4 Matching Annotations
  1. Jun 2016
    1. The significance of autonomy versus control for the maintenance of intrin-sic motivation has been clearly observed in studies of classroom learning.For example, several studies have shown that autonomy-supportive (in con-trast to controlling) teachers catalyze in their students greater intrinsic moti-vation, curiosity, and the desire for challenge (e.g., Deci, Nezlek, & Shein-man, 1981; Ryan & Grolnick, 1986). Students who are overly controlled notonly lose initiative but also learn less well, especially when learning is com-plex or requires conceptual, creative processing (Benware & Deci, 1984;Grolnick & Ryan, 1987). Similarly, studies show children of parents whoare more autonomy supportive to be more mastery oriented—more likely tospontaneously explore and extend themselves—than children of parents whoare more controlling (Grolnick, Deci, & Ryan, 1997)

      Autonomy is crucial

    2. In fact, the majority of the research on the effects of environmental eventson intrinsic motivation has focused on the issue of autonomy versus controlrather than that of competence. And this issue has been considerably morecontroversial. The research began with the demonstration that extrinsic re-wards can undermine intrinsic motivation (Deci, 1971; Lepper, Greene, &Nisbett, 1973), which we interpret in terms of the reward shifting peoplefrom a more internal to external perceived locus of causality. Although theissue of rewards has been hotly debated, a recent meta-analysis (Deci, Koes-tner, & Ryan, in press) confirms that virtually every type of expected tangiblereward made contingent on task performance does, in fact, undermine intrin-sic motivation. Furthermore, not only tangible rewards, but also threats(Deci & Cascio, 1972), deadlines (Amabile, DeJong, & Lepper, 1976), direc-tives (Koestner, Ryan, Bernieri, & Holt, 1984), and competition pressure(Reeve & Deci, 1996) diminish intrinsic motivation because, according toCET, people experience them as controllers of their behavior. On the otherhand, choice and the opportunity for self-direction (e.g., Zuckerman, Porac,Lathin, Smith, & Deci, 1978) appear to enhance intrinsic motivation, as theyafford a greater sense of autonomy

      Pretty much every form of surveillance and control that is found in the traditional classroom can be shown to undermine intrinsic motivation:

      • intrinisic rewards
      • threats
      • deadline,
      • directives,
      • competition pressure
  2. Apr 2016
  3. Jul 2015
    1. While I’d struggle to tell you how I learn best, there is one question that I’d always be able to answer enthusiastically: What would you like to learn next? Right now I’m learning JavaScript and have plans to give Spanish another go. I should probably pick up those guitar lessons again soon as well. Thankfully we live in a time when it’s trivially easy to gain access to resources and to learning activities. The problem is finding out the ones that work best for you. Perhaps that’s why we carry around in our pockets devices that can access pretty much the sum total of human knowledge yet use them to LOL at amusing pictures of cats. What are the barriers here? I’d suggest there are three main ones: 1 Curriculum - the series of activities that build towards a learning goal 2 Credentials - the ability to show what you know 3 Community - the cohort of peers you feel you are part of, along with access to ‘experts’

      How do I learn best? What resources are the best ones for me?