207 Matching Annotations
  1. Feb 2021
    1. ActiveModel::Form happened because the "tableless model" presented in RailsCast 219 wasn't as powerful as the "real deal" from RailsCast 193.
    1. Yes, you do face difficult choices (moral) but you don't care about it. All you care are the reputation bars. So... Let's kill this guy, who cares if he is innocent, but this faction needs it or I'm dead. Sounds great on paper but to be honest... you just sit there and do whatever for these reputation bars. If you won't, then you lose
    1. Part of me thinks that open source can be more rewarding to the creators/contributors. But maybe the real contribution is the permanent addition to the tools available to humanity, and if you have the wits, you can make a decent business out of it without tainting open source.
    1. To prompt this kind of revolution in your own life, Rose and Ogas suggest creating a micromotive, or a goal tailored to an extremely specific activity that truly inspires you. For example, when Korinne Belock left her job as a political aide to form Urban Simplicity, a firm that declutters and redesigns homes and offices, her micromotive was “organizing physical space.” Note that she didn’t say “doing something creative” or “starting my own business.” Those declarations are too general and fuzzy to be acted on. Instead, she identified a task that sparked within her an outsized amount of curiosity and pleasure and used it as her guide.

      To escape a boring and unfulfilled life, create a micromotive, where we tailor an extremely specific activity that burns the spirit inside you.

  2. Jan 2021
    1. As humans we have the capacity to think about what we do and make conscious decisions—what may be termed ‘reflective motivation’. So, apart from wants and needs, there are thought processes that create and compare evaluations: beliefs about what is beneficial or harmful and right or wrong. These processes underlie our conscious decision-making, when we weigh up the costs and benefits of courses of action or work out solutions to problems. We also have the capacity to plan ahead, and these plans form much of the structure of our behaviour over the course of minutes, hours, days, weeks and years.

      İnsanlar olarak ne yaptığımız hakkında düşünme ve bilinçli kararlar verme kapasitesine sahibiz— buna 'yansıtıcı motivasyon' denebilir. Yani, istek ve ihtiyaçların dışında, değerlendirmeleri yaratan ve karşılaştıran düşünce süreçleri vardır: neyin faydalı, zararlı, neyin doğru ya da yanlış olduğuna dair inançlar. Bu süreçler, eylem kurslarının maliyetlerini ve faydalarını tartdığımız veya sorunlara çözüm çalıştığımızda bilinçli karar verme sürecimizin temelini oluşturur. Biz de önceden planlamak için kapasiteye sahip, ve bu planlar dakika, saat, gün, hafta ve yıl boyunca davranış yapısının çok oluşturur.

    2. Potentially competing impulses and inhibitions are controlled by instinct and habit processes, plus any motives (wants or needs) that are present at the time. Wants and needs are generated by feelings of anticipated pleasure or satisfaction and of anticipated relief from discomfort or drive states. All of this makes up our ‘automatic’ motivation.

      Potansiyel olarak rekabet eden dürtüler ve engellemeler, içgüdü ve alışkanlık süreçlerinin yanı sıra o sırada mevcut olan her türlü dürtü (istek veya ihtiyaç) tarafından kontrol edilir. İstekler ve ihtiyaçlar, beklenen zevk veya tatmin duyguları ve rahatsızlık veya dürtü durumlarından beklenen rahatlama duyguları tarafından üretilir. Tüm bunlar "otomatik" motivasyonumuzu oluşturuyor

    1. Motivation refers to all those processes, conscious and unconscious, that energiseand direct behaviour. The model distinguishes between reflective and automaticprocesses. Reflective motivation refers to the conscious plans, beliefs, desires andintentions that influence behaviour, such as the specific intentions to behave in waysthat are consistent with an individual’s beliefs about their identity. Automaticmotivation refers to the largely unconscious influences that shape behaviour, suchas emotional reactions (e.g. the experience of guilt or shame if found to be doing anunsafe behaviour), impulses, inhibitions and drive states such as hunger and thirst,and habits (e.g. reaching for a lever that is typically on a certain side)

      Motivasyon tüm bu süreçleri ifade eder, bilinçli ve bilinçsiz, bu enerji ve doğrudan davranış. Model yansıtıcı ve otomatik süreçleri ayırt eder. Yansıtıcı motivasyon, davranışları etkileyen bilinçli planlar, inançlar, arzular ve niyetleri ifade eder, örneğin bireyin kimliği hakkındaki inançlarına uygun şekilde davranma niyetleri gibi. Otomatik motivasyon, duygusal tepkiler (örneğin, güvensiz bir davranışta bulunduğunda suçluluk veya utanç deneyimi), dürtüler, çekinmeler ve açlık ve susuzluk gibi dürtüler ve dürtüdurumları ve alışkanlıklar (örn. genellikle belirli bir tarafta olan bir kola ulaşmak) gibi davranışları şekillendiren büyük ölçüde bilinçsiz etkileranlamına gelir.

    1. reflective and automatic motivation (i.e. all the brain processes that energize and direct behaviour, including goals, emotional responses, analytical decision-making, and habitual processes).

      yansıtıcı ve otomatik motivasyon (yani hedefler, duygusal tepkiler, analitik karar verme ve alışılmış süreçler dahil olmak üzere davranışları harekete geçiren ve yönlendiren tüm beyin süreçleri).

    1. Automatic Motivation is less conscious and more reflexive, driven by emotional states, impulses and context triggers.

      Otomatik Motivasyon, duygusal durumlar, dürtüler ve bağlam tetikleyicileri tarafından yönlendirilen daha az bilinçli ve daha refleksiftir.

    1. Why? I wrote MagpieRSS out of a frustration with the limitations of existing solutions. In particular many of the existing PHP solutions seemed to: use a parser based on regular expressions, making for an inherently fragile solution only support early versions of RSS discard all the interesting information besides item title, description, and link. not build proper separation between parsing the RSS and displaying it.
  3. Dec 2020
    1. Dr. Chu explains that self-determination theory states that three basic psychological needs — autonomy, competence, and relatedness — need to be satisfied for people to be intrinsically motivated.

      Self-Determination Theory says we have 3 psychological needs

      1.Autonomy- Having the ability to make your own choices

      2.Competence- The feeling that you have the skills needed to succeed

      3.Relatedness- Sense of feeling connected with others

    2. Eyal describes the theory called The Fogg Behavior Model which states that for a behavior (B) to occur, three things must be present at the same time: motivation (M), ability (A), and a trigger (T). More succinctly, B = MAT.

      Fogg Behavior Model says that for a Behavior (B) to occur 3 things have to be present at the same time:

      1. Motivation (M)
      2. Ability (A)
      3. Trigger (T)

      B = MAT

    3. “Self-determination theory proposes that the quality, rather than solely the quantity, of motivation influences how people act,” says Dr. Tsz Lun (Alan) Chu, sports psychologist

      The Self-determination theory says that the quality and not the quantity of motivation determines how we action

    4. Motivation guides your behaviors and is “the energy for action,” according to Dr.Edward Deci, professor of psychology at the University of Rochester.

      Motivation is the energy for action

  4. Nov 2020
    1. Self-Actualization Self-actualization refers to feeling fulfilled, or feeling that we are living up to our potential. One unique feature of self-actualization is that it looks different for everyone. For one person, self-actualization might involve helping others; for another person, it might involve achievements in an artistic or creative field. Essentially, self-actualization means feeling that we are doing what we believe we are meant to do. According to Maslow, achieving self-actualization is relatively rare, and his examples of famous self-actualized individuals include Abraham Lincoln, Albert Einstein, and Mother Teresa.

      [[self-actualization]] - this can fit in with [[[Intrinsic Motivation]] - the feeling of "living up-to your potential" can also align with [[motivation]] and [[Perceived abilities]]

    1. Examples of external extrinsic rewards include:competing in sports for trophiescompleting work for moneycustomer loyalty discountsbuy one, get one free salesfrequent flyer rewardsExamples of psychological extrinsic rewards include: helping people for praise from friends or family doing work for attention, either positive or negative doing tasks for public acclaim or fame doing tasks to avoid judgment completing coursework for grades Is it effective?Extrinsic motivation may be more effective for some people than it is for others. Certain situations may also be better suited for this form of motivation. For some people, the benefits of external rewards are enough to motivate high-quality continuous work. For others, value-based benefits are more motivating. Extrinsic motivation is best used in circumstances when the reward is used sparingly enough so it doesn’t lose its impact. The value of the reward can decrease if the reward is given too much. This is sometimes referred to as the overjustification effect.The overjustification effect happens when an activity you already enjoy is rewarded so often that you lose interest. In one study, researchers looked at the way 20-month-olds responded to material rewards compared to their response to social praise or no reward. Researchers found that the group that received material rewards was less likely to engage in the same helpful behaviors in the future. This suggests that the overjustification effect can start at an early age. There’s some evidence that an excessive amount of extrinsic rewards can lead to a decrease in intrinsic motivation. Not all researchers agree, however. The idea was first explored in a study published in 1973. During the study, some children were rewarded for playing with felt-tip pens. This was an activity they already enjoyed. Other children weren’t rewarded for this activity. After continued reward, the reward group no longer wanted to play with the pens. The study participants who weren’t rewarded continued to enjoy playing with the pens.A meta-analysis from 1994 found little evidence to support the conclusions from the 1973 study. Instead, they determined that extrinsic motivation didn’t affect long-term enjoyment of activities. However, a follow-up meta-analysis published in 2001 found evidence to support the original theory from 1973. Finally, a more recent meta-analysis from 2014 determined that extrinsic motivation only has negative outcomes in very specific situations. But for the most part, it can be an effective form of motivation. Depending on how it’s used, it’s possible that extrinsic motivation could have negative long-term effects. It’s likely an effective method when used in addition to other forms of motivation. ADVERTISEMENTTry a top-rated app for meditation and sleepExperience 100+ guided meditations with Calm’s award-winning meditation app. Designed for all experience levels, and available when you need it most in your day. Start your free trial today.START FREE TRIAL What are some of the cons to using extrinsic motivation?A major drawback to using extrinsic motivation is knowing what to do when the reward is gone or its value is exhausted. There’s also the possibility of dependency on the reward. The usefulness of extrinsic motivators should be evaluated on a case-by-case and person-by-person basis. Extrinsic motivation and parentingVery few studies have explored the long-term effects of continuous extrinsic motivation use with children. Extrinsic motivation can be a useful tool for parents to teach children tasks and responsibilities. Certain extrinsic motivators, like support and encouragement, may be healthy additions to parenting practices. Some rewards are often discouraged because it may lead to unhealthy associations with the rewards later in life. For example, using food as a reward may lead to unhealthy eating habits. For small developmental tasks, extrinsic motivators like praise can be very helpful. For instance, using praise can help with toilet training. If you use external rewards, try phasing them out over time so that your child doesn’t become dependent on the reward. TakeawayExtrinsic motivation can be useful for persuading someone to complete a task. Before assigning a reward-based task, it’s important to know if the person doing the task is motivated by the reward being offered. Extrinsic motivators may be a useful tool to help children learn new skills when used in moderation. For some people, psychological extrinsic motivators are more appealing. For others, external rewards are more attractive. It’s important to remember, however, that extrinsic motivation isn’t always effective.ADVERTISEMENTTalking will helpLife can be more manageable. Use Babylon by TELUS Health to see a mental health counsellor on your phone. A receipt will be provided for claim reimbursement, if applicable.GET THE APP Last medically reviewed on September 25, 2017 7 sourcescollapsedHealthline has strict sourcing guidelines and relies on peer-reviewed studies, academic research institutions, and medical associations. We avoid using tertiary references. You can learn more about how we ensure our content is accurate and current by reading our editorial policy.Cameron J, et al. (1994). Reinforcement, reward, and intrinsic motivation: A meta-analysis. DOI:10.3102/00346543064003363Jovanovic D, et al. (2014). Relationship between rewards and intrinsic motivation for learning – researches review. DOI:10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.08.287Lepper MR, et al. (1973). Undermining children’s intrinsic interest with extrinsic reward: A test of the “overjustification” hypothesis. DOI:10.1037/h0035519Sheppard DP, et al. (2015). The role of extrinsic rewards and cue-intention association in prospective memory in young children.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140987Theodotou E. (2014). Early year education: Are young students intrinsically or extrinsically motivated towards school activities? A discussion about the effects of rewards on young children learning.roar.uel.ac.uk/3632/Warneken F, et al. (2008). Extrinsic rewards undermine altruistic tendencies in 20-month-olds. DOI:10.1037/a0013860Why parents shouldn’t use food as reward or punishment. (n.d.)urmc.rochester.edu/encyclopedia/content.aspx?ContentTypeID=160&ContentID=32FEEDBACK:Medically reviewed by Timothy J. Legg, Ph.D., CRNP — Written by A. Rochaun Meadows-Fernandez — Updated on September 18, 2018related storiesUnderstanding Negative ReinforcementAuthoritarian Parenting: The Right Way To Raise My Kids?Should You Practice Permissive Parenting?Is Twirling Your Hair as a Habit a Symptom of an Underlying Condition?9 Deceptively Simple Things I Can’t Do Because Anxiety

      [[Examples of [[extrinsic motivation]]]]

    2. Examples of extrinsic motivation

      [[Examples of [[extrinsic motivation]]]]

    3. DefinitionExtrinsic motivation is reward-driven behavior. It’s a type of operant conditioning. Operant conditioning is a form of behavior modification that uses rewards or punishments to increase or decrease the likelihood that specific behaviors will recur. In extrinsic motivation, rewards or other incentives — like praise, fame, or money — are used as motivation for specific activities. Unlike intrinsic motivation, external factors drive this form of motivation.

      [[extrinsic motivation]] is [[reward-driven behaviour]].

      expandOn [[operant conditioning]] - unlike [[intrinsic motivation]] - external factors drive [[extrinsic motivation]]

    4. What Is Extrinsic Motivation and Is It Effective?
    1. Understanding the factors that promote intrinsic motivation can help you see how it works and why it can be beneficial. These factors include:Curiosity. Curiosity pushes us to explore and learn for the sole pleasure of learning and mastering.Challenge. Being challenged helps us work at a continuously optimal level work toward meaningful goals.Control. This comes from our basic desire to control what happens and make decisions that affect the outcome.Recognition. We have an innate need to be appreciated and satisfaction when our efforts are recognized and appreciated by others.Cooperation. Cooperating with others satisfies our need for belonging. We also feel personal satisfaction when we help others and work together to achieve a shared goal.Competition. Competition poses a challenge and increases the importance we place on doing well.Fantasy. Fantasy involves using mental or virtual images to stimulate your behavior. An example is a virtual game that requires you to answer a question or solve a problem to move to the next level. Some motivation apps use a similar approach

      factors that [[promote [[intrinsic motivation]]]]

    2. Researchers examined how reward timing influenced intrinsic motivation. They found that giving an immediate bonus for working on a task, rather than waiting until the task was completed, increased interest and enjoyment in it. Getting an earlier bonus increased motivation and persistence in the activity that continued even after the award was removed.

      by having a reward/bonus earlier on when working on a task can improve the enjoyment of working on it, and the enjoyment of 'working on the task for the enjoyment of it' is an element of [[intrinsic motivation]]

      When working on software and building teams - the rewards that can help motivate people, could be positive feedback, even critical feedback if there is trust there -

    3. Both can be effective, but research suggests that extrinsic rewards should be used sparingly because of the overjustification effect. Extrinsic rewards can undermine intrinsic motivation when used in certain situations or used too often

      while both [[intrinsic motivation]] and [[extrinsic motivation]] ca be useful, [[extrinsic motivation]] tends to rely on [[extrinsic rewards]]

      [[extrinsic rewards]] should be used sparingly - they can undermine the effectiveness off [[intrinsic motivation]], they can also lose value over time if used too often - and at times, relying too heavily on [[extrinsic rewards]] can be seen as coercion or bribery

    4. participating in a sport because it’s fun and you enjoy it rather than doing it to win an awardlearning a new language because you like experiencing new things, not because your job requires itspending time with someone because you enjoy their company and not because they can further your social standingcleaning because you enjoy a tidy space rather than doing it to avoid making your spouse angryplaying cards because you enjoy the challenge instead of playing to win moneyexercising because you enjoy physically challenging your body instead of doing it to lose weight or fit into an outfitvolunteering because you feel content and fulfilled rather than needing it to meet a school or work requirementgoing for a run because you find it relaxing or are trying to beat a personal record, not to win a competitiontaking on more responsibility at work because you enjoy being challenged and feeling accomplished, rather than to get a raise or promotionpainting a picture because you feel calm and happy when you paint rather than selling your art to make money

      [[Intrinsic motivation examples]]

    5. ExtrinsicYou do the activity in order to get an external reward in return.Goals are focused on an outcome and don’t satisfy your basic psychological needs. Goals involve external gains, such as money, fame, power, or avoiding consequences

      [[extrinsic motivation]]

    6. Intrinsic motivation vs. extrinsic motivation

      [[[[Intrinsic motivation]] vs. [[extrinsic motivation]]]]

    7. Along with satisfying these underlying psychological needs, intrinsic motivation also involves seeking out and engaging in activities that we find challenging, interesting, and internally rewarding without the prospect of any external reward.

      moving up [[Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs]] - [[Self Actualization]], [[Esteem]], [[Love and Belonging]] - and these are also factors that can influence [[Intrinsic Motivation]]

    8. Intrinsic motivation is the act of doing something without any obvious external rewards. You do it because it’s enjoyable and interesting, rather than because of an outside incentive or pressure to do it, such as a reward or deadline. An example of intrinsic motivation would be reading a book because you enjoy reading and have an interest in the story or subject, rather than reading because you have to write a report on it to pass a class.

      In my prompt for What are the [[components of motivation]] - which is a prompt that came from [[The 3 Components of Motivation (highlights)]] I had initially put down

      • [[Intrinsic Motivation]]
      • [[Extrinsic Motives]]
      • Abilities, or [[Perceived abilities]]
    1. Psychologists have only seriously begun analyzing self-talk in the last couple of decades, and here’s what we know:1) Positive self-talk improves performance in most sports.2) Questions like “Will I do this?” produce better results than statements like “I will do this.”3) Using “we” in self-talk is better than using “I.”4) Talking about yourself in third person is more effective than talking in first person.5) Both motivational (“I will do this!“) and instructional (“See the target…straighten elbows…lock onto target…“) self-talk seems to be effective in enhancing performance.

      How to talk to yourself! Positive Self - talk and motivation are best executed when done this:

      1) Positive self-talk improves performance in most sports.

      2) Questions like “Will I do this?” produce better results than statements like “I will do this.”

      3) Using “we” in self-talk is better than using “I.”

      4) Talking about yourself in third person is more effective than talking in first person.

      5) Both motivational (“I will do this!“) and instructional (“See the target…straighten elbows…lock onto target…“) self-talk seems to be effective in enhancing performance.

  5. Oct 2020
    1. The Golden Question: What Motivates Adult Learners?  You have to persuade adult learners to rearrange their busy schedule and make time to take your eLearning courses. But it is easier said than done. Motivating adult learners can be quite a challenge unless you know what makes them tick and what compels them to prioritize and take action. Below are some clues.

      Engaging adult learners requires an understanding of their motives. Tapping the motivation of the individual learner is the key to fostering high engagement levels. This article offers four key areas to consider and take action on. Rating 8/10

    1. While our program still faces some challenges around engaging our students and keeping them enrolled in programs long enough to complete their goals, technology has allowed us to make some remarkable strides.

      A school system that extends to adult education utilizes online apps as an option (but doesn't require internet access, as many people lack it at home). They have found them to be helpful, especially because people who work odd shift jobs and have burst of time at odd hours can get some practice in. This is most helpful for ESL learners. 6/10

    1. Therefore, practitioners need to be cognisant of the important role they play in influenc-ing learner motivation when designing learning activities. Most importantly, the relevance and value of the task (e.g., online discussions) need to be clearly identified and linked to learning objectives to help learners understand how the activity can aid in the realisation of personal goals, aspirations, and interests, both in the short and longer term.

      Based on research and two small scale case studies, some students in online learning are intrinsically motivated, but others need to be motivated by the teacher and material. External influences such as deadlines and grades also influenced student motivation. Identified regulation, that is, knowing why the activity is valuable and important, make a very big difference in student motivation. This brings us back to the andragogical idea that the assignments should involve real-world situations and be applicable to students' lives. 9/10

    1. Wiki Use that Increases Communication and Collaboration Motivation

      (Click on download full text to read.) Through a cooperative learning assignment, University students responded to a case study that implemented use of a Wiki. Results demonstrate that Wiki is an effective communication and collaboration tool (access, structure, versioning) for all individuals (introvert, extrovert). Recommendations and considerations for use in the learning environment were provided. 6/10

    1. How To Make Online Corporate Learning Fun During Lockdown

      (Available in text or audio.) This article provides basic principles (agenda, duration) and technologies (gamification, discussion boards) and activities to keep employees engaged in online learning. While this provides strategy, it does not provide implementation guidance within the corporate environment. (2/10)

    1. The primary motivation behind virtual-dom is to allow us to write code independent of previous state. So when our application state changes we will generate a new VTree. The diff function creates a set of DOM patches that, based on the difference between the previous VTree and the current VTree, will update the previous DOM tree to match the new VTree.

      annotation meta: may need new tag: for: "code independent of previous state."

      annotation meta: may need new tag: for: diffs other than source/text code diffs (in this case diffs between virtual DOM trees)

  6. Sep 2020
    1. Face To Face with MIKE SHINODA


      Mike Shinoda discussing the idea from Stephen King's book "On Writing":

      "You should write every day, even if it's torturous, even if you hate it, you sit down and say: "this is not what I wanna be doing, I'm not in the mood, I've got too many things going on". But you should do it anyway, cause it keeps your creative muscles strong, and eventually, even on the bad day, you can come up with something that's remarkable and surprising that you can use later."

    1. Poems are the perfect way to tell someone you love them.

      Poems can also be used to express yourself or to motivate others into a great path not only just to express love.

    1. It turns out that during a meeting, he asked them how long it would take to remove staff cars from the lot and start digging the first hole for the Boring Company tunnel. The answer: two weeks. Musk asked why, and when he gathered the necessary information, he concluded, “Let’s get started today and see what’s the biggest hole we can dig between now and Sunday afternoon, running 24 hours a day.” Within three hours, the cars were gone and there was a hole in the ground.

      The way Elon Musks motivates his employees

  7. Aug 2020
    1. Instead of avoiding anything hard, let's turn down the difficulty dial by focusing on small steps.

      If you lack the ability to do something hard, break it into smaller steps

    2. The important part is not only to know the reason, but to feel it, to get excited about it. How to do that? Link the task to a personal goal that you want to achieve. Attach exciting reasons to the task.

      Bad example: Write a thesis

      Good examples:

      • Write a thesis to successfully complete a degree and do cutting-edge research.
      • Write a thesis to deepen your understanding of a subject and get recognized by others in your field.
      • Write a thesis to help others see things more clearly and make progress.
    3. We feel motivated when we viscerally feel how an action is meaningful, or valuable to us and when we believe we can take it

      Where motivation comes from.

      If you don't feel motivated, remind yourself why you planned to do this task

    4. According to FBM, there are three things we need to do something

      Fogg Behavior Model says that we need 3 things at the same time to do something

      • motivation
      • ability
      • trigger

    1. The results suggest that at best, our combination of leaderboards, badges, and competition mechanics do not improve educationaloutcomes and at worst can harm motivation, satisfaction, and empowerment. Further, in decreasing intrinsic motivation, it can affectstudents'final exam scores.

      lowering intrinsic motivation can be harmful to course outcomes.

    2. The results show that course type directly affects intrinsic motivation (apath), where those in the gamified group have lower intrinsic motivation scores,a¼.30, 95% CI [.60,.01], and that higher intrinsicmotivation leads to higher scores on thefinal exam regardless of condition,b¼4.59; 95% CI [.41, 8.77]. However, there is no direct effect forcondition onfinal exam score when holding intrinsic motivation constant,c¼2.15; 95% CI [3.20, 7.50]. Despite a lack of evidence for adirect effect, it is still possible that course type affectsfinal exam scores indirectly via intrinsic motivation.

      intrinsic motivation is tied to course performance. But course type is not significant when intrinsic motivation is held constant.

    3. Although participants did not differ at Time 1, at Time 2 motivation for the control group escalated significantly and wasmaintained at Time 3. For the leaderboard group, motivation dropped significantly at Time 2. At Time 3, it remained unchanged and was stillsignificantly lower than the control condition.H2was supported.

      those participating in the gamified course decreased in intrinsic motivation and maintained this decrease over time

    4. Participants completed the intrinsic motivation inventory (Ryan, Koestner,&Deci,1991), which contains 22 items such as“I felt like I wasdoing what I wanted to do while I was working on the task”and“I felt that it was my choice to do the task.”Items were measured on a 7-point Likert scale from 1 (strongly disagree)to7(strongly agree; Cronbacha¼.86).
    5. Individuals using a badge system are often initially interested in the task (e.g.,reading), receive something tangible in the form of a badge they can view and show others, and are able to see the requirements forreceiving a badge and thus are not surprised when they earn one.

      don't give rewards for things people are already interested in doing

    6. offering tangible, expected rewards to individuals whoare already interested in a topic may cause them to shift motivations from intrinsic (i.e., because they wanted to) to extrinsic (i.e., becausethey want to earn a reward;Lepper et al., 1973). When the reward is present, one may be interested in completing the task, but once thereward is removed one will no longer have a reason to perform a behavior (Lepper et al., 1973).
    7. Cognitive evaluation theory (Deci&Ryan, 1985)predicts that external events can shape one's intrinsic motivation (i.e., doing it because one wants to, and not due to outside pressures) basedon whether individuals process those events as informational or controlling. If a reward provided for a task is seen as an informational, thenit will make one feel competent and in control, leading to higher intrinsic motivation. If a reward is seen as controlling, it makes one feelpowerless and incompetent, decreasing intrinsic motivation. Studies have shown that giving rewards for a task one alreadyfinds interestingends up harming motivation to do that task (Deci et al.,1999, 2001; Lepper, Greene,&Nisbett,1973). Thus, although there may be benefits togamification, it is also important to examine potential drawbacks as it may hamper the motivation educators are trying to cultivate.
    8. creating a gamified system alone was insufficient to cause an increase in these behavioral measures; rather, it depended onindividual users' interest levels (Hamari, 2013)

      pre-existing motivation makes a difference in performance.

  8. Jul 2020
  9. Jun 2020
  10. May 2020
    1. Research on motivation makes a distinction between two motivational systems. The approach system engages when people pursue a goal to achieve a desirable outcome. The avoidance system engages when people pursue a goal to avert some threat or calamity.

      approach: seek pleasure avoidance: avoid pain

  11. Apr 2020
    1. Pfattheicher, Stefan, Laila Nockur, Robert Böhm, Claudia Sassenrath, und Michael Bang Petersen. „The emotional path to action: Empathy promotes physical distancing during the COVID-19 pandemic“. Preprint. PsyArXiv, 23. März 2020. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/y2cg5.

  12. Mar 2020
  13. Feb 2020
    1. Spiritualität und Mystik wurden dem platten Rationalismus und hysterischen Materialismus entgegengestellt.
    1. There are two things that you can help me out: time and motivation. This is the place where you can find out how to do that.
  14. Jan 2020
    1. Your idea should stem from solving someone’s problem. Ideally, your own problem. It’s important that you choose an idea which interests you. Interest is key to fuelling motivation which is crucial when making a web app. It takes effort building web apps and it’s important you have fun during the process.
    1. When you get tired of thinking about a piece of work and feeling bad for not finishing it yet, go "screw it, let's do it" and start with something, anything.

      One way of starting to do what we postpone

    2. When you know that you don't have to make the greatest thing ever right from the start, it's easier to start. And then it's easier to continue.

      Apply the MVP principle to start doing

    1. Look over your list. Do they contain words like published, awarded, graduated, built, founded or created? Or do they contain mostly adjectives like nice, caring, loving, honest and smart? If you’re in the first sentence it’s likely you’re an SC. If the majority of your responses are in the second sentence you are likely an RC.

      The difference is if listing egocentric stuff (I'm impressive and I feel better than others, I feel worthy for myself itself) or listing qualities that influence the surrounding world (I do social work to help refugees, I published a theory to improve the current state of philosophy, I completed a project or a school, I created something that now generates some kind of value).

      The Replication Creators are creative just for themselves, so they get just short-term rewards.

      The Skilled Creators are creative for the sharing with the others, so they get long-term rewards.

  15. Dec 2019
  16. Nov 2019
    1. Empowering Education: A New Model for In-service Training of Nursing Staff

      This research article explores an andragogical method of learning for the in-service training of nurses. In a study of a training period for 35 nurses, research found an empowering model of education that was characterized by self-directed learning and practical learning. This model suggests active participation, motivation, and problem-solving as key indicators of effective training for nurses. Rating 8/10