166 Matching Annotations
  1. Oct 2020
    1. The Golden Question: What Motivates Adult Learners?  You have to persuade adult learners to rearrange their busy schedule and make time to take your eLearning courses. But it is easier said than done. Motivating adult learners can be quite a challenge unless you know what makes them tick and what compels them to prioritize and take action. Below are some clues.

      Engaging adult learners requires an understanding of their motives. Tapping the motivation of the individual learner is the key to fostering high engagement levels. This article offers four key areas to consider and take action on. Rating 8/10

    1. While our program still faces some challenges around engaging our students and keeping them enrolled in programs long enough to complete their goals, technology has allowed us to make some remarkable strides.

      A school system that extends to adult education utilizes online apps as an option (but doesn't require internet access, as many people lack it at home). They have found them to be helpful, especially because people who work odd shift jobs and have burst of time at odd hours can get some practice in. This is most helpful for ESL learners. 6/10

    1. Therefore, practitioners need to be cognisant of the important role they play in influenc-ing learner motivation when designing learning activities. Most importantly, the relevance and value of the task (e.g., online discussions) need to be clearly identified and linked to learning objectives to help learners understand how the activity can aid in the realisation of personal goals, aspirations, and interests, both in the short and longer term.

      Based on research and two small scale case studies, some students in online learning are intrinsically motivated, but others need to be motivated by the teacher and material. External influences such as deadlines and grades also influenced student motivation. Identified regulation, that is, knowing why the activity is valuable and important, make a very big difference in student motivation. This brings us back to the andragogical idea that the assignments should involve real-world situations and be applicable to students' lives. 9/10

    1. Wiki Use that Increases Communication and Collaboration Motivation

      (Click on download full text to read.) Through a cooperative learning assignment, University students responded to a case study that implemented use of a Wiki. Results demonstrate that Wiki is an effective communication and collaboration tool (access, structure, versioning) for all individuals (introvert, extrovert). Recommendations and considerations for use in the learning environment were provided. 6/10

    1. How To Make Online Corporate Learning Fun During Lockdown

      (Available in text or audio.) This article provides basic principles (agenda, duration) and technologies (gamification, discussion boards) and activities to keep employees engaged in online learning. While this provides strategy, it does not provide implementation guidance within the corporate environment. (2/10)

    1. The primary motivation behind virtual-dom is to allow us to write code independent of previous state. So when our application state changes we will generate a new VTree. The diff function creates a set of DOM patches that, based on the difference between the previous VTree and the current VTree, will update the previous DOM tree to match the new VTree.

      annotation meta: may need new tag: for: "code independent of previous state."

      annotation meta: may need new tag: for: diffs other than source/text code diffs (in this case diffs between virtual DOM trees)

  2. Sep 2020
    1. Face To Face with MIKE SHINODA

      (16:14)

      Mike Shinoda discussing the idea from Stephen King's book "On Writing":

      "You should write every day, even if it's torturous, even if you hate it, you sit down and say: "this is not what I wanna be doing, I'm not in the mood, I've got too many things going on". But you should do it anyway, cause it keeps your creative muscles strong, and eventually, even on the bad day, you can come up with something that's remarkable and surprising that you can use later."

    1. Poems are the perfect way to tell someone you love them.

      Poems can also be used to express yourself or to motivate others into a great path not only just to express love.

    1. It turns out that during a meeting, he asked them how long it would take to remove staff cars from the lot and start digging the first hole for the Boring Company tunnel. The answer: two weeks. Musk asked why, and when he gathered the necessary information, he concluded, “Let’s get started today and see what’s the biggest hole we can dig between now and Sunday afternoon, running 24 hours a day.” Within three hours, the cars were gone and there was a hole in the ground.

      The way Elon Musks motivates his employees

  3. Aug 2020
    1. Instead of avoiding anything hard, let's turn down the difficulty dial by focusing on small steps.

      If you lack the ability to do something hard, break it into smaller steps

    2. The important part is not only to know the reason, but to feel it, to get excited about it. How to do that? Link the task to a personal goal that you want to achieve. Attach exciting reasons to the task.

      Bad example: Write a thesis

      Good examples:

      • Write a thesis to successfully complete a degree and do cutting-edge research.
      • Write a thesis to deepen your understanding of a subject and get recognized by others in your field.
      • Write a thesis to help others see things more clearly and make progress.
    3. We feel motivated when we viscerally feel how an action is meaningful, or valuable to us and when we believe we can take it

      Where motivation comes from.

      If you don't feel motivated, remind yourself why you planned to do this task

    4. According to FBM, there are three things we need to do something

      Fogg Behavior Model says that we need 3 things at the same time to do something

      • motivation
      • ability
      • trigger

    1. The results suggest that at best, our combination of leaderboards, badges, and competition mechanics do not improve educationaloutcomes and at worst can harm motivation, satisfaction, and empowerment. Further, in decreasing intrinsic motivation, it can affectstudents'final exam scores.

      lowering intrinsic motivation can be harmful to course outcomes.

    2. The results show that course type directly affects intrinsic motivation (apath), where those in the gamified group have lower intrinsic motivation scores,a¼.30, 95% CI [.60,.01], and that higher intrinsicmotivation leads to higher scores on thefinal exam regardless of condition,b¼4.59; 95% CI [.41, 8.77]. However, there is no direct effect forcondition onfinal exam score when holding intrinsic motivation constant,c¼2.15; 95% CI [3.20, 7.50]. Despite a lack of evidence for adirect effect, it is still possible that course type affectsfinal exam scores indirectly via intrinsic motivation.

      intrinsic motivation is tied to course performance. But course type is not significant when intrinsic motivation is held constant.

    3. Although participants did not differ at Time 1, at Time 2 motivation for the control group escalated significantly and wasmaintained at Time 3. For the leaderboard group, motivation dropped significantly at Time 2. At Time 3, it remained unchanged and was stillsignificantly lower than the control condition.H2was supported.

      those participating in the gamified course decreased in intrinsic motivation and maintained this decrease over time

    4. Participants completed the intrinsic motivation inventory (Ryan, Koestner,&Deci,1991), which contains 22 items such as“I felt like I wasdoing what I wanted to do while I was working on the task”and“I felt that it was my choice to do the task.”Items were measured on a 7-point Likert scale from 1 (strongly disagree)to7(strongly agree; Cronbacha¼.86).
    5. Individuals using a badge system are often initially interested in the task (e.g.,reading), receive something tangible in the form of a badge they can view and show others, and are able to see the requirements forreceiving a badge and thus are not surprised when they earn one.

      don't give rewards for things people are already interested in doing

    6. offering tangible, expected rewards to individuals whoare already interested in a topic may cause them to shift motivations from intrinsic (i.e., because they wanted to) to extrinsic (i.e., becausethey want to earn a reward;Lepper et al., 1973). When the reward is present, one may be interested in completing the task, but once thereward is removed one will no longer have a reason to perform a behavior (Lepper et al., 1973).
    7. Cognitive evaluation theory (Deci&Ryan, 1985)predicts that external events can shape one's intrinsic motivation (i.e., doing it because one wants to, and not due to outside pressures) basedon whether individuals process those events as informational or controlling. If a reward provided for a task is seen as an informational, thenit will make one feel competent and in control, leading to higher intrinsic motivation. If a reward is seen as controlling, it makes one feelpowerless and incompetent, decreasing intrinsic motivation. Studies have shown that giving rewards for a task one alreadyfinds interestingends up harming motivation to do that task (Deci et al.,1999, 2001; Lepper, Greene,&Nisbett,1973). Thus, although there may be benefits togamification, it is also important to examine potential drawbacks as it may hamper the motivation educators are trying to cultivate.
    8. creating a gamified system alone was insufficient to cause an increase in these behavioral measures; rather, it depended onindividual users' interest levels (Hamari, 2013)

      pre-existing motivation makes a difference in performance.

  4. Jul 2020
  5. Jun 2020
  6. May 2020
    1. Research on motivation makes a distinction between two motivational systems. The approach system engages when people pursue a goal to achieve a desirable outcome. The avoidance system engages when people pursue a goal to avert some threat or calamity.

      approach: seek pleasure avoidance: avoid pain

  7. Apr 2020
    1. Pfattheicher, Stefan, Laila Nockur, Robert Böhm, Claudia Sassenrath, und Michael Bang Petersen. „The emotional path to action: Empathy promotes physical distancing during the COVID-19 pandemic“. Preprint. PsyArXiv, 23. März 2020. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/y2cg5.

  8. Mar 2020
  9. Feb 2020
    1. Spiritualität und Mystik wurden dem platten Rationalismus und hysterischen Materialismus entgegengestellt.
    1. There are two things that you can help me out: time and motivation. This is the place where you can find out how to do that.
  10. Jan 2020
    1. Your idea should stem from solving someone’s problem. Ideally, your own problem. It’s important that you choose an idea which interests you. Interest is key to fuelling motivation which is crucial when making a web app. It takes effort building web apps and it’s important you have fun during the process.
    1. When you get tired of thinking about a piece of work and feeling bad for not finishing it yet, go "screw it, let's do it" and start with something, anything.

      One way of starting to do what we postpone

    2. When you know that you don't have to make the greatest thing ever right from the start, it's easier to start. And then it's easier to continue.

      Apply the MVP principle to start doing

    1. Look over your list. Do they contain words like published, awarded, graduated, built, founded or created? Or do they contain mostly adjectives like nice, caring, loving, honest and smart? If you’re in the first sentence it’s likely you’re an SC. If the majority of your responses are in the second sentence you are likely an RC.

      The difference is if listing egocentric stuff (I'm impressive and I feel better than others, I feel worthy for myself itself) or listing qualities that influence the surrounding world (I do social work to help refugees, I published a theory to improve the current state of philosophy, I completed a project or a school, I created something that now generates some kind of value).

      The Replication Creators are creative just for themselves, so they get just short-term rewards.

      The Skilled Creators are creative for the sharing with the others, so they get long-term rewards.

  11. Dec 2019
  12. Nov 2019
    1. Empowering Education: A New Model for In-service Training of Nursing Staff

      This research article explores an andragogical method of learning for the in-service training of nurses. In a study of a training period for 35 nurses, research found an empowering model of education that was characterized by self-directed learning and practical learning. This model suggests active participation, motivation, and problem-solving as key indicators of effective training for nurses. Rating 8/10

    1. Learning Domains

      This website provides several examples of domains adults may learn in or engage with. By clicking on each type, you are redirected to a detailed description of the domain. Descriptions include, but are not limited to, definitions, theories and research behind the topic, and real-world examples. You can also find references used in the description, which can be helpful for further exploration. This InstructionalDesign.org website also provides extensive lists of learning concepts (i.e. motivation, personalized learning, storyboard, etc.) and theories (i.e. Adult Learning Theory, Social Learning, Constructivism, etc.). Each learning theory link provides a theoretical definition, applications, examples, key principles, references, and related websites. Rating 10/10.

  13. Oct 2019
    1. establish

      Establishing relationships is key. One way to build trust is to share why you are asking students to do something, and how it applies to them not just in the course but in real life. This also could lead to motivation...

  14. Aug 2019
    1. With Suspense, you have the ability to suspend component rendering while async data is being loaded. You can pause any state update until the data is ready, and you can add async loading to any component deep in the tree without plumbing all the props and state through your app and hoisting the logic.
    1. This has a scientific basis: Robert Cialdini’s principle of consistency stipulates that when someone takes a small action or step towards something, they feel more compelled to finish.
  15. May 2019
  16. Mar 2019
    1. How to Design Education for Adults

      This wonderful how-to by Southern New Hampshire University provided several well explained tips about what adults need in their learning environments, including their own learning theory, goals, relevant instruction, treatment by the teacher, and participation. These are important things to keep in mind when training working adults because it may have an impact on what information is offered and how it is presented. I will use the information in this article later to help me present content in a meaningful way for my working adult learners. I want the content to be as relevant and inviting to them as possible. 9/10

    1. Adults & Learning: How to Provide for Working Professionals

      The Digital Marketing Institute published this article to help those who provide training for professional adults. It echoes a lot of what I've read in other articles about teaching adults: The goals are different, and they have different needs from the instructor than children do. I liked that this article mentioned that many professional adults find technology to be a barrier, but I wish there were more information about it. The article discussed several of the biggest challenges for adult learners, which was a nice change from the quintessential adult learner article that focuses on what learners need. I also want to know what they don't need. Some of the barriers to learning include a lack of time, responsibilities, financial stressors, fear of technology, and trouble identifying the ideal learning path. 8/10

    1. Engaging  Adult  Learners

      This article discusses some attributes that are unique to adult learners, such as that their learning is selective, self-directed, and often focused on solving problems. Therefore, it is important that instructors enable students to be autonomous and show them why it is important. Often in my instructional design, I start with the WIIFM (What's In It For Me?). This article supports my idea that my adult learners will choose to learn when it can solve a problem for them. This article also discusses active learning from an adult perspective, such as Socratic teaching. 9/10

    1. Overview of Learning Theories

      The Berkeley Graduate Division published an interesting and straightforward table of learning theories. The table compares behaviorism, cognitive constructivism, and social constructivism in four ways: the view of knowledge, view of learning, view of motivation, and implications for teaching. This is an easy-to-read, quick resource for those who would like a side-by-side comparison of common theories. 9/10

    1. This page describes a method of teaching designed specifically for adults. The instructional design theory is Keller's "ARCS," which stands for attention, relevance, confidence, and satisfaction--all features that adult learning experiences should be characterized by. The text on this page is readable but the popups and graphics are a bit annoying. rating 3/5

  17. Jan 2019
    1. The desire to assist in disaster events in some way is broad [12, 18], but the mechanisms for enabling action in the form of on-line work or commitment, as with other causes, can beunclear [22, 28, 30].

      Evokes Kittur et al's work on intrinsic and extrinsic motivations -- check to see what these papers actually cited

    2. Following Orlikowski [29], this analysis unites both practice-based [35]and structurational-basedinterpretations of coordination and social organization [8] to understand the nature of collective work in large, distributed,and emergent groups—groups that havesome existing common motivation to help but have little prior precedent for how that work might be conducted[21]

      Get Orlikowski's paper to demystify Gidden's work on structuration theory.

    3. In the domain of pet advocacy, the latent potential for crowd interaction comes fromintrinsic and extrinsic motivations—we focus on how that potentialwas transformed intoa viable form of distributed, decentralized cooperative work.

      Evokes Kittur, et al's work on peer production/crowd motivation

  18. Dec 2018
    1. Years of traditional education teaches students that what really matters is their grades, not their learning. Students know that while teachers might give lipspeak to “learning,” in the end, the grade is what everyone — teachers, parents, administrators, other students, and society at large — cares about.
    1. Working hard requires opportunity and encouragement in addition to intrinsic desire — indeed, opportunity and encouragement can often spark that intrinsic desire.

      This is crucial. Too often we talk about "intrinsic motivation" (and "grit" and "resilience"...) is if they were solely the province of the student, as if we don't bear any responsibility for the environment in which these qualities are expressed (or are not).

  19. Nov 2018
    1. Use of Slack in a FACE-TO-FACE class and how much it increased interaction; brings up a point that concerns me and that's what happens when the instructor/TA appear to be available 24/7 given the nature of Slack; good exploration of motivating students to use it (4/5)

  20. Sep 2018
    1. The UbD framework helps focus curriculum and teaching on the develop-ment and deepening of student understanding and transfer of learning (i.e., the ability to effectively use content knowledge and skill)

      When students have a deep understanding they can make connections and when they see that learning can be applied to the real world we have more motivated learners. I feel if students are motivated their ideas and capabilities are boundless. I believe having motivated learners should be a huge part of education, allowing kids to see their potential and how connections can be made.

  21. Aug 2018
    1. Motivations

      Details the wide ranging possibilities around motivation.

    2. Motivation and Purpose

      More on motivation as potentially expressed within the standard.

    3. The intent behind the creation of an Annotation or the inclusion of a particular Body or Target is an important property and represented by a Motivation resource.

      When looking at annotation as an engagement metric, it is important to understand the motivation of the person creating the annotation. This is anticipated in the model.

    1. Peer production successfully elicits contributions from diverse individu-als with diverse motivations – a quality that continues to distinguish it fromsimilar forms of collective intelligence

      Benkler makes a really bold statement here about how peer production differs from collective intelligence. Not sure I buy this argument.

      Brabner on crowdsourcing:

    2. Resolving the tensions between different motivations and incentives presentsa design challenge for peer production systems and other collective intelli-gence platforms. The complex interdependence of motivations, incentive sys-tems, and the social behaviors that distinct system designs elicit has led Krautand Resnick (2012) to call for evidence-based social design and Benkler (2009,2011) for cooperative human system design.

      Benkler cites research where incentives clash re: "material and prosocial rewards". Also, motivations can be temporally-based which demands flexibility in the incentive system as participants' reasons to contribute change and habits/practices/norms become entrenched.

    3. Evidence from this newer body of research shows that motivations are di-versewithincontributors and that different contributors have different mixesof motivations.

      Because motives are diverse and often entangled between intrinsic and extrinsic motives, as well as within/between different groups of participants, designing incentive systems is tricky. Recent research has found that impacts/effects of one type of incentive can't be separated from impacts/effects on other motivational drivers.

    4. The most important insight provided by some of this newer workis that contributors act for different reasons, and that theories based on a sin-gle uniform motivational model are likely to mischaracterize the motivationaldynamics.

      Field and lab experiments have found that motives are not uniform, are complex, vary due to contextual factors, involve social signaling, and have some temporal qualities.

    5. In particular, these neweraccounts have focused on social status, peer effects, prosocial altruism, groupidentification, and related social psychological dimensions of group behavior

      Again, tracking with organizational studies, intrinsic and extrinsic social psychological characteristics have been the focus of more recent work exploring motivations.

      See: https://drive.google.com/drive/folders/1H0_DTmOspYZ3EwDJGVkBU2RaFeiibr6w?ogsrc=32

    6. hat said, a growing number of stud-ies also suggest that these motives interact with each other in unpredictableways and, as a result, are vulnerable to “crowding out” when the introduc-tion of extrinsic incentives undermines intrinsic motivation

      As in the organizational studies of peer production, motivation studies have been conducted increasingly through ethnographic observational and field studies.

      Benkler notes that the varied rationales and patterns for participating in peer production are not singular, and "interact with each other in unpredictable ways."

      Intrinsic motivations (internal rewards) tend to give way to extrinsic motivations (external rewards or consequence avoidance)

    7. Other foundational research on motivation in peer production by Lernerand Schankerman (2010) and others has explored why organizations, firmsand governments, rather than individual users, choose to participate in opensource software.

      More recent motivational studies have focused on organizations' motives for engaging in FLOSS projects as a means to innovate, build knowledge/learning capacity, diversify sources and collaborate.

    8. Despite their differences in emphasis,scope, and genre, all of these surveys support the claim that motivations inpeer production are diverse and heterogeneous.

      Survey studies are widely used in peer production research.

      Observational/ethnographic have also been used to study participants. Results also reflected that motives were varied but also seem to indicate that participants self-selected their projects, collaborators, and specific production roles.

    9. Frequently cited motivations in foundational work by theseauthors, von Hippel and von Krogh (2003), von Krogh (2003), and others in-cluded: the use value of the software to the contributing developer; the hedo-nic pleasure of building software; the increased human capital, reputation,or employment prospects; and social status within a community of peers.Other early accounts analyzing examples of peer production beyond FLOSSsuggested additional motivations. For example, Kollock (1999) emphasizedreciprocity, reputation, a sense of efficacy, and collective identity as salientsocial psychological drivers of contribution to online communities and fo-rums.

      Per Benkler, social psychology constructs (individual behavior, feelings, and thoughts within a social context) offer better descriptions for understanding peer production motivations than economic theory.

      Cited studies in this passage are from:

      CSCW (Beenen, HICSS (Forte and Bruckman), ACM (Nov) GROUP (Panciera) Psychology (Rafarli and Ariel) Social Psychology (Cheshire) CMC (Cheshire and Antin) Law (Benkler) Open Source (Coleman and Hill) MIS (von Krogh et al)

    10. A second quality of peer production that challenged conventional economictheories of motivation and cooperation was the absence of clear extrinsic in-centives like monetary rewards. Traditional economic explanations of behav-ior rely on the assumption of a fundamentally self-interested actor mobilizedthrough financial or other incentives. In seeking to explain how peer produc-tion projects attract highly skilled contributors without money, much of theliterature on peer production has focused on questions of participant moti-vation.

      Peer production contrasts with other forms of labor in its varied non-monetary/economic incentives. Early research on participant motives was grounded in longstanding economic theory/frameworks about self-interested actors.

      The economic approach makes sense, however. Without prior work in peer production, attempting to apply/extend other labor frameworks would be an appropriate evaluation technique.

    11. A newer wave of work has stepped back from this approachand sought to explain how multiple motivational “vectors” figure in the cre-ation of common pool resources online – an approach that underscores a coreadvantage of peer production in its capacity to enable action without requir-ing translation into a system of formalized, extrinsic, carrots and sticks.

      Recent studies of motivation to participate in peer production consider a broader range of decentralized incentives.

      See Kraut et al (2012): http://wendynorris.com/kraut-et-al-2012-building-successful-online-communities-evidence-based-social-design/

  22. Jul 2018
    1. I saw Eliot Higgins present in Paris in early January, and he listed four ‘Ps’ which helped explain the different motivations. I’ve been thinking about these a great deal and using Eliot’s original list have identified four additional motivations for the creation of this type of content: Poor Journalism, Parody, to Provoke or ‘Punk’, Passion, Partisanship, Profit, Political Influence or Power, and Propaganda.This is a work in progress but once you start breaking these categories down and mapping them against one another you begin to see distinct patterns in terms of the types of content created for specific purposes.
    2. To understand the current information ecosystem, we need to break down three elements:The different types of content that are being created and sharedThe motivations of those who create this contentThe ways this content is being disseminated
  23. Jun 2018
    1. In hindsight, I read these acts as cries for help, a kind of academic self-medication. I was bored, not because I’d mastered the required material – I got more than my share of non-A grades – but because the things I was asked to do were generally uninspiring. Perhaps nothing was more uninspiring than preparing for an AP exam.
  24. May 2018
  25. Apr 2018
    1. the right to exclude is not a necessary incentive – it is but one way to secure money in exchange for the fruits of one’s labor

      Agreed. Then again, pointing this out does little for the creative professionals for whom we expressed great concern at the opening of this piece.

  26. Sep 2017
    1. An overwhelming number of companies (64%) indicated that their number one reason for implementing social tools is to support a culture of learning. The next two main motivations are to encourage collaboration and innovation (54%) and connect employees to organization experts (42%).

      Main motivation for adoption of workplace social learning tools.

  27. Jun 2017
  28. Mar 2017
    1. I joined #clmooc for fun. 

      Emotion Motivation