1,015 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
  2. Sep 2020
    1. in traditional programming, the custom code that expresses the purpose of the program calls into reusable libraries to take care of generic tasks, but with inversion of control, it is the framework that calls into the custom, or task-specific, code.
    1. Reactive statements run immediately before the component updates, whenever the values that they depend on have changed.
    1. CDA focuses on the form and content of communicative artifacts—such as memes—and the social practices that inform them. CDA emphasizes the relationship between what is communicated and the social realities tied to that communication.

      definition of critical discourse analysis.

    2. the public sphere was the liminal space where private citizens engaged in public deliberation about social and political issues

      definition of the public sphere

    3. mage memes are a populist means to express public perspectives, even when those perspectives are diverse

      third meme definition

    1. lepidoptery

      Lepidopterology, is a branch of entomology concerning the scientific study of moths and the three superfamilies of butterflies. Someone who studies in this field is a lepidopterist or, archaically, an aurelian.

  3. Aug 2020
    1. A dialog is a type of modal window that appears in front of app content to provide critical information or ask for a decision
    1. incretins

      This may be worth adding as a formal glossary entry. Incretins are defined as metabolic hormones released after a meal that stimulate a lowering of blood glucose levels by augmenting the release of insulin.

    2. γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)

      This may be worth adding as a formal glossary entry. γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter of the CNS.

    3. chyme

      This may be worth adding as a formal glossary term (bold). Chyme is a pulpy liquid that consists of partially digested food and gastric secretions.

    1. It is free to you and anyone else who would like to use it. The key to this ability to freely use and re-use this material is something called Creative Commons. It is a license that the author places on his or her work that waives some of the protections of copyright and allows for the work to be shared and used in certain ways.

      The author of this book's "Foreword," another word for a "preface" or a note before the beginning of the content of the actual book, displays a writing move here that's foundational to all explanatory writing, but especially textbooks: defining new terms.

      Here the phrase is "Creative Commons," a special publishing license that tells readers that they can share or reuse this material free of charge -- unlike the strict kinds of copyright we're used to with academic publishing.

    1. Co-hyponyms are labelled as such when separate hyponyms share the same hypernym but are not hyponyms of one another, unless they happen to be synonymous
  4. Jul 2020
    1. An acronym is a word or name formed from the initial components of a longer name or phrase, usually using individual initial letters, as in NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) or EU (European Union), but sometimes using syllables, as in Benelux (Belgium, Netherlands and Luxembourg), or a mixture of the two, as in radar (RAdio Detection And Ranging)
    1. Motto is a phrase or sentence that contains a belief or an ideal. It works as a guiding principle for an individual or an entire organization.
    1. A dingbat is a small, ornamental character, like this: . Youmight have the fonts Zapf Dingbats or Wingdings, which are made up ofdingbats.

      dingbat

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    1. it’s like an impression of a creative thought.

      Interesting psych theory - is imagination more linked to thought that visualization???

    1. The parameterization is said to be identifiable if distinct parameter valuesgive rise to distinct distributions; that is,Pθ=Pθ′impliesθ=θ′.

      Definition of identifiable parameterization

  5. Jun 2020
    1. The lumper–splitter problem occurs when there is the desire to create classifications and assign examples to them, for example schools of literature, biological taxa and so on.
    1. La violence est abordée sous l’angle de toute action ou absence d’action qui contrevient à la sécurité de l’enfant ou à son bon développement, donne prééminence aux intérêts de l’institution publique sur les intérêts de l’enfant, lui cause une souffrance physique ou psychologique inutile et/ou entrave son évolution ultérieure.
    1. Stanislas Tomkiewicz a défini la violence institutionnelle comme « toute action commise dans ou par une institution, ou toute absence d’action, qui cause à l’enfant une souffrance physique ou psychologique inutile et/ou entrave son évolution ultérieure »3.Cette définition, couramment retenue, renvoie tant à des passages à l’acte qu’à des négligences ou carences.
    2. Stanislas Tomkiewicz a défini la violence institutionnelle comme « toute action commise dans ou par une institution, ou toute absence d’action, qui cause à l’enfant une souffrance physique ou psychologique inutile et/ou entrave son évolution ultérieure »
    1. the belongingness hypothesis is that human be-ings have a pervasive drive to form and maintain at least a min-imum quantity of lasting, positive, and significant interpersonalrelationships. Satisfying this drive involves two criteria: First,there is a need for frequent, affectively pleasant interactionswith a few other people, and, second, these interactions musttake place in the context of a temporally stable and enduringframework of affective concern for each other's welfare.

      Belongingness hypothesis: humans have a pervasive drive to form and maintain at least a minimum quantity of lasting, positive and significant interpersonal relationships

      • doing this involves the need for frequent, affectively pleasant interactions with a few other people
      • doing this requires that these interactions take place in the context of a temporally stable and enduring framework of affective concern for each other's welfare

      Schools seem like the perfect context for these relationships to form and flourish

    1. The "multiplier effect," from the mobility literature, posits that each step taken towards growing your social network or pursuing upward mobility brings more opportunities towardsthe same goal.

      Multiplier effect definition

    2. Social support isbroadly defined as “a flow of emotional concern, instrumental aid, information, and/or appraisal between people” (House, 1981, p. 26). It is a group of resources gained through social relationships that leads to a feeling of well-being (Harber et al., 2007) and feeling cared for (Cobb, 1976). Social support can also serve as a buffer against adverse outcomes (Cassel, 1974; Kerr & King, 2013). The concept of social support originally emerged from the health field, as a way to explain differences in health outcomes between those who were connected to others and those who were not

      Social support definitions

    3. Putnam (2000) extended the terminology of weak and strong ties to bridging and bonding capital. Bonding capital is typically provided through an emotionally close and long-standing relationship, and strengthens the individual's connection to a common community. For example, if a youth identifies a teacher as their informal mentor, that teacher can build on their common social network (e.g., the school community) and have the youth feel more connected to and a part of the school as a whole.

      Bonding capital: typically provided through an emotionally close and long-standing relationship; strengthens connection to a common community Can lead to youth feeling "more connected to and a part of the school as a whole" when a youth identifies a teacher as their informal mentor, for example

    4. Bridging capital, akin to weak ties, comes from relationships with acquaintances, and connects the individual to new resources, connections, and information they did not have access to befor

      Bridging capital: akin to weak ties, stems from relationships with acquaintances, connects youth to new resources/connections/information they did not previously have; can network for youth to assist in educational and economic opportunities

    5. Social support is a category of resources provided through social relationshipsand is considered by many to be one important form of social capita

      Social support definition

    6. Social capital is defined as the total number of resources (e.g., connections, support) that people haveaccess to through their social relationships.

      Social capital definition

    7. Formal mentoring involves a program or agency matching a young person to a mentor they usually do not know,based on like qualities

      Formal mentoring definition

    8. Informal mentoring relationships are naturally-occurring relationships between youth and non-parental adults (Sterrett, Jones, Mckee, & Kincaid, 2011) who care about the young person and to whom the young person can turn to for support

      Informal mentor definition

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    1. In systems engineering and requirements engineering, a non-functional requirement (NFR) is a requirement that specifies criteria that can be used to judge the operation of a system, rather than specific behaviors. They are contrasted with functional requirements that define specific behavior or functions

      This is a strange term because one might read "non-functional" and interpret in the sense of the word that means "does not function", when instead the intended sense is "not related to function". Seems like a somewhat unfortunate name for this concept. A less ambiguous term could have been picked instead, but I don't know what that would be.

    1. In community building, the third place is the social surroundings separate from the two usual social environments of home ("first place") and the workplace ("second place")
    1. In cryptography, deniable authentication refers to message authentication between a set of participants where the participants themselves can be confident in the authenticity of the messages, but it cannot be proved to a third party after the event.
  6. May 2020
    1. the capacity, condition, or state of acting or of exerting power
    2. a person or thing through which power is exerted or an end is achieved : instrumentality

      Would this be proxy agency? Or is it different?

      On the one hand, I think it's different. instrumentality seems to have a subtly different meaning from proxy agency.

      But looking at their example sentence,

      communicated through the agency of the ambassador , it is striking how similar these ideas/words/meanings are: the ambassador acted on behalf of his country (proxy agency: acted => agency; "on behalf of" => proxy); the communication occurred through his actions (= he was the means, he was instrumental in causing that communication to take place)

      https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agency_(sociology):

      proxy agency is when an individual acts on behalf of someone else

    1. of, relating to, or being a grammatical case or form expressing means or agency

      I really need an example of this!

      It seems unusual that they specifically mention "a grammatical case or form". I've never seen a definition before that is anything like this one.

      How is this different from definition 1?

    2. serving as a crucial means, agent, or tool
    1. the conception of agency as the capacity of human beings to shape the circumstances in which they live
    2. One's agency is one's independent capability or ability to act on one's will

      key word: ability to act on

    3. capacity of individuals to act independently and to make their own free choices
    1. Knowledge work can be differentiated from other forms of work by its emphasis on "non-routine" problem solving that requires a combination of convergent and divergent thinking.[2] But despite the amount of research and literature on knowledge work, there is no succinct definition of the term.
    2. workers, whose line of work requires one to "think for a living"
    1. A "tag" is a snippet of code that allows digital marketing teams to collect data, set cookies or integrate third-party content like social media widgets into a site.

      This is a bad re-purposing of the word "tag", which already has specific meanings in computing.

      Why do we need a new word for this? Why not just call it a "script" or "code snippet"?

    1. Definition: Unit that can be assigned to a group of living beings according to certain criteria. Most of the time, this expresses itself through a separate name for this group.
    1. When is your site not built with the Jamstack? Any project that relies on a tight coupling between client and server is not built with the Jamstack.
    1. This topic is not a support question

      This is hard to answer because I don't know what they classify as a "support question". For example, are bugs classified as a support question? So if it's a bug, should I check this or no?

      What is the purpose of this checkbox? If you could describe that, it would make it much easier to answer the question.

    1. generic-sounding term may be interpreted as something more specific than intended: I want to be able to use "data interchange" in the most general sense. But if people interpret it to mean this specific standard/protocol/whatever, I may be misunderstood.

      The definition given here

      is the concept of businesses electronically communicating information that was traditionally communicated on paper, such as purchase orders and invoices.

      limits it to things that were previously communicated on paper. But what about things for which paper was never used, like the interchange of consent and consent receipts for GDPR/privacy law compliance, etc.?

      The term should be allowed to be used just as well for newer technologies/processes that had no previous roots in paper technologies.

    1. “A processor is responsible for processing personal data on behalf of a controller.”
    2. “A controller determines the purposes and means of processing personal data.” This is you.
    1. Under the scope of the CCPA, “personal information” is defined as “information that identifies, relates to, describes, is capable of being associated with, or could reasonably be linked, directly or indirectly, with a particular consumer or household.”
    1. whose personal data you collect and process as “controller” (that is the word that GDPR uses for whoever determines the purposes and means of the processing of personal data).
    1. commonweal

      GANGNES: In this case, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, "common well-being; esp. the general good, public welfare, prosperity of the community."

    2. kindly insipidity

      GANGNES: In this case insipidity would be defined as "want of taste or judgement; weakness, folly" (Oxford English Dictionary). The narrator is not altogether pleased with the French operator's comments; France cheers England's "triumph" over the Martians, after having offered no aid during the crisis. Essentially, his "tousand congratulation" are in poor taste considering the circumstances.

    3. eked

      GANGNES: "to supplement, supply the deficiencies of anything" (Oxford English Dictionary)

    4. tintinnabulations

      GANGNES: "a ringing of a bell or bells, bell-ringing; the sound or music so produced" (Oxford English Dictionary)

    1. magnum

      GANGNES: "a bottle for wine, spirits, etc., twice the standard size and now usually containing 1½ litres (formerly two quarts); the quantity of liquor held by such a bottle" (Oxford English Dictionary)

    2. catch

      GANGNES: In this case, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, "a device for fastening or checking the motion of something, esp. a latch or other mechanism for fastening a door, window, etc."

    3. worried

      GANGNES: In this case, according to the Oxford English Dictionary: "to pull or tear at (an object)."

    4. sex

      GANGNES: In this case, the word refers to an organism's sex based on chromosomes (which most Victorians would conflate with gender). The "budding off" makes it clear that Martians do not have sexual intercourse, so any differences in chromosomes (if any) are inconsequential. The Martians have achieved a kind of asexual utopia, where their energies and emotions are not "wasted" on finding a mate. Human beings, with our base impulses and inefficient digestive systems, don't stand a chance against advanced beings who quickly process sustenance, never sleep, and don't have to bother with courtship and breeding.

    5. vivisects

      GANGNES: Vivisection is "the action of cutting or dissecting some part of a living organism; spec. the action or practice of performing dissection, or other painful experiment, upon living animals as a method of physiological or pathological study" (Oxford English Dictionary).

      Since Wells cut this section from the volume, no explicit reference to vivisection remains in a collected edition of the novel. However, the practice is central to Wells's 1896 novel The Island of Doctor Moreau.

      More information:

    1. aperture

      GANGNES: In this case, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, "An opening, an open space between portions of solid matter; a gap, cleft, chasm, or hole."

    2. semi-detached villa

      From MCCONNELL 238: "a still-common English term for a suburban dwelling house"

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 216: "a fashionable name for a kind of small suburban house--in this case a two-family structure--popularly considered to be a 'better class' of dwelling"

      GANGNES: Americans might call this kind of house a high-end "duplex," in that the structure itself is the size of a large house, but there are two "homes" within it, separated by a long dividing wall. Many semi-detached houses have two floors.

    3. matchwood

      GANGNES: In this case, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, "very small pieces or splinters of wood."

    1. lowering

      GANGNES: according to the Oxford English Dictionary, "to frown, scowl; to look angry or sullen"

    2. fugitives

      GANGNES: in this case, someone who is fleeing from danger; see Oxford English Dictionary

    3. outhouses

      GANGNES: In this case, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, the door to "subsidiary building in the grounds of or adjoining a house, as a barn, shed, etc."

    1. mettle

      GANGNES: In this instance, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, "a person's spirit; courage, strength of character; vigour, spiritedness, vivacity"

    2. parapets

      GANGNES: In this instance, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, "a low wall or barrier, often ornamental, placed at the edge of a platform, balcony, roof, etc. ... to prevent people from falling"

    1. torpor

      GANGNES: according to the Oxford English Dictionary, "absence or suspension of motive power, activity, or feeling"

    2. heard midnight pealing out

      From DANAHAY 75: church bells ringing

      GANGNES: Which is to say, the church bells rang in such a way that indicated the time was midnight.

    3. tea

      GANGNES: In this case, the equivalent of dinner or an evening meal (hence it being "six in the evening"). See Oxford English Dictionary: "locally in the U.K. (esp. northern) ... a cooked evening meal"

    4. belligerent

      GANGNES: In this case, according to the Oxford English Dictionary: "waging or carrying on regular recognized war; actually engaged in hostilities," which is to say, the narrator is imagining, and is excited about, an epic war between the British and the Martians.

    5. stereotyped formula

      GANGNES: In this case, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, "something continued or constantly repeated without change; a stereotyped phrase, formula, etc.; stereotyped diction or usage."

    6. a rapidly fluctuating barometer

      GANGNES: This indicates that the weather is volatile and likely heralds an imminent storm. See Oxford English Dictionary on "barometer": "an instrument for determining the weight or pressure of the atmosphere, and hence for judging of probable changes in the weather, ascertaining the height of an ascent, etc" and Encyclopædia Britannica entry.

    7. close

      GANGNES: In this usage, according to the Oxford English Dictionary: "of the atmosphere or weather: Like that of a closed up room; confined, stifling, without free circulation."

  7. Apr 2020
    1. In a priority queue, an element with high priority is served before an element with low priority.
    1. A website (also written as web site) is a collection of web pages and related content that is identified by a common domain name and published on at least one web server
    1. "a and b are equivalent up to X" means that a and b are equivalent, if criterion X, such as rotation or permutation, is ignored
    1. In math, idempotence describes only unary functions that you can call on their own output. Math-idempotence is, “If you take the absolute value of a number, and then you take the absolute value of that, the result doesn’t change on the second (or subsequent) operations.” Math.abs is math-idempotent. Math-idempotence only applies to functions of one parameter where the parameter type and return type are the same. Not so useful in programming.
    2. Programming-idempotence is about side effects. It’s about stuff that happens to the outside world when you call a function. Idempotence says “If you’ve called me once, it doesn’t matter whether you called me again.”
    1. A "breach" is an incident where data is inadvertently exposed in a vulnerable system, usually due to insufficient access controls or security weaknesses in the software.
    1. Beyond proper collection, annotation, and archival, data stewardship includes the notion of ‘long-term care’ of valuable digital assets, with the goal that they should be discovered and re-used for downstream investigations, either alone, or in combination with newly generated data.

      Definition of stewardship.

  8. Mar 2020
    1. Qu’appelle-ton la «continuité pédagogique»?La continuité pédagogique est destinée à s’assurer que les élèves poursuivent des activités scolaires leur permettant de progresser dans leurs apprentissages, de maintenir les acquis déjà développés depuis le début de l’année (consolidation, enrichissements, exercices...) et d’acquérir des compétences nouvelles lorsque les modalités d’apprentissage à distance le permettent. Les activités proposées s’inscrivent naturellement dans le prolongement de ce qui s’est fait en classe auparavant et/ou dans une préparation possible de ce qui sera fait dès le retour dans l’établissement.
    1. The phrase is often used at the beginning of meetings, conferences, etc to indicate that the speaker is going to tell those present about the fire exits, where the toilets, first-aid box etc are and any other administrative issues that have nothing to do with the actual content of the meeting. etc
    1. Le flaming est une pratique qui consiste à envoyer, au sein d’un forum de discussion ou de la zone de commentaires d’un blog ou d’un site, une série de messages insultants, voire haineux, dans le seul but de provoquer un conflit ouvert.

      Le flaming nous est défini de manière générale et le paragraphe qui suit lui sera consacré.

    1. what Manner these Creatures were address'd

      When analyzing this passage from Fantomina, the word "Creatures" stood out to me. Eliza Haywood is describing the woman in the pit and substituting creature as a word to describe her and others like her. In the Oxford English Dictionary, creature is defined as, "A living or animate being; an animal, often as distinct from a person". The use of creature seems to be insinuating that the woman in the pit is considered to be an animal in comparison to the protagonist and other high class individuals. This negative usage of describing this woman is most likely due to the views that Eliza Haywood and other people in the 18th century had against her occupation. Since she was doing something that most people at the time saw as improper and scandalous, they perceive her as animal-like when it comes to behavior.

      "creature, n." OED Online, Oxford University Press, December 2019, www.oed.com/view/Entry/44082 . Accessed 12 February 2020.

    2. LOVE in a Maze

      While most of us refer to this novel by Fantomina, Eliza Haywood provided a secondary title. The word maze in the secondary title seems to be referring to the trickery and disguises that the protagonist of Fantomina uses to fool and deceive Beauplaisir into showing her affection. On the other hand, the first thing that comes to mind when I think of a maze is the puzzle of lines, not trickery and deceit. However, the definition of a maze in the Oxford English Dictionary yields the following definition, "A state of bewilderment; a feeling of amazement or perplexity; (in plural) confused or puzzled thoughts", or "A delusive fancy; a trick or deception. Obsolete". These two definition of the word, especially the second definition, give insight into what Eliza Haywood truly meant when assigning Fantomina with the title "LOVE in a Maze".

      "maze, n.1." OED Online, Oxford University Press, December 2019, www.oed.com/view/Entry/115347 . Accessed 12 February 2020.

    1. Tags in the digital marketing and analytics context are similar to, but distinct from, the standard HTML tags that developers will use to code web pages. The analytics version of the word "tag" is derived from the fact that the tags provided by vendors are often encapsulated by HTML <script> or <img> tags. When we speak of tags in an HTML context, we refer to tags such as <body>, <p>, <li>, <blockquote>, and so on. When we refer to tags used in the analytics and marketing industry, we refer to code that an organization provides to install the desired product or functionality on your website or mobile app.
  9. Feb 2020
    1. ACTIVITY 3: SYNCRHONOUS COMMUNICATION TOOLS

      syn·chro·nous /ˈsiNGkrənəs/ Learn to pronounce adjective 1.existing or occurring at the same time.

    2. ACTIVITY 2: ASYNCHRONOUS COMMUNICATION TOOLS

      a·syn·chro·nous /āˈsiNGkrənəs/ Learn to pronounce adjective 1.(of two or more objects or events) not existing or happening at the same time. 2.COMPUTING•TELECOMMUNICATIONS of or requiring a form of computer control timing protocol in which a specific operation begins upon receipt of an indication (signal) that the preceding operation has been completed.

      In telecommunications, asynchronous communication is transmission of data, generally without the use of an external clock signal, where data can be transmitted intermittently rather than in a steady stream. Any timing required to recover data from the communication symbols is encoded within the symbols.

      wikipedia

    1. Code inside default is called "VU code", and is run over and over for as long as the test is running. Code outside of it is called "init code", and is run only once per VU.
    1. social dilemma A situation in which actions, taken independently by individuals in pursuit of their own private objectives, may result in an outcome that is inferior to some other feasible outcome that could have occurred if people had acted together, rather than as individuals.
    1. Performance Benchmarking What it is: Testing a system under certain reproducible conditions Why do it: To establish a baseline which can be tested against regularly to ensure a system’s performance remains constant, or validate improvements as a result of change Answers the question: “How is my app performing, and how does that compare with the past?”
    1. Obliging

      The Oxford English Dictionary defines obliging as "to bind (a person) by oath, promise, contract, etc.; to put under an obligation, to engage, commit. Frequently with to or infinitive. Obsolete."

      "oblige, v." OED Online, Oxford University Press, December 2019, www.oed.com/view/Entry/129696. Accessed 7 February 2020.

  10. Jan 2020
    1. Arel is a SQL AST (Abstract Syntax Tree-like) manager for Ruby. It allows us to write complex SQL queries in a semantic, reusable fashion. Arel is "framework framework"; it's designed to optimize object and collection modeling over database compatibility. For example, Active Record is built on top of Arel.
    1. A skunkworks project is a project developed by a relatively small and loosely structured group of people who research and develop a project primarily for the sake of radical innovation.
    1. That makes digital writing a potentially powerful lever for social good, allowing students to "actively participate in civic society and contribute to a vibrant, informed, and engaged community," as the ALA notes. It also makes digital writing a potentially dangerous tool—decisions about when and what to share online can have repercussions for a student's safety, privacy, and reputation.

      I love how digital literacy allows so many to have access to so much and to communicate easily with others. But there is a definite dark side to sharing in any digital format and many don't think about that.

  11. Dec 2019

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    1. An authentication factor is a piece of information used to verify that you’re allowed to do something, like a keycard used to unlock a hotel door.
    1. A package is a self-contained and reusable piece of software that includes code and metadata, such as current version number, name, and the package's dependencies, that a developer bundles together in a common place for others to use. Packages simplify using and distributing solutions to common problems such as needing a common framework for developing a project, testing runners and linters to improve code quality, or introducing industry-standard machine learning tools to power your application.
    1. It has been jokingly suggested several times during the course of this study that what we are seeking is an "intelligence amplifier." (The term is attributed originally to W. Ross Ashby[2,3]. At first this term was rejected on the grounds that in our view one's only hope was to make a better match between existing human intelligence and the problems to be tackled, rather than in making man more intelligent. But deriving the concepts brought out in the preceding section has shown us that indeed this term does seem applicable to our objective. 2c2a Accepting the term "intelligence amplification" does not imply any attempt to increase native human intelligence. The term "intelligence amplification" seems applicable to our goal of augmenting the human intellect in that the entity to be produced will exhibit more of what can be called intelligence than an unaided human could; we will have amplified the intelligence of the human by organizing his intellectual capabilities into higher levels of synergistic structuring. What possesses the amplified intelligence is the resulting H-LAM/T system, in which the LAM/T augmentation means represent the amplifier of the human's intelligence.2c2b In amplifying our intelligence, we are applying the principle of synergistic structuring that was followed by natural evolution in developing the basic human capabilities. What we have done in the development of our augmentation means is to construct a superstructure that is a synthetic extension of the natural structure upon which it is built. In a very real sense, as represented by the steady evolution of our augmentation means, the development of "artificial intelligence" has been going on for centuries.
    1. This is a browser execution environment. It may provide additional built in objects exposed in the global namespace. It is a specialized execution environment which provides builtin capabilities beyond the base javascript language spec.
    2. This is a non-dom based javascript execution environment. It usually only contains the base javascript language spec libraries and objects along with modules to communicate with OS features (available through commonjs require).
    3. A tool which takes a plain javascript package and creates client usable files. It may include, but is not limited to: replacing modules or files with client versions (since the client may already provide the functionality), merging all the dependencies into a single file, etc.