149 Matching Annotations
  1. Aug 2020
  2. unix.meta.stackexchange.com unix.meta.stackexchange.com
    1. Remember that Unix’s forte (or not, depending on your point of view) has always been that it’s a self-hosted operating system designed to make it easy to develop itself, and the result is (still) that advanced system administration often ends up being programming in one way or another. In such a context, exposure to better tools and techniques is good for everyone.
    1. Acknowledge programmer questions for what they are and wede the scope further by offering a programmer's answer. One written in a proper programming language.
  3. Jul 2020
  4. Jun 2020
    1. But tagging, alone, is still not good enough. Even our many tags become useless if/when their meaning changes (in our minds) by the time we go retrieve the data they point to. This could be years after we tagged something. Somehow, whether manually or automatically, we need agents and tools to help us keep our tags updated and relevant.

      search engines usually can surface that faster (less cognitive load than recalling what and where you store something) than you retrieve it in your second brain (abundance info, do can always retrieve from external source in a JIT fashion)

    1. Our experience is that many of today’s technology leaders genuinely venerate Engelbart, Kay, and their colleagues. Many even feel that computers have huge potential as tools for improving human thinking. But they don’t see how to build good businesses around developing new tools for thought. And without such business opportunities, work languishes.

      Some of these ideas in this section tangentially touch on the broader problems of EdTech. Technology isn't necessarily the answer.

      They're onto something, but I feel like they're missing a huge grounding in areas of pedagogy, teaching, EdTech history, and even memory and memory research.

    2. With that said, the term “tools for thought” has been widely used since Iverson’s 1950s and 1960s work An account may be found in Iverson’s Turing Award lecture, Notation as a Tool of Thought (1979). Incidentally, even Iverson is really describing a medium for thought, the APL programming language, not a narrow tool. introducing the term. And so we shall use “tools for thought” as our catch all phrase, while giving ourselves license to explore a broader range, and also occasionally preferring the term “medium” when it is apt.
  5. May 2020
    1. Gardens were also popular, the medieval sort of garden,with orderly beds of medicinal plants and fruit trees separated by grass andsurrounded by a wall. Undoubtedly, gardens became popular with monasticand later writers because of the Song of Songs, a preeminent text for mysticalmeditation. Various other Biblical structures were often used too: the Taber-nacle described in Exodus; the Temple described in  Kings; the Jerusalemcitadel envisioned by Ezekiel and often conflated with the Heavenly City ofthe Apocalypse. We now would never think to organize an encyclopedia ofknowledge on the plan of Noah’s Ark, but for a clerical audience to whomthis text was as familiar as the order of the alphabet is to us—why not? It is asimple (if large), clearly arranged (if imaginary) composition site, containingmany useful compartments with a straightforward route among them, a sortof foundational map to use in arranging your materials (orresin Latin) as yougather them into the location of your new composition from the networksof your experiences, including of course all your experiences of books, music,and other arts. Thus, in the course of an ideal medieval education, in addi-tion to acquiring a great many segments of scriptural and classical texts, onealso would acquire an extensive repertoire of image-schemes in which to putthem, both ‘‘to lay them away’’ and ‘‘to collect them’’ in new arrangementson later occasions.

      Again, another reference to gardens with respect to memorizing information. There's a direct correlation to some of the sorts of thinking tools many are using to create digital gardens or personal wikis. These ideas aren't new! Our predecessors were simply using different structures to store and remember them. Their tools were different, but their goals and general methods were ultimately the same.

    2. The complementary principle to dividing isgathering and collecting. Eachnew composition can also be conceived as a place into which culled and rec-ollected matters are gathered. The very concept of reading in Latin is basedonthenotionof‘‘gathering,’’Latinlegere, ‘‘to read’’ having as its root mean-ing ‘‘to collect up, to gather by picking, plucking, and the like.’’ The Greekverblegōhad a similar range of meaning, from ‘‘to lay’’ something down or‘‘to lay asleep’’ to ‘‘to lay [things] in order,’’ hence ‘‘to gather, pick up,’’ ‘‘torelate,’’ ‘‘to speak purposefully.’’ The name of one venerable and essential typeof ancient and medieval encyclopedia puns on these closely allied verbs: theflorilegium, ‘‘flower-culling’’ (with a pun on ‘‘flower-reading’’), a collection ofsayings, maxims, and stories collected from past works, sometimes quotedexactly (though in mnemonically brief segments), but often just summarized.The best known of these through much of the Middle Ages was ValeriusMaximus’sDicta et facta memorabilia(early first century..), but there aremany other examples. Indeed, the premodern encyclopedia itself is a sort ofmemory-book, the flowers of (one’s extensive) reading gathered up in someorderly arrangement for the purpose of quick, secure recollection in connec-tion with making a new composition. After all, this is one essential purposeof encyclopedias even today.

      This seems awfully close to the sort of "digital gardens" I've been reading about recently. They obviously are not a new idea.

      For example see: https://github.com/MaggieAppleton/digital-gardeners

    1. these words bring up all kinds of questions

      some thoughts when skimming through stream-of-consciousness journals like these

      if I want to absorb the information and "learn" faster, then reading faster or summarising the text is not the solution, because a text is already a compressed lossy encoded form of the initial thought. to decode it further and transfer it into my head would risk too much missing bits of information.

    1. we should never blindly apply dogmatic advice, and that we should use our judgment each and every time.

      menjadi manusia berkesedaran, memiliki pemikiran sendiri, jangan menelan mentah-mentah apa yang dibaca

  6. Apr 2020
    1. 一、利用緩衝說法,表現委婉而確實的說話術二、開始前的提問,決定學習的方向三、把時間優先留給「真正想做的事」四、沒有信賴關係,罵只會帶來反效果五、將「語意記憶」轉換成「情節記憶」更易記住六、寫得愈多,大腦愈活化七、將大腦中的情報,像拍照一樣保存下來八、根據「設計圖」寫作速度最快可以提升三倍九、大方投資可以促使自我成長的「夥伴」十、危機管理,就是盡量減少「跡近錯失」的發生
      • 什麼是情節記憶? 就是聯想
      • 有哪些促使自我成長的夥伴
      • 什麼事跡近錯失?
    2. 你說,這樣不是會忽略掉書中其他有價值的內容嗎?也許是,但是誰在乎?我是為了成長而學習,不是為了看完一本書而閱讀。在大學的時候,也沒有任何一堂課會上完了整本書,不是嗎?

      放棄完美主義

    1. Statistics are not cold hard facts – as Nate Silver writes in The Signal and the Noise (2012): ‘The numbers have no way of speaking for themselves. We speak for them. We imbue them with meaning.’ Not only has someone used extensive judgment in choosing what to measure, how to define crucial ideas, and to analyse them, but the manner in which they are communicated can utterly change their emotional impact. Let’s assume that £350 million is the actual weekly contribution to the EU. I often ask audiences to suggest what they would put on the side of the bus if they were on the Remain side. A standard option for making an apparently big number look small is to consider it as a proportion of an even bigger number: for example, the UK’s GDP is currently around £2.3 trillion, and so this contribution would comprise less than 1 per cent of GDP, around six months’ typical growth. An alternative device is to break down expenditure into smaller, more easily grasped units: for example, as there are 66 million people in the UK, £350 million a week is equivalent to around 75p a day, less than $1, say about the cost of a small packet of crisps (potato chips). If the bus had said: We each send the EU the price of a packet of crisps each day, the campaign might not have been so successful.

      The second problem is that we are carrying out repeated significance tests, as each year’s new data are added and another test performed. Fortunately, it turns out that there is some remarkable but complex theory, delightfully known as ‘the law of the iterated logarithm’. This shows that if we carry out such repeated testing, even if the null hypothesis is true, then we are certain to eventually reject that null at any significance level we choose.

      Fortunately, there are statistical methods for dealing with this problem of sequential testing. They were first developed in the Second World War by teams of statisticians working on industrial quality-control of armaments and other war materiel.

      Armaments coming off the production line were being monitored by steadily accumulating total deviations from a standard, much in the same way as monitoring excess mortality. Scientists realised that the law of the iterated logarithm meant that repeated significance testing would always lead eventually to an alert that the industrial process had gone out of strict control, even if in truth everything was functioning fine. Essentially, if we keep on checking on a process, in the end something will look odd just by chance alone.

      This last part reminds me of Buffet: "If a cop follows you for 500 miles, you're going to get a ticket”

    1. From the eponymous Dunning of the Dunning-Kruger effect

      In our work, we ask survey respondents if they are familiar with certain technical concepts from physics, biology, politics, and geography. A fair number claim familiarity with genuine terms like centripetal force and photon. But interestingly, they also claim some familiarity with concepts that are entirely made up, such as the plates of parallax, ultra-lipid, and cholarine. In one study, roughly 90 percent claimed some knowledge of at least one of the nine fictitious concepts we asked them about. In fact, the more well versed respondents considered themselves in a general topic, the more familiarity they claimed with the meaningless terms associated with it in the survey.

      An ignorant mind is precisely not a spotless, empty vessel, but one that’s filled with the clutter of irrelevant or misleading life experiences, theories, facts, intuitions, strategies, algorithms, heuristics, metaphors, and hunches that regrettably have the look and feel of useful and accurate knowledge. This clutter is an unfortunate by-product of one of our greatest strengths as a species. We are unbridled pattern recognizers and profligate theorizers. Often, our theories are good enough to get us through the day, or at least to an age when we can procreate. But our genius for creative storytelling, combined with our inability to detect our own ignorance, can sometimes lead to situations that are embarrassing, unfortunate, or downright dangerous—especially in a technologically advanced, complex democratic society that occasionally invests mistaken popular beliefs with immense destructive power (See: crisis, financial; war, Iraq). As the humorist Josh Billings once put it, “It ain’t what you don’t know that gets you into trouble. It’s what you know for sure that just ain’t so.”

      The way we traditionally conceive of ignorance—as an absence of knowledge—leads us to think of education as its natural antidote. But education, even when done skillfully, can produce illusory confidence. Here’s a particularly frightful example: Driver’s education courses, particularly those aimed at handling emergency maneuvers, tend to increase, rather than decrease, accident rates. They do so because training people to handle, say, snow and ice leaves them with the lasting impression that they’re permanent experts on the subject. In fact, their skills usually erode rapidly after they leave the course. And so, months or even decades later, they have confidence but little leftover competence when their wheels begin to spin.

      In these Wild West settings, it’s best not to repeat common misbeliefs at all. Telling people that Barack Obama is not a Muslim fails to change many people’s minds, because they frequently remember everything that was said—except for the crucial qualifier “not.” Rather, to successfully eradicate a misbelief requires not only removing the misbelief, but filling the void left behind (“Obama was baptized in 1988 as a member of the United Church of Christ”). If repeating the misbelief is absolutely necessary, researchers have found it helps to provide clear and repeated warnings that the misbelief is false. I repeat, false.

    1. Although widely held, the belief that merit rather than luck determines success or failure in the world is demonstrably false. This is not least because merit itself is, in large part, the result of luck. Talent and the capacity for determined effort, sometimes called ‘grit’, depend a great deal on one’s genetic endowments and upbringing.

      In competitive contexts, many have merit, but few succeed. What separates the two is luck.

      In addition to being false, a growing body of research in psychology and neuroscience suggests that believing in meritocracy makes people more selfish, less self-critical and even more prone to acting in discriminatory ways. Meritocracy is not only wrong; it’s bad.

      Perhaps more disturbing, simply holding meritocracy as a value seems to promote discriminatory behaviour. [Researchers] found that, in companies that explicitly held meritocracy as a core value, managers assigned greater rewards to male employees over female employees with identical performance evaluations. This preference disappeared where meritocracy was not explicitly adopted as a value.

      However, in addition to legitimation, meritocracy also offers flattery. Where success is determined by merit, each win can be viewed as a reflection of one’s own virtue and worth. Meritocracy is the most self-congratulatory of distribution principles.

      Despite the moral assurance and personal flattery that meritocracy offers to the successful, it ought to be abandoned both as a belief about how the world works and as a general social ideal. It’s false, and believing in it encourages selfishness, discrimination and indifference to the plight of the unfortunate.

    1. It is a much simpler exercise than the combinatorial wheels, but it struck me as similar: both break down the thinking process into a set of discrete, distinct aspects, and our attention is directed to a specific focus area of focus in sequence. One might think this would limit creativity, but in some ways increases it, as you are enabled to let your mind generate thought around many more specific points than if you were to think in a free-form manner about the topic all at once (not that this replaces daydream-style sessions of thought.) But focal points concentrate power
    2. I was again reminded of de Bono's books (which I hadn't thought of in long time) trying out the combinatorial systems. The system that de Bono is probably best known for is the 'Six Thinking Hats'. In short, the six coloured hats are cues for a person or group to think about a topic in a series of specific ways, one at a time: White: information, data, facts Red: emotion, feelings, intuitions Yellow: positives, benefits Black: negatives, costs, dangers Green: creative alternatives, interesting aspects Blue: an overview & review of the thinking process
    3. author & psychologist Edward de Bono, that he called the PMI. Short for "plus, minus, interesting," it is a very simple procedure: for a given proposal, one spends a minute each thinking about positives, negatives, and then what is interesting about the idea, what one would be interested to see if it was adopted & put into practice.
    1. Now that he had no work to hold, he laid the knuckles of the right hand in the hollow of the left, and then the knuckles of the left hand in the hollow of the right, and then passed a hand across his bearded chin, and so on in regular changes, without a moment's intermission. The task of recalling him from the vagrancy into which he always sank when he had spoken, was like recalling some very weak person from a swoon, or endeavouring, in the hope of some disclosure, to stay the spirit of a fast-dying man. “Did you ask me for my name?” “Assuredly I did.” “One Hundred and Five, North Tower.” “Is that all?” “One Hundred and Five, North Tower.”

      Maybe the shoemaker had forgotten his name from prison?

  7. Feb 2020
    1. Midway between the Being which is indivisible and remains always the same and the Being which is transient and divisible in bodies, He blended a third form of Being compounded out of the twain, that is to say, out of the Same and the Other; and in like manner He compounded it midway between that one of them which is indivisible and that one which is divisible in bodies. And He took the three of them, and blent them all together into one form, by forcing the Other into union with the Same, in spite of its being naturally difficult to mix.

      An original form of mediation. A mediated-Being. This is the Soul - this is the intellect, this is thinking, actually

  8. Jan 2020
  9. Nov 2019
    1. 11,000 students from 321 sites across the UnitedStates

      The national center for education statistics shows for fall 2016, approximately 76,238,500 students enrolled in the US. Can we say that the voice of 11000 is enough to generalize? Maybe there are some other issues in the field of education that can no reflect in this study.

  10. Oct 2019
    1. one that poten-tially devalues place or, worse, one that never acknowledges it at all.

      Again, I see this article's ideas have been turned upside down with the current rhetoric. One's own place [rural, conservative] over global [diverse cities/acceptance of others]. Instead of valuing one's own place and seeing that value in other places, the fear mentality is that "you are taking from "my" place. Somehow, we have tipped our thinking inward, instead of outward acceptance and belonging to a bigger world.

  11. Aug 2019
    1. design thinking facilitates the intersection of understanding patients through human-centered design techniques to enhance patients’engagemen

      Papel e importância do desing thinking na Saúde 4.0 = facilitar o entendimento na intersecção entre paciente e o HCD para promover engajamento

    1. value is questionable — and never questioned

      And who decides what information is valuable? Often it's individuals and institutions that are more interested in maintaining the status quo than, in Henry Giroux's words, challenging students to think dangerously.

    1. At the core of thinking dangerously is the recognition that education is central to politics and that a democracy cannot survive without informed citizens.

      Giroux offers his take on dangerous thinking's "core."

  12. Jul 2019
    1. Digital texts embody the intersections between history and biography that Mills (1959) thought inherent to understanding social relations. Content from my blog is a ready example. I have access to the entire data set. I can track its macro discursive moments to action, space, and place. And I can consider it as a reflexive sociological practice. In this way, I have used my digital texts as methodologists use autoethnographies: reflexive, critical practices of social relationship.

      I wonder a bit about applying behavioral economics or areas like System 1/System 2 of D. Kahneman and A. Tversky to social media as well. Some (a majority?) use Twitter as an immediate knee-jerk reaction to content they're reading and interacting with in a very System 1 sense while others use longer form writing and analysis seen in the blogosphere to create System 2 sort of social thinking.

      This naturally needs to be cross referenced in peoples' time and abilities to consume these things and the reactions and dopamine responses they provoke. Most people are apt to read the shorter form writing because it's easier and takes less time and effort compared with longer form writing which requires far more cognitive load and time expenditure.

    2. A systematic analysis of my public writing makes the case that as academics are increasingly called to “publicly engage,” we have not fully conceptualized or counted the costs of public writing from various social locations.
  13. Jun 2019
  14. May 2019
    1. Persona ¿Qué es? Utilizamos la herramienta Persona para crear un modelo de usuario de nuestro objetivo. De esta manera tenemos una visión más profunda y personal a la hora de analizar las motivaciones y empatizar con nuestro usuario en la fase de ideación.
    1. In Out ¿Qué es? Estamos ante una herramienta que nos sirve para visualizar los límites de un proyecto. Con este mapa visual será más fácil comprender qué es o qué se encuentra dentro de nuestro proyecto y qué no.
    1. Análogos – Antílogos ¿Qué es? El objetivo de esta herramienta es ayudarnos a comprender y visualizar hacia qué punto queremos dirigir nuestra empresa o proyecto haciendo una comparación metafórica con otras empresas o entidades, ya sean del mismo campo o de otro completamente diferente. Para realizarlo, por un lado, hay que identificar y enumerar las entidades, empresas, individuos o proyectos a los que nos gustaría o creemos parecernos. Por otro lado, se debe buscar los análogos, es decir, empresas, individuos, entidades o proyectos a los que no nos gustaría o creemos parecernos.
    1. Cinco Porqués ¿Qué es? Esta herramienta la utilizamos para encontrar brevemente la base de un problema. Con los “cinco porqués” conseguimos llegar a la causa originaria del asunto que estamos tratando
    1. DAFO ¿Qué es? DAFO es una matriz de cuatro secciones que se utiliza para analizar la situación estratégica de una empresa. Por un lado estudia sus características internas (Debilidades y Fortalezas) y por el otro las características externas (Amenazas y Oportunidades).
  15. Apr 2019
    1. The fact that many of them are working long hours at outside jobs only exacerbates the problem.

      This is poor writing. The sentence doesn't relate to the bullet point. The fact that today's students are more likely to be worrying about food and housing insecurity doesn't mean they don't "value the opportunity of learning in our classes." It only means that there are other legitimate demands on their time and our notions of what the college experience should be have failed to adapt.

    1. “It is not that something different is seen, but that one sees differently. It is as though the spatial act of seeing were changed by a new dimension. —Carl Jung”
    2. “Sadly, our educational system, as well as many of the methods that profess to treat trauma, tend to bypass this emotional-engagement system and focus instead on recruiting the cognitive capacities of the mind. Despite the well-documented effects of anger, fear, and anxiety on the ability to reason, many programs continue to ignore the need to engage the safety system of the brain before trying to promote new ways of thinking. The last things that should be cut from school schedules are chorus, physical education, recess, and anything else involving movement, play, and joyful engagement.”
    3. “We have learned that trauma is not just an event that took place sometime in the past; it is also the imprint left by that experience on mind, brain, and body. This imprint has ongoing consequences for how the human organism manages to survive in the present. Trauma results in a fundamental reorganization of the way mind and brain manage perceptions. It changes not only how we think and what we think about, but also our very capacity to think.”
    1. If in observing the present state of the world and life in general, from a Christian point of view one had to say (and from a Christian point of view with complete justification): It is a disease. And if I were a physician and someone asked me “What do you think should be done?” I would answer, “The first thing, the unconditional condition for anything to be done, consequently the very first thing that must be done is: create silence, bring about silence; God's Word cannot be heard, and if in order to be heard in the hullabaloo it must be shouted deafeningly with noisy instruments, then it is not God’s Word; create silence! Ah, everything is noisy; and just as strong drink is said to stir the blood, so everything in our day, even the most insignificant project, even the most empty communication, is designed merely to jolt the senses and to stir up the masses, the crowd, the public, noise! And man, this clever fellow, seems to have become sleepless in order to invent ever new instruments to increase noise, to spread noise and insignificance with the greatest possible haste and on the greatest possible scale. Yes, everything is soon turned upside-down: communication is indeed soon brought to its lowest point in regard to meaning, and simultaneously the means of communication are indeed brought to their highest with regard to speedy and overall circulation; for what is publicized with such hot haste and, on the other hand, what has greater circulation than---rubbish! Oh, create silence!” Soren Kierkegaard, For Self-Examination 1851 p. 47-48 Hong 1990
    2. How much that is hidden may still reside in a person, or how much may still reside hidden! How inventive is hidden inwardness in hiding itself and in deceiving or evading others, the hidden inwardness that preferred that no one would suspect its existence, modestly afraid of being seen and mortally afraid of being entirely disclosed! Is it not so that the one person never completely understands the other? But if he does not understand him completely, then of course it is always possible that the most indisputable thing could still have a completely different explanation that would, note well, be the true explanation, since an assumption can indeed explain a great number of instances very well and thereby confirm its truth and yet show itself to be untrue as soon as the instance comes along that it cannot explain-and it would indeed be possible that this instance or this somewhat more precise specification could come even at the last moment. Therefore all calm and, in the intellectual sense, dispassionate observers, who eminently know how to delve searchingly and penetratingly into the inner being, these very people judge with such infinite caution or refrain from it entirely because, enriched by observation, they have a developed conception of the enigmatic world of the hidden, and because as observers they have learned to rule over their passions. Only superficial, impetuous passionate people, who do not understand themselves and for that reason naturally are unaware that they do not know others, judge precipitously. Those with insight, those who know never do this. Soren Kierkegaard, Works of Love, (1847) Hong 1995 p. 228-229

      This section particularly interests me, this is more or less how my brain operates, the trains of thought, the natural inclination to analyze life by thinking, thinking of others, assumptions I make, others make. What is the truth? Is there a truth?

    1. Hemmes lifts lid on project APRIL 03, 2019 Pub titan Justin Hemmes’s $1.5 billion redevelopment will dominate a Sydney city block, taking up to seven years to complete, with world-class local and international architects engaging in a design competition for the proposed five-star extravaganza. In his first interview on the yet-to-be-named project, the billionaire said he planned a 52,500sq m tower opposite Wynyard Station, amalgamating his Ivy party palace and adding a substantial office component, a luxury hotel and an opulent hospitality precinct.

      Awesome news. This MUST be rolled into Crossrail/West Metro planning works.

  16. Mar 2019
    1. The benefits of personalized learning through technology This resource is included in part because it connects personalized learning and technology. A brief list of benefits, such as increasing student engagement and bridging the gap between teachers and students, are listed. This is presented by a marketing unit of a university so there may be an agenda. Nonetheless it provides useful considerations such as helping learners develop 'design thinking.' rating 3/5

    1. Teaching problem solving This page is included because some of our theories indicate that problem solving should be taught specifically. This page is a bit unusual; I did not find many others like it. It is rather easy to read and also addresses the differences between novice and expert learners. rating 3/5

  17. Jan 2019
    1. For a review of such research, see Daniel T. Willingham, “Critical Thinking: Why Is It So Hard to Teach?” American Educator 31, 2 (2007): 13, http://www.aft.org/sites/default/files/periodicals/Crit_Thinking.pdf.
    1. They

      This kind of generalization always worries me. "They" as a whole or as a statistically identifiable majority? Or "they" as a memory, where intense experiences stand out with no regard to their probability?

    2. a tendency, developed over the last five years, that I’ve come to call “errand paralysis.”

      I'm solidly Gen X, but I certainly recognize this tendency in myself. What forces are at play which lead people to treat this as a generational trait? Who benefits?

    1. Curiosity Is as Important as Intelligence

      This one is a pretty bold statement to make, in general.

      Mike Johansson, at Rochester Institute of Technology, makes the case that curiosity is the key to enabling both Creative and Critical Thinking for better problem solving, in general.

      What are some of your ideas?

  18. Dec 2018
    1. With regard to the superstitions of logicians, I shall never tire of emphasizing a small, terse fact, which is unwillingly recognized by these credulous minds--namely, that a thought comes when "it" wishes, and not when "I" wish; so that it is a PERVERSION of the facts of the case to say that the subject "I" is the condition of the predicate "think." ONE thinks; but that this "one" is precisely the famous old "ego," is, to put it mildly, only a supposition, an assertion, and assuredly not an "immediate certainty." After all, one has even gone too far with this "one thinks"--even the "one" contains an INTERPRETATION of the process, and does not belong to the process itself. One infers here according to the usual grammatical formula--"To think is an activity; every activity requires an agency that is active; consequently" . . . It was pretty much on the same lines that the older atomism sought, besides the operating "power," the material particle wherein it resides and out of which it operates--the atom. More rigorous minds, however, learnt at last to get along without this "earth-residuum," and perhaps some day we shall accustom ourselves, even from the logician's point of view, to get along without the little "one" (to which the worthy old "ego" has refined itself).

      The original text (avaiable here: http://www.nietzschesource.org/#eKGWB/JGB-17) goes: Was den Aberglauben der Logiker betrifft: so will ich nicht müde werden, eine kleine kurze Thatsache immer wieder zu unterstreichen, welche von diesen Abergläubischen ungern zugestanden wird, — nämlich, dass ein Gedanke kommt, wenn „er“ will, und nicht wenn „ich“ will; so dass es eine Fälschung des Thatbestandes ist, zu sagen: das Subjekt „ich“ ist die Bedingung des Prädikats „denke“. Es denkt: aber dass dies „es“ gerade jenes alte berühmte „Ich“ sei, ist, milde geredet, nur eine Annahme, eine Behauptung, vor Allem keine „unmittelbare Gewissheit“. Zuletzt ist schon mit diesem „es denkt“ zu viel gethan: schon dies „es“ enthält eine Auslegung des Vorgangs und gehört nicht zum Vorgange selbst. Man schliesst hier nach der grammatischen Gewohnheit „Denken ist eine Thätigkeit, zu jeder Thätigkeit gehört Einer, der thätig ist, folglich —“. Ungefähr nach dem gleichen Schema suchte die ältere Atomistik zu der „Kraft“, die wirkt, noch jenes Klümpchen Materie, worin sie sitzt, aus der heraus sie wirkt, das Atom; strengere Köpfe lernten endlich ohne diesen „Erdenrest“ auskommen, und vielleicht gewöhnt man sich eines Tages noch daran, auch seitens der Logiker ohne jenes kleine „es“ (zu dem sich das ehrliche alte Ich verflüchtigt hat) auszukommen.

      The translation "one thinks" is not exact. Es denkt. It thinks. Something thinks

  19. Oct 2018
    1. I saw the movement of content across media as an enhancement of the creative process. He saw it as a distraction or corruption.

      Points to a short-sightedness and tunnel vision in sections of media. Taking a focussed view on a very narrow area of a field, as opposed to a "world view" as advocated by the author.

    1. not unlike that of the medical industry, where the needs of patients (clients) are met by a process-driven model.

      To what extent is the writer's analogy to the medical industry persuasive?

    2. It would allow lawyers to concentrate on higher-order tasks such as crafting legal strategies, interpreting and applying the relevant parts of the law to complex situations and perhaps most importantly, maintaining the human connection for a profession which is critically about relationships.

      What are the assumptions in the writer's argument?

    3. While machines and algorithms are indeed coming for tasks currently being performed by lawyers, these tasks tend to be labour-intensive and/or low-value and/or process driven.

      Is this the first time that such a transformation has taken place? Can you think of other historical cases where labour-intensive, low-value, or process-driven work has been automated?

    4. As business and the economy becomes ever more complex, the information and data available for lawyers to consider in assisting clients to make strategic decisions will be so vast that unless technology and workflows are correctly harnessed to make sense of it, the information would be useless and impossible to interpret manually.

      Can you think of other industries in which this might also be true? Share illustrations with your class.

    5. the final call will have to come from the human in the loop.

      Do you agree that AI is incapable of decision-making, and that a human will always have to make the final call? Why or why not? How might this vary in different fields, including the ones you are interested in pursuing?

    6. So long as there are people willing to push the boundaries of rules, possibilities and limits, lawyers will always have a fundamental role in society and the economy.

      Do some research and find an example of a lawyer "willing to push the boundaries of rules, possibilities, and limits." Share your findings with the class.

    1. improve female representation in the senior leadership

      What are the pros and cons of focusing on representation in the leadership?

    2. gender barriers (physical, cultural, attitudinal)

      What do you think are some of these barriers?

    3. If we can achieve gender balance in the most visible public offices of the land, the rest of the country will follow.

      Do you agree that the writer's proposals will be effective in achieving gender equality? Why or why not? What other ideas do you have for achieving gender equality?

    4. Most notably, the Cabinet today comprises 16 men and only three women - even though for more than 10 years, the number of women graduating from universities has outnumbered male graduates.

      Do you find the writer's evidence convincing? What are the the strengths—and limitations—of her evidence?

    5. Sadly, these patriarchal attitudes prevail today.

      Do you think this is a fair claim? What examples of patriarchal attitudes can you think of in Singapore?

      You may include photos, videos, or hyperlinks.

    6. sex

      How do you think the context of democratic socialism and gender are linked?

    7. Until 2005, the Civil Service provided medical benefits to the families of male civil servants, but not female civil servants. Under the Women’s Charter, only wives can get maintenance from their spouses, not husbands. Paternity leave was only instituted in 2013.

      What assumptions do each o these policies reveal? Do you agree with these policies? Why or why not?

  20. Sep 2018
    1. Until 2005, the Civil Service provided medical benefits to the families of male civil servants, but not female civil servants. •Under the Women’s Charter, only wives can get maintenance from their spouses, not husbands.•Paternity leave was only instituted in 2

      What assumptions do each of these policies reveal?

    2. If we can achieve gender balance in the most visible public offices of the land, the rest of the country will follow.

      Do you agree that the writer's proposals will be effective in achieving gender equality? Why or why not? What other ideas do you have for achieving gender equality?

    3. . Most notably, the Cabinet today comprises 15 men and only four women -even though for more than 10 years, the number of women graduating from universities has outnumbered male graduate

      Do you find the writer's evidence convincing? What are the the strengths—and limitations—of her evidence?

    4. Sadly, these patriarchal attitudes prevail today.

      Do you think this is a fair claim? What examples of patriarchal attitudes can you think of in Singapore?

  21. Aug 2018
    1. And when sites like DC Gazette share stories about people who allegedly investigated the Clinton family being found dead, the stories go viral and some people believe them. Again, these stories are not true in any way.

      The first think I thought about while reading this is the Petress article, and how this is an example of individuals not using critical thinking. Often times people believe wrong information without even fully understanding it in the first place.

  22. Jul 2018
    1. Luhmann didn’t only write a lot and developed the most complex of all theoretical bodies in the social sciences. He was known for his vast knowledge and deep thinking. He didn’t run to his Zettelkasten when you asked him something. This is because he practiced thinking through writing and processing in the context of the Zettelkasten.

      I read Zettelkasten (German for “slip box”, or “card index”) and immediately think commonplace book!

    1. Throughout Generous Thinking, one of my interests lies in the effects of, and the need to reverse, the shift in our cultural understanding of education (and especially higher education); where in the mid-twentieth century, the value of education was largely understood to be social, it has in recent decades come to be described as providing primarily private, individual benefits. And this, inevitably, has accompanied a shift from education being treated as a public service to being treated as a private responsibility.
    1. What about people who don't have PhD's? Are they scientists, too? In any world in which credentials matter, the answer is no. (I describe a major exception to the rule below.) Just like getting an MD or a JD is a prerequisite to being called a doctor or a lawyer, in general, getting a PhD in the natural sciences is the prerequisite to being called a scientist.
  23. May 2018
    1. They can enable individuals to reflect on the personal and social impact of new technologies, and provide a provocative, speculative, and rich vision of our technological future that avoids the clichés of consumerist-oriented industrial design.

      Although this article emphasized the difference between critical design and critical making, the later being more process oriented and involving information systems than only physical objects I wish the author could have illustrated that with an example. How to make a digital object critically? How to think of UI design patterns critically? All the tacit knowledge a UI and UXer is expected to have in order to get hired and that they use everyday. If the aim of critical making of information systems concern is to uncover the embedded values in software and the process of designing of software than it also needs to question the industry jargon and process which forms the lived experience of designers everyday.

    2. Critically engaged language can do detailed surgery on a topic, but critical objects can hit like an emotional sledgehammer if thoughtfully implemented.

      Also they give an opportunity to create work, professsions, hobbies. Entire groups of people can organize their time and energies around the creation and maintenance of that object. Communities could willingly decrease the complexity of their needs by negotiation of values in objects in order to create lower thresholds to economic participation

    3. reflection on unconscious values embedded in computing and the practices that it supports can and should be a core principle of technology design

      Yes but how? What if one doesn't even have the vocabulary and lived experience to identify that value and it's influence?

    4. Ratto wanted the term to act as glue between conceptual and linguistic-oriented thinking and physical and materially based making with an emphasis on introducing hands-on practice to scholars that were primarily working through language and texts, such as those in the fields of communication, information studies, and science and technology studies
  24. Apr 2018
    1. Theoretically, positive thinkingworks because the individual alters the personal meaning ofan event so the new meaning is less threatening (Beck, 1967).Indeed, some of the women emphasized their personaldecision making:I’m not going to sit down and feel sorry for myself and get boggeddown and start thinking about those [depressing] things. Soon [as]it comes into my thought—I, I change it, I replace it with somethingpositive, something good. You know what I mean? I can choose.Now I can choose to be sad or I can choose to be happy. It’s noteasy, but it’s something that, um, can be achieved by continuedpracticing.

      **see where she might've been altering the events of her life into something positive. if anything she kept altering her life and background into worse and worse versions. or it could just all be slightly different versions of the same tragedy.

      therefore doing half of the step, in which she alters the meaning, but has the same negetative trauma. if not worse

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  25. Feb 2018
    1. La noción de diseño difuso se refiere al hecho de que todo el mundo está dotado con la capacidad de diseñar, mientras que la de diseño experto se refiere al conocimiento profesional del diseño. Entre las dos distinciones se abre un espacio para repensar ‘el diseño en un mundo interconectado’. En el modelo de Manzini este espacio funciona como un recurso heurístico que permite visualizar modos de diseño, desde los ‘activistas culturales’ comprometidos con el diseño difuso y la construcción de sentido hasta las formas de intervención tecnológica centradas en la solución de problemas bajo el liderazgo de expertos (

      Cfg Leinonen.

    2. el mundo está experimentando una gran transición; el diseño puede contribuir a fomentar una cultura de localismo cosmopolita que vincule, efectivamente, lo local y lo global a través de infraestructuras resilientes que acerquen la producción y el consumo con base en sistemas distribuidos; (c) las acciones de la gente para cambiar sus condiciones de vida cotidianas se llevan a cabo, cada vez más, a través de organizaciones colaborativas; los expertos en diseño, como piezas importantes en este redescubrimiento de la colaboración, ayudan a crear las condiciones para el cambio social;
  26. Jan 2018
    1. justifying a complex conclusion to a problem by understanding, evaluating, and discussing the significance of the assumptions, limitations, interpretations, and validity of the evidence.

      one def of critical thinking

  27. Nov 2017
    1. this cannot well be without the accessory of an hospital, where the student can have the benefit of attending clinical lectures & of assisting at operations of surgery.

      I feel like this idea of needing a hospital was advanced for the time. The founders of UVA recognize the need for hands-on activity, especially when it comes to a field like medicine. This seems to translate into UVA as we see it now with all of the research opportunities and different ways to get involved with passions and careers. Tana Mardian

    1. The selection committee declares that whatever LMS the university chooses next must work exactly like Blackboard and exactly like Moodle while having all the features of Canvas. Oh, and it must be "innovative" and "next-generation" too, because we're sick of LMSs that all look and work the same.
  28. Oct 2017
    1. As well might it be urged that the wild & uncultivated tree, hitherto yielding sour & bitter fruit only, can never be made to yield better: yet we know that the grafting art implants a new tree on the savage stock, producing what is most estimable both in kind & degree.

      This is a very insightful metaphor that shows that demonstrates that education depends on the student. Just as cultivation that is successful for one tree might be unsuccessful for another, depending on many variables, the way one student learns and is educated might not work for another student, as people are all vastly different. This is important to realize, because if the aim is to educate all students, the teachers must be willing to shape their own methods. Caroline Peterson

    2. It will form the first link in the Chain of an historical review of our language through all its successive changes to the present day, will constitute the foundation of that critical instruction in it, which ought to be found in a Seminary of general learning and thus reward amply the few weeks of attention which would alone be requisite for its attainment. A language already fraught with all the eminent sciences of our parent Country the future Vehicle of whatever we may Ourselves atchieve and destined to Occupy so much space on the Globe, claims distinguished attention in American Education.

      It is quite striking to find such a clear statement that emphasizes the importance of participating in "historical review" while linking that review to the "present day"--for this type of review and analysis is exactly what UVA's first-year students are undertaking. It makes it evident that even the Rockfish Gap Report was meant for critical review. In the past, and the present, nothing is perfect--human words have always been scrutinized and will continue to be reviewed as long as media exists. With an emphasis on science within our language (as described), we are able to formulate effectively factual claims. Scientific discovery has flourished since the time of this report, however, it becomes more and more difficult to know what information is true and what information has been fabricated by the news media. The importance of opening up this informational language to students becomes vital to the creation a nation that vicariously breathes truth through its citizens. -Tim Irish

    3. rest might be appropriated to the modern languages, or to the commencement of the course of science

      Both science and language are integral parts of societal advancement, and more often than not, these concepts work together as language acts as a medium to share new information and ideas. Furthermore, I feel that by stating the commencement one must take to science from such a young age reflects the nature of true science. Good science will take years of dedication, with even more time to allow for revisions to theories. The RFG seems to support this idea of science as a slow but steady way of understanding the phenomena of the natural universe.

    1. Critical thinking is the intellectually disciplined process of actively and skillfully conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, and/or evaluating information gathered from, or generated by, observation, experience, reflection, reasoning, or communication, as a guide to belief and action.

      According to this definition of critical thinking, we can infer that critical thinking requires a deep thought process, and it forces one to intensely elaborate on whatever is being asked to think about/write about/discuss

    1. In all my dreams before my helpless sight He plunges at me, guttering, choking, drowning.

      It is interesting that the speaker gives us a graphic image of the sound of death using the language "guttering," "choking," and "drowning," yet it is in contrast to a dream-like state. This creates slight confusion as to whether we are now in the speaker's dream or his reality. This could be a futile attempt in showing how easy it is to have the lines of reality and fantasy cross; making the soldier a prisoner to war and "The old Lie: Dulce et decorum est Pro patria mori."

    2. The old Lie: Dulce et decorum est Pro patria mori.

      We come back to this Latin phrase, “Dulce et decorum est Pro patria mori” yet again. After being exposed to the imagery of the cruelties produced by chemical warfare, the soldiers are forever altered like the state of being “drunk” or in "An ecstasy" with now having to constantly live in the aftermath of war. The allusion of this phrase creates a shattering of one owns belief and alters the idea of what it means to be patriotic; just as the gas alters the mental capacity of the individual fighting for their country.

      To quote W.B. Yeats), a poet during the 1920's post-war Europe, "Things fall apart; the centre cannot hold;" Our perception of war is forever changed through the lens and perspective of those used as human sacrifice.

    3. Gas! GAS! Quick, boys!—An ecstasy of fumbling

      WWI marked the introduction of chemical warfare which in return created complete terror and pandemonium; soldiers were not prepared for the effects of chemical warfare. As Jones indicates, the use of chemical warfare was to “terrorize the enemy and make their troops temporarily lose their minds.” Alexander Watson also claimed in his study (as cited in Jones, 2014) “gas created uncertainty: unlike shrapnel, it killed from the inside, eroding a soldier’s sense of control, while raising the terrifying fear of being suffocated." Going off the “created uncertainty” we have the use of "ecstasy" which encompasses a trance-like state; coinciding with the idea of being "drunk with fatigue" (see above annotation) from the effects of the gas. The delayed reactions of the soldiers against the gas would result in a behavior of "fumbling." The gas was designed to attack the nervous system; accelerating the deterioration of the body and mind.

    4. like old beggars

      With the introduction and evolution of chemical weapons used in this war (WWI); human bodies were no match for the damage these weapons were designed to inflict. Leading into the imagery of soldiers physically deteriorating when using phrases such as "bent double," "coughing like hags," and "men marched asleep;" would not lead one to believe that war is “sweet and fitting” in any capacity. With the use of the word “beggars” our minds may envision the effects of poverty and desperation which war seems to produce, and in this sense, we are given language expressing the overwhelming misery and accelerated age progression with the use of “old.” These descriptions challenge the assumptions the mind tends to gravitate towards when picturing what it means to "die for ones country."

  29. Sep 2017
    1. A language already fraught with all the eminent sciences of our parent Country the future Vehicle

      As communication has always played a key role in the scientific method, language truly does act as a vehicle to the future. Unfortunately, today the communication of science has its flaws due to the general public's lack of common access to scientific journals. University students presently have access to countless scholarly scientific sources as this document intended, yet the emphasis on the importance of communication of science suggests a more global goal. Thus, the university should do all it can to work with organizations such as the Center for Open Science in order to allow for a stronger bond between language and science in the community within and beyond UVa.

    2. Education generates habits of application, order and the love of virtue; and controuls, by the force of habit, any innate obliquities in our moral organization.

      Education is a powerful tool. Teachers can use their authoritative position to shape the beliefs and morals of their students. Many students are eager to learn, so they are easily influenced by what their teachers tell them is fact. Their teachers are the authority in the situation, so therefore they must know how the world works. This can be either positive or negative influence on students depending on how accurate a teacher's knowledge and beliefs are, especially since education "controuls... any innate obliquities in our moral organization." Caroline Peterson

    1. Indeed, as noted earlier, one well-known thought-enhancement technology is written language itself and perhaps use of language more generally. As Levy writes, “speech does not merely allow us to articulate thoughts that we would have had in any case. Instead, it allows us to externalize our thoughts and thereby treat them as objects for contemplation and manipulation. Externalized thoughts can be worked over, criticized, and improved.”21:38-39

      This is an interesting concept, particularly with regards to writing, because many people, myself included, think as they write. I often times do not even really know what I think about a topic until I start writing about it. Essays, for example, are usually difficult to start, but I end up figuring out what my argument is by the end because the process of writing itself has allowed me to think through the subject in a way normal biological cognition would not normally allow me to.

  30. Jun 2017
    1. Critical pedagogy is organized around the struggle over agency, values and social relations within diverse contexts, resources and histories. Its aim is producing students who can think critically, be considerate of others, take risks, think dangerously and imagine a future that extends and deepens what it means to be an engaged citizen capable of living in a substantive democracy.
  31. May 2017
    1. therhetormustfindstrategiesforshapingtheindeterminacies

      When prompted with the indeterminable, a (good) rhetor reframes the discussion to something more concrete.

      Perhaps something like a "fence" between friends, or "unlocking" one's potential?

  32. Apr 2017
    1. we have likelybeen posthuman all along

      Society itself is post-human, but computers and mechanical technologies just make it increasingly apparent. I would make a similar argument for our understanding of postmodernism as well.

    1. the farmhouse is placed on a mountain slope by meadows and a spring (earth), designed with snow and storms in mind (sky), and furnished with an alter (the gods) and room for childbed and coffin (mortals).

      A thing is not just the "thing" that it was made to be, but is instead a cumulation of many other "things". Such as how we, human beings, are made of billions of little living things, which they themselves are made up of even smaller things. It's things all they way down.

      In my own apartment, I have many things from all around the world. A TV made in Japan. A seashell from the Atlantic. A vinyl record that I bought in New Orleans. My St. Louisian dwelling is more than just a thing to live in. No, it is much, much more than that.

    1. Similarly, the basic idea of the p* is to understand these same relations but to include actor-level and network-level attributes in the model

      I really wish there was an explanation of how to construct/create/execute a p* model using R.

  33. Mar 2017
    1. Some key themes arise from the two NNG reports on iPad usability: App designers should ensure perceived affordances / discoverability There is a lack of consistency between apps, lots of ‘wacky’ interaction methods. Designers should draw upon existing conventions (either OS or web) or users won’t know what to do. These are practical interaction design observations, but from a particular perspective, that of perceptual psychology. These conclusions are arrived at through a linear, rather than lateral process. By giving weight to building upon existing convention, because they are familiar to the user, there is a danger that genuinely new ideas (and the kind of ambition called for by Victor Bret) within tablet design will be suppressed. Kay’s vision of the Dynabook came from lateral thinking, and thinking about how children learn. Shouldn’t the items that we design for this device be generated in the same way?

      The idea of lateral thinking here is the key one. Can informatics be designed by nurturing lateral thinking? That seems related with the Jonas flopology

  34. Jan 2017
  35. Oct 2016
    1. Develop proficiency and fluency with the tools of technology;

      Every institution around the UE is trying to develop in a critical sense the main goals of the different subjects. In fact it doesn't makes too many differences between all this goals we have already read there: proficency and fluency, cross-cultural connections, managing information, etc. So the main point of this read is, in our opinion, to show the proper features to have as a complete citizen of the 21st century along literacy as a part of a common project.

  36. Sep 2016
    1. The problem is that you could use this logic to defend just about anything. Imagine that a wizard showed up and said, "Humans are about to go extinct unless you give me $10 to cast a magical spell." Even if you only think there's a, say, 0.00000000000000001 percent chance that he's right, you should still, under this reasoning, give him the $10, because the expected value is that you're saving 10^32 lives.

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