425 Matching Annotations
  1. Oct 2020
    1. from tuka al-salani 60:48 and well actually it is a question but it's something that will probably 60:52 is out beyond our scope here but how would 60:56 social annotation be used as a research tool so not research into it but how 61:00 would we use it as a research tool

      Opening up social annotation and connecting it to a network of researchers' public-facing zettelkasten could create a sea-change of thought

      This is a broader concept I'm developing, but thought I'd bookmark this question here as an indicator that others are also interested in the question though they may not have a means of getting there (yet).

    1. to what extent is there value in breaking down the wall between blogging and wiki, and to what extent are these two technologies best left to do what they do best?
    2. Should Wikity follow the wiki tradition of supplying editable source to collaborators? Or the web syndication model of supplying encoded content. (Here, actually, I come down rather firmly on the source side of the equation — encoded content is a model suited for readers, not co-authors).

      What does he mean by "encoded" content? and why is it a problem?

    1. being able to follow links to “follow a conversation” that is threaded on Twitter.

      This is one of my favorite parts about my website and others supporting Webmention: the conversation is aggregated onto or more closely adjacent to the source. This helps prevent context collapse.

      Has anyone made a browser tool for encouraging lateral reading? I'd love a bookmarklet that I could click to provide some highly relevant lateral reading resources for any particular page I'm on.

    1. Commonplace books, during the Renaissance, were used to enhance the memory. Yeo writes, This reflected the ancient Greek and Roman heritage. In his Topica, Aristotle formulated a doctrine of ‘places’ (topoi or loci) that incorporated his ten categories. A link was soon drawn between this doctrine of ‘places’ (which were, for Aristotle, ‘seats of arguments’, not quotations from authors) and the art of memory. Cicero built on this in De Oratore, explaining that ‘it is chiefly order that gives distinctness to memory’; and Quintilian’s Institutio Oratoria became an influential formulation. This stress on order and sequence was the crux of what came to be known as ‘topical memory’, cultivated by mnemonic techniques (‘memoria technica’) involving the association of ideas with visual images. These ideas, forms of argument, or literary tropes were ‘placed’ in the memory, conceived in spatial terms as a building, a beehive, or a set of pigeon holes. This imagined space was then searched for the images and ideas it contained…. In the ancient world, the practical application of this art was training in oratory; yet Cicero stressed that the good orator needed knowledge, not just rhetorical skill, so that memory had to be trained to store and retrieve illustrations and arguments of various kinds. Although Erasmus distrusted the mnemonic arts, like all the leading Renaissance humanists, he advocated the keeping of commonplace books as an aid to memory.

      I particularly love the way this highlights the phrase "'placed' in the memory" because the idea of loci as a place has been around so long that we tacitly use it as a verb so naturally in conjunction with memory!

      Note here how the author Richard Yeo manages not to use the phrase memory palace or method of loci.Was this on purpose?

    1. Ideas on how to analyze and predict network behavior have been informed by concepts arising from the computational and social sciences, which are themselves increasingly concerned with understanding networks. The interesting thing about these ideas is that they work at scales ranging from the molecular to the population level.

      scale free networks perhaps?

    1. Is it possible to avoid the public goods problem altogether?

      As Lynne Kelly indicates, knowledge is a broad public good, so it is kept by higher priests and only transferred in private ceremonies to the initiated in indigenous cultures. In many senses, we've brought the value of specific information down dramatically, but there's also so much of it now, even with writing and better dissemination, it's become more valuable again.

      I should revisit the economics of these ideas and create a model/graph of this idea over history with knowledge, value, and time on various axes.

    1. I’ve alluded to the deeply philosophical nature of this problem; in a sense, it’s politicized within the software communities. Some folks believe that platform developers should shoulder the costs of compatibility, and others believe that platform users (developers themselves) should bear the costs. It’s really that simple. And isn’t politics always about who has to shoulder costs for shared problems?So it’s political. And there will be angry responses to this rant.

      This idea/philosophy cuts across so many different disciplines. Is there a way to fix it? Mitigate it? An equation for maximizing it?

    1. In1915, the American Association of University Professors (AAUP) wasformed to help protect academic freedom by securing the employment ofU.S. college faculty. A set of policy statements was prepared (now publishedannually—see AAUP,2005) that outlined the conditions under which fac-ulty members could be fired from their positions.

      look up the current policy for any reference of teaching quality

    2. In the latter instance, satisfactory teaching—thatis, neither extraordinarily good nor bad—may be sufficient in the promotiondecision, since research and publication are often deemed more important.In institutions where teaching is more important, a poor research publicationrecord may be ignored, while a moderate or good publication record mayoffset some deficiencies in teaching ability.

      What value is placed on student evaluations in UMS? Is it different on each campus/department?

    3. Candidates for tenure and promotion must collect evidence of their suc-cess in teaching. At most colleges and universities, at the end of each semesterin every course, evaluation data are collected from students.

      Is this the only evidence of teaching effectiveness that is used in tenure decisions?

    4. The higher education institutions also suffer. Part-time faculty typicallyhave no voting rights in the organizational decision-making structure. Theymay seldom attend faculty meetings and participate infrequently in decisionsabout important faculty or institutional matters. Partly as a result, they maynot be fully committed to promoting the interests of the institution. Theirinvolvement in the life of the institution—for example, advising students orparticipating in institutional events and ceremonies—is limited.

      This is really important. It will be difficult for an institution to ensure that part-time faculty understand how adults learn and how to teach in distance education using evidence based strategies. What are the proportions of tenure, tenure-eligible, and part-time faculty at the 7 campuses?

    5. We should also note that faculty participation in governance is especiallycomplex on unionized campuses, due to collective bargaining agreementsand formal grievance procedures

      What does the AFUM contract say about distance education and the SOTL?

    6. a faculty council or senate (variously named at differentcolleges and universities) is the representative body for the discussion of mat-ters of cross-departmental or cross-school concern to faculty in the institu-tion.

      How have the faculty senates at the campuses addressed distance education and teaching?

    7. faculty engage in decision making about mattersof direct concern to their primary common activities—curriculum andteaching

      How is decision making about teaching methods, instructional design, and faculty development conducted at the 7 universities?

    8. Hence, thereare often faculty in the different schools who teach similar courses and belongto the same discipline but seldom interact due to the highly differentiatedstructure of the typical academic organization.

      How does this structure impact peer learning among faculty?

    9. Statewide governing boards seek to ensure responsible use of public re-sources.

      Does Maine have a state governing board? Are they involved in any decision making or policy making regarding distance education or faculty development?

    10. Increasingly of late, many in-stitutions are offering long-term, renewable contracts instead of tenure, andare relying more extensively on adjunct faculty appointments. In fact, morethan half of all new faculty members are hired into positions that are noteligible for tenure (Schuster,2003).

      Does this affect instructional design?

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    Annotators

    1. By the time Protestantism came along, people had already internalized an individualist worldview. Henrich calls Protestantism “the WEIRDest religion,” and says it gave a “booster shot” to the process set in motion by the Catholic Church. Integral to the Reformation was the idea that faith entailed personal struggle rather than adherence to dogma. Vernacular translations of the Bible allowed people to interpret scripture more idiosyncratically. The mandate to read the Bible democratized literacy and education. After that came the inquiry into God-given natural (individual) rights and constitutional democracies. The effort to uncover the laws of political organization spurred interest in the laws of nature—in other words, science. The scientific method codified epistemic norms that broke the world down into categories and valorized abstract principles. All of these psychosocial changes fueled unprecedented innovation, the Industrial Revolution, and economic growth.

      Reading this makes me think about the political break in the United States along political and religious boundaries. Some of Trumps' core base practices a more personal religion and are generally in areas that don't display the level of individualism, but focus more on larger paternalistic families. This could be an interesting space for further exploration as it seems to be moving the "progress"(?) described by WEIRD countries backward.

    1. He says that he sees the combination of long form pieces and Q&A as a new level of support. “We used to have level one, which was sending a ticket to the help desk, and it was something we could easily resolve for you. Level two was a more complex problem that maybe required an engineer or specialist from a certain team to figure out. I look at this new system as a level zero.” Before sending us a ticket, folks can search Teams. If they find a question that solves the problem, great. If they need more details, they can follow links to in-depth articles or collections that bring together Q&A and article with the same tags.“
    2. In an effort to rethink how documentation works, we recently introduced Articles, longer-form prose that can sit side by side with shorter Q&A.
  2. Sep 2020
    1. Nailing the interview takes an in-depth preparation and a huge amount of practice. We have compiled for you the most frequently asked 50 top tableau interview questions based on the difficulty level.

  3. Aug 2020
    1. 7 powerful questions you can ask your friends, family and co-workers in your next conversation

      1.What are you most grateful for, right now, in this movement? - Help the conversation focus on more positive and grateful side of life.

      2.Working on any exciting personal project lately? - People love talking about their side hustles so this can help you get closer

      3.What's working well for you right now? - Helps transition from negative --> positive. Another question can be: How are you taking care of yourself right now?

      4.What shows, podcasts, or books are you making time for right now? - These sources is where alot of people spend their time on so it makes sense to ask about these. Good conversation starters.

      1. What do you do to get rid of stress?

      6.What would be your perfect weekend? - Have plenty to talk about on this

      7.What are you looking forward to in the future? - People have plans and helps get an idea of their motivations.

    1. read or listen to podcast)

      If we choose to listen to the podcast, do we also need to go in and annotate the reading as well?

    2. Keep record of the strengths and revisionson the lesson plan.

      Could this be done on the same document we use to plan our lesson, would you prefer it separate, or is it up to the group?

    1. These high costs present barriers to many students who need assigned class materials and are already struggling to pay tuition. In response to this reality, authors, through the help of a community of educators and not-for-profit publishers, are beginning to freely share their work in order to lower or eliminate the cost of class materials

      This Open Educational Resource, or OER, textbook is created by a community of writing instructors and is made available on the web free-of-charge to teachers and students alike.

      One of the main reasons behind this movement is to help college students combat the soaring costs of college, and especially textbooks.

      All said, not everyone is always on board with using a free open resource from the internet.

      • Why might some professors be skeptical of using them?
      • What difficulties might arise from reading a digital textbook vs. a hardcopy?
  4. Jul 2020
  5. Jun 2020
    1. This argument is reinforced by the fact that, at the individual level, we meet many brilliant people who are fascinated by (and often working on) tools for thought, but who nonetheless seem to be making slow progress.

      Ideas have sex: the trouble in a dramatically increasing landscape of information that we've experienced over the last century alone is that the combinatoric interactions of all the ideas is also much slower, so the progress on this front may seem to slow while the body of knowledge and interactions is continually growing. This might make for an interesting graph.

  6. May 2020
    1. Both Sketch and Figma have done this without needing to make an enormous investment in research.

      can collaborative research be patented?

    1. Whether in music (Bach, Lennon), art (Picasso, Bernini), film (Tarantino, Anderson), games (Blow, Lantz), fiction (Kundera, Tolstoy), the most eminent work is usually the result of a single person’s creative efforts. Occasionally it’s a very small group (Eames, Wrights).

      Great creative work is usually the product of a single person.

    1. a person can withdraw from research at any point of time and it is no binding of participant to reveal the reason of discontinuation
  7. Apr 2020
    1. It is possible the attacker gained access to your account through breaking your security questions. This is possible if you used answers that can be guessed based on your social media profiles or personal information.
    1. Our hope is that once a formal specification for these extensions is settled, this patchset can be used as a base to upstream the changes in the original project.

      What does "can be used as a base to upstream the changes in the original project" mean here?

    1. Links to https://github.com/amirrajan/rubymotion-applied, but that is only for documentation so doesn't seem like an exact replacement for (to supersede) this project.

    1. There is a forum for discussing CommonMark; you should use it instead of github issues for questions and possibly open-ended discussions. Use the github issue tracker only for simple, clear, actionable issues.
    1. Networks  of civic engagement increase the potential cost to defectors who risk  benefits from future transactiaction. The same networks foster norms of  reciprocity that are reinforced by the networks of relationships in  which reputation is both balued and discussed. The same social networks  facilitate the flow of reputational information.

      How can we build some of this into social media networks to increase the level of trust and facts?

    1. Secure input fields. 1Password uses secure input fields to prevent other tools from knowing what you type in the 1Password apps. This means that your personal information, including your Master Password, is protected against keyloggers.

      How can this prevent keyloggers from intercepting the passwords? If keylogger is running at low enough level....

  8. Mar 2020
    1. just a shift from companies focused on second-party data to those focused on first-party data

      What does this mean? What is second-party data and first-party data? Is second-party just a more accurate name for what others call third-party? Who are the three parties?

    2. Such a corporate structure helps contain the otherwise massive potential fines which are derived from the company's worldwide revenue.  However, the worldwide part would in practice be limited to the EU as that is the only market such a subsidiary would operate in.

      How does this structure helps contain the fines which are derived from the company's worldwide revenue?

      If fines are based on worldwide revenue anyway, then what good does having a EU subsidiary even do in that respect? None, it seems.

      This seems to even confirm that, but it is unclear/confusing how this is worded:

      However, the worldwide part would in practice be limited to the EU as that is the only market such a subsidiary would operate in.

    1. It may not sound that impressive today, now that file sharing is built into most modern operating systems, but it was cutting edge stuff 25 years ago.

      file sharing is built into most modern operating systems

      Which file sharing are you referring to specifically? scp? Probably not. FTP support built into file explorer? Probably not.

      The only things I'm thinking of are for manual copying, not for automatic "availability" in multiple places like NFS seems to be for.

    1. select an origin

      It's interesting that under my site's origin it lists cookies for other domains. Are these considered 3rd-party cookies or 1st-party cookies written by a 3rd-party script? How is it allowed to set them on my site? Presumably because I loaded a script from their origin.

      Loading scripts from other origins allows them to set cookies on which domains? Only their origin? And which cookies can they read?

  9. Jan 2020
    1. To execute Arel queries, we first need to get the SQL out of Arel and then feed it into find_by_sql.

      Surely there's a more elegant way nowadays???

    1. three questions

      moore questions can help define or plan out how the program functions

    Tags

    Annotators

  10. Dec 2019
    1. But that number is already known to be about 55 segments

      If talking a single generation, this would be the number to use. That is, the 55 segment scrambling that your parents got will be passed on to you.

    2. Whether the input number of segments is initialized as higher or lower, the number of segments tends to converge around 97.5

      I was talking with someone about having different ancestry from one's siblings. I was unsure of how frequently chromosomal gene swapping occurs. This answers the important question, which is units of inheritance. That is, instead of calculating inheritance as 23 units, slightly less than 100 appears more accurate. This makes percentage DNA almost precisely the expected value, but the standard deviation should be such that rare cases of one sibling being e.g. Jewish while the other sibling lacking that ancestry may occur.

    1. Types of questions and where to ask: How do I? -- ask on Server Fault (tell them what tags to use -- your product tag at minimum) I got this error, why? -- ask on Server Fault I got this error and I'm sure it's a bug -- report it on your own site I have an idea/request -- report it on your own site Why do you? -- ask in your own community (support forum, etc) When will you? -- ask in your own community
    1. It's confusing whether one should put things in gemspec development_dependencies or in Gemfile or in both.

      Duplication is bad since the lists could get out of sync. And the gemspec's development_dependencies should be a complete list. Therefore, my opinion is that that should be the canonical list and therefore the only list.

      Actually, what good is gemspec's development_dependencies? A contributor should clone the repo, run bundle, and get the dev dependencies that way. Therefore development_dependencies is unneeded and you should only list them in Gemfile.

      It is simpler to just use Gemfile, since it is a more familiar format. You can copy and paste content into it. For example, if you extract a gem out of an app, you may wan to copy/move some gems from app's Gemfile into new gem's Gemfile. It also generates a Gemfile.lock (which you shouldn't add to git).

    1. Archiving and downloading annotations Annotation viewing and export, from Hypothesis Labs Link: https://jonudell.info/h/facet Screencast: https://jonudell.net/h/facet.mp4 Description:  View annotations by user, group, URL, or tag. Export results to HTML, CSV, text, or Markdown.

      Did anyone tried to use this to feed mind/concept-mapping tools like Tinderbox or Cmap?

    1. Is there any way to use this to catch hypothesis annotations into a mind/concept map app? Like Tinderbox or cmaptools?

  11. Nov 2019
    1. "one country, two systems"

      One country, two systems? what does this mean?

    2. Clashes between police and activists have become increasingly violent, with police firing live bullets and protesters attacking officers and throwing petrol bombs.

      How violent could this get?

    1. Many information visualizations are the “reification of misinformation.”

      Is that a good or bad thing? or both.

  12. Oct 2019
  13. Sep 2019
    1. primary school classroom

      Although the author is keeping with the theme of Foucault and using school as an example of this power and control machine, and although they are right and that power is absolutely there its so rash and not progressive thinking tbh....bc though Foucault set out to exhaling power in a non-cloudy ungrounded philosophical way, rooting power in a genealogical history is still deconstruction to a degree rather than material/natural

    2. But while the gamification of the classroom through educational software is clearly less physically violent than corporal punishment,

      I hate this fear mongering, depressive side to the conversation of new technology, its like maybe if we focused on understanding it and learning about it instead og looking at all the bad "effects" we believe it to have we wouldn't be controlled!!! or maybe this is the false narrative in order to trick us into being controlled even more. To Foucults point this power, especially in story, narrative, words and how their used can have a drastic effect on what we decide to do with this new tech and how we can learn from is naturally, organically.

    3. even hope to record and understand how students think and feel.

      Hivemind. would only make use more together, equal and free because what would be controlling us was our true nature, and our understanding of ourselves will have come out of our technological advances.

    4. new digital tools

      New tools, exactly. Stop forcing contingionsouies on them, this is why advancement is so hard because we keep harpooning our old fears and preconceptions of what is nature...when we've already straid so far from it.

    5. This shows both the short and long-term effect that intrusion into our private lives can have on perfectly legal activities.

      omnipresent power, constantly controlling our lives even if they Aren't there...but how its so deeply ingrained like Foucalts analyst on the Panopticon

    1. Another way to promote surveillance integrity would be to do something analogous to the way media businesses use crowdsourcing to rate everything from doctors to taxi drivers. Along these lines we propose creating a third-party validation of surveillance recordings.

      I ike that he is offering actions and solutions ti better this issue and solve some problems attracted

    2. After the shooting, the police seized the four recordings of the event and reported that all were blank, even though transit officials had already viewed the shooting.

      Well, surveillance will always be corrupted in a state that has institutionalized police and that mechanism of power, to reinforce the ideologies of the bousougie who design the socialization, views and perceived liberty/freedom.

    3. Hollow-point bullets are used by law enforcement but illegal in war.

      Wtf!?!?!?!?!?!/e2

    4. body worn cameras.

      my day has security cameras around his house and connected directly to his phone and computer and he also wears a body cam

    5. r, individual police

      Wonder why this link does not work. Why did ABC take down their pages on "individual police"?

  14. Aug 2019
    1. outstanding possibilities for studying phenomena such as competition, niche partitioning and predation in the microbial world, under more environmentally realistic conditions than can be achieved in pure culture studies.
    1. some of the key questions of microbial community assembly, maintenance and function could be answered by intensively studying one (or a few) synthetic model community
    1. as a student listening to a lecture

      Yes, and even yesterday at a PD for the newest version of Blackboard. As the Buddhists say, "Monkeymind." Interesting that they start by asking a question. Of course, if you have a social bookmarking tool like this one, you can answer the question. My question back atcha: Is asking F2F different from asking online? Do same caveats suggested in the rest of this article apply to here?

  15. Jun 2019
    1. Currently, when we say fractal computation, we are simulating fractals using binary operations. What if "binary" emerges on fractals? Can we find a new computation realm that can simulate binary? Can "fractal computing" be a lower level approach to our current binary understanding of computation?

  16. Apr 2019
    1. Give your meeting a title and select the meeting options you want enabled

      I get this page when I click on Zoom from MyCI.

    2. efer to the Zoom in Canvas documentation (PDF, 1.

      Can this redirect to a new tab? You loose the Zoom support page when you open this PDF.

    3. Launch the application on your computer

      Maybe use the word 'downloaded to your computer'? When I read application, I wonder if this is in MyCI.

    4. application.

      Is this the application in MyCI? Not sure what is meant by 'application'?

    5. the Zoom web portal or directly from the

      So I clicked on the link here, and when I got to the portal, my initial instinct was to think ... now what? The next step says to 'login to zoom via myci portal, but this is from the Zoom Web portal? When I went straight from Zoom in MyCI, I was taken straight to the portal. The way it's written now (to me) makes me think first go to the portal and then try and sing in.

  17. Mar 2019
    1. A locally unique and never reassigned identifier within the Issuer for the End-User, which is intended to be consumed by the Client

      I wonder why this ID must be "unique and never reassigned...within the Issuer". This effectively makes it a trackable ID if clients work together.

      What would break if this ID is unique within the (Issuer, client) combination.

    1. and yet this mere aspect of all-pervading whiteness makes him more strangely hideous than the ugliest abortion. Why should this be so?

      why is whiteness ugly..?

  18. Feb 2019
    1. And so it makes most sense to regard epoch 280 as the point beyond which overfitting is dominating learning in our neural network.

      I do not get this. Epoch 15 indicates that we are already over-fitting to the training data set, on? Assuming both training and test set come from the same population that we are trying to learn from.

    2. If we see that the accuracy on the test data is no longer improving, then we should stop training

      This contradicts the earlier statement about epoch 280 being the point where there is over-training.

    3. It might be that accuracy on the test data and the training data both stop improving at the same time

      Can this happen? Can the accuracy on the training data set ever increase with the training epoch?

    1. Starbucks to Stop Using Disposable Plastic Straws by 2020

      We as a group are curious is stop using plastic straws a good way to stop the pollution?

  19. Jan 2019
    1. The work the letter carries out on the recipient, but is also brought to bear on the writer by the very letter he sends, thus involves an “introspection”; but the latter is to be understood not so much as a decipherment of the self by the self as an opening one gives the other onto oneself.

      Can someone clarify this statement for me? I have no idea where Foucault is going with this. From what I understand the letter does work on two people the recipient and self. The work on self is done through introspection, but not to discovery the mean of self, but rather provides an opening to understand self.

    1. epicyclic achievement,

      If epicyclic in this case means that there is a culturally plateau, how can an achievement be epicyclic? That sounds like a bad thing.

    2. And this was itself grounded in biological potentials of human beings

      If rhetoric is grounded in biological potentials why would it need to recruit from the spiritual, won't it just occur naturally? I dont know maybe I am misunderstanding his point.

    3. dying out

      As cultures being to "die out" does the rhetoric that the culture has provided also die out or is it adopted by other cultures that have stemmed from the original culture?

    1. her"/Jism, defined as"botulism.

      Botulism comes from the the German Botulismus which pretty much means sausage which is a the source of the botulin toxin which was discovered around 1897. Botulism is potentially fatal now, but in the past was extremely fatal. Maybe I am looking into this too much, but was Woolf trying to make heroism seem like something that was poisonous due to it being imperfect or did she just redefine it because it sounded different?

    1. Question

      My initial response to this title was to assume Muckelbauer's question was the same as Lanham's (the 'Q' question). Instead, he's tackling the "what is rhetoric?" question.

  20. Dec 2018
  21. Oct 2018
    1. each person will try to reshape the given work so that it is understood or seen in a new way

      is this act an annotation? an interpretation? or i guess a deformance that also illuminates an aspect of the text?

  22. Aug 2018
    1. open education advocate

      Ask in interview with future school/ district if they are apart of or would be interested in becoming part of "open education"...BE AN ADVOCATE!!

  23. Jul 2018
    1. Teach Source EvaluationSkillsIf you want to teach source evaluation skills, have small groups conduct research to answer a three-part problem such as this:1.How high is Mt. Fuji in feet?2.Find a different answer to this same question.3.Which answer do you trust and why do you trust it?

      Teach source evaluation skills- I like this idea!

  24. May 2018
    1. Germany

      How does this correlate to World War II?

    2. Russia, Germany, France, Italy, Austria, Hungary, and Britain.

      Why are they all Europe, including Russia?

  25. Apr 2018
    1. The origination of governments from a contract is a pure fiction, or in other words, a falsehood. It never has been known to be true in any instance; the allegation of it does mischief, by involving the subject in error and confusion, and is neither necessary nor useful to any good purpose.

      As with the other documents and writers, it is interesting to consider whether or not history has validated or contradicted the assertions of the author. Useful to remind students of the notion of "common law"

  26. classes.alaska.edu classes.alaska.edu
    1. Furthermore, ifchildren are indeed knowledgeable actors and can actively be involved in detailed research pro-cesses, why should not they inform us about ethics and research relations? Cannot children informresearchers regarding the definition and application of issues such as consent or confidentially?

      Questions

  27. Mar 2018
  28. Feb 2018
    1. songs

      All that I have given up to this let them serve as examples of the way in which the Connaught peasant puts his love-thoughts into song and verse, whether it be hope or despair, grief or joy, that affect him. (147)

      In these final lines of the book, the reader is offered Hyde’s selection of songs as a faithful and complete insight into vernacular Connacht song about the theme of love. Moreover, Hyde suggests that in reading this anthology one achieves a good degree of familiarity with an idealized, essentially native ‘Connaught peasant’.

      Although speakers in the songs are variously male and female, and the reasons for separation from absent lovers differ, the experience of love is fairly uniform throughout. It is a sore experience of unrealized desire. That scenario produces a pronouncedly virtuous image of the ‘Connaught peasant’ for a number of reasons.

      The reader encounters deep loyalty where admiration is unstinted by forbiddance of love because of emigration, lack of requital, or death. ‘Úna Bhán,’ for example, is preceded by a long passage explaining how deeply a bereaved lover missed the fair Úna after, until he himself passed away. Also, Hyde’s anthology is particularly rich in its examples of similes drawn from the natural world. See ‘my love is of the colour of the blackberries’ (5) in ‘If I Were to Go West’, ‘I would not think the voice of a thrush more sweet’ (27) in ‘Long I Am Going,’ and ‘My love is like the blossom of the sloe on the brown blackthorn’ (31) in ‘An Droighneán Donn’. In the vivid rendering of these images, the beauty of the desired lover is stressed, and the delicate sensibility of the speaker is inherently implied. The Connaught peasant is thoroughly valorized as a result.

      Accounting for consistencies among what anthologies include, and among what they exclude, can highlight their organizing agenda. One obvious example in the area of Irish Studies is the Field Day Anthology controversy, detailed in depth by Caitríona Crowe in The Dublin Review: https://thedublinreview.com/article/testimony-to-a-flowering/

      In the case of Hyde’s Love Songs, consistencies among excluded material strengthen our perception of how actively he sought to contrive an estimable image of the Connaught peasant. Though Hyde claims his selection is emblematic of the love-thought of that idealized personage, he does not provide any examples of la chanson de la malmariée. This variety of song is so widespread that Seán Ó Tuama, who was the principal authority on the theme of love in Irish folksong, included it as one of five major genres in his article ‘Love in Irish Folksong’ (in the book Repossessions: Selected Essays on the Irish Literary Heritage. Such songs are an expression of grief by a young woman unhappily married to an elderly man.

      If we are to view the songs anthologized by Hyde in a broader context of Connacht songs about love, an awareness of the chanson de la malmariéé is required. Faoi Rothaí na Gréine (1999) is a relatively recently published collection of Connacht songs. The collecting work was done in Galway between 1927 and 1932 by Máirtín Ó Cadhain, and latterly edited by Professor Ríonach Uí Ógáin. ‘An Droigheán Donn’, ‘Úna Bhán’, and ‘Mal Dubh an Ghleanna’ are common to Faoi Rothaí na Gréine and Love Songs of Connacht. The inclusion in the former of two famous songs of the malmariée genre, ‘Dar Mo Mhóide Ní Phósfainn Thú’ (I Swear I Wouldn’t Marry You), and ‘Amhrán an Tae’ (The Tea Song) demonstrate the strong presence of that genre in the ‘love-thought’ of vernacular Connacht song.

      This way of framing discussion of Love Songs of Connacht invites close interrogation of Hyde’s biases. The choice of material for inclusion and exclusion is ideologically cohesive, to the specific end of creating a valorous image of the idealized native peasant. In my M.A. thesis, I might further refine the line of argument pursued in this annotation, and use it as the basis on which to build a discussion of Hyde’s particular ideological motivations.

    2. or

      "I have, in the following little volume, collected a few of these, the Love-Songs of a single province merely, which I either took down in each county of Connacht from the lips of the Irish-speaking peasantry - a class which is disappearing with most alarming rapidity - or extracted from MSS, in my own possession, or from some lent to me, made by different scribes during this century, or which I came upon while examining the piles of modern manuscript Gaelic literature that have found their last resting-place on the shelves of the Royal Irish Academy." (iv)

      The way Hyde makes reference to sources is casual and non-specific. It would be difficult for a reader to access his sources. Because we have such little insight, it is important to be alert to potential biases in the collecting and editing process.

      If we can identify consistencies among the anthologized songs in terms of their depiction of love and lovers, and/or among songs which are excluded from the anthology, we will have reason to regard the very partial disclosure of sources with suspicion.

      As I have already noted, part of Hyde’s project is to bring the reader into contact with language which has an ‘unbounded’ power to excite the Irish Muse. Perhaps part of the way he contrives this encounter is to control the kind of subject matter that will appear to the reader as that which occurs most naturally in the Irish language.

    3. Connacht

      'I have compiled this selection out of many hundreds of songs of the same kind which I have either heard or read, for, indeed, the productiveness of the Irish Muse, as long as we spoke Irish, was unbounded.' (vi) This point in Hyde’s preface to Love Songs of Connacht is relevant to two questions that my M.A. thesis preparation is concerned with.

      ● What are the ways that works of the Irish Revival period express the idea that a natural cultural inheritance might be recuperated through art?

      ● What are the reasons for such works to treat of rural folkways as a repository of essentially native identity?

      Hyde illustrates that an awareness of the significance of the Irish language within a revivalist milieu will be required for informed discussion of the questions stated above.

      Proper-noun naming of an ‘Irish Muse’ suggest that there is such a thing as some essential indigenous genius, which lies in wait of stimulation. An idea of the Irish language emerges whereby it is connected intimately with a native genius, and holds inherent power to spark creativity.

      Of course, this line of argument proffers Hyde’s translations – through their close linkage with the Irish language – as stimuli for new artistic production. It works well as a way of turning Hyde’s skill as a linguist into a selling point for his book.

      In so doing, it highlights that a perceived inter-connection between language and an essentially native worldview was a major part of the book’s appeal. The representation of that connection in this and other works becomes important to my first research question as a result. An implication for my second research question is that I should consider the Irish language as a key part of the symbolic importance which attached to rural populations.