249 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
  2. bafybeiery76ov25qa7hpadaiziuwhebaefhpxzzx6t6rchn7b37krzgroi.ipfs.dweb.link bafybeiery76ov25qa7hpadaiziuwhebaefhpxzzx6t6rchn7b37krzgroi.ipfs.dweb.link
    1. Recent research suggests that globally, the wealthiest 10% have been responsible foras much as half of the cumulative emissions since 1990 and the richest 1% for more than twicethe emissions of the poorest 50% (2).

      this suggests that perhaps the failure of the COP meetings may be partially due to focusing at the wrong level and demographics. the top 1 and 10 % live in every country. A focus on the wealthy class is not a focus area of COP negotiations perse. Interventions targeting this demographic may be better suited at the scale of individuals or civil society.

      Many studies show there are no extra gains in happiness beyond a certain point of material wealth, and point to the harmful impacts of wealth accumulation, known as affluenza, and show many health effects: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1950124/, https://theswaddle.com/how-money-affects-rich-people/, https://www.marketwatch.com/story/the-dark-reasons-so-many-rich-people-are-miserable-human-beings-2018-02-22, https://www.nbcnews.com/better/pop-culture/why-wealthy-people-may-be-less-successful-love-ncna837306, https://www.apa.org/research/action/speaking-of-psychology/affluence,

      A Human Inner Transformation approach based on an open source praxis called Deep Humanity is one example of helping to transform affluenza and leveraging it accelerate transition.

  3. Sep 2021
    1. The current supported languages out-of-the-box are Sass, Stylus, Less, CoffeeScript, TypeScript, Pug, PostCSS, Babel.
    1. I’ve written a few thousand words on why traditional “semantic class names” are the reason CSS is hard to maintain, but the truth is you’re never going to believe me until you actually try it.
    1. But it is always important to remember that those are not language concepts. Those are community concepts that only exist in our heads and in the names of some library methods.

      I'm not sure about this. I get what he's saying and agree that singleton methods are nothing but a naming convention for the more fundamental/atomic construct called instance methods (which indeed are the only kind of method that exist in Ruby, depending how you look at it), but I think I would actually say that singleton methods are language concepts because those methods like Object#define_singleton_method, ... are always available in Ruby (without needing to require a standard library first, for example). In other words, I would argue that something belonging in the Ruby core "library" (?) by definition makes it part of the language -- even if it in turn builds on even lower-level Ruby language features/constructs.

    2. Note: when I wrote above that "there is no such thing as X", what I meant was that "there is no such thing as X in the Ruby language". That does not mean that those concepts don't exist in the Ruby community.
    3. The important thing to understand is that there is no such thing as a class method in Ruby. A class method is really just a singleton method. There is nothing special about class methods. Every object can have singleton methods. We just call them "class methods" when the object is a Class because "singleton method of an instance of Class" is too long and unwieldy.
    4. Class methods are actually instance methods defined on the singleton class of a class.
  4. Aug 2021
  5. Jul 2021
    1. Testing at GitLab is a first class citizen, not an afterthought. It’s important we consider the design of our tests as we do the design of our features.
    1. And, to our bitter grief, with a smile and in silence, he died, a gallant gentleman.

      Earned a place in the class system of England through his sacrifice.

    2. ohn Seward, M.D

      Use of professional title in personal note.

    3. And, too, it made me think of the wonderful power of money! What can it not do when it is properly applied; and what might it do when basely used. I felt so thankful that Lord Godalming is rich, and that both he and Mr. Morris, who also has plenty of money, are willing to spend it so freely.
    4. since he does not speak any foreign language.

      Probably because he is American and outside of class (professional need to know languages to do business and nobility learns languages in school).

    5. “Can’t we get a special?” asked Lord Godalming. Van Helsing shook his head: “I fear not. This land is very different from yours or mine; even if we did have a special, it would probably not arrive as soon as our regular train.

      Expectation of privileges due to class. Class not respected in other countries.

    6. Godalming told the shippers that he fancied that the box sent aboard might contain something stolen from a friend of his, and got a half consent that he might open it at his own risk. The owner gave him a paper telling the Captain to give him every facility in doing whatever he chose on board the ship, and also a similar authorisation to his agent at Varna. We have seen the agent, who was much impressed with Godalming’s kindly manner to him, and we are all satisfied that whatever he can do to aid our wishes will be done.

      It is mentioned that Goldaming's "kindly manner" influenced the agent. In reality, it was probably his class status. This also reinforces the belief that people of higher classes are better people.

    7. “This is what I can give into the hotch-pot.” I could not but note the quaint legal phrase which she used in such a place, and with all seriousness.

      Using a professional legal term.

    8. Czarina Catherine

      Russian nobility. Bridge between East and West.

    9. He will let two scientists see his case, if he will not let two friends

      He can use the respect others have for his status as a professional but personal relationships and networking will always be there to fall back on and use.

    10. Your husband is noble nature, and you are noble too,

      And for their good traits they were rewarded upon the death of Hawkins, perpetuating the myth that the rich are good and the poor are bad. Mina and Jonathan are able to progress in their social class because of their good nature.

    11. Lord Godalming

      He has earned this family title now that his father has passed.

    12. entailed property of Lucy’s father’s which now, in default of direct issue, went back to a distant branch of the family, the whole estate, real and personal, was left absolutely to Arthur Holmwood.

      Patrilineal. Since Lucy is a woman it would rare for her to inherit anything from her family line.

    13. You forget that I am a lawyer as well as a doctor.

      Professional on two levels.

    14. Patrick Hennessey, M. D., M. R. C. S. L. K. Q. C. P. I., etc., etc.,

      Professional, almost to the point of absurdity. He has so many letters and points of status following his name.

    15. junior partner of the important firm Hawkins & Harker;

      His status is increasing, both from professional intellect and from lineage (though not blood) like nobility.

    16. You were only student then; now you are master,

      Similar relationship as Lucy and Mina, student and teacher, except Lucy and Mina wouldn't be expected to become academics. They leave school to do household and other womanly duties.

    17. Abraham Van Helsing, M. D., D. Ph., D. Lit., etc., etc.,

      Very educated. A medical doctor, doctor of philosophy, and also of literature.

    18. when you came from the schoolroom to prepare for the world of life.

      Lucy was once a pupil of Mina's. Though friends now I'm sure this distance/authority remains at some level.

    19. If I don’t sleep at once, chloral, the modern Morpheus—C2HCl3O. H2O!

      Shows off his science knowledge by citing the elemental make up of the drug. This separates him from other drug users who may be ignorant.

    20. Surgeon J. M. Caffyn,

      New professional. Surgeons used to be barbers and lower-class but study of medicine has increased their status. Now that they go to school and earn a title they have also earned respect in society.

    21. THREE proposals

      Lucy's 3 suitors also embody 3 different levels of British social class. Dr. Seward represents the new and upcoming professional class. Hon. Arthur is old British nobility and Mr. Morris is American and therefore exists outside of the class system.

    22. Count Dracula?” He bowed in a courtly way as he replied:— “I am Dracula;

      Harker uses the title, respecting his nobility. Dracula does not because he exists outside of society and therefore class structures. Count is equivalent to an earl in the UK.

    23. you are a solicitor and the Incorporated Law Society might tell you that you should have known better.

      Jonathan's professional class holds him to a standard an American and a nobleman are not

    24. not if they knew the man was properly employed
    25. This burglary business is getting serious;

      Another example of crossing class boundaries, these men are committing criminal acts which is usually done by those in the underclass, however we understand them to be morally correct.

    26. I am myself a professional man.” Here I handed him my card. “In this instance I am not prompted by curiosity; I act on the part of Lord Godalming, who wishes to know something of the property which was, he understood, lately for sale.” These words put a different complexion on affairs.

      Though the professional class is rising, nobility is still the most valued.

    27. phonetic spelling had again misled me
    28. taking a late tea out of a saucer. He is a decent, intelligent fellow, distinctly a good, reliable type of workman, and with a headpiece of his own.

      Set opposite pf Snelling

    29. Here was my own pet lunatic—the most pronounced of his type that I had ever met with—talking elemental philosophy, and with the manner of a polished gentleman.

      Crossing class boundaries

    30. Lord Godalming and Mr. Morris arrived earlier than we expected. Dr. Seward

      Another clear example hierarchy of societal hierarchy

    31. my honour as a gentleman or my faith as a Christian is concerned

      Nobility and religion.

    32. No, no, not that, for God’s sake! not yet at any rate.

      His rank has changed and came at the expense of his father's life

    33. the solicitor came: Mr. Marquand, of Wholeman, Sons, Marquand & Lidderdale
    34. left him a fortune which to people of our modest bringing up is wealth beyond the dream of avarice,
    35. with that obedience to the etiquette of death which the British woman of the lower classes always rigidly observes
    36. I was stern with them, however, and would not let them talk. I told them that one life was bad enough to lose, and that if they delayed they would sacrifice Miss Lucy.

      No chance to recover, only to serve

    37. cursed the laziness of the servants that they should lie abed at such an hour
    38. ’at as perlite as a lord
    39. You’ll excoose me refoosin’ to talk of perfeshunal subjects afore meals

      Lower class dialect

    1. ‘Don’t get fooled by those mangled teeth she sports on camera!’ says the ABC News host introducing the woman who plays Pennsatucky. ‘Taryn Manning is one beautiful and talented actress.’ This suggestion that bad teeth and talent, in particular, are mutually exclusive betrays our broad, unexamined bigotry toward those long known, tellingly, as ‘white trash.’ It’s become less acceptable in recent decades to make racist or sexist statements, but blatant classism generally goes unchecked. See the hugely successful blog People of Walmart that, through submitted photographs, viciously ridicules people who look like contemporary US poverty: the elastic waistbands and jutting stomachs of diabetic obesity, the wheelchairs and oxygen tanks of gout and emphysema. Upper-class supremacy is nothing new. A hundred years ago, the US Eugenics Records Office not only targeted racial minorities but ‘sought to demonstrate scientifically that large numbers of rural poor whites were genetic defectives,’ as the sociologist Matt Wray explains in his book Not Quite White: White Trash and the Boundaries of Whiteness (2006). The historian and civil rights activist W E B du Bois, an African American, wrote in his autobiography Dusk of Dawn (1940) that, growing up in Massachusetts in the 1870s, ‘the racial angle was more clearly defined against the Irish than against me. It was a matter of income and ancestry more than colour.’ Martin Luther King, Jr made similar observations and was organising a poor-people’s march on Washington at the time of his murder in 1968.

      examples of upper-class supremacy

      This seems an interesting sociological issue. What is the root cause? Is it the economic sense of "keeping up with the Jonses"? Is it a zero-sum game? really?

  6. Jun 2021
    1. Lucy is to be married in the autumn, and she is already planning out her dresses and how her house is to be arranged. I sympathise with her, for I do the same, only Jonathan and I will start in life in a very simple way, and shall have to try to make both ends meet.

      Difference between professional and nobility

    2. (Mem., under what circumstances would I not avoid the pit of hell?) Omnia Romæ venalia sunt. Hell has its price! verb. sap. If there be anything behind this instinct it will be valuable to trace it afterwards accurately, so I had better commence to do so, therefore

      Proof of intelligence, Latin

    3. when he made Hamlet say:— “My tablets! quick, my tablets! ’Tis meet that I put it down,” etc.,

      Ability to quote Shakespeare shows education and intelligence.

    4. found him making the bed.

      Another trespass of class lines

    5. That is not enough for me. Here I am noble; I am boyar; the common people know me, and I am master. But a stranger in a strange land, he is no one
    6. odd deficiencies in the house, considering the extraordinary evidences of wealth which are round me

      Different kind of class than he is used to from England.

    7. Solicitor’s clerk! Mina would not like that. Solicitor—for just before leaving London I got word that my examination was successful; and I am now a full-blown solicitor!

      Entering the new professional class of England. Mina must care about this status, or least the work it took to earn.

    8. there was business to be done,

      Harker is a professional. He has a duty that cannot be overridden. Especially by mysticism or women.

    1. "I am also concerned that despite the best of intentions many of us have not considered adequately what social justice means and entails. I worry that social justice may become simply a “topic du jour” in music education, a phrase easily cited and repeated without careful examination of the assumptions and actions it implicates. That can lead to serious misunderstandings."

    1. A Harvard Business Review survey found that 62 percent of high-earning individuals work over 50 hours a week, more than a third work over 60 hours a week, and one in 10 work over 80 hours a week. According to Markovits, elites today work an average of 12 more hours per week than middle-class workers (the equivalent of 1.5 additional workdays).

      This may be the case for high-earners, but where do these people sit with respect to the higher elite or "leisure class"?

      Are these hard working high-earners a new class of people that has emerged that aren't the previous elite of the mid-1900s?

      What effect does the rise of finacialization (versus manufacturing or service sectors) since the 1970's have on this shift? Did these high-earners arise out of a hole in the market to service the elites on the highest rung up to make their wealth grow faster?

      There seems to be a hole in this argument with respect to the prior quote:

      Fifty, 60, 70 years ago, you could tell how poor somebody was by how hard they worked. Today, that relationship has been completely reversed. Elites work for a living. They work harder than they used to. They work harder in terms of brute hours than the middle class on average, and they get most of their income by working.

  7. May 2021
  8. Apr 2021
  9. Mar 2021
    1. The hierarchical structure of semantic fields can be mostly seen in hyponymy.

      Good explanation about semantic fields.

      I assume the same or an even stronger statement can be made about semantic classes (which to me are like more clear-cut, distinct semantic fields), then? 

    1. Is this topic part of linguistics too? Or only semantics?

    2. A semantic class contains words that share a semantic feature.
    3. For example within nouns there are two sub classes, concrete nouns and abstract nouns.
    4. The concrete nouns include people, plants, animals, materials and objects while the abstract nouns refer to concepts such as qualities, actions, and processes.
    5. Semantic classes may intersect. The intersection of female and young can be girl.

      More examples are given at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Semantic_feature:

      • 'female' + 'performer' = 'actress'
    6. (Not answered on this stub article)

      What, precisely, is the distinction/difference between a semantic class and a semantic field? At the very least, you would say that they are themselves both very much within the same semantic field.

      So, is a semantic class distinct from a semantic field in that semantic class is a more well-defined/clear-cut semantic field? And a semantic field is a more fluid, nebulous, not well-defined field (in the same sense as a magnetic field, which has no distinct boundary whatsoever, only a decay as you move further away from its source) ("semantic fields are constantly flowing into each other")?

      If so, could you even say that a semantic class is a kind of (hyponym) of semantic field?

      Maybe I should pose this question on a semantics forum.

    1. Some types exist as descriptions of objects, but not as tangible physical objects. One can show someone a particular bicycle, but cannot show someone, explicitly, the type "bicycle", as in "the bicycle is popular."
    2. The distinction in computer programming between classes and objects is related, though in this context, "class" sometimes refers to a set of objects (with class-level attribute or operations) rather than a description of an object in the set, as "type" would.
    1. The :empty selector refers only to child nodes, not input values. [value=""] does work; but only for the initial state. This is because a node's value attribute (that CSS sees), is not the same as the node's value property (Changed by the user or DOM javascript, and submitted as form data).
    2. You can use the :placeholder-shown pseudo class. Technically a placeholder is required, but you can use a space instead.
    1. There are numerous user interface state pseudo-classes. You’ve probably already known :hover, :active etc. According to this W3C Candidate Doc, there are additional pseudo-classes defined, such as :valid, invalid, in-range, out-of-range, required, optional, read-only and read-write.
  10. Feb 2021
    1. Examples of different ways of defining forms

      Wow, that's a lot of different ways.

      The inline_form way in particular seems interesting to me, though it's worth noting that that method is just an example, not actually part of this project's code, so it's not really a first-class option like the other options.

    1. For the usage in society, see Second-class citizen.
      1. Ironic that this reference is ostensibly about the usage of "first-class citizen" in society, yet it links to a seemingly-mismatched (by name only, that is) article, entitled "second-class citizen".

      2. Ironic that the first-class (unqualified) article is about the figurative meaning of "citizen" used in computer science, and that the page describing first-class and second-class status of the more literal citizens in society is relegated to what I kind of think is a second-class position in the encyclopedia (because it takes the #2 position numerically, even though it is (at least as is implied in this reference) also about first-class citizens (though the word "first-class" does not appear a single time in that article, so maybe this reference is the one that is more ironic/incorrect).

    2. In programming language design, a first-class citizen (also type, object, entity, or value) in a given programming language is an entity which supports all the operations generally available to other entities. These operations typically include being passed as an argument, returned from a function, modified, and assigned to a variable.
    1. In computer science, a programming language is said to have first-class functions if it treats functions as first-class citizens.
  11. Jan 2021
    1. (Or you become a second class citizen, being told that you have to rely on GNOME extensions that may break on every single new version of GNOME.)
  12. Dec 2020
    1. The nation's coronavirus shaman, Dr. Anthony Fauci,

      The permanent government made up of technocratic, low experience diversity has now become intolerably dangerous.

  13. Nov 2020
    1. it had been dark, silent, beautiful very often—oh yes—but mournful somehow

      This gives a hint of how life must have been for Leila living in a country. "Dark" and "silent" allude to her being alone, given that she is an only child, which also accounts that her life must have been quite dull and lonely. Yet, she also mentions that most of her nights are "beautiful," which elucidates that she has been living a good life. Perhaps she lives in a lovely house, and her family owns a nice and vast farm, given that she also comes from the same class of family as the Sheridans.

  14. Oct 2020
    1. 通常做法是:class属性v-bind:class一个对象名,在data对象中增加一个同命对象,对象的某个属性为true时,dom会增加对应的class

    1. The great ones have a thought pro-cess, philosophy and habit all rolled into one that overshadows the rest: I am responsible.
    1. take fifty francs, darling, take a hundred

      While the daughter makes a comment about being broke earlier, it's very clear this family has no financial troubles with how liberally her mother gives her money here. Based on the daughter's comments its clear her mother isn't a professional intent on making money, yet she appears at the very least to have been a few times before. Like the party before, it's clear this is a pricey past time, but even then at least the party had party stuff. The enjoyment for people of this class in a casino is literally just throwing away their money.

    2. I am conten

      I wonder if Laura's amazement at the body and finding beauty in it is meant to show the beauty of death and how it allows an escape from the rigidly socioeconomically divided world of the living, or that's another sign of how disconnected from the lives of these people she and her family are, that she sees the loss of life as some romantic portrait laid out before her and not the reality of the loss his family feels and the economic struggles they'll come to face having lost the head of the household. Maybe it's both? Who knows...

    3. one must see everything

      Are they really "seeing" everything tho? I mean Laura earlier was clearly blind to the realities of class distinctions. Even when presented with physical proof in the form of the sorry state of these cottages, the message they seem to take away is "they live in these gross, rough cottages" and not "why do they have to live here while we can live in luxury?"

    4. Laura’s upbringing made her wonder for a moment whether it was quite respectful of a workman to talk to her of bangs slap in the eye

      The class division here is super striking, but interesting. Obviously financially Laura and her family are on an entirely different level than these men with the fancy turbans and silk pajamas, but what's interesting here is how its the lower class man that knows more about how to set up the fancy party than Laura who has presumably attended infinitely more of these than the man. For her it's a fun past time, but for him, this is his livelihood.

    5. “Not in the garden?

      This line shows really clearly how the Sheridans don't care about anything happening outside of their comfortable domestic sphere. Literally, if it's happening beyond their garden they don't see it as their problem. Of course, this has really classist implications when they live right next to a poor neighborhood.

    6. “Only a very small band,” said Laura gently. Perhaps he wouldn’t mind so much if the band was quite small.

      This attempt to downplay the obvious wealth and luxury of her party when confronted with how someone of a lower-class views it is really fascinating. It seems that Laura is experiencing class consciousness for the first time and experiencing shame because of it.

    1. Many black business owners blamed the problem on lowerclass peoples’ affliction with the “white man’s psychology,” namely, that migrantshad been brainwashed into thinking they had to shop in a white-owned store, eitherbecause whites would punish them if they didn’t or because white stores were nec-essarily higher quality than black ones.48Whether this was the case or not, therewere several other things complicating black consumers’ willingness to shop inblack-owned businesses.

      Breakout Group 02: The evidence above demonstrates the "integration of rural Southern culture into urban African American consciousness" where foodways are a "natural vehicle for the expression…of freedom" because it shows the complication within the black community. Where an expression of freedom is an African American having a grocery store. One would think that the Black owned grocery store would be successful due to "black authenticity" but many Black people feared blacklash from White people for even attempting to be independent but also because many Black people were brainwashed to believe that the white businesses have better quality products over the black owned business.

    1. The following roles are used to support the WAI-ARIA role taxonomy for the purpose of defining general role concepts. Abstract roles are used for the ontology. Authors MUST NOT use abstract roles in content.
    2. Abstract roles are the foundation upon which all other WAI-ARIA roles are built.
    3. Abstract roles are provided to help with the following: Organize the role taxonomy and provide roles with a meaning in the context of known concepts.Streamline the addition of roles that include necessary features.
  15. react-spectrum.adobe.com react-spectrum.adobe.com
    1. In addition, this example shows usage of the isPressed value returned by useButton to properly style the button's active state. You could use the CSS :active pseudo class for this, but isPressed properly handles when the user drags their pointer off of the button, along with keyboard support and better touch screen support.
    1. That is, we envision a cuisine and an attendant lifestyle that is more au-thentic and less stressful, more "natural," than the world in which we live.

      ~Group 4~ Anne Meneley is discussing how olive oil is becoming an increasingly more sought after ingredient because of its praise as a natural ingredient. Though olive oil is seen as a traditional and authentic ingredient, due to media, it is an industrialized product and is only widespread because of that- despite the misconceptions to make people think otherwise. There are many reoccuring themes within the article such as distinction, naturalness, processed, and industrialization to name a few. The quote that is highlighted connects to themes because people truly seem to worship this idea of being and living naturally. The idea of being natural also includes eating naturally and there's this distinction between people who live naturally and who don't. People who idolizes this natural lifestyle seem to think they are being authentic when they are failing to realize that transformations and growth are necessary. Meneley seems to want the reader to think about what industrialization and processed foods mean exactly.

    1. Graeber has a great deal more to say about money and its unique capacityto store value, and also about the ideology of the market with its highlyindividuated notion of human desires (e.g. 2001: 257). His analysis opensup an intriguing question. If in market societies money is a measure, amedium and above all an end in itself (2001: 66) and value-for-moneydominates what we conventionally call the economy, how do other valuescoexist with this monetarized realm and its rationality of quantificationand self-interest? Graeber points out that, in our view of society, marketprinciples can be balanced by family values and altruistic charity (2001:257), but he views these as just ‘two sides of the same false coin’

      In this capitalistic society money makes the world go round. Graeber has a pessimistic view in regards to the idea that family and altruism can balance out greed because he believes that they are in direct conflict to capitalism. Graeber expands further on his thoughts

    1. Her family–her beggarly family–turned their backs on her for marrying an honest man, who had made his own place and won his own fortune. I had no ancestors. I wasn’t descended from a set of cut-throat scoundrels who lived by robbery and murder

      Here's an interesting line about class divisions which is not really brought up as much as I feel like it should be given how our narrators have both been on much lower economic and societal levels than the "main" players of the story. The only one who really seems in some way angered at the system is Mr Ablewhite here who's mad that he's seen as lesser for being new money as opposed to old money.

  16. Sep 2020
    1. It was a direct encouragement to her reckless way of talking, and her insolent reference to me.

      Wow. Miss Clack hates Rachel this much to the degree that does not align with her "very" Christian ways. Perhaps her malicious thoughts towards Rachel are projections of how she feels between their class difference, even if they are cousins.

    2. white moss rose is all the better for not being budded on the dog-rose

      This has been mentioned repeatedly by Cuff at this point. Roses have classically been used as a symbol of nobility in England. "Budding" may refer to the mingling or mixing between two different classes of people. If we understand Cuff's words through this interpretation, he is arguing for the "purity" of nobility, or strict adherence to class stratification.

      Rosanna's name can also be construed as a reference to the roses in Cuff's argument. By "budding" with nobility, Rosanna has become entangled in an unfortunate event for which she would have been "all the better for not" being involved at all.

    1. The most complicated nonverbal cues are facial expressions.

      When in class it is good to see people agreeing with you it could be a smile or even a nod. With zoom it doesn't really work although there are some alternatives we can never have that same feeling.

    1. Note that we'd still be able to emulate that capability with :global — really the question is whether it needs to be first-class.
    1. This is easily solved by extracting components, either as template partials/JavaScript components, or using Tailwind's @apply feature to create abstractions around common utility patterns.
  17. Aug 2020
  18. Jul 2020
  19. Jun 2020
  20. May 2020
  21. Apr 2020
    1. The new and improved Times Higher Education (THE) Impact Rankings 2020 were published this week with as much online fanfare as THE could muster. Unfortunately, they are not improved enough.
  22. Mar 2020
    1. Evaluation of Low-Cost Sensors for Ambient PM2.5 Monitoring

      This article discusses different low cost sensors, their effectiveness and different uses. There is also a table that lists different low cost sensors for particulate matter

  23. Jan 2020
    1. no difference

      The nature of the wants that commodities satisfy makes no difference. This is perhaps somewhat surprising to readers, given the extent to which everyday critiques of capitalist society often center around the role that consumerism plays and the subjective effects that this produces, namely, the way that consumer society creates all sorts of desires (as well as the obverse--many will defend capitalism on the grounds that it is able to satisfy our inordinate appetite for novelty by producing an enormous proliferation of desirable commodities). Yet, for Marx, the nature of these desires "makes no difference."

      It is worth pointing out that the critique of the appetites that consumer society spawns is by no means new (a rather early moment in the history of consumer society). We find it already on display in Book II of Plato's Republic. In looking to shift the terrain of the analysis of justice from the individualistic, social contractualist theory of justice elaborated by Glaucon, Socrates founds a 'city' based on the idea that no one is self-sufficient, that human beings have much need of one another, and that the various crafts--farming, weaving cloth, etc.--fare best when each person specializes in that craft to which they are most suited by nature. After sketching out a kind of idyllic, pastoral community based on the principle of working together to satisfy our natural appetites, Socrates aristocratic companion Glaucon objects, describing this city as a 'city fit for pigs'. At this point, Socrates conjures what he calls the 'luxurious city', at which point a whole host of social ills are unleashed in order to satisfy Glaucon's desire for the luxuries to which he is accustomed. Currency and trade are introduced, along with a more complex division of labor (and wage labor!), and quite quickly, war. On the basis of the principle of 'one person, one craft', Socrates argues that making war is itself a craft that requires specialization (and thus a professional army).

      For Plato, this represents the beginning of class society, as the profession military becomes a class distinct from the class of producers and merchants.

      Plato thus anticipates a version of a view that becomes one of the key theses of the Marxist theory of the state, namely, the idea that the state exists only in societies that have become "entangled in an insoluble contradiction within itself" and which are "cleft into irreconcilable antagonisms which it is powerless to dispel," (Engels, The Origin of the Family, Private Property, and the State). The state emerges as "a power apparently standing above society...whose purpose is to moderate the conflict and keep it within the bounds of 'order'" Engels writes, "this power arising out of society, but placing itself above it, and increasingly separating itself from it, is the state." Lenin cites this passage in the first pages of State and Revolution in order to critique the 'bourgeois' view that the state exists in order to reconcile class interests. In Lenin's reading of Marx, the state exists as "an organ of classs domination, an organ of oppression of one class by another," a view articulated in The Communist Manifesto, (cf. V.I. Lenin, State and Revolution in V.I.Lenin: Collected Works, Vol. 25, pp. 385-497).

      Marx cites this same passage from Republic in a long footnote to his discussion of the Division of Labor and Manufacture on pp. 487-488, which also happens to be the sole place in Capital where Marx cites Plato.

      The fact that Marx here expresses indifference to the particular appetites that commodities satisfy is thus intriguing and ambiguous. Given that this question both clearly animates Plato's discussion of the origin of class society in Republic and, additionally serves as an alternative to the social contractarian view of justice that descends from Glaucon through Hobbes and the 18th century 'Robinsonades', this seemingly technical point also touches upon questions concerning Marx's engagement with both classical and modern political theory.

      If for Plato, the unruly appetites represent the seed of which class-divided society is the fruit, Marx's dismissal of the question of the nature of the appetites that are satisfied by commodities points to exchange-value and the social forms that it unleashes as being key dimensions of the particular form that class-antagonism takes in capitalist society.

  24. Nov 2019
    1. It makes sense that the incoherent render would not be committed to browser and that it would not have any consequences most of the time. But that means that you render logic must be ready to manage incoherency between props and states without crashing. E.g. a list of resource ids in props that doesn't match a list of http requests from a previous id list in the state could lead to weird situations. This is a worry that didn't exist in class components.
  25. Sep 2019
    1. The equivalent ways in functional components using Hooks:In a state variable: useState or useReducer. Updates in state variables will cause a re-render of the component.In a ref: Equivalent to instance variables in class components. Mutating the .current property won’t cause a re-render.
  26. stackoverflow.com