323 Matching Annotations
  1. Apr 2019
    1. Give your meeting a title and select the meeting options you want enabled

      I get this page when I click on Zoom from MyCI.

    2. efer to the Zoom in Canvas documentation (PDF, 1.

      Can this redirect to a new tab? You loose the Zoom support page when you open this PDF.

    3. Launch the application on your computer

      Maybe use the word 'downloaded to your computer'? When I read application, I wonder if this is in MyCI.

    4. application.

      Is this the application in MyCI? Not sure what is meant by 'application'?

    5. the Zoom web portal or directly from the

      So I clicked on the link here, and when I got to the portal, my initial instinct was to think ... now what? The next step says to 'login to zoom via myci portal, but this is from the Zoom Web portal? When I went straight from Zoom in MyCI, I was taken straight to the portal. The way it's written now (to me) makes me think first go to the portal and then try and sing in.

  2. Mar 2019
    1. A locally unique and never reassigned identifier within the Issuer for the End-User, which is intended to be consumed by the Client

      I wonder why this ID must be "unique and never reassigned...within the Issuer". This effectively makes it a trackable ID if clients work together.

      What would break if this ID is unique within the (Issuer, client) combination.

    1. and yet this mere aspect of all-pervading whiteness makes him more strangely hideous than the ugliest abortion. Why should this be so?

      why is whiteness ugly..?

  3. Feb 2019
    1. And so it makes most sense to regard epoch 280 as the point beyond which overfitting is dominating learning in our neural network.

      I do not get this. Epoch 15 indicates that we are already over-fitting to the training data set, on? Assuming both training and test set come from the same population that we are trying to learn from.

    2. If we see that the accuracy on the test data is no longer improving, then we should stop training

      This contradicts the earlier statement about epoch 280 being the point where there is over-training.

    3. It might be that accuracy on the test data and the training data both stop improving at the same time

      Can this happen? Can the accuracy on the training data set ever increase with the training epoch?

    1. Starbucks to Stop Using Disposable Plastic Straws by 2020

      We as a group are curious is stop using plastic straws a good way to stop the pollution?

  4. Jan 2019
    1. The work the letter carries out on the recipient, but is also brought to bear on the writer by the very letter he sends, thus involves an “introspection”; but the latter is to be understood not so much as a decipherment of the self by the self as an opening one gives the other onto oneself.

      Can someone clarify this statement for me? I have no idea where Foucault is going with this. From what I understand the letter does work on two people the recipient and self. The work on self is done through introspection, but not to discovery the mean of self, but rather provides an opening to understand self.

    1. epicyclic achievement,

      If epicyclic in this case means that there is a culturally plateau, how can an achievement be epicyclic? That sounds like a bad thing.

    2. And this was itself grounded in biological potentials of human beings

      If rhetoric is grounded in biological potentials why would it need to recruit from the spiritual, won't it just occur naturally? I dont know maybe I am misunderstanding his point.

    3. dying out

      As cultures being to "die out" does the rhetoric that the culture has provided also die out or is it adopted by other cultures that have stemmed from the original culture?

    1. her"/Jism, defined as"botulism.

      Botulism comes from the the German Botulismus which pretty much means sausage which is a the source of the botulin toxin which was discovered around 1897. Botulism is potentially fatal now, but in the past was extremely fatal. Maybe I am looking into this too much, but was Woolf trying to make heroism seem like something that was poisonous due to it being imperfect or did she just redefine it because it sounded different?

    1. Question

      My initial response to this title was to assume Muckelbauer's question was the same as Lanham's (the 'Q' question). Instead, he's tackling the "what is rhetoric?" question.

  5. Dec 2018
  6. Oct 2018
    1. each person will try to reshape the given work so that it is understood or seen in a new way

      is this act an annotation? an interpretation? or i guess a deformance that also illuminates an aspect of the text?

  7. Aug 2018
    1. open education advocate

      Ask in interview with future school/ district if they are apart of or would be interested in becoming part of "open education"...BE AN ADVOCATE!!

  8. Jul 2018
    1. Teach Source EvaluationSkillsIf you want to teach source evaluation skills, have small groups conduct research to answer a three-part problem such as this:1.How high is Mt. Fuji in feet?2.Find a different answer to this same question.3.Which answer do you trust and why do you trust it?

      Teach source evaluation skills- I like this idea!

  9. May 2018
    1. Germany

      How does this correlate to World War II?

    2. Russia, Germany, France, Italy, Austria, Hungary, and Britain.

      Why are they all Europe, including Russia?

  10. Apr 2018
    1. The origination of governments from a contract is a pure fiction, or in other words, a falsehood. It never has been known to be true in any instance; the allegation of it does mischief, by involving the subject in error and confusion, and is neither necessary nor useful to any good purpose.

      As with the other documents and writers, it is interesting to consider whether or not history has validated or contradicted the assertions of the author. Useful to remind students of the notion of "common law"

  11. classes.alaska.edu classes.alaska.edu
    1. Furthermore, ifchildren are indeed knowledgeable actors and can actively be involved in detailed research pro-cesses, why should not they inform us about ethics and research relations? Cannot children informresearchers regarding the definition and application of issues such as consent or confidentially?

      Questions

  12. Mar 2018
  13. Feb 2018
    1. songs

      All that I have given up to this let them serve as examples of the way in which the Connaught peasant puts his love-thoughts into song and verse, whether it be hope or despair, grief or joy, that affect him. (147)

      In these final lines of the book, the reader is offered Hyde’s selection of songs as a faithful and complete insight into vernacular Connacht song about the theme of love. Moreover, Hyde suggests that in reading this anthology one achieves a good degree of familiarity with an idealized, essentially native ‘Connaught peasant’.

      Although speakers in the songs are variously male and female, and the reasons for separation from absent lovers differ, the experience of love is fairly uniform throughout. It is a sore experience of unrealized desire. That scenario produces a pronouncedly virtuous image of the ‘Connaught peasant’ for a number of reasons.

      The reader encounters deep loyalty where admiration is unstinted by forbiddance of love because of emigration, lack of requital, or death. ‘Úna Bhán,’ for example, is preceded by a long passage explaining how deeply a bereaved lover missed the fair Úna after, until he himself passed away. Also, Hyde’s anthology is particularly rich in its examples of similes drawn from the natural world. See ‘my love is of the colour of the blackberries’ (5) in ‘If I Were to Go West’, ‘I would not think the voice of a thrush more sweet’ (27) in ‘Long I Am Going,’ and ‘My love is like the blossom of the sloe on the brown blackthorn’ (31) in ‘An Droighneán Donn’. In the vivid rendering of these images, the beauty of the desired lover is stressed, and the delicate sensibility of the speaker is inherently implied. The Connaught peasant is thoroughly valorized as a result.

      Accounting for consistencies among what anthologies include, and among what they exclude, can highlight their organizing agenda. One obvious example in the area of Irish Studies is the Field Day Anthology controversy, detailed in depth by Caitríona Crowe in The Dublin Review: https://thedublinreview.com/article/testimony-to-a-flowering/

      In the case of Hyde’s Love Songs, consistencies among excluded material strengthen our perception of how actively he sought to contrive an estimable image of the Connaught peasant. Though Hyde claims his selection is emblematic of the love-thought of that idealized personage, he does not provide any examples of la chanson de la malmariée. This variety of song is so widespread that Seán Ó Tuama, who was the principal authority on the theme of love in Irish folksong, included it as one of five major genres in his article ‘Love in Irish Folksong’ (in the book Repossessions: Selected Essays on the Irish Literary Heritage. Such songs are an expression of grief by a young woman unhappily married to an elderly man.

      If we are to view the songs anthologized by Hyde in a broader context of Connacht songs about love, an awareness of the chanson de la malmariéé is required. Faoi Rothaí na Gréine (1999) is a relatively recently published collection of Connacht songs. The collecting work was done in Galway between 1927 and 1932 by Máirtín Ó Cadhain, and latterly edited by Professor Ríonach Uí Ógáin. ‘An Droigheán Donn’, ‘Úna Bhán’, and ‘Mal Dubh an Ghleanna’ are common to Faoi Rothaí na Gréine and Love Songs of Connacht. The inclusion in the former of two famous songs of the malmariée genre, ‘Dar Mo Mhóide Ní Phósfainn Thú’ (I Swear I Wouldn’t Marry You), and ‘Amhrán an Tae’ (The Tea Song) demonstrate the strong presence of that genre in the ‘love-thought’ of vernacular Connacht song.

      This way of framing discussion of Love Songs of Connacht invites close interrogation of Hyde’s biases. The choice of material for inclusion and exclusion is ideologically cohesive, to the specific end of creating a valorous image of the idealized native peasant. In my M.A. thesis, I might further refine the line of argument pursued in this annotation, and use it as the basis on which to build a discussion of Hyde’s particular ideological motivations.

    2. or

      "I have, in the following little volume, collected a few of these, the Love-Songs of a single province merely, which I either took down in each county of Connacht from the lips of the Irish-speaking peasantry - a class which is disappearing with most alarming rapidity - or extracted from MSS, in my own possession, or from some lent to me, made by different scribes during this century, or which I came upon while examining the piles of modern manuscript Gaelic literature that have found their last resting-place on the shelves of the Royal Irish Academy." (iv)

      The way Hyde makes reference to sources is casual and non-specific. It would be difficult for a reader to access his sources. Because we have such little insight, it is important to be alert to potential biases in the collecting and editing process.

      If we can identify consistencies among the anthologized songs in terms of their depiction of love and lovers, and/or among songs which are excluded from the anthology, we will have reason to regard the very partial disclosure of sources with suspicion.

      As I have already noted, part of Hyde’s project is to bring the reader into contact with language which has an ‘unbounded’ power to excite the Irish Muse. Perhaps part of the way he contrives this encounter is to control the kind of subject matter that will appear to the reader as that which occurs most naturally in the Irish language.

    3. Connacht

      'I have compiled this selection out of many hundreds of songs of the same kind which I have either heard or read, for, indeed, the productiveness of the Irish Muse, as long as we spoke Irish, was unbounded.' (vi) This point in Hyde’s preface to Love Songs of Connacht is relevant to two questions that my M.A. thesis preparation is concerned with.

      ● What are the ways that works of the Irish Revival period express the idea that a natural cultural inheritance might be recuperated through art?

      ● What are the reasons for such works to treat of rural folkways as a repository of essentially native identity?

      Hyde illustrates that an awareness of the significance of the Irish language within a revivalist milieu will be required for informed discussion of the questions stated above.

      Proper-noun naming of an ‘Irish Muse’ suggest that there is such a thing as some essential indigenous genius, which lies in wait of stimulation. An idea of the Irish language emerges whereby it is connected intimately with a native genius, and holds inherent power to spark creativity.

      Of course, this line of argument proffers Hyde’s translations – through their close linkage with the Irish language – as stimuli for new artistic production. It works well as a way of turning Hyde’s skill as a linguist into a selling point for his book.

      In so doing, it highlights that a perceived inter-connection between language and an essentially native worldview was a major part of the book’s appeal. The representation of that connection in this and other works becomes important to my first research question as a result. An implication for my second research question is that I should consider the Irish language as a key part of the symbolic importance which attached to rural populations.

    1. Search alphabetically by song title

      This website provides important context for the exploration of a research question I am addressing in my M.A. thesis preparation.

      The portrayal of female personages in revivalist literature sets them in signally passive roles. This is most clearly at issue in the work of that period’s two foremost dramatists. In W.B. Yeats’ Cathleen Ni Houlihane, the female protagonist does not pursue her own course of action, but rather serves to inspire male heroism (P.J. Mathews discusses the play’s portrayal of female passivity at length in a piece, see http://www.rte.ie/centuryireland/index.php/articles/literature-and-1916). In The Only Jealously of Emer and The Countess Cathleen the value of women to society is achieved through acts of self-sacrifice for the benefit of significant male others (Christina Wilson has argued similar points in great detail: http://chrestomathy.cofc.edu/documents/vol5/wilson.pdf).

      In John Millington Synge’s Riders to the Sea, we encounter a blending of the taste for passive female characters with a revival fascination with the rural west. Old Maurya’s reticence and stern faith in God, following the drowning of her five sons, established her as the moral centre of her native Aran community. Her monologue in the play’s ending concentrates our attention on the community’s willingness to surrender to tragic fate, which is always threatened by the danger of the sea (the play is available to read online at this link: http://www.one-act-plays.com/dramas/riders_to_the_sea.html).

      What is interesting to me is that images of a massive female subject, favoured by Abbey playwrights who sought to stress the cultural specificity of Ireland, differ strongly with some prominent portrayals of the female subject in vernacular literature in Irish. In my annotation of this archive, I will provide examples of some genres of folk song – composed by females, and traditionally sung by female singers – that contradict ideas of a female subject as passive sufferer of fate. Annotations will include translations to English.

      After highlighting these features of oral literature in Irish, I will have laid down substantial grounding for a discussion of the ideological motivations of revivalist authors’ depiction of female subjects. It is interesting that certain tropes of a national identity, which these authors consciously sought to create, can be seen as divergent with realities of the social group which was most fundamental to that identity. This observation encourages consideration of European intellectual currents which might have influenced revivalist writers, romantic nationalism in particular.

    1. Indentured servants

      Were indentured servants any different than slaves?

    2. George Percy, the youngest son of an English nobleman, was in the first group of settlers at the Jamestown Colony. He kept a journal describing their experiences; in the excerpt below, he reports on the privations of the colonists’ third winter.

      Does Percy do a good job at explaining hardships? Why / why not?

    3. Were indentured servants any different than slaves?

  14. Dec 2017
    1. Or have we substituted an easier one?”(Daniel Kahneman) [1]

      Going for low hanging fruit rather than what matters

    1. One draw back of computer based learning is that using a computer, or any devices really, can be quite distractive...Even when using this annotation software, I notice myself constantly getting distracted by emails and wanting to go on other websites. How can we design something that helps self regulation and reduce distraction?

      Another thing is that not all users are comfortable or competent in using technology which could cause frustration and distract from learning. How can we reduce this?

    2. group dynamic is notfunctiona

      This is so true. Sometimes not all group members get along with each other, especially if some people are being disrespectful, etc. How can we avoid this to achieve better group dynamic and better learning?

  15. Oct 2017
    1. Especially in societies likeTurkey where the state is dominant in the business life,organizations and managers prefer to be included in reli-gious networks to make close contacts with the state.Another significant finding is that efforts of the members ofreligious networks—in spite of their relatively closedcharacteristics—in terms of being at the center of anetwork and taking the brokerage role, are highly devel-oped on the contrary to the literatur

      Does anyone else find this difficult to understand? I am not sure if these statements are the authors interpretation of their results or if this is their hypothesis. Also, what are the authors saying about the place/role of members of religious networks?

    1. Who are the central participants in the Twitter-based CoPs?RQ3:What healthcare roles are central in the Twitter-based CoPs?RQ4:Is the CoPs centralized and dominated by a few participants?RQ5:What are the characteristics of the interactions between different healthcare roles?

      Again, take note of these research questions. Look back at the literature review to observe how theory and research was used to set up the basis for these questions. When the answer is found, the theory/research will be used to interpret it and discuss the importance of the answer.

    2. What are the salient themes in health-related conversations via Twitter hashtags?

      Take note of this research question. It is a descriptive question but it is based in theory.

    1. ‘What should we drink?’ the girl asked.

      Keep an eye on the questions that the girl asks of the American and vice a versa. The following banter of the two characters features two main elements of speech: questions and statements. These speech patterns allude to who is leading a conversation and who holds some sort of power over the other. The statements will show us who holds the power between the conversing characters, while the questions show us the opposite: the character lacking in power.

      This relationship changes throughout the rest of the story, read on and notice who is asking the questions in the conversation!

  16. Sep 2017
    1. ultural ideology being that poor people have little to offer the rich.

      Excellent point. Has any research been done to compare the actual social networks of rich and poor kids? For example, asking a poor kid to name five people she would go to for advice and asking a rich kid the same question. Has that been done?

    1. Like a detective, a writer doing research will not always know answers, but the detective will begin with a question that leads to more questions and, in time, clues and evidence.

      Asking questions is essential! Good questions are a foundation which enable us to raise further questions to identify what is pertinent and frame out our thoughts as we build our arguments.

    1. other network includes climate change deniers.

      What a great way of using SNA to compare two competing ways of knowing. How would you collect data to show the different flow of information through these networks? What what would you be looking for? What would the node be? The link?

    1. When are classes held?

      No scheduled classes as of Sept. 2017 -- is there a plan to hold additional classes or create online learning content?

    1. The ostensible brokenness of public education, it seems, is notmerely a talking point; it is also an article of faith.

      My lack of knowledge in American public education prevents me from fully understand the author's firm belief in public education.

    2. As Michelle Rhee’s group, StudentsFirst,declares: Americans can “work together to fix this broken system.”

      Who is this guy and what is Students First? What are they trying to do?

    1. Québec)

      QUESTIONS ACTIVITY: Step 1 Discuss with your partner what questions you could raise that help you guide you in your reading of this article? Which parts of the text would you ask questions about? Step 2 Annotate 2 parts in the text and write down 2 of your questions.

  17. Aug 2017
  18. Jul 2017
    1. Engaging in peer-to-peer collaboration through online literature circles—across time, space, and cultures—allows students to deepen engagement with literature and helps to create communities of readers and writers.

      How might we use a social annotation to collaborate with students in other schools? Would anyone here be interested what might be a modern pen pal exchange focused in shared texts?

  19. May 2017
    1. Not enough for detailed planning, but enough to bias random actions away from an informational zero mean.

      Can someone explain this to me? Has to do with variance. Not assume that variance is zero? If variance is zero, then any choice is good as any other since they all result in the same 'answer'.

  20. Apr 2017
    1. This number is expected to grow to a trillion(two to three orders of magnitude!) in a few years.

      Comment 3 - public with tag. "What is this based on: current growth? Exponential growth?

    1. Would you consider Cassy to be a hero? why or why not?

      Do you agree with Uncle Tom's decision to stick by faith?

      Is Uncle Tom better describe as a martyr?

    1. p. 57 Research questions

      1) What were the different types of lists? 2) what form of social relationship developed through the medium 3) were they a community

    Tags

    Annotators

    1. This hypothesis can be tested by comparing the average out-degree (number of dichotomized collaboration ties sent) of district- and school-level leaders.

      I have a background in quantitative statistics. The use of a t-test assumes normality of data. I know that normality does not matter for SNA, but is this particular section referring to a nonparametric test that works like a t-test or is it actually referring to the use of a t-test and just ignoring the assumption of normality?

    2. This section shifts the analytical lens to predict an individual actor's outcome, whether it is an attribute variable (e.g., a student's test score) or a structural variable (e.g., a teacher's betweenness centrality score), using relational data. For example: does a teacher's gender predict his or her influence (as measured by degree centrality)?

      Ok... So now this is making a little more sense for my own data. In my case, I could analyze the countries geographic loaction as an attribute varibale that predicts the probability of certain industries having multiple companies in a given country. Does this make sense?

  21. Mar 2017
    1. equilibrium” status of the network

      But didn't this just get done talking about how networks in the real world tend to change and shift? What would the value of this approach be, then, especially in regards to education research where, by its very nature, networks change often?

  22. Feb 2017
    1. A composition should be "a body, not a mere collection of members,"9 but it should be a living body.

      This reminds me of Lessing's The Golden Notebook. The issue of writing and ownership is something that is playing out as the protagonist (a writer) discusses her published work as something which doesn't even feel like it belongs to her; she thinks of it more as the property of her readers, and is ashamed of her work and confused as to why critics like it. Hill seems to almost think of composition as a separate body with a life of its own, and the author is something of a parent who brings the composition into being. Where does this position the audience, and what makes a written work a "living body"? Of rhetoric doesn't make a work "alive," what does?

    1. at least five keywords

      I like questions like “Why do I like chicken nuggets?”

      When a girl in the back of the room blurts out this question, half a joke, half a test (Do they really want us to write down any question that we think of?), she seems a bit surprised to have her query treated seriously.

      Thanks for that question Neisha. Let's use it as an example of how to think of keywords for each of your questions. What would be a good one for that question?

      Chicken nuggets.

      Not really. That’s too specific. What's a more general word.

      “Food,” somebody yells.

      Right, write that down Neisha. What kind of food are we talking about?

      Junk food. Fast food. Fried food.

      Right. Right. Where do you get chicken nuggets?

      Down on Nostrand Avenue where all the fast food places are.

      And who…

      Neisha catches the drift, interrupts: It’s in my neighborhood and not in White people's neighborhoods. They get healthy food, which is hard to find where I live.

      So could we add “health” to your keywords?

      Yeah.

      And what else is in your description? What about “inequality?“

      And “racism.”

      What else?

      They’re good, Mister.

      So, what about “delicious? “

      Do we have to write five keywords for every question?

      Yup.

      Ahhhh.

      But what a gift this question was! Do you see how a question can start with something personal, something real for you, even if you aren't sure how important it is? Keep putting the personal pronoun, I, in your questions, then ask your friends and your teachers to help you find the social justice behind them. That's what to look for in your keywords.

    1. the expense these programs require

      When I reflect on the expense of graduate studies, I wonder about what other related issues need to be addressed at the same time. How can we design lessons, courses, programs, and departments that work well for full-time and part-time students? Students who begin graduate school immediately after undergrad and students who have been out of school for years?

    2. only listening to our workers isn’t sufficient

      How do you listen? Do you collect survey data from visitors? Is that data aggregated and shared with the public? How do you respond to survey results or other information you take in from outside your museum (or department or community group)?

  23. Jan 2017
    1. Whose stories are taught and told? Whose suffering is recognized? Whose dead are mourned?

      HIStory. What is being erased?

    1. collaboratively owned and maintained spaces

      How can scholars and educators create classroom spaces that work as "commons"? How can you seek this goal both online and in-person?

    2. Community-driven technologies are built at the speed of inclusion — the pace necessary not just to create a tool but to do so with in-depth communal input and stewardship — and directly respond to the needs, ideas, and wants of those they’re intended to benefit.

      The structure and rhythm of the academic calendar can make it more difficult for students and scholars to work closely with community-partners.

      How do you make time for students and scholars to create something for a community, listen to community input, and incorporate ideas from community members into their work? Can this take place in a single semester?

    1. empowered to present on projects

      Could this be encouraged by providing students with sample presentation materials? Or creating a project style guide that students could optionally use to ensure the project is presented through a consistent voice or visual design?

    1. [1],[[i*.0001,1-(i*.0001)]]

      This is the original code, but not working properly.

      please see the code and annotation above, where I made some changes and is plotting. However, I feel something not right about the plotting.

  24. Nov 2016
  25. Oct 2016
    1. - "People are very bad at predicting what will bring them happiness." -

      What's the source?

  26. Aug 2016
    1. lawmakers cut fundingfor drug and mental-health treatmentprograms — both inside and outsideof prisons — despite the fact that ad-dicts and the mentally ill make up adisproportionate percentage of the na-tion’s inmates

      Note areas where you are intrigued. Why were they cut? What were the arguments made? How has funding changed over time?

    1. Thus, projects that aim to diversify their pool ofcontributors should consider using CI.

      Interesting to consider this impact when it comes to large organizations and team, especially in professional settings.

    2. Similarly with how GitHub has become the main gate-way for researchers who study software

      Interesting to note the way in which this may inadvertently exclude the professional developer private repo community.

      Hypothesis- The professional dev community has a higher adoption rate then open source projects.

  27. Jun 2016
    1. Every graphic element of Pharo that you click on...  - With Cmd+Shift+Option,  - you'll get a little menu around the graphic element.

      I don't get this halo directly, by presing Ctrl + Shift, which can be a little confusing. What I get is a contextual menu that let's me to select the halo after that. See:

      After that I need to go to the add halo menu. It's kind of indirect, compared with the previous behavior.

      Am I doing something wrong?

  28. May 2016
    1. We philosophers are mistake specialists. … While other disciplines specialize in getting the right answers to their defining questions, we philosophers specialize in all the ways there are of getting things so mixed up, so deeply wrong, that nobody is even sure what the right questions are, let alone the answers. Asking the wrong questions risks setting any inquiry off on the wrong foot. Whenever that happens, this is a job for philosophers! Philosophy — in every field of inquiry — is what you have to do until you figure out what questions you should have been asking in the first place.
  29. Feb 2016
    1. 06/20/12

      This article is over three years old. How has Flipped Learning changed since the publication of this article?

    1. The really significant thing about AlphaGo is that it (and its creators) cannot explain its moves.

      How does this differ from previous attempts at "Deep Learning?"

    1. deep linking,

      Does this include analytical tools to understand the patterns?

    2. new open layer

      Does this include video and graphics?

    1. nd C
      1. Through persuasion and the belief that Cortez was the God Quetzalcoatl the Spaniards entered in peacefully and captured Montezuma.
      2. The Sistema de Castas organized individuals into racial groups based on their supposed "purity of blood".
      3. This racial hierarchy was created as a prerequisites for social and political advancement. Iberian-born Spaniards occupied the highest levels of administration. Their descendants, New World born Spaniards occupied the next rung. Those mixed with Spanish and Indian heritage followed.
      1. How does internal tension in the Native American empires of the Americas aid Spanish attempts to create their empire?
      2. The Spanish wanted to take over the natives land because of the wealth and happiness it could bring to them. Central and South America was rumored to have fortunes around the land.

      3. In the biological exchange between Europeans and Native Americans, what diseases, plants, and animals were exchanged? The diseases that Europeans brought over to the Americas were measles, smallpox and influenza. Domesticated animals, squash, beans, corn and tobacco were among the many things traded between the Native Americans and the Europeans.

      4. What are the ways that European powers claim their right to claim land in the Americas?

      5. The pope authorized the Europeans to claim the land, claimed they discovered the land, and claiming they improved the land from the people they took it over from.
      1. Why do you think that King Affonso let the Portuguese enslave his subjects at first?
      2. I believe that King Alfonso thought it was a good idea to enslave his subjects at first because it could help boost his wealth and the country's wealth without paying the people who actually did the work. He did not want lower-class people in his country because he wanted all the things he wanted in order to live a luxurious life.
      3. In the letter below, why does the king now request regulations?
      4. The King was finally hearing from all of his people that many of the people in Portugal were being taken away for slavery. He set guidelines because he realized many of the people were being enslaved for no reason at all.
      1. What was the "Black Legend" and how did other European powers use it to justify their attempts to compete with Spain for empire in the Americas?
      2. The Spanish were doing terrible things in the America by bring the population from 60,000 to 17,000 in the time they were here in America. Other European countries talked down on them for what they were doing to the New World. Spain called it a "black legend" because they thought they were rumors that other European countries were throwing out. The other European countries thought they could help the Americans out by bringing their own way of living over and help them get away from the Spanish cruelty.

      3. In what ways did the French presence in North America differ from the Spanish?

      4. The French came to the Americas and treated the natives with respect. They did not kill, enslave or try to conquer the natives who had lived there before. Unlike the Spanish, the French formed an alliance with the Indians and shared Christianity with the Natives rather than killing them because they wanted the land.
      5. What role did slavery play in Dutch attempts to establish Empire? -The slaves built everything in Amsterdam for the Dutch. Without the slaves the Dutch would have nothing of their own because they would not have built everything that they have. The empire would have crashed if the trade routes were not kept up to speed. If it was not for the slaves, the Dutch would have been having a totally different outlook of where they were.
    1. How did animals help create the world? • How were the earth, sun, and moon formed? • Who created human beings? 0 How did Coyote influence the world?

      1) The animals were there for humans when they needed help. 2) They were created by the mother and father. 3) Human beings were created by the mother and father.

    2. How were human beings created? • Where did they obtain their knowledge, and how did they provide for themselves?

      1) Human beings were created by birth from mother and father.

      2) The father passed on his offspring and that his how they gained knowledge.

    3. What was the source of life? • What were the differences between Earth-mother and Sky-father? • Where did the moon and stars come from?

      1) The animals were taking care of humans that were in need of help.

      2) The difference was day and night. The mother and father both created the light and darkness in the day. Bringing the moon, sun and earth.

      3) The sky-father created the moon and stars for the night time.

    4. How did human beings arrive in the world? • How were animals helpful? • What did twins do to create the world?

      1) The humans fell from heaven and came into the world with animals. 2) Animals cared for the human when she was ill and gave her a place to stay until she was healed. 3) The twins traveled the world to create environments and climates that humans could live in. This lead to mountains, trees, lakes, forest, rivers, etc.

  30. Jan 2016
    1. What roles do sugar and slavery play in the expansion of European empires?

      Sugar was becoming very popular in Asia and was quickly discovered by the Europeans. The Portuguese had to find new land to grow the sugar cane because it was required to have the right conditions to grow. This is when the Portuguese found the Guanches, an African tribe in order to take care of the sugar cane. This helped the Portuguese become very wealthy.

    2. What were the three major crops developed in the Americas? What impact did they have?

      The three major crops were corn, beans and squash which all had nutritional needs that sustained the cities and civilizations.

      1. Native Americans interacted with numerous people from all areas. This lead to the exchange of different resources, religions, labor ways, and ideas. These exchanges often sealed social and political relationships. It allowed the people who gave to earn prestige and placed an obligation to those they gave to. That was how the relationship was sealed. One person did a favor and the other must reciprocate.
      2. All European nations began experiencing massive population growth after the black plague, which increased the economy and the demand for consumer goods. These demands lead to advances like ship building so sea merchants were able to compete with their fellow merchants. Growing economies lead to bigger kingdoms and powerful monarchs. These kingdom's could pull together the resources needed for large voyages. European nations were also interested in trading with the wealthiest countries allowing them to seek out the best trading routes.
      3. There was an increasing need for slaves and it had existed all the way back to the Roman Empire. The Portuguese became major purchasers and sellers of the slave trade allowing them to have influence on the way slave trading was done and the practice of it.
  31. Nov 2015
    1. n her everyday life, Rachel and her family cared for stray and abandonedcats awaiting adoption through a local animal shelter. We often observed her readily pauseher game play to monitor a cat’s health or attend to its needs. In-game however, Rachel’sdecisions about the animals she was caring for as zookeeper were driven by monetary gainrather than the happiness or well-being of the animals.

      This has interesting implications for the argument learning in simulations - because in game, Rachel's values are in direct contrast to her values in world.

      Games inherently have a way to win, and it seems that "beating the game" is more important to Rachel than her real-life values. I wonder if the decisions she makes in-game have any predictive power over how she will choose when faced with similar situations in-life. Will she spend her real money and continue to care for stray cats as an adult, or will she be "driven by monetary gain"?

    2. in the variation of stances that Tylertakes, we see his working out among important consociates in his life a moral stance oncheating. He is both an unabashed user of cheats, sporting a somewhat transgressive personalreputation he values at times, and, at the same time, someone who does not want his playwith friends interpreted as unfair—thus the overt display of his hands during the openingsequence to show his competitors that he is not entering cheat codes

      It's interesting to frame this in morality, because I'm not sure that using a "cheat code" is actually cheating, since it is built into the game by the designers.

      It definitely gets at inequalities - since the cheat code user needs to have access to the websites, manuals, etc, that list the codes - but I'm still wondering if it could actually be classified as cheating (in the same way that doping in sports, or plagiarism is).

    3. our view, her emphasison control meant that she sought out the learning resource that allowed her the greatestcontrol over the learning experience. In this case, the learning resource was her brother

      This straight up, 100% reminds me of lpp and the concept of apprenticeship. Rachel is becoming a part of a community, but using the expertise of her brother to also become an expert in the game. I wonder if she began being exposed to the video game by just observing her brother?

    4. In particular, people wantto understand what young people learn playing games that they use, or adapt, in the rest oftheir lives. This question is the focus of our chapter.

      This question is embedded in some larger context, right? If we think about this, we need to understand that society has a view of video games and them not teaching children anything. Makes me wonder what kinds of questions we would be asking if society did not have this view.

    5. The first segment of this vignette begins with Andrew’s initial enthusiastic bid to show Tylerhow to do the move, punctuated with rhythmic sound effects accompanying an embodieddisplay with the unconnected controller

      Connecting to my comment above, why don't the authors interrogate the connected controllers embodiment in the same way?

    6. n this vignette we see that interaction in-room directly shapes in-game action.

      I wonder why this analysis does not investigate the perceived connections the physical controller creates for participants. it seems that, as the mediation between the two sites, it is very important. Here we see it highlighted as a visual connection between the two.

    7. From Holly’s reaction, it seems also that less shame is attachable to not knowing how toplay the game than not knowing how to do the homework, or at least that is secondary tohelping her brother accomplish something. This is striking because game play, like school,is competitively structured as a social practice, but it seems perhaps gaming might be a moreproductively motivating competitive environment than school (except, of course, for somepeople).

      What about not knowing when you are supposed to be knowledgeable in contrast to not knowing when you are not supposed to be knowledgeable? A math professor failing to guide the student about updating his computer in comparison with the same math professor failing to guide the same student about setting up an equation from a word problem?

    8. her own learning

      What is she supposed to be learning here?

    1. Public discourse around privacy often centers on hiding or opting out of public environments, whereas scholars and engineers often focus more on controlling the flow of information.

      These do seem like two very distinct ways of thinking about privacy. What is the implication then of a constituent voting for their representative (or other government official) to "protect their right to privacy" if they have such different ideas about what that means?

    1. So essentially, is the mechanic that you have this "fun" online community where you can make avatars, talk to your friends, build houses etc., but to do that you need money. So you sit through science games as a way to earn that money?

    2. One might imagine that with over 30,000 faceparts for avatars, there would be no lack of diversity, but even virtual worlds are notthe color-blind utopia, they have often been portrayed to be in early media reports.Racial issues also come to the forefront in Whyville, as our article ‘‘‘Blacks deservebodies too!’ Diversity and Race in a Virtual World’’ illustrates (Kafai et al., 2010).

      I wonder here about the motivations to choose a particular skin color. Whether players statistically choose the race they are in real life or one that is opposite.

    3. One might imagine that with over 30,000 faceparts for avatars, there would be no lack of diversity, but even virtual worlds are notthe color-blind utopia, they have often been portrayed to be in early media reports.Racial issues also come to the forefront in Whyville, as our article ‘‘‘Blacks deservebodies too!’ Diversity and Race in a Virtual World’’ illustrates (Kafai et al., 2010).

      This is so fascinating to me. Could it be due to the lack of wanting to look through all 30,000 faces? Although I think not, this is interesting when I think about figured worlds. When thinking of Whyville, you would think of it as its own figured world, but it is interesting to see how the Whyville avatar is created by the person. This would be influenced, I would think, by the real-life figured world. They are both overlapped.

    4. Forinstance, in the Solstice Safari, a group of players work together to collect data aboutthe sunrise and sunset at different locations around the world. This encourages col-laboration and social interactions among Whyvillians and teaches them about theEarth’s position in relation to the Sun, notions of time (days, years) and seasons,temperature, and geography (latitude and longitude).

      This is interesting. Reminds me of intent participation. The Whyvillians need to voluntarily sign up to work with basically strangers. Connecting it back with the earlier point about race, makes me wonder how Whyvillians determine if they want to sign up with a particular collaboration.

    5. Much less is known aboutyounger players who participate in equal, if not larger, numbers in virtual worlds

      Would a research expect to same similar trends as they see in World of Warcraft? Is that why it is not explored. When i think of this in the light of LPP i would see it as the same field of mastery (online life), just a different setting. In the end though, the same skills are learned in each setting.

    6. The presenceof these features affords us with the opportunity to study various aspects such asonline representation (see Kafai, Fields, & Cook, 2010) and issues about race (seeKafai, Cook, & Fields, 2010) covered in two articles included in this special issue.

      This is a very interesting way to study race. Could we say that we could assess the players' views of race from this online platform? Makes me wonder if people will respond the same way on an online platform as they would in a real-life setting.

    7. Another casual science game includes the Spin Labwhere a player manipulates the position and center of rotation of a variety of objectsto make each spin faster to learn about momentum, rotational velocity, and inertia

      Don't know the game, so this is just based on the picture below and experience with other learning situations (italics intended). Are they learning about all of these, or just getting used to take their consequences into account? You don't need to learn about gravity and gravitational forces to get used to take into account that things fall...

    8. Designing, selling, and buying face parts are not simply leisure activ-ities; they are core activities driven by Whyvillians’ interest in their online represen-tation of who they are and who they possibly could become

      Is this a known/researched fact, or more of an assumption driving the commercial side of the game?

    9. Toyota Scion

      Any idea on why this particular car? Sponsorship from Toyota?

    1. Deep engagement does not seem to be a problem in and of itself, unless coupled with a practice that is socially unacceptable, physically dam-aging, or financially costly.

      If this is true, then why do users self-describe as addicted to social media? Especially when we live in an ever more online and technologically driven world.

    2. education.

      Any comments on how "the zone" works in education?

    1. A learner in a science classroom may be trying to pursue a personal learning agenda while the teacher is facilitating a competing learning agenda. Negative perceptions of a learner’s ability to pursue or succeed in certain activities can restrict or completely eliminate his/her access to desired opportunities, as documented in cases of students with learning disabilities.

      interesting to see how learning differs for people in the same context. I would think that the meaning people would create in connected different sites of knowledge as being different, but not what is actually being learned.

    1. Multi-sited studies frequently employ approaches such as tracing, map-ping, threading, or constructing a chain of meaningful connections across sites

      I think it is most important to look at the connections across sites and how this influence the knowledge being gained. I keep thinking of the skatepark, and where else these skaters are learning tricks. Would watching youtube videos be a site?

    2. chapter: (1) a concern that the shift toward analytic breadth compromises (or makes difficult, practically speaking) the kind of depth that typically characterizes ethnographic research; and (2) a concern that multi-sited approaches risk reifying the very bounded and holistic defini-tions of culture they seek to disrupt by adding new sites and delimiting/constructing the field in ways that support comparative analysis, or drawing connections across settings based simply on the researcher’s a priori inter-ests

      I don't really understand this. Wouldn't multisited approach make it more "holistic"?

    3. This approach offers a powerful set of tools for studying the depth and complexity of social practice in a single setting or community—the classroom, school, neighborhood, or educational program—particu-larly when research is historicized and connected to larger social structures and processes.

      interesting to me how they referenced "historical context". Also what larger structures?

    4. For young people whose experiences of schooling involve every-day encounters with racialization and its attendant demands for assimila-tion, taking up a teacher’s invitation to draw on the full range of linguistic, intellectual, and cultural tools within one’s repertoires of practice may in-volve varying degrees of risk and vulnerability

      This is putting emphasis on the earlier point of the role the culture plays. Also, thinking about the different types of knowledge that the children who are experiencing racialization are experiencing

    5. the shifting roles of “teacher” and “student,” mani-fest and hidden curriculums, official and unofficial spaces

      Can the teacher become a student and the student become a teacher? Why is this idea so appalling to some?

    6. Are the forms of participation val-ued in one setting met with disciplinary responses in another? If so, how might young people subsequently interpret their own roles and capabili-ties differently across settings?

      I'm not sure how relevant this is to everyone, but in the Jewish ed. world there is a lot of talk about making school more like camp. Leaders and policy makers see the success of sleep away camps at helping kids develop an identification with the Jewish people (which is a priority for many of these same leaders/policy makers) and so both Day School and Supplementary School educators are told to bring camp-like experiential modalities into their classrooms.

      I'm wondering however if this is a caution against that kind of thinking? Do Vossoughi & Gutiérrez (and other advocates of multisited ethnography) think that borders between the various sites need to be defined or if the borders are permeable, is this kind of analysis harder?

    1. FreshRoots has also developed partnerships with local foundations to pay highschool and college students from the neighborhood to apprentice with them in thetechnical aspects of maintaining the hydrofarm

      This is just schooling with a tangible/narrow goal. One of the downsides of the learning in action is the situation-specific content and learning (Resnick), and this is now being attached to schooling. And they are also being trained to run equipment that, according to the description, is extremely expensive and delicate and is probably beyond the economic capital of most of the members of the community, even if grouped. Not that much social justice to me

    2. people who can payfor locally grown and organic food

      So, in the end, are community members able to pay for this or not? Because this phrase has the implication that the price is higher than for regular produce, so there is no transportation required but still is out of reach for the community. Like Chinese factory workers assembling iPhones... and there is no further development of the issue

    3. We use scale making as an analytic lens to studyhowpeople are thinking across

      This may be just my weak English, but why the use of 'scale' then?

    4. there is a transformation in the scale relations defining com-munity. Caring and responsive relationships between residents working with thenonprofit and community members have developed over multiple years in andacross the privacy of people’s homes and gardens.

      This example of scale making illuminates the work that the people are doing to across idea flows, practices, and space for equity. At this point, I'm understanding multi-sited work in relation to this article to almost be like intersectionality or the multiplicity of identities. Scale is a system of different relations (temporal, social, spatial...) that seem to intersect or exist simultaneously. Or maybe not?

  32. Oct 2015
    1. n a way, the chairs are much less chairs than they are, in Heideggerian language, present at hand (Heidegger, 1962/1927). Meanwhile, embodied activity and experience work fluently in the background, positioned largely in service of performing the practical work of measuring, writing, and communicating.

      I'm having a hard time parsing out what this means. Is it that: the chairs are present for the students, but embodied activity (and cognition) works to make sense of what the chairs are for the students?

    2. the multi-sensory, interactive, and materials-rich design of the exhibits tacitly proposes a more material ontology of mathematical objects and a fleshier epistemology of mathematical knowledge. Math Moves!tells the visitor a story in which mathematics inheres in tangible objects and events while mathematical knowing happens in hands and feet just as much as in the head.

      This makes total sense in the embodied world of this exhibit (and of science centers/children's museums in general), but I wonder if "presenting a more material ontology" of other subjects also creates a "fleshier epistemology"?

      Do students who visit living history museums to "cook like the colonists" come away with a similar feeling of history being alive in their life (or at least relevant)? What about human-sized prairie dog colonies that are common at zoos - are the kids who play in them more concerned about conservation because of this experience?

      I would (unscientifically) argue that these kind of exhibits do work to engender these kinds of feelings (dare I say identification?) in the participants - but what are the conditions where a simulation can become reality?

    3. the authors illustrate how a desettling paradigm stands to expand contexts for learning and development in ways that are more inclusive, heterogeneous, and transformative.

      Desettling doesn't have to be a field trip, does it? can it be anything outside the confines of the classroom?

    1. In youth organizations, the praise and appreciation, the unifying dictum of being "in step," "on cue," and "on the same beat," as well as the opportunity to be heard and seen in legitimate publicly sanctioned settings, bring the collectivity together. No single individual could gain such an audience, and the power of the group transmitting as a single body remains in the forefront of consciousness in dance troupes of youth organizations

      Group coordination in dancing provides a strong metaphor for students to think about collectivity in broader society.

    2. This clowning feature included direct public threats to exclude individual youths from the forthcoming per­formance if they did not listen, remember routines, follow routines, and attend practices regularly, as well as direct responses to students' questions or comments during practice

      Maybe this also played a role in why there was a huge dropout rate from the beginning to the end of the year.

    3. dance will help the youngsters aca­demically and personally.

      Dance will? Or being a part of an organization will?

    4. arents who suppott their youngsters in the Juniors see the dance troupe as one way both to keep their kids busy with friends "of their own kind" and to ensure that their children continue to see themselves as members of their own Old European immigrant group

      Influenced by the parent to stay involved in Juniors. This sparks my interest because of the balance that i feel exists with immigrant parents in promoting acclamation to new environment but also keeping true to the native traditions. I am curious to see what role this played in helping shape their child's identity.

    5. entertainment certainly did not appear to be a warranted goal of youth programs.

      Was this because maybe entertainment was defined only by "promiscuous" (as used on the previous page) activities

    6. e problems of young people had been too persis­tently cast as needing direct and practical solutions rather than what many :. reg;1rded as the frivolity of the art

      I wonder where this mentality came from. Why was it seen that young people could not look to the arts for support?

    1. In general, it appeared as though groups with richer discussions and interactions, and moredemonstrated knowledge in the art domain were the groups more likely to engage in posing

      Is the posing causing a richer understanding, or is posing making understanding more easily observable?

    2. found 18 instances of unprompted posing across five of the eight subject groups in the maingallery

      Is it ever made explicitly clear what is considered "a pose"?

    3. It was importantin the overall study to minimize the role of the “school context” in influencing these students’participation.

      What is meant by "minimize the role of the 'school context'"

    4. In a sense, the pose can be understood as an embodied interpretive space that allows the pairto both perceive and find meaning in the work.

      To become fully engulfed in the art work. Is this done to try to understand what the other person was thinking? Would this be more to empathize than to learn? Would learning be considered empathizing?

    5. metaphoricgesturespresent a perceptual relationship, but instead refer to an abstract object or content

      Does this metaphoric gesture in creating an abstract object/content support critical thinking which support understanding and learning of the piece of art?

    6. Posing with art is a largely unexplored yet significant aspect of the cultural practice of partic-ipation at museums. Around the world, we commonly see visitors and tourists posing in frontof statues, paintings, or other monuments or works of art.

      Is this something more recent, due to this increase in social media, smart phones and technology? Did this always exists? I think this is something important to look at how this "posing" evolved.

    7. Thus visitors posing with artwork are engaged in a reflexive process making meaningabout gesture itself. By performing a pose, visitors are implicitly assigning intentionality to theartist, and a pose may be understood as a “posed question” about the potential meanings of awork.

      Posing as a combination of social activity and conceptual work being done to make meaning about the artwork. If we are accepting this pose as a "posed question" do visitors ever get an "answer"? Do they know they are asking a question?

    8. Meaning is not presented by gesturebut develops, in part, through gestural interaction.

      I feel like maybe where this is going is that that the gestural act of posing is not a presentation of meaning but a participant in the act of meaning making (learning), let's see..

    1. optionalratherthanintegralpartsofthecurriculum

      Not even mandatory, even though these field trips highlight huge methods of exploration for the child. So why is it not mandatory?

    2. Asidefromthisexhibit,however,theroomwasnoisy,raucous,asiteofplayratherthaninstruction.

      How do we define the difference?

    3. disinterested`artappreciation’

      Why do we find the need to generalize reaction and appreciation of art? How does that play into the construction of public spaces?

    4. nonetheless,itidenti®esprocessesthathavefundamentallychangedthelivesofyoungchildren,isolatingtheminhousesandneighbourhoodsemptiedofstreetlife,socialdiÄerenceandopportunitiesforcommunalactivity

      I understand the sentiment here that there is no longer the same type of public spaces for children to interact with. But are these new places "spaceless" places?

    5. participant

      I find it hard to deal with the meaning of 'participant' here

    6. itstillremainstoteachpeopletoreaditthatway,oratleasttoteachthemthatthereisaparticularwaytolookatthingswhendowntown

      In terms of Ma & Munter (2014), is this to provide the arena and to try for people to create the expected setting?

    7. settings

      Is the word 'settings' here used for what Ma & Munter (2014) call 'arena' and not 'setting'?

    1. Although it was possible, and accepted practice, to innovate and utilize space in differentways in a skatepark, members of this community responded to what they considered to be Zack’sinappropriate use of the space. According to Roy, issues of power and status—Zack was neithera well-liked member of the community nor an experienced skater—influenced what they did

      I have a feeling that if Tony Hawk or Bob Burnquist went in and did the exact same thing there'd be awe at first, perhaps some considerations of how "innovative" that use of the park was, leading to many attempting to do the same thing later on.

      What Zack seemed to lack was a legitimacy to do this sort of thing. By using the park that way, as the authors write, [he edited the park] in ways that did not aling with the setting as they conceived of it." But if we accept that the riders' own conception of what is and isn't appropriate was itself created by these sorts of "edits" in the past, then you have to wonder what makes an edit accepted and not.

      It seems here that the edit conflicted with the established conception of how it was to be used. One has to wonder, then, how bigger, more fundamental "edits" to spaces can occur once norms begin to take firmer root. How would a paradigm shift occur in this kind of space?

    2. They both oriented to their time together as a learning event for Laura: Laura asked ques-tions, watched Austin, and practiced while Austin watched Laura, demonstrated, offered advice,and cheered her on

      How about for Austin? Is this a learning event for him as well? As a more experienced skater, is it understood in the community that part of his "practice" now includes being a resource for novices or no? If it is, is the park also giving him an opportunity to engage in that role?

    3. however briefly, their own and one another’sskating.

      I don't know about anyone else, but this is the single thing which which baffled me the most when I visited the skate park. Given how many people were there at the same time, I just assumed that there'd be lots of talking with one another about tricks, tips, random chatter, etc. Beside the occasional comment here or there, I was astounded by how quiet it was. I'm curious if anyone else was surprised by this, or if any of you felt the same way.

    4. To gather enough speed tocomplete the trick, the two had to skate to the other end of the park, giving them both enough timeto watch the other

      Turning the arena into a setting for the trick. Context?

    5. Because these videos, still image sequences, and even pri-vate skateboarding lessons from experienced skateboarders are readily available, such resourcesare not entirely rejected.

      I don't see the logical connection of the "because". I mean, those could be available from sources outside the community and rejected by the community

    6. As Roy described it, they “snaked” him: “Four of ’em just following this kid around the parkeverywhere he skates,” sometimes cutting him off, until finally he left the park in frustration

      Wow. Kind of harsh. Who gets to decide how this space is used? Just a paragraph up it says "the arena was, in fact, amenable to carving." So even though the space MAY be used for that, someone and some point established the rules against carving in that space. So is that the right of the old-timer? To set and enforce rules?

    1. Potentially, youth counter-mapping could have conse-quences both for ‘‘on the move’’ experience and for official versions of city neighborhoods

      Is this saying that counter-mapping influences the professional vision of urban space, but also the experiential setting for those who live there?

    1. he availability of distinctsitesandcommunities of practice,each of which espoused a certain instantia-tion of the hobby—that is, a particular substantive focus of astronomy practice,including observations of various kinds, teaching, reading, socializing, and soon—afforded the practitioner the possibility of tailoring his or her practice in avariety of ways

      Where one practices the hobby is also an important resource both in terms of access to the practice itself, and to others in the community of practice.

      I wonder if this kind of variation can be found in other hobbies. Is it as significant of a factor among model railroaders or people who knit?

    2. Sharing of resources is key here. Jackie had the most powerful scope in thegroup, and therefore it often served as the primary instrument for their observa-tions, especially when it came to the most faint objects on the list. By comparingviews across many scopes, astronomers could develop a better sense for theirobservations

      I wonder if using people as resources, in whatever case/way, is the most powerful resource tool? Do people really learn the most from human contact?

    3. Bothlines of practiceandconditions of practiceare shown as arrows because they change and evolveover time

      Which makes me wonder, do the resources change over time? Does the use of the resources change over time?

    4. Taking detailed observationalnoteswas thus a naturalextension of Mitchell’s many other daily practices, and it too shaped and sus-tained his astronomy practice

      In reading this point, it makes me understand the difference in resources individuals will have. Not all people will use the resource of notes like Mitchell will.

    5. events such as eclipses, comets, and planet alignments are periodicbut relatively rare, and thus they always attracted Mitchell’s attention, as well asothers’. Likewise, one-time occurrences such as the birth of a nebula are also rareand thus Mitchell and others often took the time to observe them

      Does the rarity of certain instances within a given community of learning also pose as a resource? Mitchell's knowledge in know certain events were very rare engaged him to observe more in depth when the instance did occur.

    6. ngaged participatio

      I am interested to see how the concept of engaged participation will play out. How will it be conceptualized and brought into real world terms.