1,127 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
    1. A tooltip is an element containing simple text content describing a particular element. It's hidden until the user desires more information from the element, e.g. before deciding to click a button.
    2. A popover is an interactive HTML tooltip. It can be a dropdown, menu, or any other kind of box that pops out from the normal flow of the document. This type of element contains non-vital functionality and can be hidden behind a click or hover to conserve space.
    3. Both are elements positioned near a "reference" element, and are hidden until they are triggered. They help conserve space by hiding secondary information or functionality behind a hover or click. They are positioned outside the normal flow of the document so when they are triggered, they are overlaid on top of the existing UI without disrupting the flow of content.
  2. Jan 2021
    1. Black and white thinking is the tendency to think in extremes: I am a brilliant success, or I am an utter failure. My boyfriend is an angel, or He’s the devil incarnate. This thought pattern, which the American Psychological Association also calls dichotomous or polarized thinking, is considered a cognitive distortion because it keeps us from seeing the world as it often is: complex, nuanced, and full of all the shades in between. An all-or-nothing mindset doesn’t allow us to find the middle ground.
    1. Sometimes called all-or-nothing, or black and white thinking, this distortion occurs when people habitually think in extremes
    1. A display manager is the component of your Operating system responsible for launching your display server and the login session. This is the reason it is sometimes called the login manager. The layout of the screen that you see while entering your username and password(the greeter), your login session and user authorization are some of the tasks that the display manager performs.
  3. Dec 2020
    1. What is a data-originated component? It’s a kind of component that is primarily designed and built for either: displaying, entering, or customizing a given data content itself, rather than focusing on the form it takes. For example Drawer is a non data-originated component, although it may include some. Whereas Table, or Form, or even Feed are good examples of data-originated components.
  4. developer.mozilla.org developer.mozilla.org
    1. In a browser, the chrome is any visible aspect of a browser aside from the webpages themselves (e.g., toolbars, menu bar, tabs). This is not to be confused with the Google Chrome browser.
  5. link-springer-com.wv-o-ursus-proxy02.ursus.maine.edu link-springer-com.wv-o-ursus-proxy02.ursus.maine.edu
    1. the elaboration principle is that people learn better when they outline, summarize, or otherwise elaborate on the presented material
    2. The questioning principle is that people learn better when they must ask and answer deep questions during learning
    3. The guided discovery principle is that people learn better when they are allowed to solve problems while receiving appropriate guidance
    4. The worked-example principle is that people learn better when they are shown a step-by-step example of how to solve a problem, with commentary
    5. The self-explanation principle is that people learn better when they are prompted to explain lesson elements during learning
    6. The testing principle is that people learn better when they take a practice test on the material have studied
    7. The anchoring principle is that people learn better when material is presented in the context of a familiar situation,
    8. The concretizing principle is that people learn better when unfamiliar material is presented in a way that relates it with the learner’s familiar knowledge, such as using concrete examples and analogies.
  6. Nov 2020
  7. link-springer-com.wv-o-ursus-proxy02.ursus.maine.edu link-springer-com.wv-o-ursus-proxy02.ursus.maine.edu
    1. The science of learning is the scientific study of how people learn, that is, how the learner’s experience causes a change in the learner’s knowledge (Mayer, 2008, 2011)
    2. people can learn more deeply from words and pictures than from words alone—a finding that has been called the multimedia principle
    3. Multimedia instruction is instruction that includes words (e.g., printed or spoken text) and pictures (i.e., static graphics such as illustrations, diagrams, charts, maps, and photos, or dynamic graphics such as animation and video).
    1. Houdini is a set of low-level APIs that exposes parts of the CSS engine, giving developers the power to extend CSS by hooking into the styling and layout process of a browser’s rendering engine.  Houdini is a group of APIs that give developers direct access to the CSS Object Model (CSSOM), enabling developers to write code the browser can parse as CSS, thereby creating new CSS features without waiting for them to be implemented natively in browsers.
    1. resource allocation theory, which states that performance on tasks is dependent on the attentional resources available, the degree of self‐regulation during task engagement, and task complexity (Kanfer & Ackerman, 1989),

      Resource allocation theory:

      Performance is dependent on the attentional resources available, the degree of self-regulation during task engagement, and task complexity.

    1. “to learn” is an active verb naming a dynamic process through which humans continuously adapt, through conscious and unconscious physiological and cognitive responses, to the unique circumstances and experiences they encounter.



    1. A feedback loop in learning is a cause-effect sequence where data (often in the form of an ‘event’) is responded to based on recognition of an outcome and that data is used to inform future decisions in similar or analogous situations.
  8. Oct 2020
    1. Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) is a set of processes, policies and technology for associating cryptographic keys with the entity to whom those keys were issued. It is a well-known authentication and encryption method used in internet banking and e-commerce to confirm the identity of trading partners as well as validate information being shared. PKI is made of several elements which are:
    1. It is only soft-deprecated, which means that your code will not break at the moment and no deprecation warning will be displayed, but this constant will be removed in the future.
    1. Distance learning has been defined as “planned learning that normally occurs in a different place from teaching and as a result requires special tech-niques of course design, special instructional techniques, special methods of communication by electronic and other technology, as well as special organi-zational and administrative arrangements” (Moore and Kearsley, 1996, p. 2).
    2. Embodied cognition is the idea that cognition is shaped by every aspect of an organism’s experience, including the bodily system and ways the body interacts with its environment (see Yannier et al., 2016).
    3. An affordance has been defined as a feature or property of an object that makes possible a particular way of relating to the object for the person who
    4. Researchers in the field use the term affordances to refer to oppor-tunities that a technology makes possible related to learning and instruction (Collins et al., 2000)
    5. Self-determination theory posits that behavior is strongly influenced by three universal, innate, psychological needs—autonomy (the urge to control one’s own life), competence (the urge to experience mastery), and psycho-logical relatedness (the urge to interact with, be connected to, and care for others).
    6. Self-efficacy theory (Bandura, 1977), which is incorporated into several models of motivation and learning, posits that the perceptions learners have about their competency or capabilities are critical to accomplishing a task or attaining other goals (Bandura, 1977).
    7. motivational systems perspective, viewing motivation as a set of psychological mechanisms and processes, such as those related to setting goals, engagement in learning, and use of self-regulatory strategies
    8. mindset: the set of assump-tions, values, and beliefs about oneself and the world that influence how one perceives, interprets, and acts upon one’s environment (Dweck, 1999).
    9. Motivation is a condition that activates and sustains behavior toward a goal
    10. Self-explanationis a strategy in which learners produce explanations of material or of their thought processes while they are reading, answering ques-tions, or solving problems.
    11. Elaborative interrogation is a strategy in which learners are asked, or are prompted to ask themselves, questions that invite deep reasoning, such as why, how, what-if, and what-if not (as opposed to shallow questions such as who, what, when, and where) (Gholson et al., 2009).
    12. “intrinsic” executive control, or a person’s ability to direct herself, change course when needed, and strategize in the absence of explicit rules to follow
    13. Self-regulation refers to learning that is focused by means of metacog-nition, strategic action, and motivation to learn.
    14. refers to cognitive and neural pro-cessing that involves the overall regulation of thinking and behavior and the higher-order processes that enable people to plan, sequence, initiate, and sustain their behavior toward some goal, incorporating feedback and making adjustments
    15. Metacognition is the ability to monitor and regulate one’s own cognitive processes and to consciously regulate behavior, including affective behavior



    1. If your React component’s render function is “pure” (in other words, it renders the same result given the same props and state)
    1. Also known as an intercepting proxy, inline proxy, or forced proxy, a transparent proxy intercepts normal application layer communication without requiring any special client configuration. Clients need not be aware of the existence of the proxy.
    1. Warnings, in this example, are defined as: suggestions to the user, like validation errors, but that do not prevent submission.
    1. The intuition behind POJOs is that a POJO is an object that only contains data, as opposed to methods or internal state. Most JavaScript codebases consider objects created using curly braces {} to be POJOs. However, more strict codebases sometimes create POJOs by calling Object.create(null) to avoid inheriting from the built-in Object class.
    1. virtual-dom is a collection of modules designed to provide a declarative way of representing the DOM for your app. So instead of updating the DOM when your application state changes, you simply create a virtual tree or VTree, which looks like the DOM state that you want. virtual-dom will then figure out how to make the DOM look like this efficiently without recreating all of the DOM nodes.
    1. Events refers both to a design pattern used for the asynchronous handling of various incidents which occur in the lifetime of a web page and to the naming, characterization, and use of a large number of incidents of different types.
    1. Bill Clinton being our fi rst “Black” president

      Why was Bill Clinton considered our first "Black" president?

      According to this article from NBC News Toni Morrison, an acclaimed novelist, coined the phrase that Clinton was our first "Black" president because, "Clinton displays almost every trope of blackness: single-parent household, born poor, working-class, saxophone-playing, McDonald’s-and-junk-food-loving boy from Arkansas." This was controversial. In 2008 Morrison added that "I was deploring the way in which President Clinton was being treated, vis-à-vis the sex scandal that was surrounding him. I said he was being treated like a black on the street, already guilty, already a perp. I have no idea what his real instincts are, in terms of race." In 2008, Morrison endorsed Presidential candidate Barack Obama. According to the article, Morrison explained that her endorsement was based on Obama's traits, and not based on his racial identity saying "I would not support you if that was all you had to offer or because it might make me proud." In the article it adds the specifics and details.

      Click here for link to NBC News article

    2. poignant
    3. caustic

      Context clues weren't helping so I goggled what the word "caustic" means and it means being sarcastic but in a bitter and mean way. Caustic can also mean having the capability to burn through something chemically. But I think the former is more of the meaning used in the sentence because the context of the sentence has to do with a speaking style.


    4. In fact, one could say that “the Black preacher style” was seen as Barack’s communicative M.O.

      It is interesting how Obama used religious side to reach out to more black Americans, andhttps://www.nbcchicago.com/news/local/how-obama-learned-his-pulpit-style/1940950/ as the article says, he was Able to connect more by delivering "sermons" and not speeches.

    5. Signifyin

      Signifyin is used many times in the text but is never outright defined. From what I've found online, signifyin seems to be an African-American form of communicating something "indirectly" which is able to be done through various techniques of expression, such as insulting, comedy, or music/"rapping". I had a hard time understanding exactly what this meant- even with examples-, but I guess that makes sense given that the context "is accessible only to those who share the cultural values of a given speech community".



    6. nuanced

      The definition I found on the word "nuanced" means subtle distinction. This term is being used as a way to display how Obama's black supporters saw his speeches as how a Black Preacher would do it. Yet, it was only distinctively and only so noticeable but still visual in a subtle way.

    7. same literal meaning but diff er in socialmeaning

      I always found it curious that "social meaning" is a new term we have (at least to me) Phrases like "Nah, we straight" are not quite metaphors, but can (and should) only be used in specific social situations. Otherwise, you sound like a fool. Literally.

    1. It was George Steiner, the literary critic, who once suggested an intellectual was “quite simply, a human being who has a pencil in his or her hand when reading a book.”
    1. The phrase “white privilege” was popularized in 1988 by Peggy McIntosh, a Wellesley College professor who wanted to define “invisible systems conferring dominance on my group.”
    1. The parameterization is said to be identifiable if distinct parameter valuesgive rise to distinct distributions; that is,Pθ=Pθ′impliesθ=θ′.

      Definition of identifiable parameterization

    1. Personalized learning argues that the entrepreneurial nature of the knowledge economy and the gaping need, diversity, and unmanageable size of a typical public-school classroom are ill-served by the usual arrangement of a teacher lecturing at a blackboard.
    1. Mount: A cooking technique where small pieces of butter are quickly incorporated in a hot, but not boiling, sauce to give bulk and a glossy appearance.

      A definition I don't recall having ever seen before.

    1. Social action, like all action, may be oriented in four ways

      4 orientations of social action.

      1) conditions of the environment (mean to an end)

      2) action motivated by conscious belief in the value of the action

      3) affectual -based on someone's feelings (emotions)

      4) traditional, ie. habitual actions.

    2. Not every type of contact of human beings has a social character

      here social action considers events of chance, such as collision of two cyclists.

      Natural events.

    3. Social action

      defined as action and passive inaction. (colt be motivated by past present or future). .

    4. Action
      • in terms of being able to cognitively understand something
    5. Processes and uniformities

      Referring to the subjective undestanability of phenomena .

      • a class apart in terms of method for their understanding...<br> example must be conditions, stimuli (circumstances that allow for or constrain action)
    6. A motive

      Subjective grounds for conduct. may involve a complexity, such as a sequence of events. An interpretation of causality.

    7. judged in terms of its results


    8. Understanding

      Direction oberservation (direct rational understanding of ideas) ex 2x2 = 4 or an emotional outbreak that we can see in facial expressions of body language.

      Or explanatory understanding - (ex understanding the context of why someone is noting that 2x2= 4, as in the case of someone working on a ledger).

      Or being able to understand the motivations behind something.

    9. treat all irrational, effectually determined elements of behavior as factors of deviation from a conceptually pure type of rational action

      Meaning is not defined here as emotional meaning or "irrational concepts"

    10. Meaning
      1. actual existing meaning in the given concrete case of a particular actor, or to the average or approximate meaning attributable to a given plurality of actors;

      2 theoretically conceived pure type* of subjective meaning attributed to the hypothetical actor or actors in a given type of action.

      *In no case does it refer to an objectively "correct" meaning or one which is "true"

    11. Sociology

      interpretive understanding of social action and thereby with a causal explanation of its course and consequences

    1. paradigmatic
    2. corporate

      Corporation is a big group of people or in this case a company. Corporate relates back to a corporation. A corporation is made up of a group people who are allowed to act like a single entity. The word coporate is in regards to everyone in the corporation.


    3. dissonance

      According to dicitionary.com, even though this is a term used by musicans, whenever it is used outside of that context, it means "disagreement or incongruity." Which to me, means " two things that dont work together


    4. imbricated

      It means to overlap. In this case I think it just means the common point between consumption, possession and knowledge How these factors into goods, and how they act as representation of a part of cultural and the social. https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/imbricate

    5. haute cuisine

      The term "haute cuisine" is a French term which translates literally to "high cooking." It is a term used to define food that is artfully plated, uses high quality ingredients, is served in luxury, gourmet restaurants and has a exceedingly high price point. The term itself was coined in 17th century France and was used as a class distinction; only the rich upperclass and gentry would eat haute cuisine as it was time consuming to cook, required great culinary skill and used many ingredients that were imported, hard to obtain in French regions or out of season. Haute cuisine has been ushered into modernity by several highly skilled French chefs who proliferated the movement all over Europe, the Americas and beyond. Haute cuisine itself is still a part of global stratification, being that it is inaccessible to those who cannot afford its inflated price.


    6. authenticity

      Authenticity means something that exists, so if something is authentic, it is real and genuine. Therefore, the authenticity of something is to say it's real, genuine, truthful, and not false or fake.


    7. profligate

      The term, profligate, was difficult to understand in the passage because of how the author used it. The word profligate usually describes a person who is wildly and impulsively reckless with money and anything of value. In this case, the author makes the subject of this sentence "food" and describes it as being something that plays a prominent role in energy expenditure. When putting the sentence into perspective, the parallels between the word profligate and food is that the distribution of food is a system that relies heavily on a wasteful process and results in using energy excessively and, seemingly, in vain.


    8. romantic

      The author uses this term, romantic, several times, but doesn't specify what he means by it, although this section implies a little about what he seems to mean. Based on Wikipedia's entry on Romanticism, it refers to an intellectual and artistic movement starting in the late 1700s in Europe that emphasized "emotion and individualism" and glorified nature and the past. What's probably most relevant about this movement is that it originated during, and in response to, the industrial revolution.

      There's a clear link between this definition and what Pratt is talking about in terms of glorifying (or even fetishizing?) certain places and practices as more directly related to traditional agricultural practices and placing higher value on food commodities that can be directly linked to the specific places or people that produced them.

      Interestingly, authenticity seems to have been a feature of the Romantic movement as well. The Wikipedia article says that adherents of Romanticism "emphasized intense emotion as an authentic source of aesthetic experience" (no citation is given for this assertion, however).

    1. the function you pass to the find method is called a predicate. The predicate here defines a boolean outcome based on conditions defined in the function itself, so that the find method can determine which value to find.
    1. marking.

      "Whenever a person delineates a cultural boundary around a particular cultural space in human time"

  9. Sep 2020
    1. cognitive dissonance

      google definition also says, the state of having inconsistent thoughts, beliefs, or attitudes, especially as relating to behavioral decisions and attitude change.

    1. Today, racist means not only burning a cross on someone’s lawn or even telling someone to go home, but also what feels unpleasant to someone of a race—as in what I as a person of that race don’t like. It has gone from being mean to someone to, also, what feels mean to me.
    2. So Ocasio-Cortez gets in that the Squad is composed of women of color. But if Pelosi would likely respond the same way to four Jill Steins, then what is the meaning of the reference to race? Is the idea that Pelosi should hold her tongue simply because the Squad members aren’t white? Ocasio-Cortez is here appealing to another 2.0 meaning of racist—that which is offensive, for any reason, to people of a race. The Squad doesn’t like Pelosi’s critique, understandably. But the question is: Is that critique “racist” because four “racial” women don’t agree with it? Here, Ocasio-Cortez and the Squad allude to the subjectified meaning of racist, which can be hard to square with the core meaning of the word (believing that people of a category are inferior).

      This is a subtle, but interesting example.

    1. in traditional programming, the custom code that expresses the purpose of the program calls into reusable libraries to take care of generic tasks, but with inversion of control, it is the framework that calls into the custom, or task-specific, code.
    1. Reactive statements run immediately before the component updates, whenever the values that they depend on have changed.
    1. CDA focuses on the form and content of communicative artifacts—such as memes—and the social practices that inform them. CDA emphasizes the relationship between what is communicated and the social realities tied to that communication.

      definition of critical discourse analysis.

    2. the public sphere was the liminal space where private citizens engaged in public deliberation about social and political issues

      definition of the public sphere

    3. mage memes are a populist means to express public perspectives, even when those perspectives are diverse

      third meme definition

    1. lepidoptery

      Lepidopterology, is a branch of entomology concerning the scientific study of moths and the three superfamilies of butterflies. Someone who studies in this field is a lepidopterist or, archaically, an aurelian.

  10. Aug 2020
    1. A dialog is a type of modal window that appears in front of app content to provide critical information or ask for a decision
    1. incretins

      This may be worth adding as a formal glossary entry. Incretins are defined as metabolic hormones released after a meal that stimulate a lowering of blood glucose levels by augmenting the release of insulin.

    2. γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)

      This may be worth adding as a formal glossary entry. γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter of the CNS.

    3. chyme

      This may be worth adding as a formal glossary term (bold). Chyme is a pulpy liquid that consists of partially digested food and gastric secretions.

    1. It is free to you and anyone else who would like to use it. The key to this ability to freely use and re-use this material is something called Creative Commons. It is a license that the author places on his or her work that waives some of the protections of copyright and allows for the work to be shared and used in certain ways.

      The author of this book's "Foreword," another word for a "preface" or a note before the beginning of the content of the actual book, displays a writing move here that's foundational to all explanatory writing, but especially textbooks: defining new terms.

      Here the phrase is "Creative Commons," a special publishing license that tells readers that they can share or reuse this material free of charge -- unlike the strict kinds of copyright we're used to with academic publishing.

    1. Co-hyponyms are labelled as such when separate hyponyms share the same hypernym but are not hyponyms of one another, unless they happen to be synonymous
  11. Jul 2020
    1. An acronym is a word or name formed from the initial components of a longer name or phrase, usually using individual initial letters, as in NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) or EU (European Union), but sometimes using syllables, as in Benelux (Belgium, Netherlands and Luxembourg), or a mixture of the two, as in radar (RAdio Detection And Ranging)
    1. Motto is a phrase or sentence that contains a belief or an ideal. It works as a guiding principle for an individual or an entire organization.
    1. A dingbat is a small, ornamental character, like this: . Youmight have the fonts Zapf Dingbats or Wingdings, which are made up ofdingbats.




    1. it’s like an impression of a creative thought.

      Interesting psych theory - is imagination more linked to thought that visualization???

  12. Jun 2020
    1. The lumper–splitter problem occurs when there is the desire to create classifications and assign examples to them, for example schools of literature, biological taxa and so on.
    1. La violence est abordée sous l’angle de toute action ou absence d’action qui contrevient à la sécurité de l’enfant ou à son bon développement, donne prééminence aux intérêts de l’institution publique sur les intérêts de l’enfant, lui cause une souffrance physique ou psychologique inutile et/ou entrave son évolution ultérieure.
    1. Stanislas Tomkiewicz a défini la violence institutionnelle comme « toute action commise dans ou par une institution, ou toute absence d’action, qui cause à l’enfant une souffrance physique ou psychologique inutile et/ou entrave son évolution ultérieure »3.Cette définition, couramment retenue, renvoie tant à des passages à l’acte qu’à des négligences ou carences.
    2. Stanislas Tomkiewicz a défini la violence institutionnelle comme « toute action commise dans ou par une institution, ou toute absence d’action, qui cause à l’enfant une souffrance physique ou psychologique inutile et/ou entrave son évolution ultérieure »
    1. the belongingness hypothesis is that human be-ings have a pervasive drive to form and maintain at least a min-imum quantity of lasting, positive, and significant interpersonalrelationships. Satisfying this drive involves two criteria: First,there is a need for frequent, affectively pleasant interactionswith a few other people, and, second, these interactions musttake place in the context of a temporally stable and enduringframework of affective concern for each other's welfare.

      Belongingness hypothesis: humans have a pervasive drive to form and maintain at least a minimum quantity of lasting, positive and significant interpersonal relationships

      • doing this involves the need for frequent, affectively pleasant interactions with a few other people
      • doing this requires that these interactions take place in the context of a temporally stable and enduring framework of affective concern for each other's welfare

      Schools seem like the perfect context for these relationships to form and flourish

    1. The "multiplier effect," from the mobility literature, posits that each step taken towards growing your social network or pursuing upward mobility brings more opportunities towardsthe same goal.

      Multiplier effect definition

    2. Social support isbroadly defined as “a flow of emotional concern, instrumental aid, information, and/or appraisal between people” (House, 1981, p. 26). It is a group of resources gained through social relationships that leads to a feeling of well-being (Harber et al., 2007) and feeling cared for (Cobb, 1976). Social support can also serve as a buffer against adverse outcomes (Cassel, 1974; Kerr & King, 2013). The concept of social support originally emerged from the health field, as a way to explain differences in health outcomes between those who were connected to others and those who were not

      Social support definitions

    3. Putnam (2000) extended the terminology of weak and strong ties to bridging and bonding capital. Bonding capital is typically provided through an emotionally close and long-standing relationship, and strengthens the individual's connection to a common community. For example, if a youth identifies a teacher as their informal mentor, that teacher can build on their common social network (e.g., the school community) and have the youth feel more connected to and a part of the school as a whole.

      Bonding capital: typically provided through an emotionally close and long-standing relationship; strengthens connection to a common community Can lead to youth feeling "more connected to and a part of the school as a whole" when a youth identifies a teacher as their informal mentor, for example

    4. Bridging capital, akin to weak ties, comes from relationships with acquaintances, and connects the individual to new resources, connections, and information they did not have access to befor

      Bridging capital: akin to weak ties, stems from relationships with acquaintances, connects youth to new resources/connections/information they did not previously have; can network for youth to assist in educational and economic opportunities

    5. Social support is a category of resources provided through social relationshipsand is considered by many to be one important form of social capita

      Social support definition

    6. Social capital is defined as the total number of resources (e.g., connections, support) that people haveaccess to through their social relationships.

      Social capital definition

    7. Formal mentoring involves a program or agency matching a young person to a mentor they usually do not know,based on like qualities

      Formal mentoring definition

    8. Informal mentoring relationships are naturally-occurring relationships between youth and non-parental adults (Sterrett, Jones, Mckee, & Kincaid, 2011) who care about the young person and to whom the young person can turn to for support

      Informal mentor definition



    1. In systems engineering and requirements engineering, a non-functional requirement (NFR) is a requirement that specifies criteria that can be used to judge the operation of a system, rather than specific behaviors. They are contrasted with functional requirements that define specific behavior or functions

      This is a strange term because one might read "non-functional" and interpret in the sense of the word that means "does not function", when instead the intended sense is "not related to function". Seems like a somewhat unfortunate name for this concept. A less ambiguous term could have been picked instead, but I don't know what that would be.

    1. In community building, the third place is the social surroundings separate from the two usual social environments of home ("first place") and the workplace ("second place")
    1. In cryptography, deniable authentication refers to message authentication between a set of participants where the participants themselves can be confident in the authenticity of the messages, but it cannot be proved to a third party after the event.
  13. May 2020