67 Matching Annotations
  1. Feb 2019
    1. “the true benefit of the academy is the interaction, the accessto the debate, to the negotiation of knowledge—not to the stale cataloging of content

      Once this particular light goes on in one's head, it may be impossible to turn it off. Yet we still need the so-called "stale" cataloging of content. We need foundational knowledge. Perhaps the academy has just made its function (again) more visible under connectivism? And we are in a creative tension of sorts with knowledge cataloging as an end in itself?

  2. Jan 2019
    1. Reflective Design Strategies In addition shaping our principles or objectives, our foundational influences and case studies have also helped us articulate strategies for reflective design. The first three strategies identified here speak to characteristics of designs that encourage reflection by users. The second group of strategies provides ways for reflecting on the process of design.

      verbatim from subheads in this section

      1.Provide for interpretive flexibility.

      2.Give users license to participate.

      3.Provide dynamic feedback to users.

      4.Inspire rich feedback from users.

      5.Build technology as a probe.

      6.Invert metaphors and cross boundaries.

    2. Some Reflective Design Challenges

      The reflective design strategies offer potential design interventions but lack advice on how to evaluate them against each other.

      "Designing for appropriation requires recognizing that users already interact with technology not just on a superficial, task-centered level, but with an awareness of the larger social and cultural embeddedness of the activity."

    3. Principles of Reflective Design

      verbatim from subheads in this section

      1. Designers should use reflection to uncover and alter the limitations of design practice

      2. Designers should use reflection to re-understand their own role in the technology design process.

      3. Designers should support users in reflecting on their lives.

      4. Technology should support skepticism about and reinterpretation of its own working.

      5. Reflection is not a separate activity from action but is folded into it as an integral part of experience

      6. Dialogic engagement between designers and users through technology can enhance reflection.

    4. Reflective design, like reflection-in-action, advocates practicing research and design concomitantly, and not only as separate disciplines. We also subscribe to a view of reflection as a fully engaged interaction and not a detached assessment. Finally, we draw from the observation that reflection is often triggered by an element of surprise, where someone moves from knowing-in-action, operating within the status quo, to reflection-in-action, puzzling out what to do next or why the status quo has been disrupted

      Influences from reflection-in-action for reflective design values/methods.

    5. In this effort, reflection-in-action provides a ground for uniting theory and practice; whereas theory presents a view of the world in general principles and abstract problem spaces, practice involves both building within these generalities and breaking them down.

      A more improvisational, intuitive and visceral process of rethinking/challenging the initial design frame.

      Popular with HCI and CSCW designers

    6. CTP is a key method for reflective design, since it offers strategies to bring unconscious values to the fore by creating technical alternatives. In our work, we extend CTP in several ways that make it particularly appropriate for HCI and critical computing.

      Ways in which Senger, et al., describe how to extend CTP for HCI needs:

      • incorporate both designer/user reflection on technology use and its design

      • integrate reflection into design even when there is no specific "technical impasse" or metaphor breakdown

      • driven by critical concerns, not simply technical problems

    7. CTP synthesizes critical reflection with technology production as a way of highlighting and altering unconsciously-held assumptions that are hindering progress in a technical field.

      Definition of critical technical practice.

      This approach is grounded in AI rather than HCI

      (verbatim from the paper) "CTP consists of the following moves:

      • identifying the core metaphors of the field

      • noticing what, when working with those metaphors, remains marginalized

      • inverting the dominant metaphors to bring that margin to the center

      • embodying the alternative as a new technology

    8. Ludic design promotes engagement in the exploration and production of meaning, providing for curiosity, exploration and reflection as key values. In other words, ludic design focuses on reflection and engagement through the experience of using the designed object.

      Definition of ludic design.

      Offers a more playful approach than critical design.

    9. goal is to push design research beyond an agenda of reinforcing values of consumer culture and to instead embody cultural critique in designed artifacts. A critical designer designs objects not to do what users want and value, but to introduce both designers and users to new ways of looking at the world and the role that designed objects can play for them in it.

      Definition of critical design.

      This approach tends to be more art-based and intentionally provocative than a practical design method to inculcate a certain sensibility into the technology design process.

    10. value-sensitive design method (VSD). VSD provides techniques to elucidate and answer values questions during the course of a system's design.

      Definition of value-sensitive design.

      (verbatim from the paper)

      *"VSD employs three methods :

      • conceptual investigations drawing on moral philosophy, which identify stakeholders, fundamental values, and trade-offs among values pertinent to the design

      • empirical investigations using social-science methods to uncover how stakeholders think about and act with respect to the values involved in the system

      • technical investigations which explore the links between specific technical decisions and the values and practices they aid and hinder" *

    11. From participatory design, we draw several core principles, most notably the reflexive recognition of the politics of design practice and a desire to speak to the needs of multiple constituencies in the design process.

      Description of participatory design which has a more political angle than user-centered design, with which it is often equated in HCI

    12. PD strategies tend to be used to support existing practices identified collaboratively by users and designers as a design-worthy project. While values clashes between designers and different users can be elucidated in this collaboration, the values which users and designers share do not necessarily go examined. For reflective design to function as a design practice that opens new cultural possibilities, however, we need to question values which we may unconsciously hold in common. In addition, designers may need to introduce values issues which initially do not interest users or make them uncomfortabl

      Differences between participatory design practices and reflective design

    13. We define 'reflection' as referring tocritical reflection, orbringing unconscious aspects of experience to conscious awareness, thereby making them available for conscious choice. This critical reflection is crucial to both individual freedom and our quality of life in society as a whole, since without it, we unthinkingly adopt attitudes, practices, values, and identities we might not consciously espouse. Additionally, reflection is not a purely cognitive activity, but is folded into all our ways of seeing and experiencing the world.

      Definition of critical reflection

    14. Our perspective on reflection is grounded in critical theory, a Western tradition of critical reflection embodied in various intellectual strands including Marxism, feminism, racial and ethnic studies, media studies and psychoanalysis.

      Definition of critical theory

    15. ritical theory argues that our everyday values, practices, perspectives, and sense of agency and self are strongly shaped by forces and agendas of which we are normally unaware, such as the politics of race, gender, and economics. Critical reflection provides a means to gain some awareness of such forces as a first step toward possible change.

      Critical theory in practice

    16. We believe that, for those concerned about the social implications of the technologies we build, reflection itself should be a core technology design outcome for HCI. That is to say, technology design practices should support both designers and users in ongoing critical reflection about technology and its relationship to human life.

      Critical reflection can/should support designers and users.

  3. Dec 2018
    1. Outliers : All data sets have an expected range of values, and any actual data set also has outliers that fall below or above the expected range. (Space precludes a detailed discussion of how to handle outliers for statistical analysis purposes, see: Barnett & Lewis, 1994 for details.) How to clean outliers strongly depends on the goals of the analysis and the nature of the data.

      Outliers can be signals of unanticipated range of behavior or of errors.

    2. Understanding the structure of the data : In order to clean log data properly, the researcher must understand the meaning of each record, its associated fi elds, and the interpretation of values. Contextual information about the system that produced the log should be associated with the fi le directly (e.g., “Logging system recorded this fi le on 12-3-2012”) so that if necessary the specifi c code that gener-ated the log can be examined to answer questions about the meaning of the record before executing cleaning operations. The potential misinterpretations take many forms, which we illustrate with encoding of missing data and capped data values.

      Context of the data collection and how it is structured is also a critical need.

      Example, coding missing info as "0" risks misinterpretation rather than coding it as NIL, NDN or something distinguishable from other data

    3. Data transformations : The goal of data-cleaning is to preserve the meaning with respect to an intended analysis. A concomitant lesson is that the data-cleaner must track all transformations performed on the data .

      Changes to data during clean up should be annotated.

      Incorporate meta data about the "chain of change" to accompany the written memo

    4. Data Cleaning A basic axiom of log analysis is that the raw data cannot be assumed to correctly and completely represent the data being recorded. Validation is really the point of data cleaning: to understand any errors that might have entered into the data and to transform the data in a way that preserves the meaning while removing noise. Although we discuss web log cleaning in this section, it is important to note that these principles apply more broadly to all kinds of log analysis; small datasets often have similar cleaning issues as massive collections. In this section, we discuss the issues and how they can be addressed. How can logs possibly go wrong ? Logs suffer from a variety of data errors and distortions. The common sources of errors we have seen in practice include:

      Common sources of errors:

      • Missing events

      • Dropped data

      • Misplaced semantics (encoding log events differently)

    5. In addition, real world events, such as the death of a major sports fi gure or a political event can often cause people to interact with a site differently. Again, be vigilant in sanity checking (e.g., look for an unusual number of visitors) and exclude data until things are back to normal.

      Important consideration for temporal event RQs in refugee study -- whether external events influence use of natural disaster metaphors.

    6. Recording accurate and consistent time is often a challenge. Web log fi les record many different timestamps during a search interaction: the time the query was sent from the client, the time it was received by the server, the time results were returned from the server, and the time results were received on the client. Server data is more robust but includes unknown network latencies. In both cases the researcher needs to normalize times and synchronize times across multiple machines. It is common to divide the log data up into “days,” but what counts as a day? Is it all the data from midnight to midnight at some common time reference point or is it all the data from midnight to midnight in the user’s local time zone? Is it important to know if people behave differently in the morning than in the evening? Then local time is important. Is it important to know everything that is happening at a given time? Then all the records should be converted to a common time zone.

      Challenges of using time-based log data are similar to difficulties in the SBTF time study using Slack transcripts, social media, and Google Sheets

    7. Log Studies collect the most natural observations of people as they use systems in whatever ways they typically do, uninfl uenced by experimenters or observers. As the amount of log data that can be collected increases, log studies include many different kinds of people, from all over the world, doing many different kinds of tasks. However, because of the way log data is gathered, much less is known about the people being observed, their intentions or goals, or the contexts in which the observed behaviors occur. Observational log studies allow researchers to form an abstract picture of behavior with an existing system, whereas experimental log stud-ies enable comparisons of two or more systems.

      Benefits of log studies:

      • Complement other types of lab/field studies

      • Provide a portrait of uncensored behavior

      • Easy to capture at scale

      Disadvantages of log studies:

      • Lack of demographic data

      • Non-random sampling bias

      • Provide info on what people are doing but not their "motivations, success or satisfaction"

      • Can lack needed context (software version, what is displayed on screen, etc.)

      Ways to mitigate: Collecting, Cleaning and Using Log Data section

    8. Two common ways to partition log data are by time and by user. Partitioning by time is interesting because log data often contains signifi cant temporal features, such as periodicities (including consistent daily, weekly, and yearly patterns) and spikes in behavior during important events. It is often possible to get an up-to-the- minute picture of how people are behaving with a system from log data by compar-ing past and current behavior.

      Bookmarked for time reference.

      Mentions challenges of accounting for time zones in log data.

    9. An important characteristic of log data is that it captures actual user behavior and not recalled behaviors or subjective impressions of interactions.

      Logs can be captured on client-side (operating systems, applications, or special purpose logging software/hardware) or on server-side (web search engines or e-commerce)

    10. Table 1 Different types of user data in HCI research

    11. Large-scale log data has enabled HCI researchers to observe how information diffuses through social networks in near real-time during crisis situations (Starbird & Palen, 2010 ), characterize how people revisit web pages over time (Adar, Teevan, & Dumais, 2008 ), and compare how different interfaces for supporting email organi-zation infl uence initial uptake and sustained use (Dumais, Cutrell, Cadiz, Jancke, Sarin, & Robbins, 2003 ; Rodden & Leggett, 2010 ).

      Wide variety of uses of log data

    12. Behavioral logs are traces of human behavior seen through the lenses of sensors that capture and record user activity.

      Definition of log data

    1. The distinct sorts of questions asked of science and design manifest the different kinds of accountability that apply to each - that is, the expectations of what activities must be defended and how, and by extension the ways narratives (accounts) are legitimately formed about each endeavour.science is defined by epistemological accountability, in which the essential requirement is to be able to explain and defend the basis of one’s claimed knowledge. Design, in contrast, works with aesthetic accountability, where ‘aesthetic’ refers to how satisfactory the composition of multiple design features are (as opposed to how ‘beautiful’ it might be). The requirement here is to be able to explain and defend – or, more typically, to demonstrate –that one’s design works.

      Scientific accountability >> epistemological

      Design accountability >> aesthetic

    2. The issue of whether something ‘works’ goes beyond questions of technical or practical efficacy to address a host of social, cultural, aesthetic and ethical concerns.

      Intent is the critical factor for design work, not its function.

    3. To be sure, the topicality, novelty or potential benefits of a given line of research might help it attract notice and support, butscientific researchfundamentally stands or falls on the thoroughness with which activities and reasoning can be tied together. You just can’t get in the game without a solid methodology.

      Methodology is the critical factor for scientific study, not the result.

    1. Embodied Interaction is interaction with computer systems that occupy our world, a world of physical and social reality, and that exploit this fact in how they interact with us

      Definition of embodied interaction

    1. Specifically, I am concerned with the design and evaluation of interactive systems that are imbued with sensitivity to the central commitments of feminism—agency, fulfillment, identity and the self, equity, empowerment, diversity, and social justice. I also seek to improve understanding of how gender identities and relations shape both the use of interac-tive technologies and their design. Additionally, feminist HCI entails critical perspectives that could help reveal un-spoken values within HCI’s dominant research and design paradigms and underpin the development of new ap-proaches, methods and design variations.

      Definition of Feminist HCI.

      Application to interaction technologies and design

      Critical perspectives to help drive "new approaches, methods, and design variations."

  4. Nov 2018
    1. The results of the paired-groups experimental study proves "are interpreted as being supportive for the interactionist perspective on SLA, especially the importance of attention". The study focuses on the acquisition of lexical meaning through negotiated interaction on NNS-NNS synchronous CMC. Check into Long's Interaction Hypothesis.

      The benefits of CMA in language learning: interactionist perspective.

    1. "Researchers have found that cognitive interactionist and sociocultural SLA theories offer a means of interpreting prior research on CALL and suggest a point of departure for designing future studies of CALL activities that are based on human–computer interaction and computer-mediated communication."

      Chapelle. C. A 2007. theories expand from interactionist to cognitive interactionist and sociocultural theory cognitive interactionist: Human-computer interaction. sociocultural: CMC (Computer-Mediated Communication)

    1. The Interaction Approach and CMC (Bryan Smith): The Interaction Approach(IA) in second language acquisition studies suggests that there is a link between interaction and learning. This approach focuses on three major components of interaction — exposure (input), production (output), and feedback. Many CALL researchers have adopted this theoretical perspective in exploring the relationship between CMC and instructed second language acquisition, exploiting many of the argued affordances offered by this medium in relation to the key tenets of the IA. This paper will provide a conceptual overview of the IA and explore specifically how CALL researchers have sought to study SLA from this theoretical perspective. We will discuss several methodological hurdles facing researchers engaged in this type of research and will offer some suggested strategies for conducting sound SLA/CALL research from an IA.

      the interaction approach overlaps with psycholinguistic approach under the cognitive theory

  5. Oct 2018
  6. idyll-lang.org idyll-lang.org
    1. A toolkit for creating data-driven stories and explorable explanations.

      Markup language for creating data driven stories

  7. Apr 2018
  8. Mar 2018
    1. Where do they speak about the ups and downs of human existence in academic publications?


    1. The serendipity of networked practice together with a heightened attention to the importance of protecting the place of human interaction in education resulted in many conference presentations and publications

      Reflective practice, research, publication

  9. Nov 2017
    1. Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT)  PCIT works with parents and children together, teaching them skills to interact in a positive, productive way. It is effective for kids between the ages of 2 and 7, and usually requires 14 to 17 weekly sessions. In PCIT, parents receive live coaching (via a bug in the ear) from a therapist who watches from behind a one-way mirror as they and their child perform a series of tasks, and parents practice specific responses to both desired and undesired behavior. PCIT is the most practice-intensive, Dr. Rouse says, as parents demonstrate mastery of each skill before going on to the next one. “It starts out with positive interactions, then waits till parents reach mastery of these skills before moving on to discipline strategies to improve oppositional behavior.” Dr. Rouse says he might propose PCIT if he feels that the parents need a lot of one-on-one attention in terms of how they’re interacting with their child, and “especially if it feels like there have been a lot of coercive negative interactions.” Sometimes it’s very important for parents, he adds, “to learn how to be with their kid in a positive way.” He adds that he doesn’t always suggest PCIT even if the child falls within PCIT’s age range. “It’s not just age, it’s looking at the situation. If there needs to be a really strong dose of positive interactions as the first thing and the child is under 7, I’ll lean more toward PCIT.”
    1. They pulled it off by hiding a fast typist (with a keyboard) in another room. The microphone output was fed to a speaker, and the hidden typist translated the speech into keystrokes which appeared as text on the monitor with amazing speed and accuracy.

      This reminds me of the Mechanical Turk a fake chess-playing machine from the 18th century. This is called a mechanical illusion.

    2. He carried the block of wood with him for a few weeks and pretended that it was a functional device in order to get insights into how he would use it. If someone asked for a meeting, for example, he’d pull out the block and tap on it to simulate checking his calendar and to schedule a meeting reminder.

      This is an excellent way of researching how this "pretotype" would integrate into ones life. However for this simulation to make any sense I guess one would have to have a pretty clear idea of what it means to "check your calendar", "set a meeting reminder", etc. Playing our the interactions, also means having an idea of the actions they would involve.

  10. Sep 2017
    1. Plot a course through the genome Inspired by Google Maps, a suite of tools is allowing researchers to chart the complex conformations of chromosomes.

      mentioned tools are focused on (capture) Hi-C data

  11. Jun 2017
    1. Technologists are not noted for learning from the errors of the past. They look forward, not behind, so they repeat the same problems over and over again.”

      History of computational thinking.

  12. Apr 2017
    1. communication, community, and interaction

      Communication: the imparting or exchanging of information or news; means of connection between people or places, in particular. Interaction: reciprocal action or influence. At first glance, these words tend to have similar meanings or be sub categories of each other. I just found odd and interesting that Bay/Rickert chose both words rather than one or the other.

  13. Feb 2017
    1. When dealing with technology, there are two dominant discourses that permeate research and practice: determinism and non-determinism. For the former discourse, ethics is only an issue for the designers of technology, because they determine what users should do; for the latter, ethics is only an issue for users, because they ultimately define what to do with technology. Both

      So determinism makes the designer responsible/hold accountable assuming they "determine" what users "should" do,

      while non-determinism absolves the designer leaving the burden of responsibility of the consequence of interactions, on the user. So non determinism assums that the embedded characteristics don't work on the user, or that he is able to resist their encouragement or discouragement. That he can shape the aspects of those certain characteristics than the other way around, thereby ultimately defining what to do with the technology.

    2. We argue that artifacts support human behavior by providing adaptations, but these adaptations can expand or restrict human actions.

      Those adaptations are also framed under the guise of fulfilling the prime objective of fulfilling the business needs, i.e to compete for market share, increase profit margins or simply, "Will this make "them" give "us" more money?. This objective is constrained to view humans in the identity of consumer. It is through this identity we derive the canvas of needs which our bosses and their bosses let us create adaptations.

      Many designers are limited to designing a set of adaptations in their artifacts by what markets signals as profitable. Those who are fortunate enough to work in non-profits or worker coops may have more freedom to resist the unethical demands of the market forces.

  14. Jun 2016
    1. The fact that we joke about it documents an acceptance of a culture of abuse online. It helps normalize online harassment campaigns and treat the empowerment of abusers as inevitable, rather than solvable.
    1. The money is an investment for opportunity. You paid for a live audience and the hope that this entertainer will make your dreams—whatever they are—come true and nobody is going to stop you, not even the artist themselves.
  15. Apr 2016
  16. Mar 2016
    1. What kinds of objects and subjects do interaction design practices make, and how do those practices produce them?

      The question could also be re-framed as what experiences of our lives do the objects of interaction design encapsulate?

  17. Feb 2016
    1. narratives of emotional and social journeys from being at academic risk in high schools to being academically successful in universities academic experiences.

      These are indeed the stories we need to hear, and the data that needs to be collected -- how ever she drew data from narratives.