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  1. Last 7 days
  2. Apr 2024
    1. to classify means to draw up a scheme, to class meansto apply it.

      Classification is a noun from which classify and class are attendant verbs which should have different meanings. The first is the creation of a plan or scheme and the second is the application of that plan. Defining these becomes important for bigger organizations as the two actions can be carried out by different people and their meaning is even more important for individual note takers as they may be doing both operations simultaneously and thereby miss some important parts of the process which cause issues later on. (¶101)

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  3. Mar 2024
    1. By 1700, we should note, slaves comprised half the population of thesouthern portion of the Carolina colony, an imbalance that widened to 72percent by 1740. Beginning in 1714, a series of laws required that for everysix slaves an owner purchased, he had to acquire one white servant.Lamenting that the “white population do not proportionally multiply,”South Carolina lawmakers had one more reason to wish that a corps ofLeet-men and women had actually been formed. Encouraged to marry andmultiply, tied to the land, they might have provided a racial and class barrierbetween the slaves and the landed elites.13
    2. A court of heraldry was added to this strange brew: in overseeingmarriages and maintaining pedigree, it provided further evidence of theintention to fix (and police) class identity.

      Presumably these early ideas of marriage and pedigree in the Carolinas heavily influenced not only class laws but issues with miscegenation which still have root there today.

    3. Slavery was thus a logicaloutgrowth of the colonial class system imagined by Hakluyt. It emergedfrom three interrelated phenomena: harsh labor conditions, the treatment ofindentures as commodities, and, most of all, the deliberate choice to breedchildren so that they should become an exploitable pool of workers.
    4. America’s class language and thinking began with the forceful imprint leftby English colonization.

      An example of founders philosophy being heavily influenced by the thinking of the place/culture that was left and being exported to the new found location.

    5. The hallowed American dream is thegold standard by which politicians and voters alike are meant to measurequality of life as each generation pursues its own definition of happinessunfettered by the restraints of birth (who your parents are) or station (theposition you start out from in the class system).

      Did it help that America was broadly formed during the start of the Industrial Revolution and at a time in which social mobility was dramatically different than the period of history which proceeded it?

      And how much of this difference is split with the idea of the rise of (toxic) capitalism and the switch to "keeping up with the Jonses" which also tends to drive class distinctions?

    6. economic stratification createdby wealth and privilege.

      basic definition of class

      could probably do with some distinction of education as well....

    7. Isenberg, Nancy. White Trash: The 400-Year Untold History of Class in America. 1st ed. New York, New York: Viking, 2016.

      annotation link: urn:x-pdf:417c67707ad8fbb5300140892c8666cc<br /> alternate annotation link: JH facet

    1. What is the most that a working-class person could hope for from a net-zero future?

      for - quote - working class - net zero - adjacency - working class - net zero - key insight - working class - net zero

      quote - Chris Yates - within class - net zero - (see quote below)

      • What is the most that a working-class person could hope for
        • from a net-zero future?
      • At present,
        • in the vision being broadly promoted,
        • it’s
          • the same hard work,
          • the same exploitation,
        • but with
        • a heat pump instead of
          • a gas boiler.
    2. My belief is that societies cannot organize effectively to cope with the impacts of climate change without a shared understanding of the future that awaits.

      quote - shared futures - climate crisis and appropriate language - (quote below)

      • My belief is that
        • societies cannot organize effectively
        • to cope with
        • the impacts of climate change
        • without a shared understanding of
        • the future that awaits.
      • Currently, representations of the net-zero future
        • don’t do that.
      • They are a denial of the best of human nature.
      • They shut down the possibility of
        • imagining something different
        • in favor of a fantasy of more of the same,
          • minus catastrophic climate change.
      • With a better, shared understanding of the world we’re moving toward,
        • we can better organize ourselves to live in that world,
          • whatever that might mean,
          • whatever that might look like.
    3. it reveals that it’s those immediate experiences of the environment rather than global atmospheric concentrations of CO2 that affect people’s ideas about climate.

      insight - hyperobjects

      Comment - This of why a Deep Humanity approach that identifies and clarifies the fundamental issues is so important

  4. Feb 2024
    1. The startling events of the spring of 1933, when more andmore Germans realized that they were not supposed to shop inJewish stores and when German companies felt compelled to fireJewish employees and remove Jewish businessmen from corporateboards, moved Germany quite some distance toward the ultimategoal of “Aryanizing” the German economy.
    2. Most candidates for sterilization came from lower-classbackgrounds, and since it was educated middle-class men who weremaking normative judgments about decent behavior, they were bothmore vulnerable to state action and less likely to arouse sympathy
    3. Boththe Hitler Youth and the Reich Labor Service aimed to mix bour-geois and working-class youths in order to pull down social barriersto the formation of national race consciousness.
    4. In place of the quarrels of party, the contests of inter-est, and the divisions of class, which they believed compromised theability of the nation to act, the Nazis proposed to build a unified ra-cial community guided by modern science. Such an endeavor wouldprovide Germany with the “unity of action” necessary to surviveand prosper in the dangerous conditions of the twentieth century
    5. The dreamof the Volkswagen seemed to promise “a new, happier age” thatwould make “the German people rich and Germany beautiful,” asHitler put it. Indeed, the Volkswagen functioned as a symbol for thenewly won capacity to dream about the future: in this fundamentalsense, the Nazis appeared as “men of the future.”
    6. he reports confirm that workers creditedHitler, in particular, for the restoration of economic stability.

      note: consider lean of the documents. hitler employees have reason to write reports speaking well of their progress, plus climate of fear may have been pressuring workers to speak well of hitler. nevertheless valid point

    7. the reports indicate that “workers not only wereunfree . . . but that most of them felt they were unfree, exploited,discriminated against and the victims of an unfair, class-ridden soci-ety.” Even during the boom years of 1937–39, “signs indicated thatNazism was further losing ground among workers.”

      counter to the argument made in the chapter, many workers under the nazi regime did not feel as though enough progress was being made

    8. Interweaving economic opportunity with the dangers thatmight prevent it, whether it was the threat of air attack, the pres-ence of “asocials,” or the power of Jews, Winter Relief and air-de-fense campaigns made the premises of the people’s community tan-gible and persuasive
    9. these auxiliary organiza-tions gave Germans semiofficial responsibilities as they collecteddonations, distributed coal, or trained as air-raid wardens.

      ordinary civilians take on leadership positions -- social mobility, chances to move up the ladder. even if not personally aligned w nazi ideology, pretty good choice to work under them in order to boost your standing. plus boosts patriotism

    10. The SA, Hitler Youth, and Reich LaborFront worked the same way, striving to identify a new generationof leaders drawn from all social classes;

      more social climb opportunities esp from younger gen-- ppl who grow up w the regime are easier to influence

    11. National Socialists assaulted the “alternative culture” of work-ing-class socialists in order to coordinate it, but they also attemptedto overcome the very idea of “alternative,” which structured the so-cial divisions typical of Germany’s neighborhoods.
    12. But thepressure to comply was unmistakable. Dürkefälden’s father-in-lawwas out every night one week in August 1933 because he had toattend meetings or risk losing his garden plot.
    13. The ubiquitous fundraising made it possible for poorer peo-ple like the Dürkefäldens to participate more fully in public life:dinner or snacks were served at party events and entry fees lifted atsport competitions.
    14. In addition, Goebbels tried towin over proletarian celebrities.
    15. plac-ing leading functionaries of the regime in Germany’s factories.
    16. Hitler registered to vote in the working-class Berlin precinct Siemensstadt, and enjoyed a great propagandabonanza when he spoke from the floor of the Siemens factory in anationally broadcast radio address on 10 November 1933.
    17. Evenbefore Hitler spoke (8:00 p.m.), the choreography of May Day hadfastened the links between workers and the nation, between ma-chinists and machine-age dreams, between technical mastery andnational prowess
    18. Hitler repeatedly addressed workers as patriotswho had built Germany’s industrial strength and served honorablyin the war, but who had been unjustly oppressed by liberal eco-nomic orthodoxies. He employed a rhetoric of understanding andcompassion that recognized the perspective of the working class.Reviving the Nation • 47
    19. “Something had to be done”—these were the simple, conclusive words voiced by a friend of KarlDürkefälden’s, jobless and a new convert to Nazism. His wordswere echoed by thousands of workers in the winter and springof 1933; though a socialist, Karl himself understood—“it’s truetoo,” he added parenthetically in his diary entry.
    20. Dürkefälden wasalso able to describe something Elisabeth Gebensleben could not,namely, the story of how working-class conversions helped to cre-ate National Socialism.
    21. When Karl pro-tested that local Nazis had arrested young workers in the neigh-borhood and seized a trade union building, his father retorted indialect, “Ordnung mot sein,” “You have to have order.”
  5. Jan 2024
    1. why is, are so many working class whites driving toward the hard right and wanting to support, you know, what seemed to us kind of insane policies? Well, people are desperate. They're looking for the answer. They're looking for the problem, and they're being told the problem is immigrants. And we don't look at wealth as the problem.
      • for: the real BIG LIE, elephant in the room - wealth inequality, working class driven to hard right
  6. Dec 2023
    1. Glossary of some important musical terms
  7. Nov 2023
    1. Maybe the PPP aligns itself with the Petty Bourgeoisie because they were the working class people that the PPP "championed" in the past. That would be classic corruption, viewed over time.

  8. Aug 2023
    1. Given all of the reasons not to engage with social media — the privacy issues, the slippery-slope addiction aspect of it, its role in spreading incivility — do we want to try to put the genie back in the bottle? Can we? Does social media definitely have a future?

      social media is here to stay... personally, I try not to engage as often but I do find my self checking facebook in the morning before I leave the house for work. All I can say is that I can try to limit myself and realize why am I using social media for? is it for networking, for friends and family or other things.

    2. “Before, only media companies had reach, so it was harder for false information to spread. It could happen, but it was slow. Now anyone can share anything, and because people tend to believe what they see, false information can spread just as, if not more easily, than the truth.

      sadly, this is the scary part of life because you have young minds who don't really know the difference.

    3. The idea of social media as just a way to reconnect with high school friends se

      Yes, this is a nice feature but I wonder how are they going to continue to be relevant with the younger generations. My sister is 14 years younger then me and she said that facebook is for old people.

    4. One prominent commentator about the negative impact of social media is Jaron Lanier, whose fervent opposition makes itself apparent in the plainspoken title of his 2018 book Ten Arguments for Deleting Your Social Media Accounts Right Now. He cites loss of free will

      This came to mind, last week a co-worker and I were talking about giving up some of our privacy. The question was posed, why do you think apple pods or alex's are very afforable... it's a small cost to allow the majority of people to use their services at a big cost to us.

    5. Facebook has its critics, says Wharton marketing professor Pinar Yildirim, and they are mainly concerned about two things: mishandling consumer data and poorly managing access to it by third-party providers; and the level of disinformation spreading on Facebook

      I think the critics don't outweigh the other users concerns. Also, these concerns came after the fact and I'm sure most users are too deep in social media it feels impossible to leave facebook. I personally am involved in a few facebook groups that keep me bound to this social media outlet.

    6. As quickly as social media has insinuated itself into politics, the workplace, home life, and elsewhere, it continues to evolve at lightning speed, making it tricky to predict which way it will morph next.

      Social media is far more fierce then we thought several years ago. Social media has made it apart of my job in the marketing department. There was a time when login on facebook was a big NO-NO at work, now it's a requirement for me.

  9. May 2023
    1. The clinical application of the work of these disciplines is performed to improve and maintain an individual's functional capacities for physical labor, exercise, and sports. Sports medicine also includes the prevention and treatment of diseases and injuries related to exercise and sports.

      Ask a question in class

    1. Uptake of Iodide ++ Iodine ingested in the diet reaches the circulation in the form of iodide ion (I−). Normally, the I− concentration in the blood is very low (0.2–0.4 μg/dL; ~15–30 nM). The thyroid actively transports the ion via a specific membrane-bound protein, termed sodium iodide symporter (NIS) (Kogai and Brent, 2012; Portulano et al., 2014). As a result, the ratio of [I−]thyroid to [I−]plasma is usually between 20 and 50 and can exceed 100 when the gland is stimulated. Iodide transport is inhibited by a number of ions, such as thiocyanate and perchlorate. TSH stimulates NIS gene expression and promotes insertion of NIS protein into the membrane in a functional configuration. Thus, decreased stores of thyroid iodine enhance iodide uptake by increasing TSH, and the administration of iodide can reverse this situation by decreasing NIS protein expression. Iodine is accumulated by other tissues, including the salivary glands, gut, and lactating breast, and it is all mediated by a single NIS gene. Individuals with congenital NIS gene mutations have absent or defective iodine concentration in all tissues known to concentrate iodine. +++ Oxidation and Iodination ++ Transport of iodine from the thyroid follicular cell to the colloid is facilitated by the apical transporter pendrin. The oxidation of iodide to its active form is accomplished by thyroid peroxidase. The reaction results in the formation of monoiodotyrosine (MIT) and diiodotyrosine (DIT) residues in thyroglobulin, a process referred to as organification of iodine, just prior to its extracellular storage in the lumen of the thyroid follicle. +++ Formation of Thyroxine and Triiodothyronine From Iodotyrosines ++ The remaining synthetic step is the coupling of two DIT residues to form T4 or of an MIT and a DIT residue to form T3. These oxidative reactions also are catalyzed by thyroid peroxidase. Intrathyroidal and secreted T3 are also generated by the 5′-deiodination of T4. +++ Synthesis and Secretion of Thyroid Hormones ++ Because T4 and T3 are synthesized and stored within thyroglobulin, proteolysis is an important part of the secretory process. This process is initiated by endocytosis of colloid from the follicular lumen at the apical surface of the cell, with the participation of a thyroglobulin receptor, megalin. This “ingested” thyroglobulin appears as intracellular colloid droplets, which apparently fuse with lysosomes containing the requisite proteolytic enzymes. TSH enhances the degradation of thyroglobulin by increasing the activity of lysosomal thiol endopeptidases, which selectively cleave thyroglobulin, yielding hormone-containing intermediates that subsequently are processed by exopeptidases. The liberated hormones then exit the cell primarily as T4 along with some T3. The T3 secreted by the thyroid derives partly from T3 within mature thyroglobulin and partly from deiodination of T4 (Figure 47–3), which also occurs peripherally (Figure 47–4).

      Here are many paragraphs. Read these before class.

  10. Jan 2023
    1. Standards codify and institutionalize values.

      This is a very important point. When approaching Common Core and State Standards, we should be mindful of the values these standards impose and approach them from a position insistant on issues of race, socio-economic class, identity, and power..

    1. there's a landlord tax the the  one percent in their day were the landlords you   have to tax away the land rent and make that  the public uh tax base not income not taxes on   consumer goods not taxes on capital because you  want good capital investment you want fortunes to   00:45:07 be made in a good way that add to the economy's  productivity you don't want them to be made in   a predatory bad way uh the whole fight to tax  economic rent and to even recognize that most   income is unearned when you talk about the uh  income disparity almost all this disparity is   unearned income it's economic rent it's not  income that's made by increasing uh production   00:45:33 it's not income that's made by increasing living  standards it's just predatory rent seeking from   special privileges that the wealthy have gained  from government and today it's not the landlord   class anymore as it was in the 19th century it's  the financial class and the raw materials class   uh and uh without dealing uh with this uh  cl structure i don't uh the system is going   00:45:57 to shrink and shrink and we've seen this before  we saw it in rome the same kind of polarization   and concentration of wealth in the roman empire  well the last stage of that is feudalism so we're   back to what rosa luxemburg said the choice is  between socialism and barbarism basically and uh   there's no other way to do it you can't  solve the problems within the existing system   00:46:23 because it's controlled already by the one  percent

      Micheal Hudson : tax the rent seeking class or face barbarism like in Rome - The situation today is degrading in the same way Rome degraded into feudalism - rent seeking class today is not the landlord class, but the financial and raw materials class that are making large fortunes from rent seeking - that is the system level reform necessary today

  11. Dec 2022
  12. www.janeausten.pludhlab.org www.janeausten.pludhlab.org
    1. exactly the something which her home required.

      Like a shiny kettle! I'm more and more curious about the way Emma- however consciously- objectifies Harriet throughout the novel through the lens of both class and internalized misogyny. What Emma most valued in Harriet (at least initially) is her beauty and her mailability. Freud would probably have something to say about penis envy here honestly as the way Emma superimposes herself into Harriet's life as her keeper echoes the way Mr. Knightley administers unsolicited guidance to Emma on the basis of age and- more significantly- gender.

  13. www.janeausten.pludhlab.org www.janeausten.pludhlab.org
    1. had ceased to hold the nominal office of governess, the mildness of her temper had hardly allowed her to impose any restraint; and the shadow of authority being now long passed away,

      Is there an added element of an overriding imbalance of class (even over age) here that also contributes to Miss Taylor's lack of authority with Emma?

    2. less as a governess than a friend, very fond of both daughters, but particularly of Emma. Between them it was more the intimacy of sisters.

      It is interesting that one of Emma's first intimate friends- outside of her sister- is employed by the family and Miss Taylor would on some level have to comply to Emma's whims as the daughter of her employer. I wonder how this influences the dynamics of Emma's relationship with Harriet later in the novel.

    1. the main feature I miss is to be able to declare abstract services (that should never be runned but could be used to group common properties of services for convenience).
    2. I understand that multiple -f options fits almost the bill, but it doesn't always work. For example, I rather often change the name of the abstract service into something that is more meaningful in the context of the project at hand. This is something that the overriding that occurs with multiple -f options does not support. I would not mind loosing the exact extends though, as long as their is some other way to "instantiate" an abstract service in a file.
    1. I often think back to MySpace’s downfall. In 2007, I penned a controversial blog post noting a division that was forming as teenagers self-segregated based on race and class in the US, splitting themselves between Facebook and MySpace. A few years later, I noted the role of the news media in this division, highlighting how media coverage about MySpace as scary, dangerous, and full of pedophiles (regardless of empirical evidence) helped make this division possible. The news media played a role in delegitimizing MySpace (aided and abetted by a team at Facebook, which was directly benefiting from this delegitimization work).

      danah boyd argued in two separate pieces that teenagers self-segregated between MySpace and Facebook based on race and class and that the news media coverage of social media created fear, uncertainty, and doubt which fueled the split.

      http://www.danah.org/papers/essays/ClassDivisions.html

  14. Aug 2022
    1. Class has been called an ‘unspeakable’ identity that is seldom discussed.

      Class

    1. The debate about this dominance of a public school elite

      Eton again

    2. wellconnected people accumulate wealth and power (reflecting the popular sociological observation that ‘it’s not what you know, but who you know that counts’).

      Well connected people quote

    1. wellconnected people accumulate wealth and power (reflecting the popular sociological observation that ‘it’s not what you know, but who you know that counts’). In parallel, disconnected people (like the ‘Street People’discussed in Chapter 1) are likely to experience marginality and exclusion, and may be treated as different from the norm. Indeed, as I was writing this chapter in 2013, there was a debate going on about the dominance of public school educated people in the UK, started by the last non-public school educated Prime Minister, John Major, who said:‘In every single sphere of British influence, the upper echelons of power in 2013 are held overwhelmingly by the privately educated or the affluent middle class’ (BBC News, 2013).

      Woodward bit from the Tutorial

  15. Jul 2022
    1. People in low life have no such privilege. Necessity, which spares our betters, has no pity on us. We learn to put our feelings back into ourselves, and to jog on with our duties as patiently as may be.

      Doesn't outright say it, but both this excerpt and the earlier one about the aristocracy's destructive idleness heavily imply Betteredge's position that the working class is morally and practically superior to the upper class.

    2. nd when you wonder what this cruel nastiness means, you are told that it means a taste in my young master or my young mistress for natural history. Sometimes, again, you see them occupied for hours together in spoiling a pretty flower with pointed instruments, out of a stupid curiosity to know what the flower is made of. Is its colour any prettier, or its scent any sweeter, when you do know?

      Demonstrates aristocracy's sense of entitlement to everything in the world around them, as well as how natural excess is to them. Due to Betteredge's working class background, he wishes to preserve natural beauties like flowers. He sees it as a waste to take it apart, while the children's rich parents see their behavior as promising signs of future paths; the flowers and creatures that get dissected are nothing more than disposable tools.

    1. the idea of a thoughts page was originated by maren, who made a script for generating thoughts pages. thoughts.page is a way of lowering the barrier of entry to putting thoughts on the internet for people who don't want to or don't know how to set up a script to do it.

      Good use case for the application of the principles in A New Publishing Discipline.

    1. Primary program modules

      This is sort of a failing of the code-as-content thing that we're going for here. Take a page from GPE.

  16. Jun 2022
  17. May 2022
    1. Unlike conventional blogs which are read-only this blog contains active code, so you can click on any of the links in this tiddler and see the code and see how the system behaves.
    1. the process for putting something on the internet to just be a git push and trust that the machine will just take care of it
    1. Are you limited to PHP?

      No, but further: the question (about being "limited") presupposes something that isn't true.

      If you're doing PHP here, you're doing it wrong—unless the PHP application is written with great care (i.e. unidiomatically) and has some way to reveal its own program text (as first-class content). Otherwise, that's a complete failure to avoid the "elsewhere"-ness that we're trying to eradicate.

    2. who hosts that?

      Answer: it's hosted under the same auspices as the main content. The "editor" is first-class content (in the vein of ANPD); it's really just another document describing detailed procedures for how the site gets updated.

    1. the former allows me to give an URL to a piece of code

      But you're not! When you wield PHP like this, there is no URL for the piece of code per se—only its (potentially fleeting) output—unless you take special care to make that piece of code available as content otherwise. PHP snippets are just as deserving of a minted identifier issued for them as, say, JS and CSS resources are—perhaps even just as deserving as the content being served up on the site, but PHP actually discourages this.

    1. My argument for the use of the Web as a medium for publishing the procedures by which the documents from a given authority are themselves published shares something in common with the argument for exploiting Lisp's homoiconicity to represent a program as a data structure that is expressed like any other list.

      There are traces here as well from the influence of the von Neumann computational model, where programs and data are not "typed" such that they belong to different "classes" of storage—they are one and the same.

  18. Apr 2022
    1. You and Galileo agree that any Dispute arising out of or related to these Terms or the Site is personal to you and Galileo and that such Dispute will be resolved solely through individual arbitration and will not be brought as a class arbitration, class action or any other type of representative proceeding.

      Terms such as these often limit the ability for lawsuits to happen on a large scale. The effect — not necessarily relevant in this situation — is that companies can operate in a way that "nickels and dimes" on a large scale, but at amounts to individuals that is cost prohibitive to litigate or arbitrate (to individuals). Such circumstances can lead to a situation where a company could theoretically receive large sums of money from its customer base that it is not entitled to receive, but there be few financially viable mechanisms for countering and disincentivizing such bad behavior.

  19. Mar 2022
    1. Many of the items in the docuverse are not static, run-of-the-mill materials, i.e. unformatted text, graphics, database files, or whatever. They are, in fact, executable programs, materials that from a docuverse perspective can be viewed as Executable Documents (EDs). Such programs run the gamut from the simplest COBOL or C program to massive expert systems and FORTRAN programs. Since the docuverse address scheme allows us to link documents at will, we can link together compiled code, source code, and descriptive material in hypertext fashion. Now, if, in addition, we can prepare and link to an executable document an Input-Output Document (IOD), a document specifying a program's input and output requirements and behavior, and an RWI describing the IOD, we can entertain the notion of integrating data and programs that were not originally designed to work together.
  20. Feb 2022
    1. incorporate their demographics, motivations (i.e. reasons for enrolling), engagement and learning outcomes to develop learner profiles. In that sense, a latent class analysis (LCA) is applied, an unsupervised machine learning technique

      methodology

    1. No bound to riches has been fixed for man

      He refutes, bound is what you put in

    2. The master is only the master of the slave; he does not belong to him, whereas the slave is not only the slave of his master, but wholly belongs to him.

      Tie to state - you belong to the state, but the state does not belong to you

    3. Thus the state is by nature clearly prior to the family and to the individual

      Could be discussing importance

    4. As in other departments of science, so in politics, the compound should always be resolved into the simple elements or least parts of the whole. We must therefore look at the elements of which the state is composed, in order that we may see in what they differ from one another, and whether any scientific distinction can be drawn between the different kinds of rule

      Argues against Plato's idea of household rank, but also on board with idea tht happiness comes from life in society

    5. THE POLITICS

      General notes: how men relate to the state & how personal relations reflect that relationship - Community over family

  21. Dec 2021
    1. The final keystone was when the program that a computer runs was moved to where the data is stored, rather than being represented or input physically. This effectively created what we now know of as software. Obvious in hindsight, yet almost impossible to see from the past’s vantage point.

      Good way to describe ANPD.

  22. Nov 2021
    1. An interface can be re-opened. Whereas a type is sealed. So a solution for microsoft/TypeScript#15300 is to map the interface (which can be defined in many places) to a type.
  23. Oct 2021
  24. bafybeiery76ov25qa7hpadaiziuwhebaefhpxzzx6t6rchn7b37krzgroi.ipfs.dweb.link bafybeiery76ov25qa7hpadaiziuwhebaefhpxzzx6t6rchn7b37krzgroi.ipfs.dweb.link
    1. Recent research suggests that globally, the wealthiest 10% have been responsible foras much as half of the cumulative emissions since 1990 and the richest 1% for more than twicethe emissions of the poorest 50% (2).

      this suggests that perhaps the failure of the COP meetings may be partially due to focusing at the wrong level and demographics. the top 1 and 10 % live in every country. A focus on the wealthy class is not a focus area of COP negotiations perse. Interventions targeting this demographic may be better suited at the scale of individuals or civil society.

      Many studies show there are no extra gains in happiness beyond a certain point of material wealth, and point to the harmful impacts of wealth accumulation, known as affluenza, and show many health effects: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1950124/, https://theswaddle.com/how-money-affects-rich-people/, https://www.marketwatch.com/story/the-dark-reasons-so-many-rich-people-are-miserable-human-beings-2018-02-22, https://www.nbcnews.com/better/pop-culture/why-wealthy-people-may-be-less-successful-love-ncna837306, https://www.apa.org/research/action/speaking-of-psychology/affluence,

      A Human Inner Transformation approach based on an open source praxis called Deep Humanity is one example of helping to transform affluenza and leveraging it accelerate transition.

  25. Sep 2021
    1. The current supported languages out-of-the-box are Sass, Stylus, Less, CoffeeScript, TypeScript, Pug, PostCSS, Babel.
    1. But it is always important to remember that those are not language concepts. Those are community concepts that only exist in our heads and in the names of some library methods.

      I'm not sure about this. I get what he's saying and agree that singleton methods are nothing but a naming convention for the more fundamental/atomic construct called instance methods (which indeed are the only kind of method that exist in Ruby, depending how you look at it), but I think I would actually say that singleton methods are language concepts because those methods like Object#define_singleton_method, ... are always available in Ruby (without needing to require a standard library first, for example). In other words, I would argue that something belonging in the Ruby core "library" (?) by definition makes it part of the language -- even if it in turn builds on even lower-level Ruby language features/constructs.

    2. Note: when I wrote above that "there is no such thing as X", what I meant was that "there is no such thing as X in the Ruby language". That does not mean that those concepts don't exist in the Ruby community.
    3. The important thing to understand is that there is no such thing as a class method in Ruby. A class method is really just a singleton method. There is nothing special about class methods. Every object can have singleton methods. We just call them "class methods" when the object is a Class because "singleton method of an instance of Class" is too long and unwieldy.
    4. Class methods are actually instance methods defined on the singleton class of a class.
  26. Aug 2021
  27. Jul 2021
    1. Testing at GitLab is a first class citizen, not an afterthought. It’s important we consider the design of our tests as we do the design of our features.
    1. And, to our bitter grief, with a smile and in silence, he died, a gallant gentleman.

      Earned a place in the class system of England through his sacrifice.

    2. ohn Seward, M.D

      Use of professional title in personal note.

    3. And, too, it made me think of the wonderful power of money! What can it not do when it is properly applied; and what might it do when basely used. I felt so thankful that Lord Godalming is rich, and that both he and Mr. Morris, who also has plenty of money, are willing to spend it so freely.
    4. since he does not speak any foreign language.

      Probably because he is American and outside of class (professional need to know languages to do business and nobility learns languages in school).

    5. “Can’t we get a special?” asked Lord Godalming. Van Helsing shook his head: “I fear not. This land is very different from yours or mine; even if we did have a special, it would probably not arrive as soon as our regular train.

      Expectation of privileges due to class. Class not respected in other countries.

    6. Godalming told the shippers that he fancied that the box sent aboard might contain something stolen from a friend of his, and got a half consent that he might open it at his own risk. The owner gave him a paper telling the Captain to give him every facility in doing whatever he chose on board the ship, and also a similar authorisation to his agent at Varna. We have seen the agent, who was much impressed with Godalming’s kindly manner to him, and we are all satisfied that whatever he can do to aid our wishes will be done.

      It is mentioned that Goldaming's "kindly manner" influenced the agent. In reality, it was probably his class status. This also reinforces the belief that people of higher classes are better people.

    7. “This is what I can give into the hotch-pot.” I could not but note the quaint legal phrase which she used in such a place, and with all seriousness.

      Using a professional legal term.

    8. Czarina Catherine

      Russian nobility. Bridge between East and West.

    9. He will let two scientists see his case, if he will not let two friends

      He can use the respect others have for his status as a professional but personal relationships and networking will always be there to fall back on and use.

    10. Your husband is noble nature, and you are noble too,

      And for their good traits they were rewarded upon the death of Hawkins, perpetuating the myth that the rich are good and the poor are bad. Mina and Jonathan are able to progress in their social class because of their good nature.

    11. Lord Godalming

      He has earned this family title now that his father has passed.

    12. entailed property of Lucy’s father’s which now, in default of direct issue, went back to a distant branch of the family, the whole estate, real and personal, was left absolutely to Arthur Holmwood.

      Patrilineal. Since Lucy is a woman it would rare for her to inherit anything from her family line.

    13. You forget that I am a lawyer as well as a doctor.

      Professional on two levels.

    14. Patrick Hennessey, M. D., M. R. C. S. L. K. Q. C. P. I., etc., etc.,

      Professional, almost to the point of absurdity. He has so many letters and points of status following his name.

    15. junior partner of the important firm Hawkins & Harker;

      His status is increasing, both from professional intellect and from lineage (though not blood) like nobility.

    16. You were only student then; now you are master,

      Similar relationship as Lucy and Mina, student and teacher, except Lucy and Mina wouldn't be expected to become academics. They leave school to do household and other womanly duties.

    17. Abraham Van Helsing, M. D., D. Ph., D. Lit., etc., etc.,

      Very educated. A medical doctor, doctor of philosophy, and also of literature.

    18. when you came from the schoolroom to prepare for the world of life.

      Lucy was once a pupil of Mina's. Though friends now I'm sure this distance/authority remains at some level.

    19. If I don’t sleep at once, chloral, the modern Morpheus—C2HCl3O. H2O!

      Shows off his science knowledge by citing the elemental make up of the drug. This separates him from other drug users who may be ignorant.

    20. Surgeon J. M. Caffyn,

      New professional. Surgeons used to be barbers and lower-class but study of medicine has increased their status. Now that they go to school and earn a title they have also earned respect in society.

    21. THREE proposals

      Lucy's 3 suitors also embody 3 different levels of British social class. Dr. Seward represents the new and upcoming professional class. Hon. Arthur is old British nobility and Mr. Morris is American and therefore exists outside of the class system.

    22. Count Dracula?” He bowed in a courtly way as he replied:— “I am Dracula;

      Harker uses the title, respecting his nobility. Dracula does not because he exists outside of society and therefore class structures. Count is equivalent to an earl in the UK.

    23. you are a solicitor and the Incorporated Law Society might tell you that you should have known better.

      Jonathan's professional class holds him to a standard an American and a nobleman are not

    24. not if they knew the man was properly employed
    25. This burglary business is getting serious;

      Another example of crossing class boundaries, these men are committing criminal acts which is usually done by those in the underclass, however we understand them to be morally correct.

    26. I am myself a professional man.” Here I handed him my card. “In this instance I am not prompted by curiosity; I act on the part of Lord Godalming, who wishes to know something of the property which was, he understood, lately for sale.” These words put a different complexion on affairs.

      Though the professional class is rising, nobility is still the most valued.

    27. phonetic spelling had again misled me
    28. taking a late tea out of a saucer. He is a decent, intelligent fellow, distinctly a good, reliable type of workman, and with a headpiece of his own.

      Set opposite pf Snelling

    29. Here was my own pet lunatic—the most pronounced of his type that I had ever met with—talking elemental philosophy, and with the manner of a polished gentleman.

      Crossing class boundaries

    30. Lord Godalming and Mr. Morris arrived earlier than we expected. Dr. Seward

      Another clear example hierarchy of societal hierarchy

    31. my honour as a gentleman or my faith as a Christian is concerned

      Nobility and religion.

    32. No, no, not that, for God’s sake! not yet at any rate.

      His rank has changed and came at the expense of his father's life

    33. the solicitor came: Mr. Marquand, of Wholeman, Sons, Marquand & Lidderdale
    34. left him a fortune which to people of our modest bringing up is wealth beyond the dream of avarice,
    35. with that obedience to the etiquette of death which the British woman of the lower classes always rigidly observes
    36. I was stern with them, however, and would not let them talk. I told them that one life was bad enough to lose, and that if they delayed they would sacrifice Miss Lucy.

      No chance to recover, only to serve

    37. cursed the laziness of the servants that they should lie abed at such an hour
    38. ’at as perlite as a lord
    39. You’ll excoose me refoosin’ to talk of perfeshunal subjects afore meals

      Lower class dialect

    1. ‘Don’t get fooled by those mangled teeth she sports on camera!’ says the ABC News host introducing the woman who plays Pennsatucky. ‘Taryn Manning is one beautiful and talented actress.’ This suggestion that bad teeth and talent, in particular, are mutually exclusive betrays our broad, unexamined bigotry toward those long known, tellingly, as ‘white trash.’ It’s become less acceptable in recent decades to make racist or sexist statements, but blatant classism generally goes unchecked. See the hugely successful blog People of Walmart that, through submitted photographs, viciously ridicules people who look like contemporary US poverty: the elastic waistbands and jutting stomachs of diabetic obesity, the wheelchairs and oxygen tanks of gout and emphysema. Upper-class supremacy is nothing new. A hundred years ago, the US Eugenics Records Office not only targeted racial minorities but ‘sought to demonstrate scientifically that large numbers of rural poor whites were genetic defectives,’ as the sociologist Matt Wray explains in his book Not Quite White: White Trash and the Boundaries of Whiteness (2006). The historian and civil rights activist W E B du Bois, an African American, wrote in his autobiography Dusk of Dawn (1940) that, growing up in Massachusetts in the 1870s, ‘the racial angle was more clearly defined against the Irish than against me. It was a matter of income and ancestry more than colour.’ Martin Luther King, Jr made similar observations and was organising a poor-people’s march on Washington at the time of his murder in 1968.

      examples of upper-class supremacy

      This seems an interesting sociological issue. What is the root cause? Is it the economic sense of "keeping up with the Jonses"? Is it a zero-sum game? really?

  28. Jun 2021
    1. Lucy is to be married in the autumn, and she is already planning out her dresses and how her house is to be arranged. I sympathise with her, for I do the same, only Jonathan and I will start in life in a very simple way, and shall have to try to make both ends meet.

      Difference between professional and nobility

    2. (Mem., under what circumstances would I not avoid the pit of hell?) Omnia Romæ venalia sunt. Hell has its price! verb. sap. If there be anything behind this instinct it will be valuable to trace it afterwards accurately, so I had better commence to do so, therefore

      Proof of intelligence, Latin

    3. when he made Hamlet say:— “My tablets! quick, my tablets! ’Tis meet that I put it down,” etc.,

      Ability to quote Shakespeare shows education and intelligence.

    4. found him making the bed.

      Another trespass of class lines

    5. That is not enough for me. Here I am noble; I am boyar; the common people know me, and I am master. But a stranger in a strange land, he is no one
    6. odd deficiencies in the house, considering the extraordinary evidences of wealth which are round me

      Different kind of class than he is used to from England.

    7. Solicitor’s clerk! Mina would not like that. Solicitor—for just before leaving London I got word that my examination was successful; and I am now a full-blown solicitor!

      Entering the new professional class of England. Mina must care about this status, or least the work it took to earn.

    8. there was business to be done,

      Harker is a professional. He has a duty that cannot be overridden. Especially by mysticism or women.

    1. "I am also concerned that despite the best of intentions many of us have not considered adequately what social justice means and entails. I worry that social justice may become simply a “topic du jour” in music education, a phrase easily cited and repeated without careful examination of the assumptions and actions it implicates. That can lead to serious misunderstandings."

    1. A Harvard Business Review survey found that 62 percent of high-earning individuals work over 50 hours a week, more than a third work over 60 hours a week, and one in 10 work over 80 hours a week. According to Markovits, elites today work an average of 12 more hours per week than middle-class workers (the equivalent of 1.5 additional workdays).

      This may be the case for high-earners, but where do these people sit with respect to the higher elite or "leisure class"?

      Are these hard working high-earners a new class of people that has emerged that aren't the previous elite of the mid-1900s?

      What effect does the rise of finacialization (versus manufacturing or service sectors) since the 1970's have on this shift? Did these high-earners arise out of a hole in the market to service the elites on the highest rung up to make their wealth grow faster?

      There seems to be a hole in this argument with respect to the prior quote:

      Fifty, 60, 70 years ago, you could tell how poor somebody was by how hard they worked. Today, that relationship has been completely reversed. Elites work for a living. They work harder than they used to. They work harder in terms of brute hours than the middle class on average, and they get most of their income by working.

  29. Apr 2021
  30. Mar 2021
    1. The hierarchical structure of semantic fields can be mostly seen in hyponymy.

      Good explanation about semantic fields.

      I assume the same or an even stronger statement can be made about semantic classes (which to me are like more clear-cut, distinct semantic fields), then? 

    1. Is this topic part of linguistics too? Or only semantics?

    2. A semantic class contains words that share a semantic feature.
    3. For example within nouns there are two sub classes, concrete nouns and abstract nouns.
    4. The concrete nouns include people, plants, animals, materials and objects while the abstract nouns refer to concepts such as qualities, actions, and processes.
    5. Semantic classes may intersect. The intersection of female and young can be girl.

      More examples are given at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Semantic_feature:

      • 'female' + 'performer' = 'actress'
    6. (Not answered on this stub article)

      What, precisely, is the distinction/difference between a semantic class and a semantic field? At the very least, you would say that they are themselves both very much within the same semantic field.

      So, is a semantic class distinct from a semantic field in that semantic class is a more well-defined/clear-cut semantic field? And a semantic field is a more fluid, nebulous, not well-defined field (in the same sense as a magnetic field, which has no distinct boundary whatsoever, only a decay as you move further away from its source) ("semantic fields are constantly flowing into each other")?

      If so, could you even say that a semantic class is a kind of (hyponym) of semantic field?

      Maybe I should pose this question on a semantics forum.

    1. Some types exist as descriptions of objects, but not as tangible physical objects. One can show someone a particular bicycle, but cannot show someone, explicitly, the type "bicycle", as in "the bicycle is popular."
    2. The distinction in computer programming between classes and objects is related, though in this context, "class" sometimes refers to a set of objects (with class-level attribute or operations) rather than a description of an object in the set, as "type" would.
    1. a class is an implementation‍—‌a concrete data structure and collection of subroutines‍—‌while a type is an interface