1,240 Matching Annotations
  1. Jun 2020
    1. Most of the discourse is about how AI will “replace” humans. I prefer the Licklider school of thought: human-computer symbiosis. AI will make humans vastly more effective by automating tedious tasks. For example, humans can use text AI such as GPT-3 to generate ideas/boilerplate writing to get around the terror of the blank page, and then simply pick the best ones and refine/iterate on those. (AI Dril, which was based on GPT-2, was an early example of this). As AI gets better, “assistive creativity” will become a bigger thing, enabling humans to create sophisticated artifacts (including video games!) easier and better than ever.

      Why AI is important for human productivity

    2. The lessons you learn from chess are generalizable only at a high level (e.g. a bad plan is better than no plan). But if you have games that are (a) fun and (b) accurate for some aspects of reality, such as KSP or Factorio, you do get learning that is real and transferable. The challenge is in making games that satisfy both constraints.

      Chees to be good educator misses the accuracy for some aspects of reality

    3. So it makes sense that video games would be the primary educational environment of the future: they are the best way we have of (a) creating simulations of reality (b) with fast feedback loops (c) accessible at low cost.

      Games as the future of learning

    4. Video games will become a core component of education. This sounds absurd, but consider that simulations are already used widely for learning
      • Kerbal Space Program
      • Flight simulators
      • Factorio
      • Programming environments
    5. When you understand something very well it’s almost as though you can play around with it using all your senses — touch, feeling, space.
    6. The fundamental principle of education is to give students an environment, and tools, where they can make discoveries themselves. This requires space, and time, and autonomy.
    1. Wyróżniamy 2 podstawowe metody wykrywania malware(można mówić o większej ilości, jednak na potrzeby przybliżenia podstaw wspomnę tylko o dwóch):

      2 ways antiviruses detect malware:

      • Signature-Based Detection - based on signatures (known byte sequences) updated continuously. For example, the method deletes software immediately after it's downloaded
      • Heuristic and Behavioral-Based Detection - based on malware's "behaviour" (each of its instructions)
    1. How to prevent the environment from being “invalidated”?Docker containers (Rocker)


    2. SAS, R, Stata, SPSS may return different results even for quantiles, or due to floating number representation! The results should be maximally close to each other, but what about resampling methods (SAS and R gives different random numbers for the same seed)?

      Different results between SAS, R, Stata, SPSS

    3. Typical software requirements specify the following
      • All software system inputs
      • All software system outputs
      • All functions that the software system will perform
      • All performance requirements that the software will meet, (e.g., data throughput, reliability, and timing)
      • The definition of all external and user interfaces, as well as any internal software-to-system interfaces
      • How users will interact with the system
      • What constitutes an error and how errors should be handled
      • Required response times
      • The intended operating environment for the software, if this is a design constraint (e.g. hardware platform, operating system)
      • All ranges, limits, defaults, and specific values that the software will accept
      • All safety related requirements, specifications, features, or functions that will be implemented in software
    4. 99.9% open-source. 0.1% is licensed (free for non-commercial use)

      License of libraries in R

    5. Status of R on the Clinical Research market
      • In general bioscience and academia, S ---> R has built over years its position of one of the industry standards
      • In clinical research, however, SAS reigns par excellence
      • Pharmaceutical companies, CROs and even FDA do use R “internally”.But they resist (or hesitate) to use it in submissions (to FDA)
      • Clinical Programmer or Biostatistician ≝ SAS Programmer. Period
    6. Differences in

      Differences between R and SAS:

      • origin of dates
      • default contrasts
      • used sum of squares
      • calculation of quantiles
      • generation of random numbers
      • implementation of advanced model
      • representation of floating point numbers
    7. Tospeeduptheprocesswithoutsacrificingaccuracy,theteamalsousesRevolutionRanalyticproducts

      Revolution R

    1. The results suggest that, in addition to a distinct beginning and end to the unprecedented bloodshed of 1910-1950, there was another abrupt shift towards a greater level of peace in the early 1990s.
    1. The brain uses the same area to save coding as it does to save our speech. They found that programming is like talking. The research found out that the brain regions that are most active during coding are those that are also relevant in the processing of natural language.
      • Study shows that programming knowledge is stored in the same area of the brain as speech.
      • Using fMRIs, researchers analysed which parts of the brain are activated during programming.
      • The results essentially show that programming is like talking - the same regions that are active when processing natural language are active during programming.
      • In the study, professional programmers were asked to repeatedly write some code and check other chunks of code for mistakes.
    1. Estimates say that 83% of us will be hit with a mental health crisis in our lives, we can all make the choices to invest wisely in this area to improve our ‘mental durability’ to deal with it properly.
    1. in Python - setting up basic logger is very simple

      Apart from printing the result, it is better to debug with logging.

      Sample logger:

      import logging
          format= '[%(asctime)s] {%(pathname)s:%(lineno)d} %(levelname)s - %(message)s',
      logging.error("Some serious error occurred.")
      logging.warning('Function you are using is deprecated.')

      the sample result:

      [12:52:35] {<stdin>:1} ERROR - Some serious error occurred.
      [12:52:35] {<stdin>:1} WARNING - Function you are using is deprecated.

      to find its location, type:

    1. This advertising system is designed to enable hyper-targeting, which has many unintended consequences that have dominated the headlines in recent years, such as the ability for bad actors to use the system to influence elections, to exclude groups in a way that facilitates discrimination, and to expose your personal data to companies you’ve never even heard of.

      Where your Google data goes to

    2. if you search for something on Google, you may start seeing ads for it everywhere.

      In comparison to DuckDuckGo, Google presents you ads everywhere, not just in the search results

    3. Alarmingly, Google now deploys hidden trackers on 76% of websites across the web to monitor your behavior and Facebook has hidden trackers on about 25% of websites, according to the Princeton Web Transparency & Accountability Project. It is likely that Google and/or Facebook are watching you on most sites you visit, in addition to tracking you when using their products.

    4. When you search on DuckDuckGo, we can show you an ad based on the keywords you type in. That’s it. And it works.

      Simple model how DuckDuckGo makes its business

    5. Almost all of the money search engines make (including Google) is based on the keywords you type in, without knowing anything about you, including your search history or the seemingly endless amounts of additional data points they have collected about registered and non-registered users alike. In fact, search advertisers buy search ads by bidding on keywords, not people. It makes intuitive sense, too. If you search for ‘car’, you are more likely to respond to a car ad than something you searched for last week.

      Search engines do most of the business on keywords

    1. If you want a fast website without breaking the bank, go for GitHub Pages. It’s completely free and super fast. It does, however, require you to open source your site. If that’s not doable, CloudFront is a good alternative, but its price depends on how much bandwidth you push around. For most personal sites, CloudFront won’t cost more than a couple of dollars per month. The same thing goes for Google Cloud Storage.

      Advice for a personal use regarding the static webhosting benchmark (2020 May)

    2. The best all-around performer is AWS CloudFront, followed closely by GitHub Pages. Not only do they have the fastest response times (median), they’re also the most consistent. They are, however, closely followed by Google Cloud Storage. Interestingly, there is very little difference between a regional and multi-regional bucket. The only reason to pick a multi-regional bucket would be the additional uptime guarantee. Cloudflare didn’t perform as well I would’ve expected.

      Results of static webhosting benchmark (2020 May):

      1. AWS CloudFront
      2. GitHub Pages
      3. Google Cloud Storage
    1. Some free, digital Zettelkastens include zettelkasten.de, zettlr, and roamresearch. I use Roam.

      One of the best solutions to implement Zettelkastens: Roam. However, in my case OneNote is doing fine. Maybe I can switch to Roam if I will start working on a specific research problem?

    2. The key is to make connections between ideas during note-taking, way before you need to review them for your work. This forces you to actively connect the dots (during note-taking) and lets you find relevant ideas with ease in future.

      How Zettelkasten works:

      • Write each idea you come across on a card.
      • Link idea cards to other relevant idea cards (idea -> idea link).
      • Sort cards into broader topic boxes (idea -> topic link)
    3. German sociologist Niklas Luhmann. One thing you should know about Luhmann—he was extremely productive. In his 40 years of research, he published more than 70 books and 500 scholarly articles. How did he do accomplish this? He credits it to his Zettelkasten which focuses on connections between notes.

      To be super productive, Niklas Luhmann used to take notes relating to each other

    1. it allows each new key to be given a default value based on the type of dictionary being created

      Difference between defaultdict and dict

    2. Memoization can be achieved through Python decorators

      Example of memoization in Python:

      import timeit
      def memoize_fib(func):
          cache = {}
          def inner(arg):
              if arg not in cache:            
                  cache[arg] = func(arg)
              return cache[arg]
          return inner
      def fib(num):
          if num == 0:
              return 0
          elif num == 1:
              return 1
              return fib(num-1) + fib(num-2)
      fib = memoize_fib(fib)
      print(timeit.timeit('fib(30)', globals=globals(), number=1))
      print(timeit.timeit('fib(30)', globals=globals(), number=1))
      print(timeit.timeit('fib(30)', globals=globals(), number=1))


    3. A deep copy refers to cloning an object. When we use the = operator, we are not cloning the object; instead, we reference our variable to the same object (a.k.a. shallow copy).

      Difference between a shallow copy (=) and a deep copy:

    4. Python 2 is entrenched in the software landscape to the point that co-dependency between several softwares makes it almost impossible to make the shift.

      Shifting from Python 2 to 3 isn't always straight to the point

    5. The @property decorator allows a function to be accessed like an attribute.

      @property decorator

    6. var = true_val if condition else false_val

      Example of a ternary operator (one-line version of if-else):

      to_check = 6
      msg = "Even" if to_check%2 == 0 else "Odd"

      Usual if-else:

      msg = ""
      if(to_check%2 == 0):
        msg = "Even"
        msg = "Odd"
    7. This method is automatically called to allocate memory when a new object/ instance of a class is created.

      __init__ method in Python (which essentially all classes have)

    8. decorator is a design pattern in Python that allows a user to add new functionality to an existing object without modifying its structure


    9. The philosophy behind Flask is that it gives only the components you need to build an app so that you have the flexibility and control. In other words, it’s un-opinionated. Some features it offers are a build-int dev server, Restful request dispatching, Http request handling, and much more.

      Flask isn't as full of features as Django (which makes him lighter), but it still offers:

      • build-int dev server
      • Restful request dispatching
      • HTTP request handling
      • much more...
    10. The only difference is that range returns a Python list object and xrange returns an xrange object. This means that xrange doesn’t actually generate a static list at run-time like range does.

      Difference between range() and xrange()

    11. NumPy is not just more efficient; it is also more convenient. You get a lot of vector and matrix operations for free, which sometimes allow one to avoid unnecessary work. And they are also efficiently implemented.

      Main advantage of NumPy arrays over (nested) Python lists

    12. process of retrieving original Python objects from the stored string representation


    13. Pickle module accepts any Python object and converts it into a string representation and dumps it into a file by using dump function


    14. The beauty of lambda functions lies in the fact that they return function objects. This makes them helpful when used with functions like map or filter which require function objects as arguments.

      When to use lambdas

    15. In Python, the term monkey patch only refers to dynamic modifications of a class or module at run-time.

      Monkey patching in Python

    16. Python has a multi-threading package but if you want to multi-thread to speed your code up, then it’s usually not a good idea to use it. Python has a construct called the Global Interpreter Lock (GIL). The GIL makes sure that only one of your ‘threads’ can execute at any one time. A thread acquires the GIL, does a little work, then passes the GIL onto the next thread.

      Multi-threading is available in Python but it;s often not a good idea

    1. the only meditation I have EVER found effective in my life. 1:19:57 Intro and explanation + 1:27:51 Meditation start

      Meditation with triphasic breathing (you won't fight with your thoughts)

      It focuses on 6 steps (feel a stop between each phase):


      • The place doesn't matter. You can do it anywhere, such as in front of your computer
      • Sit up straight and close your eyes


      1. Breathe in with your belly (try to put your belly button far from your spine)
      2. Breathe in with your chest
      3. Raise your shoulders up and breathe in the last time
      4. Relax your shoulders (bring them down)
      5. Contract the chest (let it relax)
      6. Move your navel towards your spine


      • For around 1 minute, relax and let your breath do whatever it wants to (observe what your breath is doing)
      • Now, let your eyes stay closed and let yourself (your mind) come back
        • put your palms in front of you
        • rub them together to feel the heat
        • put the hands over your eyes
        • as you breathe in and out, let your eyes open with your palms over them
        • when the breath is complete, let your hands come down
      • After the meditation you shall normally feel joy

      Video material

  2. May 2020
    1. - High-level modules should not depend on low-level modules. Both should depend on the abstraction.- Abstractions should not depend on details. Details should depend on abstractions.


      Dependency Inversion

    2. Clients should not be forced to depend on methods that they do not use.


      Interface Segregation

    3. If S is a subtype of T, then objects of type T in a program may be replaced with objects of type S without altering any of the desirable properties of that program.


      Liskov Substitution

    4. Classes should be open for extension, but closed for modification



    5. A class should have a single responsibility


      Single Responsibility

    1. Alternatively, think about the decision in different timelines. Ask yourself: What will be the consequences of this decision in 10 minutes?  10 months? 10 years?

      Another way of examining the second order of decision's consequences

    2. Consider a decision you have to make. Start by looking at the most immediate effects of making this decision – the first order. Then for each of the effect ask yourself: "And then what?"

      The way to examine the second order of decision's consequences

    1. I've found that the most underrated problem solving tool is simply typing out my thought process.I used to be the type who asked a lot of questions until I realized that formulating the question was often more important than getting the answer.

      You're asking a lot of questions? It might be also a sign of formulating/shaping your decisions

    1. Amazon Machine Learning Deprecated. Use SageMaker instead.

      Instead of Amazon Machine Learning use Amazon SageMaker

    1. The MRI results showed that people for whom this effect was the strongest--those whose exposure to diverse experiences was more strongly associated with positive feeling ("affect")--exhibited greater correlation between brain activity in the hippocampus and the striatum. These are brain regions that are associated, respectively, with the processing of novelty and reward-- beneficial or subjectively positive experiences.
      • Study authors used GPS to track participants for up to 4 months, regularly texting them to ask about their positive and negative emotional states.
      • People who were the most active explorers also reported the most positive emotional states.
      • Later, some participants underwent MRI scans, and the results showed that the brain actively rewards us for experiencing new things and switching locations.
      • People feel happier when they experience different things and visit new places often, but it’s unclear whether people with less interesting experiences actually feel sadder.
      • What’s important, even small changes - exercising at home, walking around your neighborhood, choosing a different route to go shopping - can have a positive impact.
    1. The interface is slightly less polished (and, unfortunately, I experience a delay between opening it and getting a chart), but the tracking works. Since it is in Vue I love, one day I might modify it to my needs.

      Comparing ActivityWatch to RescueTime

    2. It is a modern-day “memento mori”

      Mortality - New Tab (browser extension)

    3. With Intention I:know how much of my time is spent on distractions,decide how much time I need,I see the countdown (so I know if I need to wrap-up a reply, or if it makes sense to start writing a new one),it automatically blocks these sites,yet, it distinguishes between “normal use” of YouTube and e.g. using it for creating a workshop on deep learning (looking for video abstract of recent papers).

      Intention is well recommended by Piotr Migdał for your productivity. More than toggl or RescueTime.

      >HN Thread about Intention<

    4. There are a few plugins (e.g. ColdTurkey) that are “too nuclear”. Being halted in the middle of writing a reply (on Facebook or Hacker News), with no prior warning, left me disturbed.

      ColdTurkey is quite harsh in terms of making you more productive

    1. Hot Reloading refers to the ability to automatically update a running web application when changes are made to the application’s code.

      Hot Reloading is what provides a great experience with updating your Dash code inside the Jupyter Notebooks

    2. JupyterDash supports three approaches to displaying a Dash application during interactive development.

      3 display modes of Dash using Jupyter Notebooks:

      1. app.run_server(mode='external')
      2. app.run_server(mode='inline')
      3. app.run_server(mode='jupyterlab')
    3. # Run app and display result inline in the notebookapp.run_server(mode='inline')

      Moreover, you can display your Dash result inside a Jupyter Notebook using IPython.display.IFrame with this line:


    4. If running the server blocks the main thread, then it’s not possible to execute additional code cells without manually interrupting the execution of the kernel.JupyterDash resolves this problem by executing the Flask development server in a background thread. This leaves the main execution thread available for additional calculations. When a request is made to serve a new version of the application on the same port, the currently running application is automatically shut down first. This makes is possible to quickly update a running application by simply re-executing the notebook cells that define it.

      How Dash can run inside Jupyter Notebooks

    5. You can also try it out, right in your browser, with binder.

      Dash can be tried out inside a Jupyter Notebook right in your browser using binder.

    6. Then, copy any Dash example into a Jupyter notebook cell and replace the dash.Dash class with the jupyter_dash.JupyterDash class.

      To use Dash in Jupyter Notebooks, you have to import:

      from jupyter_dash import JupyterDash

      instead of:

      import dash

      Therefore, all the imports could look like that for a typical Dash app inside a Jupyter Notebook:

      import plotly.express as px
      from jupyter_dash import JupyterDash
      import dash_core_components as dcc
      import dash_html_components as html
      from dash.dependencies import Input, Output
    1. sci-hub is a service that lets you access research papers for free. It’s not quuiiiiiiiiite legal, but buying papers is super expensive, like fifty dollars per paper. Not something I can afford, and I think the entire industry is evil anyway.

      Good point on the research industry & Sci-Hub

    2. So instead I have it open up Frink. If Frink is already open, it activates it. If it’s already active, it minimizes it. Much better UX.3

      Great AutoHotkey (AHK) script to open any app:

      toggle_app(app, location) 
          if WinExist(app)   
              if !WinActive(app)
          else if location != ""
              Run, %location%
      Launch_App2::toggle_app("Frink", "\Path\to\frink.jar")
    1. My friends ask me if I think Google Cloud will catch up to its rivals. Not only do I think so — I’m positive five years down the road it will surpass them.

      GCP more popular than AWS in 2025?

    2. So if GCP is so much better, why so many more people use AWS?

      Why so many people use AWS:

      • they were first
      • aggressive expansion of product line
      • following the crows
      • fear of not getting a job based on GCP
      • fear that GCP may be abandoned by Google
    3. As I mentioned I think that AWS certainly offers a lot more features, configuration options and products than GCP does, and you may benefit from some of them. Also AWS releases products at a much faster speed.You can certainly do more with AWS, there is no contest here. If for example you need a truck with a server inside or a computer sent over to your office so you can dump your data inside and return it to Amazon, then AWS is for you. AWS also has more flexibility in terms of location of your data centres.

      Advantages of AWS over GCP:

      • a lot more features (but are they necessary for you?)
      • a lot more configuration options
      • a lot more products
      • releases products at a much faster speed
      • you can do simply more with AWS
      • offers AWS Snowmobile
      • more flexibility in terms of your data centres
    4. I would argue that there isn’t any other company on the planet that does scalability and global infrastructure better than Google (although CloudFlare definitely gives it a run for its money in some areas).

      Scalability of Google's service is still #1

    5. Both AWS and GCP are very secure and you will be okay as long as are not careless in your design. However GCP for me has an edge in the sense that everything is encrypted by default.

      Encryption is set to default in GCP

    6. I felt that performance was almost always better in GCP, for example copying from instances to buckets in GCP is INSANELY fast

      Performance wise GCP also seems to outbeat AWS

    7. AWS charges substantially more for their services than GCP does, but most people ignore the real high cost of using AWS, which is; expertise, time and manpower.

      AWS is more costly, requires more time and manpower over GCP

    8. GCP on the other hand has fewer products but the ones they have (at least in my experience) feel more complete and well integrated with the rest of the ecosystem

      GCP has less but more effective products

    9. GCP provides a smaller set of core primitives that are global and work well for lots of use cases. Pub/Sub is probably the best example I have for this. In AWS you have SQS, SNS, Amazon MQ, Kinesis Data Streams, Kinesis Data Firehose, DynamoDB Streams, and maybe another queueing service by the time you read this post. 2019 Update: Amazon has now released another streaming service: Amazon Managed Streaming Kafka.

      Pub/Sub of GCP might be enough to replace most (all?) of the following Amazon products: SQS, SNS, Amazon MQ, Kinesis Data Streams, Kinesis Data Firehose, DynamoDB Streams, Amazon Managed Streaming Kafka

    10. At the time of writing this, there are 169 AWS products compared to 90 in GCP.

      AWS has more products than GCP but that's not necessarily good since some even nearly duplicate

    11. Spinning an EKS cluster gives you essentially a brick. You have to spin your own nodes on the side and make sure they connect with the master, which a lot of work for you to do on top of the promise of “managed”

      Managing Kubernetes in AWS (EKS) also isn't as effective as in GCP or GKE

    12. You can forgive the documentation in AWS being a nightmare to navigate for being a mere reflection of the confusing mess that is trying to describe. Whenever you are trying to solve a simple problem far too often you end up drowning in reference pages, the experience is like asking for a glass of water and being hosed down with a fire hydrant.

      Great documentation is contextual, not referential (like AWS's)

    13. Jeff Bezos is an infamous micro-manager. He micro-manages every single pixel of Amazon’s retail site. He hired Larry Tesler, Apple’s Chief Scientist and probably the very most famous and respected human-computer interaction expert in the entire world, and then ignored every goddamn thing Larry said for three years until Larry finally — wisely — left the company. Larry would do these big usability studies and demonstrate beyond any shred of doubt that nobody can understand that frigging website, but Bezos just couldn’t let go of those pixels, all those millions of semantics-packed pixels on the landing page. They were like millions of his own precious children. So they’re all still there, and Larry is not.

      Case why AWS doesn't look as it supposed to be

    14. The AWS interface looks like it was designed by a lonesome alien living in an asteroid who once saw a documentary about humans clicking with a mouse. It is confusing, counterintuitive, messy and extremely overcrowded.


    15. After you login with your token you then need to create a script to give you a 12 hour session, and you need to do this every day, because there is no way to extend this.

      One of the complications when we want to use AWS CLI with 2FA (not a case of GCP)

    16. In GCP you have one master account/project that you can use to manage the rest of your projects, you log in with your company google account and then you can set permissions to any project however you want.

      Setting up account permission to the projects in GCP is far better than in AWS

    17. It’s not that AWS is harder to use than GCP, it’s that it is needlessly hard; a disjointed, sprawl of infrastructure primitives with poor cohesion between them.

      AWS management isn't as straightforward as the one of GCP

    1. So be careful running editing a bash script that may be currently executing. It could execute an invalid command, or do something very surprising.

      Never modify a running bash command as it can execute something surprising

    1. “If you are a non-college graduate man you have a less than 50/50 shot of ever being married in your life” – Andrew YangIn the 1970s and ‘80s, there were about 17 million manufacturing jobs in the USToday, there are about 12 million of those jobsMore women are graduating from college than men58% of college graduates in the US are women
    2. Today, 40% of children are born to unmarried mothersBack in the 70s and 80s, it was only 15%
    1. The most common method of preventing CSRF is by generating a secret random string, known as a CSRF token, on the server, and checking for that token when the client performs a write.

      To completely defend the CSRF attack, one needs to generate a CSRF token

    2. CORS relaxes the Same-Origin Policy (SOP), a critical security measure that prevents scripts on one site (e.g. the attacker’s site) from accessing sensitive data on another site (e.g. the Definitely Secure Bank portal). If something was protecting you from CSRF, it would be the SOP.

      Thanks to Cross-Origin Resource Sharing (CORS), Same-Origin Policy (SOP) is being relaxed and CSRF is blocked from cross-origin reads, but not from writes (so POST is still effective but attacker cannot read the response)

    3. Cross-Site Request Forgery is a web security exploit where an attacker induces a victim to perform an action they didn’t mean to. In this case, the attacker tricked you into unintentionally transferring them money.

      Cross-Site Request Forgery (CSRF) attack example: sending cookies to the origin (bank site) even when the request originates from a different origin

    1. This might be super basic, but... assume positive intent.Your parent is not your enemy. Your teacher is not your enemy. Your boss is not your enemy. The other team at work is not your enemy.

      Idea that changed your life: assuming positive intent

    1. We present results from technical experiments which reveal that WeChat communications conducted entirely among non-China-registered accounts are subject to pervasive content surveillance that was previously thought to be exclusively reserved for China-registered accounts.

      WeChat not only tracks Chinese accounts

    1. So write with a combination of short, medium, and long sentences. Create a sound that pleases the reader’s ear. Don’t just write words. Write music.”

      Try writing fewer commas and using more periods. Make your sentences simpler, vary their lengths and your sentences will be like music

    1. You can create estimation plots here at estimationstats.com, or with the DABEST packages which are available in R, Python, and Matlab.

      You can create estimation plots with:

    2. Relative to conventional plots, estimation plots offer five key benefits:

      Estimation plots > bars-and-stars or boxplot & P.


      • avoid false dictonomy
      • display all observed values
      • focus on intervention effect size
      • visualise estimate precision
      • show mean difference distribution
    3. For comparisons between 3 or more groups that typically employ analysis of variance (ANOVA) methods, one can use the Cumming estimation plot, which can be considered a variant of the Gardner-Altman plot.

      Cumming estimation plot

    4. Efron developed the bias-corrected and accelerated bootstrap (BCa bootstrap) to account for the skew whilst obtaining the central 95% of the distribution.

      Bias-corrected and accelerated bootstrap (BCa boostrap) deals with skewed sample distributions. However; it must be noted that it "may not give very accurate coverage in a small-sample non-parametric situation" (simply said, take caution with small datasets)

    5. We can calculate the 95% CI of the mean difference by performing bootstrap resampling.

      Bootstrap - simple but powerful technique that creates multiple resamples (with replacement) from a single set of observations, and computes the effect size of interest on each of these resamples. It can be used to determine the 95% CI (Confidence Interval).

      We can use bootstrap resampling to obtain measure of precision and confidence about our estimate. It gives us 2 important benefits:

      1. Non-parametric statistical analysis - no need to assume normal distribution of our observations. Thanks to Central Limit Theorem, the resampling distribution of the effect size will approach normality
      2. Easy construction of the 95% CI from the resampling distribution. For 1000 bootstrap resamples of the mean difference, 25th value and 975th value can be used as boundaries of the 95% CI.

      Bootstrap resampling can be used for such an example:

      Computers can easily perform 5000 resamples:

    6. Shown above is a Gardner-Altman estimation plot.

      Gardner-Altman estimation plot shows all the relevant information:

      1. Datapoints presented as swarmplot
      2. Effect size is presented as bootstrap 95% confidence interval (95% CI) on a seperate but aligned axes
    7. Jitter plots avoid overlapping datapoints (i.e. datapoints with the same y-value) by adding a random factor to each point along the orthogonal x-axes.

      Jitter plots displays all datapoints but it might not accurately depict the underlying distribution of the data:

    8. Unfortunately, the boxplot still doesn't show all our data.

      Boxplots may be better than barplots (they introduce medians, quartiles, minima and maxima), but still doesn't show all the information:

    9. The barplot has several shortcomings, even though its use in academic journals is endemic.

      Barplots are not the best choice for data visualisation:

    1. Continuous Delivery of Deployment is about running as thorough checks as you can to catch issues on your code. Completeness of the checks is the most important factor. It is usually measured in terms code coverage or functional coverage of your tests. Catching errors early on prevents broken code to get deployed to any environment and saves the precious time of your test team.

      Continuous Delivery of Deployment (quick summary)

    2. Continuous Integration is a trade off between speed of feedback loop to developers and relevance of the checks your perform (build and test). No code that would impede the team progress should make it to the main branch.

      Continuous Integration (quick summary)

    3. A good CD build: Ensures that as many features as possible are working properly The faster the better, but it is not a matter of speed. A 30-60 minutes build is OK

      Good CD build

    4. A good CI build: Ensures no code that breaks basic stuff and prevents other team members to work is introduced to the main branch Is fast enough to provide feedback to developers within minutes to prevent context switching between tasks

      Good CI build

    5. The idea of Continuous Delivery is to prepare artefacts as close as possible from what you want to run in your environment. These can be jar or war files if you are working with Java, executables if you are working with .NET. These can also be folders of transpiled JS code or even Docker containers, whatever makes deploy shorter (i.e. you have pre built in advance as much as you can).

      Idea of Continuous Delivery

    6. Continuous Delivery is about being able to deploy any version of your code at all times. In practice it means the last or pre last version of your code.

      Continous Delivery

    7. Continuous Integration is not about tools. It is about working in small chunks and integrating your new code to the main branch and pulling frequently.

      Continuous Integration is not about tools

    8. The app should build and start Most critical features should be functional at all times (user signup/login journey and key business features) Common layers of the application that all the developers rely on, should be stable. This means unit tests on those parts.

      Things to be checked by Continous Integration

    9. Continuous Integration is all about preventing the main branch of being broken so your team is not stuck. That’s it. It is not about having all your tests green all the time and the main branch deployable to production at every commit.

      Continuous Integration prevents other team members from wasting time through a pull of faulty code

    1. If knowledge of one item makes it harder to remember another item, we have a case of memory interference.

      Memory interference - once it happens you need to detect it and eliminate

    2. Here again are the twenty rules of formulating knowledge.
      1. Do not learn if you do not understand
      2. Learn before you memorize - build the picture of the whole before you dismember it into simple items in SuperMemo. If the whole shows holes, review it again!
      3. Build upon the basics - never jump both feet into a complex manual because you may never see the end. Well remembered basics will help the remaining knowledge easily fit in
      4. Stick to the minimum information principle - if you continue forgetting an item, try to make it as simple as possible. If it does not help, see the remaining rules (cloze deletion, graphics, mnemonic techniques, converting sets into enumerations, etc.)
      5. Cloze deletion is easy and effective - completing a deleted word or phrase is not only an effective way of learning. Most of all, it greatly speeds up formulating knowledge and is highly recommended for beginners
      6. Use imagery - a picture is worth a thousand words
      7. Use mnemonic techniques - read about peg lists and mind maps. Study the books by Tony Buzan. Learn how to convert memories into funny pictures. You won't have problems with phone numbers and complex figures
      8. Graphic deletion is as good as cloze deletion - obstructing parts of a picture is great for learning anatomy, geography and more
      9. Avoid sets - larger sets are virtually un-memorizable unless you convert them into enumerations!
      10. Avoid enumerations - enumerations are also hard to remember but can be dealt with using cloze deletion
      11. Combat interference - even the simplest items can be completely intractable if they are similar to other items. Use examples, context cues, vivid illustrations, refer to emotions, and to your personal life
      12. Optimize wording - like you reduce mathematical equations, you can reduce complex sentences into smart, compact and enjoyable maxims
      13. Refer to other memories - building memories on other memories generates a coherent and hermetic structure that forgetting is less likely to affect. Build upon the basics and use planned redundancy to fill in the gaps
      14. Personalize and provide examples - personalization might be the most effective way of building upon other memories. Your personal life is a gold mine of facts and events to refer to. As long as you build a collection for yourself, use personalization richly to build upon well established memories
      15. Rely on emotional states - emotions are related to memories. If you learn a fact in the sate of sadness, you are more likely to recall it if when you are sad. Some memories can induce emotions and help you employ this property of the brain in remembering
      16. Context cues simplify wording - providing context is a way of simplifying memories, building upon earlier knowledge and avoiding interference
      17. Redundancy does not contradict minimum information principle - some forms of redundancy are welcome. There is little harm in memorizing the same fact as viewed from different angles. Passive and active approach is particularly practicable in learning word-pairs. Memorizing derivation steps in problem solving is a way towards boosting your intellectual powers!
      18. Provide sources - sources help you manage the learning process, updating your knowledge, judging its reliability, or importance
      19. Provide date stamping - time stamping is useful for volatile knowledge that changes in time
      20. Prioritize - effective learning is all about prioritizing. In incremental reading you can start from badly formulated knowledge and improve its shape as you proceed with learning (in proportion to the cost of inappropriate formulation). If need be, you can review pieces of knowledge again, split it into parts, reformulate, reprioritize, or delete.
    1. If you see a word and immediately check it's translation, you'll hardly memorize it at all. If you try your best to recall what the word means before checking the translation, the chances of memorization are much better. It is much easier to memorize a word's meaning when you know how to pronounce it corretly, so get it right.  

      2 important tips for learning languages:

      • Before checking the translation, at least try to recall what the word means
      • Know how to pronounce the word while trying to memorise it
    1. Somewhere between too hard and too easy, there’s a sweet-spot where reviews are challenging enough to hold your interest, but not so hard that it feels like torture. When the challenge of reviews is just right, you’ll actually get a sense of accomplishment and a little jolt of dopamine as you do them. Our brains actually enjoy challenges as long as they aren’t too hard or too easy. As I see it, this level of challenge is where you want to be.

      The sweet spot is between 80 - 90% of right answers

    2. Researchers have found that reviews are more effective when they’re difficult. That is, if you have to work at remembering a card, it’ll have a stronger effect on your memory. The harder a review is, the more it boosts your memory. This is called “desirable difficulty” in the literature.

      Desirable difficulty

    1. Kolejna zmienna - "Recency", czyli informacja o tym, jak dawno klient robił zakupy w sklepie.

      To calculate RFM we need recency value. Firstly, we shall specify the most recent transaction as "today" and then to find the latest transaction of a specific client:

      df['Recency'] = (today - df.InvoiceDate)/np.timedelta64(1,'D')

      Calculating frequency and aggregating data of each client may be done with the groupby method:

      abt = df.groupby(['CustomerID']).agg({'Recency':'min', 'MonetaryValue':'sum', 'InvoiceNo':'count'})

      lastly, we can update the column names and display RFM data:

      abt = df.groupby(['CustomerID']).agg({'Recency':'min', 'MonetaryValue':'sum', 'InvoiceNo':'count'})
      abt.rename(columns = {'InvoiceNo':'Frequency'}, inplace = True)
      abt = abt[['Recency', 'Frequency', 'MonetaryValue']]
    2. Będę oceniać klientów kryteriami, jakie zakłada metoda RFM.

      RFM is a method used for analyzing customer value:

      • Recency – How recently did the customer purchase?
      • Frequency – How often do they purchase?
      • Monetary Value – How much do they spend?

      In the RFM method we usually analyse only the last 12 months since this is the most relevant data of our products.

      We also have other RFM variants:

      • RFD – Recency, Frequency, Duration
      • RFE – Recency, Frequency, Engagement
      • RFM-I – Recency, Frequency, Monetary Value – Interactions
      • RFMTC – Recency, Frequency, Monetary Value, Time, Churn rate
    3. Usuwam brakujące wartości w zmiennej "CustomerID".

      Deleting rows where value is null:

      df = df[~df.CustomerID.isnull()]

      Assigning different data types to columns:

      df['CustomerID'] = df.CustomerID.astype(int)

      Deleting irrelevant columns:

      df.drop(['Description', 'StockCode', 'Country'], axis = 1, inplace = True)
    4. Sprawdzam braki danych.

      Checking the % of missing data:

      print(str(round(df.isnull().any(axis=1).sum()/df.shape[0]*100,2))+'% obserwacji zawiera braki w danych.')

      Sample output:

      24.93% obserwacji zawiera braki w danych.
    5. Buduję prosty data frame z podstawowymi informacjami o zbiorze.

      Building a simple dataframe with a summary of our columns (data types, sum and % of nulls):

      summary = pd.DataFrame(df.dtypes, columns=['Dtype'])
      summary['Nulls'] = pd.DataFrame(df.isnull().any())
      summary['Sum_of_nulls'] = pd.DataFrame(df.isnull().sum())
      summary['Per_of_nulls'] = round((df.apply(pd.isnull).mean()*100),2)
      summary.Dtype = summary.Dtype.astype(str)

      the output:

                            Dtype  Nulls  Sum_of_nulls  Per_of_nulls
      InvoiceNo            object  False             0         0.000
      StockCode            object  False             0         0.000
      Description          object   True          1454         0.270
      Quantity              int64  False             0         0.000
      InvoiceDate  datetime64[ns]  False             0         0.000
      UnitPrice           float64  False             0         0.000
      CustomerID          float64   True        135080        24.930
      Country              object  False             0         0.000
    1. If you, on the other hand, want to go the student-like route (living in Wohngemeinschaft, not eating out too much) and try to save, you can easily live on 1,500-2,000 CHF per month and save the majority of your salary.

      If you leave cheaply, you can spend around 1500 - 2000 CHF a month and save majority of your salary

    2. We are now cooperating with Credit Agricole Bank and Revolut - if you have already moved to Switzerland you can open a free bank account and get 100 CHF bonus - email us to get the bonus code.

      100 CHF bonus for opening a bank account in Switzerland

    3. 120,000 CHF annually according to this calculator gets you 7,746.20 CHF net per month.

      120 000 CHF gets you around 7 746 CHF net per month

    4. 2) Rent only a room - it might be a good option if you come without family (in Switzerland it’s called living in a Wohngemeinschaft).

      Renting a room in Switzerland = Living in a Wohngemeinschaft :o

    5. Choose health insurance (Krankenkasse) - in Switzerland you have to pay your health insurance separately (it’s not deducted from your salary). You can use the Comparis website to compare the options. You have 3 months to choose both the company and your franchise.

      Choosing health insurance in Switzerland

    6. Other important things - if you plan to use public transport, we recommend you to buy the Half Fare card. It gives you a 50% discount on most public transport in Switzerland (it costs 185 CHF per year).

      Recommendation to buy a Half Fare Card for a public transport discount

    7. There are also some general expat groups like Zurich Together

      Zurich Together <--- expat group for Zurich

    1. WHERE clause introduces a condition on individual rows; HAVING clause introduces a condition on aggregations, i.e. results of selection where a single result, such as count, average, min, max, or sum, has been produced from multiple rows. Your query calls for a second kind of condition (i.e. a condition on an aggregation) hence HAVING works correctly. As a rule of thumb, use WHERE before GROUP BY and HAVING after GROUP BY. It is a rather primitive rule, but it is useful in more than 90% of the cases.

      Difference between WHERE and HAVING in SQL:

      • WHERE is used for individual rows
      • HAVING is used for aggregations (result of a selection), such as: COUNT, AVERAGE, MIN, MAX or SUM
      • Use WHERE before GROUP BY and HAVING after GROUP BY (works in 90% of the cases)
    1. Scrum means that “you have to get certain things done with those two weeks.” Kanban means “do what you can do in two weeks.”

      If you get a choice, push for Kanban over Scrum

    2. What people will say is that estimates are for planning – that their purpose is to figure out how long some piece of work is going to take, so that everybody can plan accordingly. In all my five years shipping stuff, I can only recall one project where things really worked that way.

      Project estimations are just energy drainers and stress producers

    3. Be explicit about the difference between hard deadlines

      Different types of deadlines:

      • Hard deadline - something seriously bad to the business will happen if the deadline isn’t met
      • Soft deadline - somebody will look bad if the deadline isn’t met
      • Internal deadline - target internal to the team that will not affect anybody outside of the team
      • Expected completion date - team currently predicts that work will be completed
    4. If you delegate all your IT security to the InfoSec, they will come up with draconian rules

      Try to do some of your own security before delegating everything to InfoSec that will come with draconian restrictions

    5. you should always advocate for having a dedicated SRE if there’s any real risk of after-hours pages that are out of your control.

      Site Reliability Engineers (ideally from different time zones) should've been settled when we might expect after-hours errors

    6. I try to write a unit test any time the expected value of a defect is non-trivial.

      Write unit tests at least for the most important parts of code, but every chunk of code should have a trivial unit test around it – this verifies that the code is written in a testable way, which indeed is extremely important

    7. I’m defining an integration test as a test where you’re calling code that you don’t own

      When to write integration tests:

      • importing code you don't own
      • when you can't trust the code you don't own
    8. Which database technology to choose

      Which database to choose (advice from an Amazon employee):

      • SQL - ad hoc queries and/or support of ACID and transactions
      • NoSQL - otherwise. NoSQL is getting better with transactions and PostgreSQL is getting better with availability, scalability, durability
    9. I would use a serverless function when I have a relatively small and simple chunk of code that needs to run every once in a while.

      When to make a serverless function (advice from an Amazon employee)

    10. Programming languages These will probably expose my ignorance pretty nicely.

      When to use different programming languages (advice from an Amazon employee):

      • Java - enterprise applications
      • C# - Microsoft's spin on Java (useful in the Microsoft's ecosystem)
      • Ruby - when speed is more important then legibility or debugging
      • Python - same as Ruby but also for ML/AI (don't forget to use type hinting to make life a little saner)
      • Go/Rust - fresh web service where latency and performance were more important than community/library support
      • Haskell/Erlang - for very elegant/mathematical functional approach without a lot of business logic
      • Clojure - in situation when you love Lisp (?)
      • Kotlin/Scala - languages compiling to JVM bytecode (preferable over Clojure). Kotlin works with Java and has great IntelliJ support
      • C - classes of applications (operating systems, language design, low-level programming and hardware)
      • C++ - robotics, video games and high frequency trading where the performance gains from no garbage collection make it preferable to Java
      • PHP/Hack - testing server changes without rebuilding. PHP is banned at Amazon due to security reasons, but its successor, Hack, runs a lot of Facebook and Slack's backends
    11. Now, a couple of years later, my guidelines for JS are:

      Advices on using JavaScript from a long time programmer:

      1. Use TypeScript instead.
      2. Push as much logic to the server as possible
      3. Use a framework like Vue or React if you need front interactivity
      4. Don't skip unit tests
    12. Consuming media (books, blogs, whatever) is not inherently a compounding thing. Only if you have some kind of method to reflect, to digest, to incorporate your knowledge into your thoughts. If there is anything valuable in this post, you, reader, will probably not benefit from it unless you do something active to “process” it immediately.

      Consuming books/blogs is not as compounding as we think

    1. if you have an amazing manager at a shit company you’ll still have a shit time. In some ways, it’ll actually be worse. If they’re good at their job (including retaining you), they’ll keep you at a bad company for too long. And then they’ll leave, because they’re smart and competent. Maybe they’ll take you with them.

      Danger of working with a great manager at a shit company

    2. Some of the people in the company are your friends in the current context. It’s like your dorm in college.

      "Company is like a college dorm"... interesting comparison

    3. It’s also okay to take risks. Staying at a company that’s slowly dying has its costs too. Stick around too long and you’ll lose your belief that you can build, that change is possible. Try not to learn the wrong habits.

      Cons of staying too long in the same company

    1. I do think when a lot of managers realized they’ve hit their peak or comfort level, they then start to focus on playing politics instead of delivering results to hold onto their position. These are also the kind of managers who would only hire people less capable than them, for fear of being replaced.

      The way corporate world works

    2. “In practice people gravitate to, hire and promote individuals they like to be around, not people who demand accountability.”

      Everybody likes having an agreeable and flattering person around them

    3. Dr. Peter advises creative incompetence — pretending to be incompetent but doing it in an area or manner where it doesn’t actually impair your work.

      Creative incompetence

    4. Dr. Peter also surmised that “super competent” people tend to “disrupt the hierarchy.” I suppose that’s a nice way of saying you’ve made your boss look bad by being more capable.In such situations, you’ll probably find yourself deliberately suppressed or edged out sooner or later — for some stupid reason or blame pushing.

      Being overly competent may get you fired

    5. So if you’re a highly competent and aggressive individual, it’s best you find yourself a job in a startup, be an entrepreneur, or work in a company that needs turning around.

      Advice to competitive workers

    6. Dr. Peter also had another interesting theory about getting promoted. He considered working hard and improving your skill sets not as effective as something called pull promotion. That’s when you get promoted — faster than usual — when a mentor or patron pulls you up.No wonder there’s so much butt kissing in the corporate world. They must have read Dr. Peter’s research from the ‘60s.

      Pull promotion

    7. competency doesn’t factor as much as likability in most corporate promotions, especially when the ship is smooth sailing.

      Another truth of the corporate world

    8. Find a results-oriented job if you’re fiercely independent and opinionated. Climb the ladder in a big corporation if you’re highly diplomatic or a crowd-pleaser.

      Advice for two different working profiles

    1. managers fail to see and address this problem is that they are used to looking at communication and assume it's a good thing. Because they see activity

      Managers in general perceive meetings as a good thing

    2. A study conducted by Gloria Marks, a Professor of Informatics at the University of California, revealed that it takes us an average of 23 minutes and 15 seconds to refocus on a task after an interruption, and even when we do, we experience a decrease in productivity

      23 minutes and 15 seconds - average time to refocus on task after an interruption

    3. It doesn't mean that we ignore all messages and only look up from our work when something is on fire – but the general expectation is that it's okay to not be immediately available to your teammates when you are focusing on your work

      One of the rules of "Office time"

    4. Working in an open office renders us even more vulnerable

      Like single standup meeting, open office doesn't improve the productivity of makers

    5. Office hours are chunks of time that makers set aside for meetings, while the rest of the time they are free to go into a Do Not Disturb mode

      "Office hours" - technique to improve makers schedule

    6. People think it’s efficient to distribute information all at the same time to a bunch of people around a room. But it’s actually a lot less efficient than distributing it asynchronously by writing it up and sending it out and letting people absorb it when they’re ready to so it doesn’t break their days into smaller bits.”

      Async > meetings

    7. it's a matter of culture. None of these rules would work if the management fails to see that makers need to follow a different schedule

      Change in the work environment needs acknowledgement of managers

    8. context switching between communication and creative work only kills the quality of both

      Context switching lowers the quality

    9. since most powerful people operate on the manager schedule, they're in a position to force everyone to adapt to their schedule

      Managers highly affect makers schedule

    10. The most straightforward way to address this is to build a team knowledge base. Not only does that minimize the number of repetitive questions bounced around the office, it allows new team members to basically onboard themselves.

      Building a team knowledge base

    11. almost no organizations today support maker schedules

      Unfortunate truth

    12. For managers, interruptions in the form of meetings, phone calls, and Slack notifications are normal. For someone on the maker schedule, however, even the slightest distraction can have a disruptive effect

      How ideal schedule should look like:

    13. Immediate response becomes the implicit expectation, with barely any barriers or restrictions in place

      Why Slack is a great distraction:

      in the absence of barriers convenience always wins

    14. In our experience, the best way to prevent a useless meeting is to write up our goals and thoughts first. Despite working in the same office, our team at Nuclino has converted nearly all of our meetings into asynchronously written reports.

      Weekly status report (example):

    1. For many data scientists, the finished product of a work session is a business analysis. They need to show team members—who oftentimes aren’t technical—how their data became a specific recommendation or insight.

      Usual final product in Data Science is the business analysis which is perfectly explained with notebooks

    1. Work never ends. No matter how much you get done there will always be more. I see a lot of colleagues burn out because they think their extra effort will be noticed. Most managers appriciate it but do not promote their employees.

      Common reality of overworking

    1. Don't focus too much on the salary. It's just one tiny part of the whole package.Your dev job pays your rent, food and savings. I assume that most dev jobs do this quite well.Beyond this, the main goal of a job is to increase your future market value, your professional network and to have fun. So. basically it's about how much you are worth in your next job and that you enjoy your time.A high salary doesn't help you if you do stuff which doesn't matter in a few years.

      Don't focus on the salary in your dev job.

    1. COVID-19 has spurred a shift to analyze things like supply chain disruptions, speech analytics, and filtering out pandemic-related behavior, such as binge shopping, Burtch Works says. Data teams are being asked to create new simulations for the coming recession, to create scorecards to track pandemic-related behavior, and add COVID-19 control variables to marketing attribution models, the company says.

      How COVID-19 impacts activities of data positions

    2. Data scientists and data engineers have built-in job security relative to other positions as businesses transition their operations to rely more heavily on data, data science, and AI. That’s a long-term trend that is not likely to change due to COVID-19, although momentum had started to slow in 2019 as venture capital investments ebbed.
    3. According to a Dice Tech Jobs report released in February, demand for data engineers was up 50% and demand for data scientists was up 32% in 2019 compared to the prior year.

      Need for Data Scientist / Engineers in 2019 vs 2018

    1. 70% async using Twist, Github, Paper25% sync using something like Zoom, Appear.in, or Google Meet5% physical meetings, e.g., annual company or team retreats

      Currently applied work structure at Doist

    2. According to the Harvard Business Review article “Collaborative Overload”, the time employees spend on collaboration has increased by 50% over the past two decades. Researchers found it was not uncommon for workers to spend a full 80% of their workdays communicating with colleagues in the form of email (on which workers’ spend an average of six hours a day); meetings (which fill up 15 percent of a company’s time, on average); and more recently instant messaging apps (the average Slack user sends an average of 200 messages a day, though 1,000-message power users are “not the exception”)

      Time spent in the office

    3. we think the async culture is one of the core reasons why most of the people we’ve hired at Doist the past 5 years have stayed with us. Our employee retention is 90%+ — much higher than the overall tech industry. For example, even a company like Google — with its legendary campuses full of perks from free meals to free haircuts — has a median tenure of just 1.1 years. Freedom to work from anywhere at any time beats fun vanity perks any day, and it costs our company $0 to provide

      Employee retention rate at Doist vs Google

    1. I also recently took about 10 months off of work, specifically to focus on learning. It was incredible, and I don’t regret it financially. I would often get up at 6 in the morning or even earlier (which I never do) just from excitement about what I was going to learn about and accomplish in the day. Spending my time focused Only on what I was most interested in was incredibly rewarding.

      Approach of taking 10 months off from work just to learn something new

    1. I'm working for myself right now, but if one day I needed to go get a full-time job again, I would almost certainly not go to big tech again. I'd rather get paid a fifth of what I was doing, but do something that leaves me with some energy after I put in a day's work

      Reflections after working for FAANG

    2. more money comes at the cost of very high expectations and brutal deadlines
    3. Second, in my experience working with ex-FAANG - these engineers, while they all tend to be very smart, tend to be borderline junior engineers in the real world. They simply don't know how to build or operate something without the luxury of the mature tooling that exists at FAANG. You may be in for a reality shock when you leave the FAANG bubble

      Working with engineers out of FAANG can be surprising

    1. Truth be told, we found that most companies we worked with preferred to own the analytical backend.

      From the experience of Plotly Team

    1. Talented people flock to employers that promise to invest in their development whether they will stay at the company or not.

      Cannot agree more on that

    2. We want to learn, but we worry that we might not like what we learn. Or that learning will cost us too much. Or that we will have to give up cherished ideas.

      I believe it is normal to worry about the usage of a new domain-based knowledge

    1. The two things I really like about working for smaller places or starting a company is you get very direct access to users and customers and their problems, which means you can actually have empathy for what's actually going on with them, and then you can directly solve it. That cycle is so powerful, the sooner you learn how to make that cycle happen in your career, the better off you'll be. If you can make software and make software for other people, the outcome truly is hundreds of millions of dollars worth of value if you get it right. That's where I'm here to try and encourage you to do. I'm not really saying that you shouldn't go work at a big tech company. I am saying you should probably leave before it makes you soft. 

      What are the benefits of working at the smaller companies/startups over the tech giants

    1. afternoons are spent reading/researching/online classes.This has really helped me avoid burn out. I go into the weekend less exhausted and more motivated to return on Monday and implement new stuff. It has also helped generate some inspiration for weekend/personal projects.

      Learning at work as solution to burn out and inspiration for personal projects

    1. Praca w Facebooku - doskonała znajomość JSa, React, zarządzanie projektem OSS na GitHubie, prowadzenie społeczności, pisanie dokumentacji i wpisów na blogu.Szkolenia - dobra znajomość JSa, React, tworzenie szkoleń (struktura, zadania, itd), uczenie i swobodne przekazywanie wiedzy, marketing, sprzedaż.Startupy - dobra znajomość JSa, React, praca w zespole, rozmawianie z klientami, analiza biznesowa, szybkie dowożenie MVP, praca w stresie i dziwnych strefach czasowych.

      Examples of restructuring tasks into more precise actions:

      • Working at Facebook - great JS, React, managing OS project on GitHub, managing a social group, writing documentation and blog
      • Workshops - good JS, React, delivering workshops (structure, tasks), learning and teaching, marketing, sale
      • Startups - good JS, React, work in a team, talking to clients, business analytics, quick MVP delivery, work under stress and in strange timezones
    1. Defining what “time well spent” means to you and making space for these moments is one of the greatest gifts you can make to your future self.

      Think really well what "time well spent" means to you

    2. Research shows that humans tend to do whatever it takes to keep busy, even if the activity feels meaningless to them. Dr Brené Brown from the University of Houston describes being “crazy busy” as a numbing strategy we use to avoid facing the truth of our lives.

      People simply prefer to be busy

    1. A few takeaways

      Summarising the article:

      • Types and tests save you from stupid mistakes; these're gifts for your future self!
      • Use ESLint and configure it to be your strict, but fair, friend.
      • Think of tests as a permanent console.
      • Types: It is not only about checks. It is also about code readability.
      • Testing with each commit makes fewer surprises when merging Pull Requests.
    1. Simulations show that for most study designs and settings, it is more likely for a research claim to be false than true.
    2. There is increasing concern that most current published research findings are false.

      The probability that the research is true may depend on:

      • study power
      • bias
      • the number of other studies on the same question
      • the ratio of true to no relationships among the relationships probed in each scientific field.

      Research finding is less likely to be true when:

      • the studies are conducted in a smaller field
      • effect sizes are smaller
      • there is a greater number and lesser preselection of tested relationships
      • greater flexibility in designs, definition, outcomes and analytical modes
      • greater financial and other interest and prejudice
      • more teams are involved in a scientific field in chase of statistical significance
    1. golden rule: If someone calls saying they’re from your bank, just hang up and call them back — ideally using a phone number that came from the bank’s Web site or from the back of your payment card.

      Golden rule of talking to your bank

    2. “When the representative finally answered my call, I asked them to confirm that I was on the phone with them on the other line in the call they initiated toward me, and so the rep somehow checked and saw that there was another active call with Mitch,” he said. “But as it turned out, that other call was the attackers also talking to my bank pretending to be me.”

      Phishing situation scenario:

      • a person is called by attackers who identify as his bank
      • the victim tell them to hold the line
      • in the meantime, the victim calls his bank representative who confirms after a while that he is with them on another line
      • in reality, the another line is done by attackers pretending to be him
  3. Apr 2020
    1. It is difficult to choose a typical reading speed, research has been conducted on various groups of people to get typical rates, what you regularly see quoted is: 100 to 200 words per minute (wpm) for learning, 200 to 400 wpm for comprehension.

      On average people read:

      • 100-200 words/minute - learning
      • 200-400 words/minute - comprehension
    1. DevOps tools enable DevOps in organizations

      Common DevOps tools:

      • Plan: JIRA
      • Build: Maven, Gradle, Docker, GitHub, GitLab
      • Continuous integration: Jenkins, CircleCI, Travis CI
      • Release: Jenkins, Bamboo
      • Deploy: Ansible, Kubernetes, Heroku, Amazon Web Services, Google Cloud Platform
      • Operate: Botmetric, Docker, Ansible, Puppet, Chef
      • Monitor: Nagios, Splunk
      • Continuous Feedback: Slack
    2. While talking about DevOps, three things are important continuous integration, continuous deployment, and continuous delivery.

      DevOps process

      • Continuous Integration - code gets integrated several times a day (checked by automated pipeline(server))
      • Continuous Delivery - introducing changes with every commit, making code ready for production
      • Continuous Deployment - deployment in production is automatic, without explicit approval from a developer

      another version of the image: and one more:

    1. I set it with a few clicks at Travis CI, and by creating a .travis.yml file in the repo

      You can set CI with a few clicks using Travis CI and creating a .travis.yml file in your repo:

      language: node_js
      node_js: node
        - npm install -g typescript
        - npm install codecov -g
        - yarn lint
        - yarn build
        - yarn test
        - yarn build-docs
        - codecov
    2. I set it with a few clicks at Travis CI, and by creating a .travis.yml file in the repo

      You can set CI with a few clicks using Travis CI and creating a .travis.yml file in your repo:

      language: node_js
      node_js: node
        - npm install -g typescript
        - npm install codecov -g
        - yarn lint
        - yarn build
        - yarn test
        - yarn build-docs
        - codecov