]

    9. in iis praesertim sacris polluendis

      polluendis is a gerund-replacing gerundive which takes iis sacris as its object, it's active in voice

    10. sacrari spoliandi

      spoliandi is a gerund-replacing gerundive, so it's active in meaning and takes sacrari as its object

    11. ad spoliandum fanum

      passive periphrastic (like Carthago delenda est)

    12. ne ornandi quidem causa

      ne...quidem: even ornandi is a gerund (active verbal noun) causa takes a genitive before it: "for the sake of ___"

    13. auxilio

      double dative with tibi - tibi is the dative of advantage, auxilio the dative of purpose

    14. quanti

      genitive of value/price

    15. faciendum est? num argumentis utendum in re eius modi? Quaerendum

      faciendum, utendum, and quaerendum are all passive periphrastic uses of the gerundive (like "Carthago delenda est")

    16. quod ubique erit pulcherrimum auferet

      note the tense

    17. Facilius enim perspicietur qualis apud eos fueris qui te oderunt, qui accusant, qui persequuntur, cum apud tuos Mamertinos inveniare improbissima ratione esse praedatus.

      Facilius enim perspicietur

      • qualis apud eos fueris
      • __qui te oderunt, qui accusant, qui persequuntur,
      • __cum [apud tuos Mamertinos] inveniare improbissima ratione esse praedatus.

      <br><br> inveniare is a second person singular passive subjunctive form.

    1. For centuries the standard work on Latin grammar was the 12th- century Doctrinale, by Alexander of Villedieu, in 2,000 lines of doggerel. Versified rules were easier to remember, though their crudity appalled Aldus Manutius when he reprinted this work in 1501.

      Alexander de Villedieu's Latin grammer Doctrinale from the 12th century was the standard work on the subject. Its 2,000 lines of doggerel were used as a mnemonic device because they were easier to remember. Famed publisher Aldus Manutius was appalled at their crude nature when he reprinted the book in 1501.

    1. 在寫論文時才會發現自己有很多容易忽略的小錯誤,例如單複數、主謂一致等,明白自己在語句結構上有許多需要加強的地方。



  13. Dec 2021
    1. sigilla perparvula

      diminutives of signum and parvus

    2. Horam

      accusative of extent of time

    3. convulsis repagulis ecfractisque valvis

      ablative absolute<br> convulsus - shaken, torn apart<br> repagula, -ae - bolt<br> valva, -ae - door

    4. duce Timarchide

      ablative absolute

    5. attritius

      comparative neuter singular adjective - "more" or "rather" attritum

    6. non tam multum in istis rebus intellego quam multa vidi

      tam and quam are correlatives: "as as_"

    7. deportatum

      i.e., publicae litterae sunt in quas dicitur...

    8. commodaturum

      commodo, -are - to lend future active participle (esse implied makes it a future infinitive)

    9. conarere

      2nd person singular deponent imperfect subjunctive

    10. praesidi nihil esse

      praesidi is a partitive genitive here - "nothing of/no amount of praesidium" = no praesidium

    11. utrum

      introduces an either/or question (an is or)

    12. Quo cruciatu sit adfectus

      indirect question

    13. cum domi nobilem tum summo magistratu praeditum

      cum - tum are correlatives, "not only - but also"

    14. minatur


    15. Carthagine capta

      ablative absolute

    16. ut urbi quoque esset ornamento

      result clause containing a double dative - urbi (dative of advantage) and ornamento (dative of purpose)

    17. potius incipiam quam

      potius is a comparative adverb ("rather") with quam ("than")

    18. quo pacto distinguere ac separare possim

      indirect question

    19. caederet

      potential subjunctive

    20. fore

      = futurum esse

    21. Quod cum illis qui aderant indignum, qui audiebant incredibile videretur

      i.e. "quod indignum videretur illis

      • qui aderant, [et illis]
      • qui audiebant <br>incredibile videretur...
    22. defensor

      defensor [postulat]

    23. ne sit

      jussive subjunctive

    24. desinat queri

      desinat = jussive subjunctive queri = deponent infinitive

    25. iudici

      iudex, iudicis

    26. plurimum posse

      internal accusative - "can do the most" or "has the most power"

    27. arbitrabere

      second person future passive/deponent

    28. Carthagine deleta

      ablative absolute

    29. recuperarint

      =recuperaverint (perfect subjunctive)

    30. demoliendum et asportandum nomenque omnino P. Scipionis delendum tollendumque

      future passive participles, i.e. gerundives in a passive periphrastic (think "Carthago delenda est")

    31. patieris

      future deponent patior, pati, pativi, passus: to allow

    32. relinques aut deseres

      future indicative

    33. tuebitur

      deponent tueor, tueri: to keep safe, protect

    1. Form the possessive singular of nouns with 's.   Follow this rule whatever the final consonant. Thus write,   Charles's friend Burns's poems the witch's malice

      Possessive singular ends with 's, excerpt for ancient possessive proper names in -es and -is, Jesus', and "such forms as"(*?) righteousness' and consciousness'. Another is "Achilles' heel" (for the sake of equation let's use R' for Achilles'(/possessor noun) and D for heel(/possessed noun)). Typically "R' D" is replaced by "D of R" i.e. the heel of Achilles, for the sake of consciousness, etc.

      *Presumably a noun, not necessarily abstract though perhaps, ending with a "s" sound.

    2. This is the usage of the United States Government Printing Office and of the Oxford University Press.   Exceptions are the possessives of ancient proper names in -es and -is, the possessive Jesus', and such forms as for conscience' sake, for righteousness' sake. But such forms as Achilles' heel, Moses' laws, Isis' temple are commonly replaced by   the heel of Achilles the laws of Moses the temple of Isis  The pronominal possessives hers, its, theirs, yours, and oneself have no apostrophe.

      The pronominal possessives hers, yours, theirs, its, and oneself have no apostrophe.

  14. Nov 2021
    1. penditote.

      an archaic form of the second person imperative of pendo, pendere

    1. In one particularly ingenious entry, she explains the demise of the full stop (or, in American English, the “period”). If you have ever wondered why putting such once-crucial punctation in emails, phone messages or tweets now feels so awkward, here is the answer: “The period can feel so emphatic as to sound sarcastic, the internet’s version of ‘puh-leeze’ and ‘no, thank you’ and ‘srsly’ rolled into one tiny dot.” It can easily come across as passive-aggressive. Exclamation marks, moreover, “now convey warmth and sincerity”; failing to use them runs the risk of making the person you are messaging feel uncertain and anxious.
  15. Oct 2021
    1. with low

      with a low

    2. &


    3. NFT’s

      NFTs. Apostrophe is used to denote ownership and not necessary here

    4. Lets


    5. left over

      I'd prefer using 'leftover' instead if using before the word tickets

    6. &


    7. Lets

      should be let's. see above

    8. ChainMyth

      for consistency, should stick with 'Chain Myth' (keep the space)

    9. &

      and instead of &

    10. Lets

      I would use Let's

      Let's = let us Lets = to allow

    11. ‘Chain Myth’

      no need for the quotation marks

    12. carryout

      would suggest 'carry out' instead

    13. royalties

      I would add a comma after royalties

    14. &

      for consistency we should use 'and' instead of &

  16. Sep 2021
    1. In 2014, the Usage Panel overwhelmingly preferred the traditional pronunciation for asterisk, although 24 percent found the asterix pronunciation acceptable and 19 percent found asterick acceptable. A mere 7 percent personally preferred the asterix pronunciation, and only 6 percent preferred the asterick one.
    1. Let's look at a concrete example before going deeper. Consider someone who calls himself Cookie Monster. Saying that he is a cookie monster conveys the idea that there is a group of entities that are each called cookie monster, and he is one of them. Saying that he is the cookie monster conveys either that the 'group' of entities really has only one member (him), or that he is the most outstanding member of the group. In each case, the focus is on some kind of classification scheme. Saying that he is cookie monster says something about him personally - he really enjoys cookies, eat them messily, etc.
    2. In the first example, Doctor is being used as the name of the person; the doctor is more of a descriptive phrase. It's short for Doctor <his name>. tend bar is a set phrase, it's a synonym for being a bartender. It's also similar to the way other people describe their work: a mailman could say I deliver mail, a programmer would say I write code, a garbageman would say I collect garbage, and a composer would say I write music. These are all using the noun to refer to the general concept, rather than any specific item, so no article is needed. You would add an article when you need to be specific, e.g. I write the music in TV commercials. ShareShare a link to this answer (Includes your user id)Copy linkCC BY-SA 3.0 Edit Follow Follow this answer to receive notifications answered Apr 15 '15 at 21:18 BarmarBarmar 15.2k11 gold badge2525 silver badges4242 bronze badges 13 3 Your examples suggest bar is a mass noun, but I don't believe it functions as such— the entire phrase refers to an activity. It's more like saying I play ball than I write music. – choster Apr 15 '15 at 21:25 @choster There are varying degrees of cohesiveness in these verb + noun strings. They're very hard to categorise accurately. – Edwin Ashworth Jan 20 '18 at 0:40 @EdwinAshworth True. My last example would be perfectly fine if it were I write music in TV commercials and a mailman could say I deliver the mail. – Barmar Jan 20 '18 at 0:42 And we've had the 'He's in hospital / *'He's in infirmary' / 'He's in theatre' / *'He's in ward' kerfuffle. – Edwin Ashworth Jan 20 '18 at 0:57 @EdwinAshworth Those are also AmEn vs BrEn differences. We don't say "in hospital" here in America. – Barmar Jan 20 '18 at 1:00
  17. Aug 2021
  18. Jul 2021
    1. En dashes, which are about the width of an upper-case N, are often mistaken for hyphens. But, traditionally, en dashes function as a kind of super hyphen. They’re meant to give you a little extra glue when you have a compound modifier that includes a multi-word element that can’t easily be hyphenated. For example, the phrase Elvis Presley–style dance moves uses an en dash because Elvis-Presley-style dance moves is awkward; “Elvis Presley” isn’t a compound modifier, so hyphenating it looks odd. But, keep in mind, not all readers will notice en dashes or understand what they mean. Sometimes, it’s better to simply reword the phrase. Elvis Presley–style dance moves or: dance moves like Elvis Presley’s pre–World War II buildings or: buildings constructed before World War II En dashes are also used to show ranges of numbers, such as times, page numbers, or scores (I’ll schedule you from 4:30–5:00). But, outside of formal printed publications, this type of en dash is commonly replaced with a simple hyphen.
  19. Apr 2021
    1. Sentence joining with Coach and his assistant Coach

      Sentence variety lessons

  20. Mar 2021

      Xále (boy) bi (the) Wolof (wolof). The boy is Wolof.

      Jigéen (woman) ji (the) déf (be) féébar (sick). The woman is sick.

      Xále (noun) bi (article) Wolof (noun). The boy is Wolof.

      Jigéen (noun) ji (article) déf (verb) féébar (adjective). The woman is sick.

      Xále bi (subject) Wolof (object). The boy is Wolof.

      Jigéen ji (subject) déf (verb) féébar (object). The woman is sick.

  21. Feb 2021
    1. A good trick to remember on to vs. onto is to mentally say “up” before on in a sentence. If it still makes sense, then onto is probably the correct choice.
    1. In that film, he replaced Kevin Spacey in the role of J. Paul Getty after Spacey had an #MeToo downfall.

      apparently the # predicates the use of an instead of a? I'll have to look this up in some style guides. It sounds awkward to say.

  22. Dec 2020
    1. Include articles, such as the. Articles help readers and translation software identify the nouns and modifiers in a sentence. Examples Empty the container. The empty container
  23. Nov 2020
    1. Keep sentences small. They’re easier to work with that way.If something doesn’t feel right, there’s a problem with one or more of your sentences. Listen to that feeling. Try to pinpoint exactly which word or phrase is triggering it. Naming exactly what’s wrong, in grammatical terminology or otherwise, will come later.Understanding a word’s etymology will teach you how to use it. Words contain imprints of their histories.The subject of a sentence should appear as close to the beginning of a sentence as possible.You don’t have to “grab” anyone with the first line of your story. Just write a simple sentence that says what you want it to say. It’s harder than it sounds! And also very effective, if done well.“A writer’s real work is the endless winnowing of sentences, the relentless exploration of possibilities, the effort, over and over again, to see in what you started out to say the possibility of saying something you didn’t know you could.”Noun phrases (“the realization that…”) almost always sound clunky and dead. Try rewriting them as verb phrases (“realizing that…”).Prepositions are difficult to get right, even for native English speakers.A reader’s experience has nothing to do with a writer’s. A sentence that reads “naturally” or “conversationally” to a reader may have been painstakingly assembled by a stressed-out writer who wishes they could sound more natural or conversational.

      How to write more effectively:

      • Keep sentences small. They’re easier to work with that way.

      • If something doesn’t feel right, there’s a problem with one or more of your sentences. Listen to that feeling. Try to pinpoint exactly which word or phrase is triggering it. Naming exactly what’s wrong, in grammatical terminology or otherwise, will come later.

      • Understanding a word’s etymology will teach you how to use it. Words contain imprints of their histories.

      • The subject of a sentence should appear as close to the beginning of a sentence as possible.

      • You don’t have to “grab” anyone with the first line of your story. Just write a simple sentence that says what you want it to say. It’s harder than it sounds! And also very effective, if done well.

      • “A writer’s real work is the endless winnowing of sentences, the relentless exploration of possibilities, the effort, over and over again, to see in what you started out to say the possibility of saying something you didn’t know you could.”

      • Noun phrases (“the realization that…”) almost always sound clunky and dead. Try rewriting them as verb phrases (“realizing that…”).

      • Prepositions are difficult to get right, even for native English speakers.

      • A reader’s experience has nothing to do with a writer’s. A sentence that reads “naturally” or “conversationally” to a reader may have been painstakingly assembled by a stressed-out writer who wishes they could sound more natural or conversational.

    1. The easy way to tell if you need who or whom is to substitute it for he or him and see which one makes sense.

      Yep, that's the trick that I use too :)

  24. Oct 2020
  25. Sep 2020
  26. Aug 2020
    1. Lie: I felt sick, so I lay down.Here’s where it can get a bit tricky. The past tense of lie is lay, but not because there is any overlap between the two verbs. So when you say, “I lay down for a nap,” you’re actually using the verb lie, not lay, despite the way it sounds.
  27. Jun 2020
  28. May 2020
  29. Apr 2020
  30. Mar 2020
    1. This will of course depend on your perspective, but: beware Finnish and other highly inflected languages. As a grammar nerd, I actually love this stuff. But judging by my colleagues, you won’t.
  31. Feb 2020
    1. grammar : a punctuation mark — that is used especially to indicate a break in the thought or structure of a sentence
    1. as

      "as" is not necessary here. This is very minor mistake but since you are doing excellent job I am going to point out any mistake I find to contribute the project towards perfection.

  32. Dec 2019
    1. American People

      Here's another case of the mis-capitalization. American should be capitalized, but people should not.

    2. Impeachment Fever

      There are several instances in this document where words are improperly capitalized, presumably in an attempt to make them stand out and make them more memorable.

  33. Nov 2019
    1. Hundreds of studies — from eating better to avoiding the impulse to react to people on the basis of their skin color — have demonstrated


    2. “value bets”— bets when he actually had a good hand —

      to explain a word, can use --

  34. May 2019
    1. The aim of this book is to give you the knowledge and tools to write microcopy; and no, you don’t need to be a copywriter or content writer.

      This sentence is proof of the need for copyeditors.

    1. If we’re speaking of garden-variety errors, the most common error I’ve observed that manages to get past any number of sets of expert eyes and wind up printed in books is the use of “lead” where “led” is meant—that is, the past tense of the verb “to lead.”
    2. They mistake the apostrophe for a piece of punctuation when it is a spelling issue. 
    3. MN: You can have friends or you can correct people’s grammar.
    4. I still firmly believe that copy editors need only enough grammar to get them through the demands of their particular manuscripts; being a grammarian is entirely beside the point. Or to put it another way, grammar is part of what you do as a copy editor, but only a part. That said, it’s fun to know about the subjunctive, so I’ll concede that particular pleasure.

      Copyediting vs grammar knowledge. Or, and grammar knowledge.

  35. Feb 2019
    1. elocution

      More specifically, meaning: "the study of formal speaking in pronunciation, grammar, style, and tone."

    2. Chinese, says Bacon, is written "in Character� Real, which express neither letters nor words ... but things or notions;

      This notion of Chinese language is one that carries into the 20th century and has pretty far influence; Ernest Fenollosa's notes on Chinese characters and translations of Chinese poetry hugely influenced Ezra Pound and (by extension) 20th C poetry at large.

      In terms of this class, Chinese characters pose an interesting alternative to the subject-object grammar of English.

  36. Jan 2019
    1. The name Vatican city was first used in the Lateran Treaty, signed on 11 February 1929, which established the modern city-state. The name is taken from Vatican Hill, the geographic location of the state. "Vatican" is derived from the name of an Etruscan settlement, Vatica or Vaticum meaning garden, located in the general area the Romans called vaticanus ager, "Vatican territory".

      Named after "the" hill...

    1. “There are only three places that have a ‘the’ in the front of their name: the Vatican, The Hague, and the Bronx.” —Mary Higgins Clark
  37. Dec 2018
    1. six month


    2. high speed


    3. time here, b

      My time here either

    4. desk,

      space for a desk, coffee table, and couch.

    5. or


    6. here,

      no comma

    7. The specter of upcoming departure influenced behavior in a way that removed one from reality — academics in Lyon mattered less at home, new friends would return to their countries of origin and communication would lapse, and why invest for comfort when somewhere so briefly?

      This sentence is 44 words!!!

    8. we’d

      Your writing style is fairly formal. Make sure you're being aware and intentional with your use of contracts.

    9. fifteen minute


    10. ,

      remove comma

  38. Oct 2018
    1. His most famous contribution to the study of grammar may have been his tentative suggestion that sentences ending with a preposition
    2. Lowth's grammar is the source of many of the prescriptive shibboleths that are studied in schools,
    1. It was the schoolteacher and writer Anne Fisher whose English primer of 1745 began the notion that it's somehow bad to use they in the plural and that he stands for both men and women.
  39. Sep 2018
    1. Him

      This use of the dative through me momentarily. With "Scyld gewat," it sounds like the archaic "Scyld betook himself," but it's not a direct object (because not an accusative) as a reflexive would be. I take it as a dative of interest: instead of saying a place where Scyld departed from or for, the construction indicates that Scyld departed himself—separated from life, or died.

    2. god

      Because Old English scribes did not distinguish between "God" and "good," this usage may give modern readers pause: we may look for a noun to go with "god" thinking that it is the adjective "good." But it really is the noun "God."

    3. Gardena

      The relationship of the two genitives is unclear: did "we learn of the might of the Spear-Danes, of the people-kings," as two separate things: the deeds of some people-kings (who may have been all Danes, or note) and the deeds of Danes? Or did "we learn of the might of the people-kings OF the Spear-Danes," which is narrower? The poem leaves the choice to the reader.

    4. gefrunon

      The grammar here is a little confusing: "gefrunon," "we learned," or "we heard," has two different kinds of objects. The first is a simple direct object: "we heard the might." The second is a clause "we heard how the nobles did courageous deeds."

    5. sceaþena þreatum, monegum mægþum

      The two consecutive datives make the sentence ambiguous. They could be in apposition: Scyld may be taking mead benches from "troops of enemies, many peoples." However, he could just as easily taking mead benches "by troops of enemes from many peoples." R.D. Fulk, Robert E. Bjork, and John D. Niles note both possibilities in their note to 4–5, Klaeber's Beowulf and the Fight at Finnsburh, 4th ed. (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2008), in their Commentary, page 111.