207 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
    1. Just over half of the state’s tribes operate casinos, but only 16 are full Vegas-style resorts. And 47 of the state’s 109 tribes have no casinos at all, with some reservations still struggling to provide running water and electricity. “Not all tribes are rich from gaming,” Vialpando said.

      Wow, this is some important context... the industry is unequally distributed and doesn't help the less fortunate tribes!

    2. Two centuries of slaughter, land theft and discrimination have left California’s Native Americans with lower median incomes and education levels coupled with higher rates of poverty and unemployment than the general population.

      The 'plight' rhetoric.

    3. might give Native Americans an unfair advantage in the market.

      Same rationalization as in some of the readings!

    4. “It’s a long pattern in this state,” Vialpando said. “There’s a history of marginalizing tribes. There’s a history of not wanting to engage with tribes.”

      In this context, the Tribes being unfairly barred from this new market is not so surprising, but how is this implemented, and by whom?

    5. The Iipay Nation of Santa Ysabel opened the Mountain Source cannabis store about two weeks ago, in the front part of a failed casino that tribal leaders abandoned in 2014.

      Casino failed, locals had to adapt.

    6. a building that once let visitors try their hand at slot machines and poker tables is now a shop that sells cannabis flower and marijuana-infused truffles.

      Gambling -> Marijuana

    7. are being shut out In a state where weed is legal, groups hope for equal footing.

      This is interesting, and highly unexpected! Tribes not allowed to grow, but the rest of the state IS!

    8. new gambling fo

      Example of gambling linked to marijuana as a concept of tribal different legal restrictions to federal law.

  2. May 2019
    1. policy change index - machine learning on corpus of text to identify and predict policy changes in China

  3. Apr 2019
    1. the legislation all but ensures that paying taxes remains a giant, expensive pain in the ass for most workers and insulates Intuit, which runs TurboTax, and H&R Block from the potential harmful effects of competent governance to their bottom line.

      Not sure how accurate this characterization is, but it does seem that Intuit has been lobbying to keep things less than straightforward for taxpayers for some time. Unfortunate. https://www.latimes.com/business/hiltzik/la-fi-mh-these-taxprep-companies-lobby-hard-to-keep-tax-day-a-torture-for-you-20150414-column.html https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TurboTax (see controversies)

    1. binge eating, which can at times lead to obesity

      Binge eating disorder in humans is characterized by overeating and can lead to weight gain.

      For interviews with sufferers of the condition and scientists working towards understanding the disorder, read more in BBC News: (https://www.bbc.com/news/health-45680281)

    2. To determine the role of the ZI in feeding and body weight regulation

      The authors set out to understand how the ZI influences food intake and to map the circuits in the brain that underlies these effects.

      Read more in SciTechDaily: (https://scitechdaily.com/yale-researchers-shed-light-on-binge-eating/)

      Read more in Scientific American: (https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/electric-brain-stimulation-offers-binge-eating-clue/)

  4. Mar 2019
    1. Mr. Fiske’s Florida Congressional Committee is one of a string of political action committees with anodyne names — NorPac in New Jersey, To Protect Our Heritage PAC outside Chicago, the Maryland Association for Concerned Citizens outside Baltimore, among others — that operate independently of Aipac but whose missions and membership align with it.

      Fund-raising conducted by satellite / affiliates

    1. A potential draw-back with such pre-training approach is that themodel may suffer from the mismatch of dialoguestate distributions between supervised training andinteractive learning stages. While interacting withusers, the agent’s response at each turn has a di-rect influence on the distribution of dialogue statethat the agent will operate on in the upcoming di-alogue turns.

      策略学习也是对话过程很重要的一环。 最近的策略学习过程有用基于有监督的预训练然后线上强化学习再训练的来提高学习的方案。但是这种方案有个潜在的毛病,在离线的数据中受限于数据量,线上一旦碰到了不常见的情况,容易直接恢复不来。(这个问题应该只是推断吧?有什么实证么?)

      所以本文其实想说的是用一种方法来减轻线上和离线的差距。

    1. The impacts of trophic cascades on communities are far-reaching, yet the strength of these impacts will likely differ among species and ecosystems.

      An additional example of top-down forcing can be seen in this HHMI BioInteractive Scientist at Work video featuring Dr. Brian Silliman and his work in salt marshes here.

  5. Nov 2018
    1. while we like to scoff at all the mucky-muck bureaucracy around training, budgets, policy and messaging, it’s precisely that stuff that prevents your dream initiative of today morphing into rotting infrastructure of tomorrow. It’s all too easy in this business to end up the new interactive whiteboard — bought one year as the must-have accessory and abandoned the next.

      Good reminder of how essential it is to take time from the evangelism of OER to write and enact some policy to ensure sustainability of our OER efforts.

    1. Polls show that doctors are trusted by the public more than politicians, which means it’s hard for public policy to shape the healthcare system unless medical associations sign off on it.
  6. Sep 2018
    1. open policies

      Some possible new items to add, relevant to module 5.5, Opening Up Your Institution:

      1. OER Africa has an in-depth OER policy review and development toolkit. It looks at issues around developing OER policies from the perspective of students, faculty, institutions, government context, and more. It includes case studies relevant to the regional context with probing questions to consider after each case study. It is from 2012, but many of the considerations about developing and implementing an OER policy that are included in the toolkit are still relevant. This resource can be valuable when thinking about possibly instituting an OER policy at one's own institution. The toolkit is licensed CC BY 4.0, South Africa Institute for Distance Education.

      The next two resources are relevant to the section on OER policies because it provides examples of policies along with case studies and challenges that differ in different parts of the world. It can help people see how what works in one place may not work well elsewhere.

      1. There is a global open policy report from 2016, ed. Kelsey Wiens and Alek Tarkowski, published by the open policy network: https://openpolicynetwork.org/solving-some-of-the-worlds-toughest-problems-with-the-global-open-policy-report/ It includes reports on open policies in Africa & the Middle East, Asia, Australia, Latin America, Europe, and North America. There is an overview in each section along with case studies. This report is also housed on the CC website: https://creativecommons.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/12/StateofOpenPolicyFullReport_FINAL-1-1-1-1.pdf The report is licensed CC BY 4.0.

      2. The ROER4D project (research on OER for development) produced a report in 2017 called Spotlight on OER policy in the Global South: Case studies from the Research on Open Educational Resources for Development (ROER4D) project. The main questions addressed include: "What is the state of OER policy development in the Global South?" "To what extent do developing countries need OER policies for OER adoption to flourish there?" The report discusses ROER4D research in four countries: Colombia, South Africa, Afghanistan and Mongolia. The report is licensed CC BY 4.0

  7. Aug 2018
    1. Administrators who are charged with the development of open education policy may not fully understand the opportunities inherent in OER and OEP, partic-ularly for learners.

      The other key area of alignment: with learners.

    2. They clearly align the open education policy with the university’s mission statement and strategic goals.

      Institutional alignment is absolutely critical so the policies can be shaped for the institution and so leadership can provide aligned support.

  8. Jul 2018
    1. Children need to view themselves as full human beings, as citizens even, something a good liberal arts foundation provides. By limiting education to a workforce development function and downplaying its political, social and development roles, the conservative position that education must be in service to the workforce benefits those who are currently in power, and education leaders are aggressively converting that belief into policy.
  9. Jun 2018
    1. Similarly, in terrestrial systems wolves protect riparian trees and shrubs from overbrowsing by large ungulates, in turn shading and cooling the adjacent streams, reducing stream bank erosion, and providing cover for fish and other aquatic life

      The 2007 Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Elk and Vegetation Management Plan for Rocky Mountain National Park lists, as Alternative 5, the reintroduction of wolves to the system to manage elk populations and to restore willow and aspen communities throughout the park. Alternative 5 is listed as the Environmentally Preferred Alternative at the end of the report.

      https://www.nps.gov/romo/learn/management/upload/ROMO-EVMP-FEIS-Executive-Summary-12-07.pdf

    2. even today whale feces return various limiting nutrients from the aphotic to photic zones, thereby directly enhancing primary productivity

      Certain island nations are looking to use this carbon "sink" as a way to meet their own carbon emissions targets:

      https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/whales-keep-carbon-out-of-the-atmosphere/

      Climate change may hamper these efforts by making it difficult for whales to survive in these regions, however.

    3. Trophic cascades associated with the presence or absence of apex predatory fishes in lakes can affect phytoplankton density, in turn affecting the rate of primary production, the uptake rate of CO2, and the direction of carbon flux between lakes and the atmosphere

      This article from the Chicago Tribune describes how scientists on the Great Lakes are trying to determine whether these large bodies of water are carbon sources or sinks.

      http://articles.chicagotribune.com/2010-08-16/news/ct-met-great-lakes-carbon-20100816_1_carbon-dioxide-climate-change-lake-express-ferry

    4. Such interdependencies are well illustrated in East Africa, where the introduction of rinderpest in the late 1800s decimated many native ungulate populations, including wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus) and buffalo (Syncerus caffer). Reductions of these large herbivores caused an increase in plant biomass, which fueled wildfires during the dry season. Rinderpest was eliminated from East Africa in the 1960s through an extensive vaccination and control program. Because of this, wildebeest and buffalo populations had recovered to what was thought to be historically high levels by the early 1980s. The resulting increase in herbivory drove these systems from shrublands to grasslands, thus decreasing the fuel loads and reducing the frequency and intensity of wildfires

      This top-down forcing by disease and loss of herbivores has also been linked to the complex carbon cycle in the region:

      http://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article?id=10.1371/journal.pbio.1000210

    5. Apart from small oceanic islands, all regions of our planet supported a megafauna before the rise of Homo sapiens

      There is current scientific debate about how much influence early human migrants had on the extinction of North American megafauna in the Pleistocene and Holocene:

      http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2014/01/what-killed-great-beasts-north-america

    6. When the impacts of apex consumers are reduced or removed or when systems are examined over sufficiently large scales of space and time, their influences are often obvious

      One of the most widely publicized long-term studies was that of the Greater Yellowstone system. Wolves were extirpated from the Yellowstone basin by the early 1900s. Wolf reintroduction occurs in the 1990s, followed by an very quick recovery in biodiversity within the region.

      https://www.nps.gov/yell/learn/nature/wolf-restoration.htm

    7. Tipping points (also known as thresholds or breakpoints), around which abrupt changes in ecosystem structure and function (a.k.a. phase shifts) occur, often characterize transitions between alternative stable states.

      These tipping points are notoriously difficult to predict but can be recognized after the fact. Models are being developed to identify tipping points ahead of time:

      https://nph.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/nph.15145

  10. Mar 2018
    1. recent research reveals extensive cascading effects of their disappearance in marine, terrestrial, and freshwater ecosystems worldwide

      The United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity completed a metastudy in 2010, examining biodiversity targets and projecting biodiversity losses into the future. Read more: https://www.cbd.int/gbo3/

    1. In the past decade, the academic debate over cognitive enhancement (CE) unfolded largely isolated from the notoriously thorny debates about drug policy reform and the successes and failures of the international drug control regime (ICR). In hindsight, this approach proved beneficial

      Debate over drug policy has been a long history in the United States. More drugs are starting to be legal in the United States because some may be used for prescription for to treat a disease. There has been a bad side against prescription drugs because many Americans are abusing prescription drugs. Prescription drug abuse is a social problem in the United States. Some prescription drugs are leading to health issues because many people do not care about the side effects. Overall the annotation reminded me of todays issue against drugs and how we are using it against many different diseases.

  11. Feb 2018
    1. The Hawaii bill, introduced Jan. 19, would have required all faculty members in the university system to teach with OER beginning in the 2020-21 school year. The use of any instructional materials, including textbooks and online tools, that cost students money would be prohibited. Where there were no suitable OER materials existing, the bill said that instructors would have to create their own and offer them to students free.

      a good case of too much "top down"

    1. A convergence of factors is propelling OER. States have started to adopt policies redefining textbook materials and even mandating OER, particularly as the cost of replacing out-of-date textbooks has become more burdensome to America’s nearly 14,000 school districts. It’s hard to overlook the appeal of free, digital alternatives.
  12. Jan 2018
    1. 9. Does Editors Canada have a code of ethics? No. Editors Canada does not have a code of ethics, but it has adopted general principles of professional editing. You can download Professional Editorial Standards from  Editors Canada for a list of these principles.

      Not having a code of ethics seems to be a big miss!

    1. download or install buttons in image ads
    2. Ads that mislead or trick the user into interacting with them

      This is the main reason our responsive ads were disapproved.

    3. buttons
    4. ads depicting features that do not work, such as
  13. Dec 2017
    1. Ecological, genetic, and geological data suggest that gene flow was disrupted for the remaining three pairs by environmental change several million years before the land barrier was complete.

      Biological evidence supports an early and complex emergence of the Isthmus of Panama, Christine D. Bacon, PNAS, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1423853112

      https://phys.org/news/2015-04-evidence-isthmus-panama-earlier-thought.html

      According to phys.org, a newly published paper suggests that the Isthmus of Panama was formed earlier than conventionally believed. The article states that the isthmus was formed in a stop and go manner over 20 million years ago; meaning that migration of organisms could have also followed the same trend. If migration of animals between North and South America started earlier, then the minimum time required for strong reproductive isolation may actually be longer than 3.5 million years. (JP)

    2. a cessation of circulatory connections across the Panama seaway between 12.9 and 7.0 Ma as a result of altered current patterns, followed by return of a restricted shallow water connection that shoaled to a depth of less than 50 m

      Genetic divergence was observed to have occured at different moments when oceanic changes like the haulting of certain currents across the Panama seaway and the shallowing of certain areas. (DV)

    3. intolerant behavior

      The intolerant behavior that has been observed in snapping shrimp known as snapping is the production of a water jet created by the larger claw that creates a loud "pop" sound. Although, it has been discovered that the actual threat in this behavior is the subsequent shock wave that comes after the water jet. (DV)

      Read more in Shrimp shootouts end with a shock wave bang: http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2017/10/shrimp-shootouts-end-shock-wave-bang?utm_campaign=news_daily_2017-10-30&et_rid=17774509&et_cid=1632982

    1. Tibetans exhibit a distinct suite of

      https://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2004/02/0224_040225_evolution.html Adaptations result in changed phenotype. As the Tibetan highlanders adapted to their high altitude environment, they underwent changes to their physiology as to better acclimate to their environment.

    1. References and Notes

      The economic value of grassland species for carbon storage is one of the first papers to monetarily quantify the gain or loss of a species from an ecosystem. Even slight additions (as little as one additional species) to the current U.S. Department of Agriculture's Conservation Reserve program could save hundreds of millions of dollars.

      Read more in Michigan News: http://ns.umich.edu/new/releases/24732-diversity-dividends-the-economic-value-of-grassland-species-for-carbon-storage

      SC

    2. References and Notes

      Grasslands with greater biodiversity were found to feature greater biomass than grasslands with fewer species diversity.

      Read more in ScienceDaily: https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/04/170419091536.htm

      SC

    3. References and Notes

      This article by Hungate et. al applies its findings to the Conservation Reserve Program, attempting to estimate species richness of CRP. This article ( D. L. Carter, J. M. Blair, Recovery of native plant community characteristics on a chronosequence of restored prairies seeded into pastures in West-Central Iowa. Restor. Ecol. 20, 170–179 (2012). ) is cited, yet this cited paper specifically does not use CRP grasslands, suggesting an error on the part of Hungate et. al.

      Read more at PrarieBotanist: https://prairiebotanist.com/2017/04/11/a-brief-comment-on-the-economic-value-of-grassland-species-for-carbon-storage/

      SC

    1. rescued memory deficits and network aberrations

      Promising Alzheimer’s ‘drug’ halts memory loss (https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/06/130626184019.htm) I found this article interesting because it talked about p38 alpha. At the beginning of the article by Arne Ittner (2017) mice with depletion of p38 alpha, beta, gamma, and delta were all tested. Only p38 gamma depletion had an effect on PTZ seizures, so they tested p38𝛾 and its effect on mice with AD. This article from Northwestern University focuses on how p38 alpha becomes overactive in AD patients. Overactive p38 alpha leads to damage in the synapses by impairing glial cells protective abilities, disrupts the signal between neurons, and releases toxic molecules that can lead to more damage.

    2. revealing an Aβ toxicity–limiting role of p38γ in AD

      Discovery opens door to new Alzheimer’s treatments (https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/11/161117151205.htm) This article connected with our paper in many ways. Alzheimer’s patient have two things, protein plaques made from amyloid-beta, and tau tangles that are phosphorylated by the kinase. When tau is phosphorylated, it forms tangles. So we thought. What the study found is that when tau is initially phosphorylated, it is for protection. They focused on a protein kinase, p38𝛾, and found that is assists in phosphorylating tau and interferes with the amyloid-beta toxicity. When removed, Alzheimer's progresses. When reintroduced, it was therapeutic and helped halt Alzheimer’s progression.

    1. Vietnam’s trade with the EU in the first 11 months of 2016 totalled $40.76bn, according to Vietnam Customs. The bloc was Vietnam’s second-biggest export market, worth $30.72bn (up 9% on the same period of 2015, and accounting for 19.2% of the total), and its fourth-biggest source of imports ($10bn, up 9.7%, and 6.4% of the total). Machinery and appliances accounted for just over half of Vietnam’s exports to the EU, 50.1%, with telecommunications equipment comprising 33.5% of all exports. Footwear and hats accounted for 12.1%, and textiles and textile articles 10.4%. Vietnam’s imports from the EU, meanwhile, included machinery and appliances (27.4% of the total), chemicals (17.8%) and manufactured goods (11.3%).

      Vietnam have been trade with EU among the 11 months of 2016, $40.76bn according to Vietnam custom.

  14. Nov 2017
    1. Indeed, bivalve molluscs constitute emerging models in epigenetics, as illustrated by recent studies examining the role of DNA methylation in the Pacific oyster

      Earlier in the year, researchers were using mollusks to derive a non addicting painkiller in the hopes of solving the U.S. opioid epidemic. Read more at salon: https://www.salon.com/2017/03/04/a-little-mollusk-may-lead-to-a-big-discovery-in-helping-solve-the-u-s-opioid-epidemic/ EM

    2. However, the role of these proteins goes beyond structure, participating in the dynamic regulation of chromatin during transcription, replication, and repair, among other DNA metabolic processes

      Histone functions can go as far as being key gene silencers in normal embryo development. Read more in ScienceDaily: https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/08/170830202141.htm EM

    1. 10.

      I'm missing something about making policies themselves more FAIR, which we had included in an earlier version of these draft principles.

    1. Assemblages of insect herbivores were dissimilar between populations of ecotypes from different habitats, as well as from the same habitat 100 km distant.

      In Africa, there is a food crisis leaving millions of people without corn, a very important crop for Africa. The reason for these crops not being edible is that a certain species of worm invaded a field of corn and rapidly spread to neighboring farms, killing millions of corn crops leaving thousands hungry. This proves the point how insects differ from each-other depending on what type of plants are around, since this worm is always flocking to this one crop.

      Link:A table showing variation in herbivore communities and relative abundance of leaf secondary metabolites

      -Otniel Gonzalez

    1. phosphorus (P) additions

      The levels of phosphorus in Lake Coeur d’Alene have doubled since the 1990's. This worries authorities about the potential growth in algae and increase in heavy metals in the lake.

      Read more in The Spokesman-Review: http://www.spokesman.com/stories/2017/nov/15/phosphorus-pollution-flowing-into-lake-coeur-dalen/

    2. stimulated at nutrient concentrations that are now common across human-disturbed landscapes

      A city releases water contaminated by agriculture which will have an adverse effect on local ecosystems.

      Read more in Lawrence-Journal World: http://www2.ljworld.com/news/2017/nov/15/short-notice-citys-release-nitrogen-contaminated-w/

    3. agricultural streams

      Poultry producer is fined by $1.4 million for polluting a local stream.

      Read more in WJCT: http://news.wjct.org/post/live-oak-poultry-producer-environmental-groups-reach-deal-over-suwannee-river-pollution

    4. nutrient pollution

      William & Mary’s Virginia Institute of Marine Science are studying oysters to see if they could be used to reduce nitrogen levels.

      Read more in the Williamsburg Yorktown Daily: https://wydaily.com/2017/11/05/study-suggests-oysters-offer-hot-spot-for-reducing-nutrient-pollution-tek/

    5. Nutrient pollution

      Nutient pollution is affecting the production of fisheries in the ocean by creating dead zones in the ocean where there are low levels of oxygen.

      Read more in the Iowa Public Radio: http://iowapublicradio.org/post/farmers-sea-say-livelihood-dying-midwest-ag-pollution#stream/0

    6. Algal production increases

      An increase on nutrients in nearby river has led to an increase in the levels of algae in these rivers, some of these which are toxic to people.

      Read more in nwi.com: http://www.nwitimes.com/business/toxic-algae-once-a-nuisance-now-a-severe-nationwide-threat/article_2b1decfa-43c9-5d80-bf64-173e51a95248.html

    1. Ecological, genetic, and geological data suggest that gene flow was disrupted for the remaining three pairs by environmental change several million years before the land barrier was complete.

      Biological evidence supports an early and complex emergence of the Isthmus of Panama, Christine D. Bacon, PNAS, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1423853112

      https://phys.org/news/2015-04-evidence-isthmus-panama-earlier-thought.html

      According to phys.org, a newly published paper suggests that the Isthmus of Panama was formed earlier than conventionally believed. The article states that the isthmus was formed in a stop and go manner over 20 million years ago; meaning that migration of organisms could have also followed the same trend. If migration of animals between North and South America started earlier, then the minimum time required for strong reproductive isolation may actually be longer than 3.5 million years. (JP)

    2. a cessation of circulatory connections across the Panama seaway between 12.9 and 7.0 Ma as a result of altered current patterns, followed by return of a restricted shallow water connection that shoaled to a depth of less than 50 m

      The formation of the Isthmus of Panama has been attributed to the ceasing of currents and changes to the depths of certain areas and levels of sand. It has been reinforced by a similar and more recent research that these changes are some of the major influences of divergence within the snapping shrimps species. (DV)

      Read more in New dates and new rates for divergence across the Isthmus of Panama: http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/265/1412/2257

    3. intolerant behavior

      The intolerant behavior that has been observed in snapping shrimp known as snapping is the production of a water jet created by the larger claw that creates a loud "pop" sound. Although, it has been discovered that the actual threat in this behavior is the subsequent shock wave that comes after the water jet. (DV)

      Read more in Shrimp shootouts end with a shock wave bang: http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2017/10/shrimp-shootouts-end-shock-wave-bang?utm_campaign=news_daily_2017-10-30&et_rid=17774509&et_cid=1632982

    1. Recent studies using the Ednrb antagonist bonsentan suggest that the use of Ednrb antagonists may prove useful for the treatment of melanoma.

      Ednrb antagonists could potentially be used for the treatment of melanoma. Read more: www.theoncologist.alphamedpress.org/content/20/10/1121.full.pdf (DB)

    2. Moreover, in situ melanomas appeared in adult skin grafts, while invasive melanomas developed in newborn skin grafts indicating that the susceptibility of skin to environmental tumor promoters is dependent on age (Berking et al., 2004).

      Exposure to UV radiation increases the risk of melanoma development. Read more: www.skincancer.org/media-and-press/press-release-2013/kids (DB)

    3. Cancer progression exhibits many of the characteristics seen during development.

      The progression of cancer is characterized by features that can be seen during development. Read more: https://www.cancerquest.org/cancer-biology/cancer-development (DB)

  15. Oct 2017
    1. This was in part because of the considerable time that it took WWARN secretariat staff to persuade Oxford University lawyers that seven pages of often arcane legal language could be streamlined into a three-page document in plain English, understandable to malaria researchers worldwide.

      And even those three pages use non-standard terms, which requires more lawyers to assess the compatibility of these terms with those of any other database one might wish to combine with WWARN data.

  16. Sep 2017
    1. Salient priority areas that policy-makers and practitioners
      1. Public involvement in commercially-driven sphere
      2. Address inequality
      3. Indicators/data on digital skills
      4. OER
    1. “It is also important to note that what we are doing now is in some ways fulfilling a number of longstanding principles that other presidents have always talked about.”

      Neomi Rao, newly confirmed administrator of White House Information and Regulatory affairs attempts here to renounce personal ownership of deregulation efforts instead framing the current move as the continuation of an existing motion present in previous leadership. She attempts to insure the rational saliency of deregulation through this logic of a theoretical continuum.

    1. rna om ett fritt internet och säkerställa demokratins utveckling. Demokrati är ett ständigt pågående arb

      Värnandet om ett fritt internet", helt klart borde detta stå i centrum för allt vi gör inom digidel, MIK och utvecklingen av digitala tjänster. Dock är det svårt att vara en aktör för digital frihet när man själv inte är fri. Inlåsta kommunala IT-miljöer, hämmande upphandlingsregler, policyregler som motverkar digital integritet, monolitisk syn på hårdvara och mjukvara, allt detta skapar en ofri miljö där medarbetarnas möjligheter att utveckla digital kompetens motverkas. Biblioteken är arenor som talar om digital delaktighet för medborgarna utan att först ge medarbetarna själva att bli digitalt delaktiga. Kanske borde vi tala om digital egenmakt, inte bara delaktighet. Då blir det tydligare att vår uppgift är att facilitera digital frihet, inte bara introducera medborgarna i en IT-miljö som formas och definieras över deras huvuden. En levande digitaliserad demokrati förutsätter medborgare som kan bli autonoma medskapare på internet, inte enbart konsumenter av det redan etablerade.

  17. Aug 2017
  18. wayback.archive-it.org wayback.archive-it.org
    1. Booms, busts and bitumen The economic implications of Canadian oilsands development Published Nov. 13, 2013 This report, jointly published by Equiterre and the Pembina Institute, examines how the rapid pace of oilsands development is creating economic risks and regional disparities that could have long-term implications for Canada's economic prosperity.  The report also provides pragmatic recommendations to address these concerns, such as improving the management of one-time resource wealth and eliminating preferential tax treatment for the oil and gas sector.

      This is the institute's major 2013 report on oil sands development, with recommendations to address concerns about the environment, the economy, and tax implications.

  19. Jul 2017
    1. The first effect is an outsourcing of policy development. Much of the research, number crunching, and legislative wordsmithing that used to be done by Capitol Hill staffers working for the government is now being done by outside experts, many of them former Hill staffers, working for lobbying firms, think tanks, consultancies, trade associations, and PR outfits.
  20. Jun 2017
  21. May 2017
    1. The Kafka cluster retains all published records—whether or not they have been consumed—using a configurable retention period. For example, if the retention policy is set to two days, then for the two days after a record is published, it is available for consumption, after which it will be discarded to free up space. Kafka's performance is effectively constant with respect to data size so storing data for a long time is not a problem.

      irrespective of the fact that the consumer has consumed the message that message is kept in kafka for the entire retention policy duration.

      You can have two or more consumer groups: 1 -> real time 2 -> back up consumer group

  22. Apr 2017
    1. 4 Technological and Media Change

      There is still very little thinking about digital education from a policy/discourse/politics-of-education perspective. Interesting work by Ben Williamson, Greg Thompson, Ian Cook.

    1. "Trump’s campaign promise to “maximize flexibility for states via block grants so that local leaders can design innovative Medicaid programs that will better serve their low-income citizens.” "

      Again, the use of the phrase "will better serve our low income citizens" tried to sound like they are coming from a humanistic basis. They are also trying to frame this in a way that seems to give flexibility and freedom to innovate to local leaders...that by doing this they are facilitating this potentially more innovative and fliexible approach. It "sounds" good framing in this way, but it's not taking some of the realities of how horribly this can effect the states who might be left holding the bag financially and the citizens who may wind up left with out much needed services.

  23. Feb 2017
    1. This article acknowledges the lack of research in understanding how children of incarcerated parents are impacted. The authors discuss the multitude of consequences that can affect children in the present and future; including delinquent behavior, learning barriers, unemployment, and antisocial behavior. With the expansion of criminality, the problem is vastly growing.

      The authors didn’t find evidence to the claim that “children of prisoners are five to six times more likely to be convicted or imprisoned” compared to their peers. They blame variables and use of methodological approaches insufficiently as reasons why findings may have been exaggerated. The authors do present evidence that shows that children are more likely to be arrested, antisocial, and the like, but maintain that data is limited and needs more research to have a definitive answer. The authors referenced the new Cambrdge study and did discuss that it found antisocial behavior to be more apparent in those who had parents incarcerated.

      After discussing five studies that addressed children’s behavior patterns with incarcerated parents, they conclude that parental imprisonment puts a risk on children to develop antisocial behavior patterns. However, they attribute this not to it being a cause, but rather the imprisonment of a parent to be a predictor of child outcomes. They believe that these consequences are from disadvantages of the parents’ imprisonment, rather than the imprisonment itself. Therefore, they conclude that damage was done to the child before the parents was imprisoned.

      The authors do not dismiss that trauma theory, popular in small-scale studies of the affects of children of prisoners. They cite that the longer or more often a parent is incarcerated can have negative affects on the child’s emotional state.

      Overall, the authors cite many mediating factors in the study of children with imprisoned parents. They seem to hold the standards exceptionally high for the methodological approaches to this study and dismiss the studies previously done based on rigor and mediating variables.

    1. A Summary of Housing and Wealth Inequality: Racial-Ethnic Differences in Home Equity in the United States By: B. Stebbins

      Home equity is the largest component of wealth for most households. Therefore, persons who “have previously owned a house are able to use the money earned from its sale to invest in and increase the equity of subsequent housing” (Krivo, Kaufman). However, minorities who already face substantial obstacles in buying homes because of residential segregation and other forms of discrimination in housing and mortgage markets are less capable of accumulating equity to bankroll previous purchases into the next one.

      For example, minorities face discrimination from brokers, racial-ethnic steering, redlining, and other forms of mortgage-lending discrimination. This in turn limits access to communities with greater status and amenities, such as good quality schools, parks, and shopping which have important ramifications for long-term health and well-being. Since social and historical contexts disadvantage minorities prior to their entrance into the housing market, the inequalities reproduced as a result of their active participation in the housing market only compound existing disparities further in their accumulation of housing wealth.

      The microeconomic factors identified above were found to be central determinants of the acquisition and value of housing. The impact being that the social, locational, and financial characteristics of mortgage and housing markets systematically disadvantage minorities in comparison to whites. The social and historical contexts of racial and ethnic groups also strongly influence their ability to obtain more financially and socially advantageous housing. Minority groups were found to be dealt with less favorably throughout each stage of the housing process in comparison to whites, which reduces their overall accumulation of wealth and makes it more difficult to purchase homes, obtain favorable mortgage terms, and break into areas with high home values and levels of appreciation.

      Additionally, it was noted that minority groups are more susceptible to FHA, VA, or FMHA loans which have low down payments but high interest rates contributing to their slower accumulation of equity. While low down payments are beneficial and encourage minorities to enter the market, these loans put minority households at risk as they may not be able to afford the house payments over the long run. Lastly, Krivo and Kaufman noted that it is important to recognize that historical and contemporary processes of discrimination in schools, labor markets, and other social institutions help explain the socioeconomic differences among groups and the reproduction of intergenerational inequality.

      Citation: Krivo, L., & Kaufman, R. (2004). Housing and Wealth Inequality: Racial-Ethnic Differences in Home Equity in the United States. Demography, 41(3), 585-605. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/1515194

    1. The Need for Local Flexibility in U.S. Housing Policy: A Summary. By. B. Stebbins

      The point of the article is that national housing programs ignore the diversity of urban housing markets across the U.S. While some communities do well, others suffer from unforeseen and undesirable side effects on a substantial scale as a result. The demand for housing in a metropolitan area is driven by the following trends: price of housing, income growth and distribution, population growth, and household formation. These trends vary dramatically within cities as well as over time which can cause sharp shifts in demand. Since newly built units provide a price ceiling for the rest of the housing market, the poor pay a higher price per unit of housing than others do.

      This is problematic because the supply of housing services from existing units is less price-responsive and particular groups can be constrained by resistance to neighborhood change. Additionally, most household consume more than the minimum amount generally accepted as necessary because they can afford it which further impacts lower income households as they will respond little to price changes and devote an increasing portion of their incomes to housing. Since housing demand is responsive to housing pricing, demand will generally shift more quickly than supply; thus, the market will be in a continuous state of disequilibrium. While the four types of government policies (general filtering strategy, local housing code enforcement and urban renewal, housing allowances, and Section 8) seek to address these concerns, they do so inadequately.

      Struyk argues that broadening the Section 8 program to include low-income homeowners would help eliminate inequities between communities in which low-income households are predominantly renters. Furthermore, creating a dozen or so market types for HUD to provide general guidance to communities as to the likely consequences of alternative housing strategies that included projections of income and population trends would help each city formulate its own housing and community development plans. In conclusion, Struyk sees this as an opportunity to give more flexibility at the local level to address each community's needs through the combination of supply-augmenting subsidies and demand-increasing subsidies.

      Citation: Struyk, Raymond J. “The Need for Local Flexibility in U.S. Housing Policy.” Policy Analysis, vol. 3, no. 4, 1977, pp. 471–483., www.jstor.org/stable/42783231.

    1. Affordable Housing: The Case for Demand-Side Subsidies in Superstar Cities Summary by Radhika Raj

      In this article, Adam Zeidel examines locally funded affordable housing programs in what he calls, “superstar cities”. A superstar city “is defined by Gyourko et al.; a superstar city is one ‘[in which] demand exceeds supply and supply growth is limited” (Zeidel, 135). Other characteristics of superstar cities include people wanting to pay a large premium to live there, and a disproportionate distribution of wealth. 
      

      Zeidel studies New York City. This is done because of the large amount of money ($6.4 billion, Zeidel, 136) taken from local resources for affordable housing. Zeidel believes that the academics, policy-makers, and developers have an unclear goal for affording housing policy. It is implied that this is the reason programs do not line up with their policies.

      The most common demographic that benefited from affordable housing policies in New York was seniors. “The existence of senior housing programs indicates that a charitable motive underlies some affordable housing programs” (Zeidel, 138). In this paper, the types of programs that are examined are “government-run public housing, regulation, price controls, subsidies, and tax incentives” (Zeidel, 140). Subsidy programs in New York mainly involve the city giving loans to private developers in order to make affordable housing. “…the Housing Development Corporation (“HDC”) reports that it has committed “$578 million dollars of its corporate reserves to finance the preservation and creation of 25,000 apartments for low, moderate, and middle-income New Yorkers” (Zeidel, 140). Supply side subsidies give incentives such as tax benefits, bonuses, and financing assistance for the preservation of affordable housing. Zeidel also examines demand side subsidies in New York City. It was found that very little of their resources were used compared to the supply side subsidies.

      Even though supply side subsidies were more likely to be favored and funded by the city, Zeidel found that demand side subsidies were more efficient, effective, flexible, and transparent. It was found that “virtually every empirical study performed over the past twenty-five years has found that demand-oriented subsidies are more efficient than supply side subsidies” (Zeidel, 143). It was also found that the demand side subsidies could help more citizens equally rather than helping few substantially. They also scored high in equity. This means that there was a more equal treatment in similar scenarios. Demand side subsidies also were more beneficial because there was a clear cost and benefit. These characteristics were found to be more beneficial overall to the population.

      Zeidel, Adam. “Affordable Housing: The Case for Demand-Side Subsidies in Superstar Cities.” The Urban Lawyer, vol. 42, no. 1, 2010, pp. 135–169., www.jstor.org/stable/27895769.

    2. Eroding the Wealth of Women: Gender and the Subprime Foreclosure Crisis By Amy Castro Baker Summary by Radhika Raj

      In this article, Baker talks about how mortgage markets have evolved to create a policy gap which creates new forms of gender inequality in the housing and lending markets. This article seeks to analyze how single women are affected by gender inequality in the lending market where their loans are characterized by high levels of default and foreclosure.

      The article begins by defining certain key characteristics between traditional prime mortgages and subprime mortgages. Baker explains that “home owners with a subprime mortgage are six to nine times more likely than those with a traditional prime mortgage to be in foreclosure (Renuart 2004; Schloemer et al. 2006)” (59-60). Subprime mortgages are high cost and high risk because they depend on the state of the market. Baker claims that subprime mortgages “tend to be more prevalent in neighborhoods of color where women are predominately the heads of households” (60). This implies that mostly women, specifically women of color, are the ones affected by the risks associated with subprime mortgages.

      Subprime mortgages were not always as prevalent in the market. Baker explains how subprime mortgages only represented a fraction of mortgages until the 1990’s. During this time, there was a shift in focus where a policy window could open and lenders began to create opportunity for the groups that were historically excluded from the mortgage process such as women, people of color, and the elderly.

      In Baker’s article, she claims that single women, particularly those of color, are the ones most affected by mortgage strain in the market. Baker states that, “Single women experience higher rates of subprime lending than their male peers, even when controlling for risk factors such as credit, income, and neighborhood location” (61-62). The article talks about how the gender gap within mortgages creates a risky lending market for women, and how despite the problems of mortgage strain, there has not been much research into the sexism involved in the housing market. Baker also goes on to discuss how these risky mortgages sometimes end in homelessness. Even in this situation, it was found that women had a more difficult time with homelessness compared to men.

      Overall, Baker’s article seeks to explain the reason why women experience gender inequality in housing markets. These inequalities are characterized by the number of subprime mortgages loaned to women, and the amount of mortgage strain that these women have to endure.

    3. No Renters in My Suburban Backyard: Land Use Regulation and Rental Housing A Summary by Radhika Raj

      In this article Schuetz talks about how low and moderate income families are unable to move to more desirable suburban areas because of high cost housing and rental prices. A key point to this article is how certain forms of local zoning and land use regulations are increasing housing prices because of a reduced supply of housing in desirable areas. She uses literature from Anthony Downs to examine how land use, zoning, and rent prices affect equal housing opportunity.

      Schuetz introduces this topic by bringing up a point made in Anthony Downs’ book Opening Up the Suburbs. Downs makes a point that the achievement of society cannot go forward without equal opportunity for all social classes. He claims that the exclusion of lower social classes from living in more desirable suburban areas “will eventually undermine achievement of one of our fundamental goals: true equality of opportunity” (Downs, 1973, p. vii). Starting with this idea, Schuetz makes the point that excluding low-income families could lead to a gap in opportunity for less affluent families. For example, she talks about how by being excluded from a neighborhood can lead to poor families living in areas where they have less employment opportunities, less access to good quality schools, and even less access to public services as well as physical environment. While it may be argued that these families may not have access to these resources because of poor employment potential, lack of skills, or financial irresponsibility, Schuetz makes the argument that zoning codes have a large impact on who can afford to live in improved suburban areas.

      The article examines these claims by looking at the prices of rent and how they are affected by zoning policies. The results of the analysis state that housing regulations hinder production of multifamily housing. This causes a small decrease in rents, but there was no significant association between the increase of multifamily housing and rent prices. Another zoning regulation that is discussed is the increase of greenbelts correlating with increased housing prices. Growth control policies such as greenbelts increase rent prices because they decrease the amount of land available to zone for housing. Traditional zoning policies such as minimum lot size also have an impact on rent prices. These zoning policies are known to raise rent prices by creating a demand of high income housing, with high income resources. Schuetz examines how the small amount of land is zoned for multifamily housing to restrict rental housing. Municipalities can also restrict rentals by creating barriers to development such as special permits.

      Overall, these restrictions suggest that regulations impede the development of new rental housing, which causes housing prices to increase. The effects of zoning are less clear based on the research but it is suggested that the requirement of special permits hinders the ability for multifamily homes to have access to better suburban areas.

    4. The Role of Private Agents in Affordable Housing Policy: A Summary

      By: B. Stebbins

      In the article, Graddy and Bostic analyze the consequences of our increasing reliance on private agents in the formulation and implementation of affordable housing policy and conclude that these private agents do respond to policy incentives - albeit to varying degrees - mitigating concerns about the loss of public control in this policy area. They state that although the federal government has a set of broad policy goals of providing safe, affordable, and quality housing for all, it has not always been able to implement such policy goals well. The widespread dissatisfaction with public production due to its high cost, often poor design and administration led the federal government to move away from and rely on lower levels of government for implementation. This devolution of affordable housing policy has brought a dispersion of authority across state, regional, and local governments and diffuse accountability. Not only do local governments have little incentive to meet federal or regional goals but to the extent that oversight is left at the local level, accountability and coordination will end up being narrowly focused (Graddy & Bostic).

      Compounding these challenges of authority and accountability, Graddy and Bostic state that the primary problem in providing affordable housing is that in the places it is needed most, the rents and sale prices required to make a residence affordable do not support financially feasible projects. Multiple policy instruments like the Low-Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC) Program, HOME Investment and Partnership Program, Community Development Block Grant (CDBG) Program, Section 8 housing vouchers, tax-exempt bonds, density bonus permits, and inclusionary zoning practices are used to incentivize private developers to produce affordable housing. However, the response from private developers to these incentives are different based upon the framework in which they operate and lead to varying degrees of power and influence among the various institutions and actors. Adding to this primary problem is what these affordable housing projects will look like and how they align with local community needs (Graddy & Bostic).

      According to Graddy and Bostic, in both of their case studies of the Massachusetts and New Jersey frameworks, affordable housing production clearly differs, and degrades, once the jurisdictional threshold, as defined by each state, for acceptable housing performance is achieved. This is obviously problematic because jurisdictional changes do not have to be addressed once the acceptable housing performance is achieved, even though the problem of affordable housing may not have been fully addressed. This is because developers recognize and do not seek out jurisdictions for housing projects that would significantly increase their affordable housing share, leaving little incentives for jurisdictions above the threshold to permit more affordable housing. In sum, the most important consequence of our current affordable housing policy is that private developers take a leading role in deciding when and where affordable housing will be built. Thus, the structure of governance of affordable housing policy is of utmost importance in mitigating these concerns of private agents acting in their own self-interest (Graddy & Bostic).

      Citation: Graddy, E., & Bostic, R. (2010). The Role of Private Agents in Affordable Housing Policy. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory: J-PART, 20, I81-I99. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/20627910

  24. Dec 2016
    1. California has 1,400 dams
    2. 75 percent of California’s available water is in the northern third of the state (north of Sacramento), while 80 percent of the urban and agricultural water demands are in the southern two-thirds of the state
    3. parts of Northern California receive 100 inches or more of precipitation per year
    1. Why make freshwater when we could collect the water that falls from the sky? Even on the driest year in recorded history in 2013, it still rained 3.6 inches in Los Angeles. An inch of rainfall in L.A. generates 3.8 billion gallons of runoff, so you’re talking about more than 12 billion gallons of water that could be captured, but that flows within hours down our concrete streets and into the ocean. There’s enough rainwater to be harvested to produce 30-50% of the entire city’s water needs.

      The freshwater that falls on LA is lost.

  25. Nov 2016
  26. Sep 2016
    1. but the students buy the books. It’s not money that comes to us. That’s why it’s that way. That’s the power of institutionality: it’s so invisible you can’t even see it.
  27. Aug 2016
    1. When Robertson started out, they were hosting small rummage sales and bake sales. But by the 2008 recession, PTA fundraising had graduated to silent auctions. The money from fundraising was enough to allow Grattan to maintain its academics and actually expand its staff and its infrastructure in the midst of statewide budget cuts.

      Let's just highlight a root problem here, then: "statewide budget cuts".

      Why should any public school ever have to do fundraising?

    1. Periodic attempts to bring attention to poverty through assuming poverty oneself—eating off a SNAP (food stamp) budget or sleeping outside—are regularly ridiculed as publicity stunts, but the impact on the participants is far from cosmetic.

      POLICY Statement describing the use of assuming poverty to address the issue.

      • Do these activities create other problems?
      • Is there change in politician's beliefs following experiences?
    2. Politicians ought to physically encounter the circumstances of their constituents, to observe the trials of the most needy, and most importantly to experience the conditions themselves.

      POLICY Statement for change: politicians should encounter and experience poverty.

    3. Until larger economic trends are reversed, however, stopgap measures are the only resort.

      POLICY Statement clarifying that solutions suggested are a start but larger economic trends need to be altered.

    4. It’s not surprising that many of the champions for the poor rely on personal experience.

      POLICY Statement that personal experience is paramount to change.

  28. Jun 2016
  29. Apr 2016
    1. And yet, in the past five years, the 15 acres of open space have seen plenty of activity. In that time, more than half a dozen farmers have put their hands to a plow in an ill-fated attempt at organic farming. Only one of them is still standing. The same fate of those failed farmers has been repeated all across the county under an agricultural program meant to encourage and support organic farming by providing nearly $1 million in capital expenditures, temporary lease rate reductions, organic certification assistance, weed maintenance and farmer education courses.
    2. According to surveys from the United States Department of Agriculture, organic acreage declined nationally by 10.8 percent from 2008 (4.1 million acres) to 2014 (3.7 million acres). Colorado saw larger declines of 34 percent during that same time, from 153,981 acres in 2008 to 115,116 acres in 2014. A number of reasons have been cited by different experts and farmers, including the recession and a change in USDA methodology that counts fewer growers as organic since many small operations do not pursue certification. The most commonly cited reason is cost: The resource-intense nature of production eats away at profit margins and makes organic less attractive during a time of high conventional profits. "The incentive to grow organically wasn't enough as conventional grown commodities were priced at very profitable levels" during that time, said Bill Meyer, director of the USDA's National Agricultural Statistics Service mountain region.
    1. The city of Detroit faces a catch-22: It must modernize to attract residents, but in order to modernize, it needs residents as a tax and community base.

      That is the premise of Bill Adler’s article for Grist, which takes Detroit’s conundrum a step further in recognizing an important trend for growth: Going green.

      Adler compares Detroit to other cities across the country, including Portland, Oregon, in analyzing how Detroit can grow and attract more residents, in particular Millennials — the new young urban professional.

      Detroit’s weather, crime rate, lack of adequate emergency services, high tax rates, and lack of transportation — among other things —conspire to keep the city unattractive. So how to change that?

      Greening is important, Adler writes. Part of that is urban density, now recognized as an environmental good for reducing carbon emissions. Detroit has a density of about 5,100 people per square mile, closer to suburban-style cities like San Jose than it is to other industrial-era cities, like Chicago (12,000) or Washington, D.C. (10,000). Its current density is slightly higher than Portland, Oregon, which has been recognized for its urban planning and its attractiveness to Millennials and entrepreneurs.

      Detroit has existing infrastructure to support greater density, and can do more — expanding public transportation, investing in urban neighborhoods like Midtown and Corktown, expanding renewal efforts to other potentially up-and-coming areas, and turning itself into an incubator or business hub for certain business segments, such as biotechnology — could help the city become attractive to new residents.

      Residents also need jobs, and Detroit does have them, with 232,000 existing jobs and just 169,000 employed Detroit residents. The problem there is that many of Detroit’s high income workers commute into the city from suburbs, while Detroit’s urban poor commute out for minimum-wage positions. Further, the city’s transportation structure is car-centric due to its early years, and it is behind the times in implementing public transit.

      Detroit does have one thing in stock that could be very attractive to home buyers: Architecture. The city has Tudors and Italianate and Romanesque Revival mansions in stock and for sale. However, the surplus of beautiful homes is actually another detriment, right now, as homes are bulldozed lest they become a magnet for crime or fire hazards.

      All hope is not lost, Adler writes, noting that other cities (he calls them Legacy cities) facing similar problems have managed to bounce back, or are in the process of doing so, among them Chicago, Baltimore, St. Louis, and Brooklyn.

      But first, Detroit needs to figure out how to bring in people who want to live in the urban core, and provide them with the services necessary to stay.

  30. Mar 2016
  31. Feb 2016
    1. The emotional and affective dimensions of racism are of course very important, and we all have a responsibility to treat members of all races with dignity, respect, and equality. But politics are about policy, about the material dimensions of society, and there is no way in which policy can ensure that everyone act with personal and social fairness towards people of color. Indeed: my argument has long been that the anti-racist project has suffered because following the initial successes of the Civil Rights movement, our conception of fighting racism switched from enacting laws and enforcing material equality, such as with the Voting Rights act or the Fair Housing Act, to a vague idea that we should all hold hands across racial lines. In other words, racism switched from being popularly conceived of as a problem of the material world to being a problem of mind, and the fight against racism stopped being waged in material terms and instead became about people feeling and thinking the right things.
    1. In Firefox, one can disable Content Security Policy by changing security.csp.enable to false in about:config

      Websites using Content Security Policy can be annoted with hypothes.is in Firefox by switching (in about:config ) security.csp.enable to false

    1. 44-45 Ingelfinger rule: won't publish articles that have been presented, discussed with reporters, or published in any form elsewhere--including data. Once a paper is under consideration and production, it can't be discussed with reporters.

      This clearly harms science in the interest of journals.

    1. Twitter said violent threats and the promotion of terrorism had long been against its terms of service.