14 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
    1. The results suggest that at best, our combination of leaderboards, badges, and competition mechanics do not improve educationaloutcomes and at worst can harm motivation, satisfaction, and empowerment. Further, in decreasing intrinsic motivation, it can affectstudents'final exam scores.

      lowering intrinsic motivation can be harmful to course outcomes.

    2. The results show that course type directly affects intrinsic motivation (apath), where those in the gamified group have lower intrinsic motivation scores,a¼.30, 95% CI [.60,.01], and that higher intrinsicmotivation leads to higher scores on thefinal exam regardless of condition,b¼4.59; 95% CI [.41, 8.77]. However, there is no direct effect forcondition onfinal exam score when holding intrinsic motivation constant,c¼2.15; 95% CI [3.20, 7.50]. Despite a lack of evidence for adirect effect, it is still possible that course type affectsfinal exam scores indirectly via intrinsic motivation.

      intrinsic motivation is tied to course performance. But course type is not significant when intrinsic motivation is held constant.

    3. Although participants did not differ at Time 1, at Time 2 motivation for the control group escalated significantly and wasmaintained at Time 3. For the leaderboard group, motivation dropped significantly at Time 2. At Time 3, it remained unchanged and was stillsignificantly lower than the control condition.H2was supported.

      those participating in the gamified course decreased in intrinsic motivation and maintained this decrease over time

    4. Participants completed the intrinsic motivation inventory (Ryan, Koestner,&Deci,1991), which contains 22 items such as“I felt like I wasdoing what I wanted to do while I was working on the task”and“I felt that it was my choice to do the task.”Items were measured on a 7-point Likert scale from 1 (strongly disagree)to7(strongly agree; Cronbacha¼.86).
    5. Individuals using a badge system are often initially interested in the task (e.g.,reading), receive something tangible in the form of a badge they can view and show others, and are able to see the requirements forreceiving a badge and thus are not surprised when they earn one.

      don't give rewards for things people are already interested in doing

    6. offering tangible, expected rewards to individuals whoare already interested in a topic may cause them to shift motivations from intrinsic (i.e., because they wanted to) to extrinsic (i.e., becausethey want to earn a reward;Lepper et al., 1973). When the reward is present, one may be interested in completing the task, but once thereward is removed one will no longer have a reason to perform a behavior (Lepper et al., 1973).
    7. Cognitive evaluation theory (Deci&Ryan, 1985)predicts that external events can shape one's intrinsic motivation (i.e., doing it because one wants to, and not due to outside pressures) basedon whether individuals process those events as informational or controlling. If a reward provided for a task is seen as an informational, thenit will make one feel competent and in control, leading to higher intrinsic motivation. If a reward is seen as controlling, it makes one feelpowerless and incompetent, decreasing intrinsic motivation. Studies have shown that giving rewards for a task one alreadyfinds interestingends up harming motivation to do that task (Deci et al.,1999, 2001; Lepper, Greene,&Nisbett,1973). Thus, although there may be benefits togamification, it is also important to examine potential drawbacks as it may hamper the motivation educators are trying to cultivate.
    8. creating a gamified system alone was insufficient to cause an increase in these behavioral measures; rather, it depended onindividual users' interest levels (Hamari, 2013)

      pre-existing motivation makes a difference in performance.

  2. May 2020
  3. Jun 2016
    1. The significance of autonomy versus control for the maintenance of intrin-sic motivation has been clearly observed in studies of classroom learning.For example, several studies have shown that autonomy-supportive (in con-trast to controlling) teachers catalyze in their students greater intrinsic moti-vation, curiosity, and the desire for challenge (e.g., Deci, Nezlek, & Shein-man, 1981; Ryan & Grolnick, 1986). Students who are overly controlled notonly lose initiative but also learn less well, especially when learning is com-plex or requires conceptual, creative processing (Benware & Deci, 1984;Grolnick & Ryan, 1987). Similarly, studies show children of parents whoare more autonomy supportive to be more mastery oriented—more likely tospontaneously explore and extend themselves—than children of parents whoare more controlling (Grolnick, Deci, & Ryan, 1997)

      Autonomy is crucial

    2. In fact, the majority of the research on the effects of environmental eventson intrinsic motivation has focused on the issue of autonomy versus controlrather than that of competence. And this issue has been considerably morecontroversial. The research began with the demonstration that extrinsic re-wards can undermine intrinsic motivation (Deci, 1971; Lepper, Greene, &Nisbett, 1973), which we interpret in terms of the reward shifting peoplefrom a more internal to external perceived locus of causality. Although theissue of rewards has been hotly debated, a recent meta-analysis (Deci, Koes-tner, & Ryan, in press) confirms that virtually every type of expected tangiblereward made contingent on task performance does, in fact, undermine intrin-sic motivation. Furthermore, not only tangible rewards, but also threats(Deci & Cascio, 1972), deadlines (Amabile, DeJong, & Lepper, 1976), direc-tives (Koestner, Ryan, Bernieri, & Holt, 1984), and competition pressure(Reeve & Deci, 1996) diminish intrinsic motivation because, according toCET, people experience them as controllers of their behavior. On the otherhand, choice and the opportunity for self-direction (e.g., Zuckerman, Porac,Lathin, Smith, & Deci, 1978) appear to enhance intrinsic motivation, as theyafford a greater sense of autonomy

      Pretty much every form of surveillance and control that is found in the traditional classroom can be shown to undermine intrinsic motivation:

      • intrinisic rewards
      • threats
      • deadline,
      • directives,
      • competition pressure
  4. Apr 2016
  5. Jul 2015
    1. While I’d struggle to tell you how I learn best, there is one question that I’d always be able to answer enthusiastically: What would you like to learn next? Right now I’m learning JavaScript and have plans to give Spanish another go. I should probably pick up those guitar lessons again soon as well. Thankfully we live in a time when it’s trivially easy to gain access to resources and to learning activities. The problem is finding out the ones that work best for you. Perhaps that’s why we carry around in our pockets devices that can access pretty much the sum total of human knowledge yet use them to LOL at amusing pictures of cats. What are the barriers here? I’d suggest there are three main ones: 1 Curriculum - the series of activities that build towards a learning goal 2 Credentials - the ability to show what you know 3 Community - the cohort of peers you feel you are part of, along with access to ‘experts’

      How do I learn best? What resources are the best ones for me?