234 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
    1. "Most Native Americans did not neatly distinguish between the natural and the supernatural. Spiritual power permeated their world and was both tangible and accessible"

      This shows how much more open Natives were to the super Naturaul unlike the Europeans who were more than likely christians.

    2. my first question: is what do they mean exactly by "kinship"?

      My second question is: what does the reading mean by Chiefdoms?

    3. "Food surpluses enabled significant population growth, and the Pacific Northwest became one of the most densely populated regions of North America"

      This is significant because it shows how succesful the natives were before the Europeans showed up and spread native European diseases to Natives.

  2. Oct 2020
    1. strict-origin: Only send the origin of the document as the referrer when the protocol security level stays the same (e.g. HTTPS→HTTPS), but don't send it to a less secure destination (e.g. HTTPS→HTTP).
  3. Sep 2020
  4. Aug 2020
    1. I don't think it should be the individual application's responsibility to add Cache-Control: Vary when that negotiation/routing is done by Rails on behalf of the app, do you?
    2. Expected behavior Response should include Vary: Accept to show that the response differs due to content negotiation. Actual behavior All responses are considered equal to the user agent, leading to caching issues. See these bugs:
    1. Yeah, so I believe what we want is.. If an action has no templates defined at all, AND it has no respond_to { ... } block, then it should do a 204 If an action has certain templates defined, AND it has no respond_to { ... } block, then it should do a 406 for formats with no templates If an action has a respond_to { ... } block, then it should do a 406 for formats not in the list
  5. May 2020
  6. Apr 2020
    1. “What other framework has integrated support for 786 TRY IT NOW ?”

      I couldn't find documentation of what this is referring to. Is it a custom HTTP status code?

      https://falcon.readthedocs.io/en/stable/api/status.html mentions

      HTTP status line, e.g. ‘748 Confounded by Ponies’. but not 786.

    2. When it comes to building HTTP APIs, other frameworks weigh you down with tons of dependencies and unnecessary abstractions. Falcon cuts to the chase with a clean design that embraces HTTP and the REST architectural style.
    1. This API uses request body in GET requests. For a long time this was prohibited in RFC2616 HTTP specification, but since RFCs 7230-7237, it is only discouraged, since older implementations could reject such requests. However, given that major APIs such as ElasticSearch's already implement GET with request bodies, there is precedence to such implementation.

      My first sighting of the sending a request body with get request.

    1. One mistake that we made when creating the import/export experience for Blogger was relying on one HTTP transaction for an import or an export. HTTP connections become fragile when the size of the data that you're transferring becomes large. Any interruption in that connection voids the action and can lead to incomplete exports or missing data upon import. These are extremely frustrating scenarios for users and, unfortunately, much more prevalent for power users with lots of blog data.
    1. Origin servers SHOULD NOT fold multiple Set-Cookie header fields into a single header field. The usual mechanism for folding HTTP headers fields (i.e., as defined in [RFC2616]) might change the semantics of the Set-Cookie header field because the %x2C (",") character is used by Set-Cookie in a way that conflicts with such folding.

      "Fold" should be replaced with "combine" to make this paragraph consistent with the HTTP/1 specs (RFC 2616, RFC 7230).

      https://www.rfc-editor.org/errata/eid6093 https://stackoverflow.com/questions/3241326/

  7. Mar 2020
    1. I would standardize an RPOST (for reliable post) method which would either accept a message ID from the client or return a new URI with a message ID in it.

      The answer!

    2. we need to make certain that we set up our system so that multiple POSTs of the same data are not harmful

      This is the goal of this article.

    3. by definition it is safe to try again

      How safe is it really? No problem with GET but what other operations? How about re-sending the PUT message a month later?

    1. not cacheable, unless the response includes appropriate Cache-Control or Expires header fields

      To read more about Cache-Control header see: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc7234#section-5.2

    2. PUT method requests that the enclosed entity be stored
    1. If a server responds to a POST or other non-idempotent request with a 303 See Other response and a value for the location header, the client is expected to obtain the resource mentioned in the location header using the GET method
    2. to trigger a request to the target resource using the same method, the server is expected to provide a 307 Temporary Redirect response
  8. Feb 2020
  9. Dec 2019
    1. I understand that GitHub uses "Not Found" where it means "Forbidden" in some circumstances to prevent inadvertently reveling the existence of a private repository. Requests that require authentication will return 404 Not Found, instead of 403 Forbidden, in some places. This is to prevent the accidental leakage of private repositories to unauthorized users. --GitHub This is a fairly common practice around the web, indeed it is defined: The 404 (Not Found) status code indicates that the origin server did not find a current representation for the target resource or is not willing to disclose that one exists. --6.5.4. 404 Not Found, RFC 7231 HTTP/1.1 Semantics and Content (emphasis mine)
    1. If your only reason for using Axios is backward compatibility, you don’t really need an HTTP library. Instead, you can use fetch() with a polyfill like this to implement similar functionality on web browsers that do not support fetch(). To begin using the fetch polyfill, install it via npm command: npm install whatwg-fetch --save
    1. If you are using a JavaScript library, chances are it comes with a client HTTP API. jQuery’s $.ajax() function, for example, has been particularly popular with frontend developers. But as developers move away from such libraries in favor of native APIs, dedicated HTTP clients have emerged to fill the gap.
    1. Note that adding the X-Requested-With header makes the request "unsafe" (as defined by CORS), and will trigger a preflight request, which may not be desirable.
    2. It shouldn't be useful to distinguish between requests made by Ajax and other kinds of request. Pretty much any usecase where you'd want to do that is better served by using the Accept header to ask for data in a specific format.
  10. Oct 2019
    1. Is anyone aware of a lua http lib that supports keepalive?

      When sending a request you can pass the following keepalive settings which will keep the connection open:

      local http = require "resty.http"
      local httpc = http.new()
      httpc:connect("127.0.0.1", 9081)
      local response, err = httpc:request({
        path = "/proxy" .. ngx.var.request_uri, 
        method = "HEAD",
        headers = ngx.req.get_headers(),
        keepalive_timeout = 60,
        keepalive_pool = 10,
      })
      
    1. Programas efectivos de prevención e intervención en Bullying

      Múltiples y diversas intervenciones se han desarrollado para afrontar esta problemática (por ejemplo, Minton & O'Moore, 2008; Olweus, 1993; Smith, Ananiadou, & Cowie, 2003; Varela & Tijmes, 2008 entre otros). Sin embargo, a pesar de los numerosos programas existentes, solo unos pocos han demostrado ser efectivos. De hecho, los programas exitosos se caracterizan por abordar esta problemática en sus diversos niveles y no con actividades puntuales ni aisladas.

      Con respecto a la experiencia internacional, "Olweus Bullying Prevention Program", es uno de los programas pioneros en la intervención del Bullying (Olweus, 1993). Este programa se basa en un modelo comprensivo que opera en distintos niveles: escolar, sala de clases e individual. Tiene como objetivo reducir y eliminar tanto el Bullying directo como el indirecto, mejorar las relaciones de pares en el establecimiento educacional y crear las condiciones que permitan que tanto víctima como victimario logren funcionar mejor dentro y fuera de éste. Las estrategias del programa incluyen la promoción y creación de un ambiente positivo en todo el establecimiento educacional, donde la participación de los adultos (docentes y familias) es fundamental; y la creación de límites claros frente a la conductas que no son aceptadas dentro del contexto escolar, requiriendo que las sanciones que se aplican a los victimarios sean consistentes, no castigadoras e involucren un proceso de reflexión y reparación (Olweus, 2004). La evaluación de este programa indica que fue exitoso, disminuyendo en un 50% el autoreporte de Bullying (tanto de víctima como victimario), la incursión en otro tipo de conductas antisociales, y mejorando el clima escolar (Olweus, 2004).

      En Inglaterra se llevó a cabo el programa "Sheffield Anti-Bullying Project", inspirado en el programa de Olweus. Este programa busca desarrollar políticas institucionales en el establecimiento educacional que permitan detener la victimización por Bullying a nivel de toda la comunidad escolar, utilizando estrategias como el desarrollo de políticas integrales para detener la victimización, el desarrollo curricular para crear conciencia del problema, el trabajo individual, seguimiento y monitoreo tanto de la víctima como del agresor, modificación de los espacios físicos de riesgo, y el monitoreo permanente de los niveles de victimización dentro de la escuela. La evaluación del programa, llevado a cabo en cuatro establecimientos educacionales durante 18 meses, demostró que disminuyó el porcentaje de victimización (14% en primaria y 7% en secundaria), la tasa de agresión (12% en primaria y secundaria), y aumentaron las denuncias por agresión a los profesores (Smith, et al., 2003).

      El "Programa educativo de prevención de maltrato entre compañeros y compañeras" (SAVE) desarrollado en España, es otro ejemplo de programas con resultados exitosos. Este programa toma un modelo integral, preventivo, ecológico y comunitario e involucra a los alumnos, profesores, familia y comunidad. El programa no solo disminuyó las conductas de Bullying, sino que logró promover las relaciones interpersonales como un factor protector frente a la violencia escolar (Ortega, Del Rey, & Mora-Merchán, 2004).

      Por otra parte, Finlandia cuenta con el "Programa Anti-bullying Kiva" desarrollado en la Universidad de Turku y financiado por el Ministerio de Educación de este país, el cual presenta estrategias universales para prevenir situaciones de intimidación y, a su vez, detener la intimidación en curso. El programa contiene una serie de herramientas concretas para los educadores, lecciones para estudiantes, material de aprendizaje virtual, e indicaciones claras para los integrantes de la comunidad escolar para detener las situaciones de intimidación de manera efectiva (Salmivalli, Kärnä & Poskiparta, 2011; Kärnä, Voeten, Little, Poskiparta, Kaljonen & Salmivalli, 2011).

      Otros programas internacionales que han demostrado efectividad son el "Programa Apoyo Positivo al Estudiante" (Positive Behavior Support-PBS, Sprague & Golly, 2005) y los Programas Anti-bullying en Irlanda: "Programa ABC" (Minton & O'Moore, 2008). Todos se basan en una aproximación multinivel del fenómeno, la implementación de estrategias de prevención e intervención de manera sistemática, organizadas y planificadas a largo plazo. Así como también, la implementación de estrategias orientadas al desarrollo de un clima social escolar positivo y al fomento de habilidades socio-emocionales.

      En Chile, uno de los primeros programas en evaluar su efectividad fue el programa piloto "Aprendiendo Juntos", basado en el modelo de intervención del "Positive Behavior Support-PBS". Se implementó en un establecimiento educacional de la cuidad de Santiago, donde se logró disminuir en un 34,7%, los incidentes violentos entre los alumnos, medido a través de la disminución del promedio diario de alumnos derivados a inspectora1 en los años 2006 y 2007 (Varela, Tijmes & Sprague 2009). Otra experiencia chilena evaluada fue el Programa Recoleta en Buena implementado en 4 establecimientos educacionales donde se evaluó a 677 estudiantes el año 2006 y 553 el año 2008, de 5º básico a IVº medio. El programa logró disminuir el promedio de los reportes de violencia (víctimas, victimarios y testigos), salvo los reportes de violencia de tipo delictual (violencia más grave). Sin embargo, sus resultados reportaron efectividad a nivel primario permitiendo impactar en toda la comunidad escolar (Varela, 2011).

      Tanto la experiencia internacional como en Chile en la implementación de programas de prevención e intervención de violencia en las escuelas ha demostrado la importancia de abordar esta problemática desde un modelo ecológico (Orpinas, 2009). Es decir, que los programas presenten un abordaje integral, los cuales apunten a los distintos niveles del sistema escolar: políticas públicas, red educativa, familias, y personas, así como la interrelación entre estos niveles. Asimismo, las estrategias de intervención y de prevención deben ser organizadas, sistemáticas y planificadas a largo plazo. Estas estrategias deben estar orientadas a prevenir, intervenir y promover un clima social escolar positivo, incrementar la empatía, el desarrollo de las competencias sociales, la promoción de conductas prosociales, la resolución de conflictos y la mediación.

      A pesar de lo anterior, la experiencia ha demostrado que existe una escasez de estudios de efectividad sobre programas integrales de prevención del Bullying, a nivel de los países de Sudamérica. Es por esto que el presente artículo evalúa la efectividad de un programa de prevención e intervención de Bullying y Ciberbulling, basado en los lineamientos de los programas que han demostrado ser exitosos, en alumnas que cursan de 4º año básico a IVº año medio de un establecimiento educacional femenino de Santiago de Chile.

  11. Sep 2019
    1. Of course, as organizations disolve and mutate, there is nothing to stop one organization from taking over the support of  the archives another.  Forthis purpose, it would be very useful to have a syntax for putting a date into a domain name.  This would allow a system to find an archive server.  Imaging that, failing to find "info.cern.ch", one could search back and find an entry "info.cern.ch.1994" which pointed to www.w3.org as a current server holding archive information for info.cern.ch as it was in 1994, with, of course,  pointers to newer versions of the documents.

      This document talks about content negotiation being used to request an audio version of a resource, no protocol-level negotiation of time versioning appears here.

    1. On the other hand, a resource may be generic in that as a concept it is well specified but not so specifically specified that it can only be represented by a single bit stream. In this case, other URIs may exist which identify a resource more specifically. These other URIs identify resources too, and there is a relationship of genericity between the generic and the relatively specific resource.

      I was not aware of this page when the Web Annotations WG was working through its specifications. The word "Specific Resource" used in the Web Annotations Data Model Specification always seemed adequate, but now I see that it was actually quite a good fit.

  12. Jun 2019
  13. May 2019
  14. Apr 2019
  15. Mar 2019
  16. Feb 2019
  17. Jan 2019
  18. Oct 2018
    1. This document specifies version 1.0 of the Token Binding protocol. The Token Binding protocol allows client/server applications to create long-lived, uniquely identifiable TLS bindings spanning multiple TLS sessions and connections. Applications are then enabled to cryptographically bind security tokens to the TLS layer, preventing token export and replay attacks. To protect privacy, the Token Binding identifiers are only conveyed over TLS and can be reset by the user at any time.
    1. This document defines two new HTTP headers that enable User Agents and hosts to indicate and negotiate the profile used to represent a specific resource. In this context, a profile is a document describing the structural and/or semantic constraints of a group of documents in addition to the syntactical interpretation provided by a MIME type. Examples of profiles include Dublin Core Application Profiles, XML Schemata and RDF Shape Expressions. Further, it defines and registers the profile parameter for the HTTP Link header and suggests a best practice for the use of the new headers together with the Link header to perform content negotiation and point clients to alternate representations.
    1. The Hyper Text Coffee Pot Control Protocol (HTCPCP) is a protocol for controlling, monitoring and diagnosing coffee pots over a network. The Resource Description Framework (RDF) is a general-purpose language for representing information in the Web. This document defines HTCPCP Vocabulary in RDF in order to allow HTCPCP headers that have been exchanged between a client (in other words, a coffee addict) and a server (a networked device that can brew, store and deliver heated coffee beverages) to be recorded in RDF format. The objective of this vocabulary is to support quality assurance testing, and to serve as a machine-readable component in conformance claims and in reporting languages such as the Evaluation and Report Language (EARL) [EARL Schema].
    1. The HTTP-based Memento framework bridges the present and past Web. It facilitates obtaining representations of prior states of a given resource by introducing datetime negotiation and TimeMaps. Datetime negotiation is a variation on content negotiation that leverages the given resource's URI and a user agent's preferred datetime. TimeMaps are lists that enumerate URIs of resources that encapsulate prior states of the given resource. The framework also facilitates recognizing a resource that encapsulates a frozen prior state of another resource.
  19. Sep 2018
    1. felicity

      Felicity- That which causes or promotes happiness; a source of happiness, a blessing. The use of this word in this context is interesting as in it promotes a feeling or atmosphere of bliss.

    1. // Download a json but don't reveal who is downloading it fetch("sneaky.json", {referrerPolicy: "no-referrer"}) .then(function(response) { /* consume the response */ }); // Download a json but pretend another page is downloading it fetch("sneaky.json", {referrer: "https://example.site/fake.html"}) .then(function(response) { /* consume the response */ }); // You can only set same-origin referrers. fetch("sneaky.json", {referrer: "https://cross.origin/page.html"}) .catch(function(exc) { // exc.name == "TypeError" // exc.message == "Referrer URL https://cross.origin/page.html cannot be cross-origin to the entry settings object (https://example.site)." }); // Download a potentially cross-origin json and don't reveal // the full referrer URL across origins fetch(jsonURL, {referrerPolicy: "origin-when-cross-origin"}) .then(function(response) { /* consume the response */ }); // Download a potentially cross-origin json and reveal a // fake referrer URL on your own origin only. fetch(jsonURL, {referrer: "https://example.site/fake.html", referrerPolicy: "origin-when-cross-origin"}) .then(function(response) { /* consume the response */ });
    1. This document outlines Cross-Origin Read Blocking (CORB), an algorithm by which dubious cross-origin resource loads may be identified and blocked by web browsers before they reach the web page. CORB reduces the risk of leaking sensitive data by keeping it further from cross-origin web pages. In most browsers, it keeps such data out of untrusted script execution contexts. In browsers with Site Isolation, it can keep such data out of untrusted renderer processes entirely, helping even against side channel attacks.
    1. Cross-Origin Read Blocking (CORB) is a new web platform security feature that helps mitigate the threat of side-channel attacks (including Spectre).  It is designed to prevent the browser from delivering certain cross-origin network responses to a web page, when they might contain sensitive information and are not needed for existing web features.  For example, it will block a cross-origin text/html response requested from a <script> or <img> tag, replacing it with an empty response instead.  This is an important part of the protections included with Site Isolation.
  20. Aug 2018
    1. 有时候,上面四个 Accept 字段并不够用,例如要针对特定浏览器如 IE6 输出不一样的内容,就需要用到请求头中的 User-Agent 字段。类似的,请求头中的 Cookie 也可能被服务端用做输出差异化内容的依据。 由于客户端和服务端之间可能存在一个或多个中间实体(如缓存服务器),而缓存服务最基本的要求是给用户返回正确的文档。如果服务端根据不同 User-Agent 返回不同内容,而缓存服务器把 IE6 用户的响应缓存下来,并返回给使用其他浏览器的用户,肯定会出问题 。 所以 HTTP 协议规定,如果服务端提供的内容取决于 User-Agent 这样「常规 Accept 协商字段之外」的请求头字段,那么响应头中必须包含 Vary 字段,且 Vary 的内容必须包含 User-Agent。同理,如果服务端同时使用请求头中 User-Agent 和 Cookie 这两个字段来生成内容,那么响应中的 Vary 字段看上去应该是这样的: Vary: User-Agent, Cookie 也就是说 Vary 字段用于列出一个响应字段列表,告诉缓存服务器遇到同一个 URL 对应着不同版本文档的情况时,如何缓存和筛选合适的版本。

      也就是说,Vary 字段是给缓存服务器用的。

      比如说,如果没有 Vary 字段中的 User-Agent,

      缓存服务器就会不加区分地转发服务器的数据给客户端,

      这可能导致不同 User-Agent 的客户端收到不与之相对应的数据。

    1. Cookie存储在浏览器中,对客户端是可见的,客户端的一些程序可能会窥探、复制以至修正Cookie中的内容。而Session存储在服务器上,对客户端是透明的,不存在敏感信息泄露的风险。

      cookie 是整个会话对象都放在客户端,很容易看到(base64 只是压缩,并不是加密)。 session 是整个会话对象都放在服务端,只有一个 session id 副本放在客户端的 cookie 里,所以就算有人偷到了 session id 冒充,也看不到会话信息。

  21. May 2018
    1. more design-driven.

      As someone who loves design (especially to do with books and texts (e.g. Coralie Bickford-Smith's work with Penguin Publishing)), this is very interesting to me. This may not have to do with digital humanities per say, but the interplay of physical books (especially publishing companies and their need to $compete$ with digital texts) with digital modes of communication has led to the design of more aesthetically pleasing book designs. This idea makes me think that maybe books are viewed as elitist forms, and digital texts are viewed as 'lower' forms.

  22. Apr 2018
  23. Mar 2018
  24. Feb 2018
    1. Trojan

      in reference to the story of how the Greeks used a wooden horse to win a ten-year long war against the Trojans.

    2. Cn. Octavius

      The firs consul of Octavii. Octavii like many other plebian families, became known during the first Punic Wars.

  25. Dec 2017
    1. Proclamation of 1763

      The encroachment of the English upon their land became a source of great hostility among the indigenous peoples of North America. In an effort to resolve this issue, King George III issued the Proclamation of 1763 – which drew an imaginary line along the crest of the Appalachian Mountains from Nova Scotia to Georgia. Subjects in the colonies were forbidden from settling west of this line unless purchased by the Crown. Settlers could only legally obtain land through negotiations with the indigenous peoples. As one historian explained, “Notwithstanding the Royal Proclamation’s stated intent and purpose, George Washington characterized it as a temporary pacifier to ‘quiet’ the natives”1. George Washington was indeed right as the boundary was pushed even further just five years after the Royal Proclamation. In 1768, the Indian Boundary line was established as the new boundary line. Located further westward than the original Proclamation line, this new boundary gave the natives significantly less territory2.

      Since the Proclamation required lengthy negotiations, it slowed the English settlers’ movement west. Thomas Jefferson stated this to be one of the main causes of the Revolutionary War. It was initially “…drafted to deal with the aftermath of the Seven Years’ War and the transfer of extensive French and Spanish colonial territories to Great Britain in the Treaty of Paris, 1763”1. The Proclamation is a complex document with four parts; some relate to newly ceded territories, while others discuss the existing colonies. The first part of the Proclamation of 1763 states that portions of the newly acquired French and Spanish territories were to be made into British territories. These newly established colonies were Quebec, East Florida, West Florida, and Grenada, with other parts being left to existing colonies or the state. After establishing these new colonies, the Proclamation announced the expansion of old ones. The second part focuses on the constitutions of the newly established colonies; these constitutions follow the Law of England. The areas lying beyond the boundaries of Quebec contained the Indigenous peoples who were able to make their own laws. The third part differs from the first two, as it does not refer to land ownership and the way things are run. It offered free land grants to the officers and soldiers that served in the Seven Years’ War. Finally, the fourth and longest part of the Proclamation of 1763 contains detailed measures pertaining to Aboriginal people and their lands1.

      Though Colin Calloway, a British historian, refers to the Proclamation as “…the Indian ‘Bill of Rights,’” scholars argue whether it supported or undermined the indigenous peoples3. Repeated references to the Crown’s sovereignty and dominion throughout the document make it clear that the Proclamation of 1763 gave Indians a scarce measure of control when it came to native matters. Unfortunately, this pattern continues throughout history; Berger notes that the Proclamation’s “...procedure for the purchase of Indian land was the basis for the treaties of the 19th and 20th centuries"4. Since it was issued in 1763, courts in both the United States and Canada have modeled their treaties after the Royal Proclamation.

      Image: http://data2.archives.ca/e/e097/e002418682.jpg Caption: British colonies in North America.

      Citations:

      1. Jim Aldridge, Keeping Promises: The Royal Proclamation of 1763, Aboriginal Rights, and Treaties in Canada, ed. T. Fenge. Mcgill-Queen’s Native and Northern Series, 78. (Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2015), 4-17.
      2. Eugene M. Del Papa, "The Royal Proclamation of 1763: Its Effect upon Virginia Land Companies," The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 83, no. 4 (1975): 406-407.
      3. Colin G. Calloway, The Scratch of a Pen: 1763 and the Transformation of North America. Pivotal Moments in American History. (Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, 2006), 96-97.
      4. Thomas Berger, “Native Claims,” in Northern Frontier Northern Homeland: The Report of the Mackenzie Valley Pipeline Inquiry. (Vancouver: Douglas & McIntyre, 1988), 165.
    2. The Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act

      The Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act (ISDEAA) was passed in 1975 by the Congress of the United States and increased the amount of self-governance of the native peoples1. If any Native American tribe requests a “self-determination” contract from the federal government, the government is obligated to give them one. This contract gives the tribe funding for programs and gives it the responsibility of running services administered by the federal government. The federal government is also required to provide “contract support costs” – the additional transaction costs of the Act. These costs are only enacted when the tribe decides to plan its own programs without the government’s help. The Act gives the native peoples a lot of freedom and leeway, as they are able to create something they can call their own through these government-provided funds. Funding for the ISDEAA comes from the Indian Self-Determination Fund, which has its limitations: the Availability Clause and the Reduction Clause. The Availability Clause provides that funds are subject to availability of appropriations, and the Reduction Clause states that funding to one tribe cannot be reduced to gain more funding for another2.         This Act has been one of the most important legislative acts for Indians because it greatly affects them in a positive way. The Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act “…has been a key driver in improving communities throughout Indian country”3. One example of this would be the lives of the Navajos in Arizona. The Director of the Rough Rock Demonstration School told the Inquiry that under this new legislation they have established their own school system. The director describes the benefits of this, “Navaho people…are running a sophisticated school, unabashedly oriented to Navaho children”1. All of the staff comes from the community – giving the Navajos more jobs and income. The Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act not only improves the education of Native Americans, but their quality of life as well. This principle of native self-determination in education was already accepted in Canada in 1972. The National Indian Brotherhood wrote a policy paper called the Indian Control of Indian Education, which was accepted the following year1. The acceptance of native people’s self-governance was clearly growing in the 1970s. Because of the Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act, Native Americans were and are able to control more aspects of their lives, especially education.

      A Navajo woman, Kathryn Manuelito, conducted research to emphasize the importance of education to the Indians. After studying the Navajo peoples she stated that “Since the passage of the Indian Self-Determination Act, which provides for tribal- and community based schools, many Indian peoples have considered formal education to be a primary force in the survival of their languages and cultures"4. The indigenous also believe that the act preserves their rights. Manuelito concluded that the traditional Navajo education that resulted from the Act has advanced and helped the Navajo to maintain their existing identities. By the Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act, Indian cultures, especially the Navajo, were able to be preserved4.

      Picture: http://data2.archives.ca/ap/a/a185534-v8.jpg Caption: Reverend Lachlan McLean counsels student soldier at Indian Residential School in the 1970s.

      Citations:

      1. Thomas Berger, “Native Claims,” in Northern Frontier Northern Homeland: The Report of the Mackenzie Valley Pipeline Inquiry. (Vancouver: Douglas & McIntyre, 1988), 183.
      2. Elizabeth M. Glazer, “Comments – Appropriating Availability: Reconciling Purpose and Text Under the Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act,” The University of Chicago Law Review 71, no. 4 (2004):1637-1638.
      3. United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Indian Affairs (1993), Amending the Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act to Provide Further Self-Governance by Indian Tribes, and for Other Purposes: Report (to Accompany S. 979). (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Publishing Office, 2015), 1-2.
      4. Kathryn Manuelito, “The Role of education in American Indian Self-Determination: Lessons from the Ramah Navajo Community School,” Anthropology & Education Quarterly 36, no. 1 (2005): 73-75. http://doi:10.1525/aeq.2005.36.1.073.
    3. James Bay Agreement

      The James Bay Agreement was signed by the Cree and Inuit in November 1975 and is the only “comprehensive land claim” that covers an area where provincial governments control lands and resources1. The Crees had been living and trading furs east of James Bay since the early seventeenth century. Their economy was based off of hunting, trapping, and fishing, which was regulated by dividing the land into hunting territories. By the 1960s, provincial governments gained more of a presence in the Cree territories. The Cree continued to live in their homeland despite the fact that these “white” men made most of the decisions regarding politics and the way their communities were to be run. This takeover and disregard of Aboriginal rights caused a lot of unrest and frustration for the Crees.

      In April of 1971 the Québec Premier Robert Bourassa announced the James Bay project, a hydro-electric development project in northern Quebec, without the consent of the Crees or consideration of basic land rights2. Infuriated, Cree and Inuit leaders went to court and, after 71 days of testifying, successfully postponed the project. Justice Albert Malouf ruled that the hydro project posed a threat to the Cree and Inuit cultures and way of life. Unfortunately, this ruling only lasted ten days and the James Bay project proceeded. As a result of Malouf’s initial decision in favor of Aboriginal land rights, a negotiation was made to benefit the indigenous peoples. Bourassa submitted an offer in 1973 that was eventually signed in 1975 after much consideration from the indigenous. Berger explains that “Under the James Bay Agreement, the Cree and Inuit of Northern Quebec have agreed to surrender their aboriginal rights…in return for cash compensation and for a land regime that gives them specific interests in three categories of land"3. The Cree and Inuit decision to secede their land has been attributed to them having no other option or choice in the matter. It was figured that the project was going to continue whether they agreed to it or not. The indigenous peoples received some power in the Agreement but their rights were essentially “subordinate to other public priorities”1.

      Most of the region attained by the James Bay Agreement became category III lands – lands that were used for development. All of the lands and resources in category III belonged to Québec, but the indigenous were able to offer their opinion in the development of these lands. They also held exclusive rights to certain species of fish and animals and were able to continue harvesting. Category II lands allowed Native harvesters to hunt, trap, and fish with no outside competition from non-indigenous. However, the Cree and Inuit did not own any of the natural resources in these lands as they belonged to the Québecers. Lastly, Category I land was land that was essentially under Native control, though Québec still had ownership of mineral and development rights. Québec effectively asserted their dominance in what was previously known as Cree territories, and were able to prioritize hydroelectric and natural resource development1. While the structure of the James Bay Agreement allowed for input about land use from the Cree and Inuit, this input could be equated to mere consultation. The James Bay Agreement did not give the indigenous peoples as much influence as promised, which has become a common pattern throughout modern treaties4.

      Image: http://data2.archives.ca/e/e431/e010767693-v6.jpg Caption: James Bay celebrating initial court victory with lawyers Max Lituack and James O’Reilly.  

      Citations:

      1. Paul Rynard, “Ally or Colonizer?: The Federal State, the Cree Nation and the James Bay Agreement,” Journal of Canadian Studies 36, no.2 (2001): 8-14. https://doi:10.3138/jcs.36.2.8.
      2. Evelyn Pinkerton, Co-Operative Management of Local Fisheries: New Directions for Improved Management and Community Development (Vancouver: UBC Press, 2014), 190.
      3. Thomas Berger, “Native Claims,” in Northern Frontier Northern Homeland: The Report of the Mackenzie Valley Pipeline Inquiry. (Vancouver: Douglas & McIntyre, 1988), 177.
      4. Martin Papillon and André Juneau, eds. Aboriginal Multilevel governance. (Canada: The state of the Federation, 2013. Montreal: Institute of the Intergovernmental Relations, School of Policy Studies, Queen’s University, McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2015), 84.
  26. Nov 2017
    1. Lambda@Edge lets you run Lambda functions at AWS Regions and Amazon CloudFront edge locations in response to CloudFront events

      Extremely happy to see such an amazing opportunity which I think will help create fined grain API's which are fast and can leverage Caching strategies which will be cheap.

  27. Sep 2017
  28. Aug 2017
    1. faggots

      In this context this word means "a bundle of sticks or twigs bound together as fuel." Now, this word is used as a slur for gay men or calling someone an idiot. It's funny how a word's mean can change so much over a short period of history.

  29. books.googleusercontent.com books.googleusercontent.com
    1. -tYouhavenownoneedofatrade."

      Booker T. Washington was a big proponent for African Americans learning trades. When Booker T. Washington founded Tuskegee University, the student built the buildings themselves, harvested their own food, and provided for their basic necessities. He thought learning skills would lead to the advancement of African Americans.

  30. Jul 2017
  31. Jun 2017
    1. HTTP/1.1定义的 Cache-Control 头用来区分对缓存机制的支持情况, 请求头和响应头都支持这个属性。通过它提供的不同的值来定义缓存策略。

      Request Header与Response Header都支持这个属性 通过调整Cache-Control头可以做出很多缓存策略:

      1. 完全不支持
      2. 不缓存内容
      3. 私有缓存
      4. 公共缓存
      5. 缓存过期时间
    2. 通常定义Pragma以向后兼容基于HTTP/1.0的客户端

      效果同Cache-Control:no-Cache相同,区别在于HTTP响应头不支持这一个属性,不能完全取代Cache-Control属性..

    3. 在过期时间前,资源缓存是有效的,反之则缓存失效。通过不停抛弃过期的缓存资源以保证资源的实时性。注意,旧的缓存不会被抛弃或者忽略;当发起一个针对旧缓存资源的请求时,会在请求头里带上If-None-Match用来判断缓存是否还有效。如果有效,服务端返回304(Not Modified)和空的body以节省一部分带宽。

      为何要有时效性:

      1. 空间有限
      2. 服务器可能有更新文件

      在缓存有效期过期前,不会去询问服务器资源是否有效..如果缓存过期,就会在请求头上带上If-None-Match来判断缓存是否依旧有效

    4. 当 web 缓存发现请求的资源已经被存储,它会拦截请求,返回该资源的拷贝,而不会去源服务器重新下载。

      这样可以重用已经获取的资源,提升网站的性能

  32. Apr 2017
    1. this photo of a cat

      HTTP Status Cats is one of the most brilliant things the internet has done, IMHO.

    1. sift ye as wheat

      When you sift wheat you shake it hard to separate the kernels, so this is saying that the devil was trying to shake her emotions to separate her from Jesus.

    2. so that the blessed news had to circulate from individual to individual

      On plantations slaves were often not allowed to practice religion or anything of their choice because they were not looked at a people. They had to find other ways to do this, so instead of having things like churches or massing they usually told stories that passed down from person to person

    3. scanty

      Small or insufficient.

    4. Jesus of Nazareth

      Another name for Jesus Christ, Nazareth was the place where Jesus spent his childhood.

    5. he’s as peart as a cricket

      This saying means happy or alert.

    6. down in the mouth

      This saying means said or dejected.

    7. “The earth shall be dissolved like snow,  The sun shall cease to shine; But God, who called me here below,  Shall be forever mine. “And when this mortal life shall fail,  And flesh and sense shall cease, I shall possess within the veil  A life of joy and peace. “When we’ve been there ten thousand years,  Bright shining like the sun, We’ve no less days to sing God’s praise  Than when we first begun.”

      A common thing for slaves to do was to sing songs of hope and joy which spread the idea of better days and freedom around plantations.

  33. Mar 2017
  34. Feb 2017
    1. radiation

      Remember in class when we discussed the definition of radiation. It means more than something that is radioactive. All things what emit light or things in the electromagnetic spectrum radiate. Like this radiant cook top is radiating in the thermal range (and in the visible light range of the spectrum as well-- thus the red light we see).f

    2. entropyS

      We did not cover what entropy is in class. Entropy is discussed in Hakim's Newton at the Center book. Entropy is the tendency of the Universe to move toward more disorder. But, it will turn out in Physics and Chemistry that we can measure entropy, energy and a thing called enthalpy. It takes the 3 of them together to decide if a physical process or chemical reaction can happen in thermodynamics.

    3. a limiting case

      A limiting case is extremely useful in science. It is something that will usually give us an absolute max or min. So, Planck is saying here that we can use Wien's equation to form a boundary to at least check that we are in the right zone for the correct answer.

    4. Wien’s Equation

      So, what was this Wien's Equation that Planck was improving? Wien had come up with a formula that was really close to the one that Planck would describe. But, it didn't work for short wavelengths and high frequencies. Rayleigh and Jeans had earlier come up with a straight-line formula that worked for larger wavelengths and lower frequencies, but not the higher ones. Planck's was the first to work for both. To review the relationship between wavelength and frequency, see the phet simulation here.

  35. Jan 2017
    1. Such people have the same kind of mind as do those who deny the antipodes on the grounds that one cannot walk with his head down and his feet attached to the ceiling

    2. but as to the first, I think I could clear that up myself.

      He fell for it...