34 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
    1. 22.3 per cent (−10.7; 95% CI, −15.6 to −5.7) in the diet group

      Interesting that the diet group worked better. I'd like to see if it's statistically significantly better than the drug group. It's also worth asking whether sodium was the only important dietary change, or if avoiding sodium caused many other dietary improvements.

    2. Sleepiness and neck circumference were significantly reduced only in the diet group (p = .007 and p < .001 for the time × group interactions, respectively).

      Fascinating. Neck circumference suggests that sodium intake may indeed be the significant dietary factor. The recommended diet wasn't even very restricted in sodium.

  2. Jan 2020
    1. This review evidence that adults with obstructive sleep apnea may demonstrate diminished vagal tone and higher sympathetic responsiveness.

      This seems like an obsurdly obvious prediction to me. Is also lends credence to the idea of positive feedback loops in sleep disorders, particularly insomnia. That is to say, sleep insufficiency can be expected to increase arousal rather than increase sleepiness. This is also supported by the data that sleep deprivation increases evening cortisol the following evening.

  3. Dec 2019
    1. The sodium-restricted diet group received a regimen aiming a maximum intake of 3 g of sodium per day (equivalent to 7.5 g of sodium chloride).

      That sounds incredibly high to me. 3000 mg is the absolute maximum intake that could ever be considered 'low' sodium. Under 1500 is usually considered ideal. Would, then, a diet aiming for half the sodium be twice as effective?

    1. RESULTS: We observed that poor sleep quality was correlated to low total BMD and legs BMD in middle-aged women after adjusting for potential confounders. Furthermore, when we reran the regression models based on menopausal status in middle-aged women, significant associations between BMD and sleep quality were observed in premenopausal and early postmenopausal groups.

      This is exactly what I expected to find. This is why I doubt that there is significant risk to high dose T3 taken in the morning. In fact, given that hypothyroidism is also associated with increased fracture, I'm inclined to think that thyroid hormones per se play no role whatsoever, but rather the downstream effects. That is to say, hyperthyroidism disturbs sleep, thus harming bones. I conclude, then, that so long as sleep quality is maintained, hyperthyroidism is plausibly safe for the bones.

  4. Nov 2019
    1. The average American adult is sleeping 6 hours and 31 minutes per night 

      Average sleep duration

    2. A tiny percentage of people have the DEC2 gene, a genetic mutation that produces a short sleeping phenotype“The probability that you are a DEC2 carrier is very low… You’re far more likely to be struck by lightning in your lifetime.” – Dr. Matthew WalkerPeople with the DEC2 gene only need ~6.25 hours of sleep per night

      A very tiny percentage of the population having the DEC2 gene is okay with sleeping only 6 hours.

  5. Oct 2019
    1. Summary: Napping
      • good siesta can double creative productivity
      • siesta should be taken 7-8 hours from natural waking
      • alarm clock undermines the value of napping
      • caffeine before the nap undermines the value of napping
      • caffeine after the nap may boost the effect of napping
      • one nap per day is optimum
      • habitual nappers improve nap quality over years of the habit
      • nap compensate slow-wave sleep needs in roughly 1:3 duration ratio
      • short night sleep may be a sign of bad health, aging, or a sign of good sleep (see: How long should we sleep?)
    2. NapNumber = 5.6 - 0.8*CoreSleep

      Nap number formula

    3. NapDuration = (SleepRequired - SleepObtained) / 3

      Nap duration formula (holds only for properly timed naps)

    4. Six naps no sleep; 4 naps one-point-five hours sleep; 3 naps three hours sleep; 2 naps four-point-five hours sleep; one nap six hours sleep*.

      PureDoxyk Law

    5. "Everyman sleep schedule". Were it not for that gravitation and a tendency to take a "core sleep", I might even suspect that the inventor of the Uberman sleep cycle suffered from a rare mutation that causes circadian arrhythmicity. People with that disorder cannot sleep well in a long block over the night and take multiple naps during the day

      Some people simply cannot sleep well in a long block over the night

    6. Even though naps provide an excellent compensation for lost sleep in the night, they cannot provide a full functional replacement. To achieve your maximum cognitive capacity, you need to run your night sleep uninterrupted until completion!

      Don't try to fully replace your night time sleep with naps!

    7. Early naps will not provide full compensation. Late naps will last longer and will shorten sleep in the following night

      Consequence of early and late naps

    8. For a nap to express its full power, the following conditions must be met (in order of importance): it should take place at the center of the midday circadian nadir (see: Best nap timing). This corresponds with Mediterranean siesta it cannot be regulated with alarm clocks, caffeine, or other sleep "tricks". Coffee naps are a good idea for people in a hurry, not for those who care about brain productivity it should be the only nap of the day (i.e. it cannot be part of a polyphasic sleep schedule) it works best in free running sleep with no sleep deficit it works best in people with no physical or mental health issues it works best in habitual nappers who improved the quality of their naps from month to month by adjusting and perfecting little details in their surroundings. Beginners are often too anxious to fall asleep

      How to correctly perform a power nap

    9. each hour of lost night sleep requires 20 min. of replacement nap time

      60 minutes of lost night sleep = 20 minutes of nap time

    10. The art of napping has the power to double creative productivity. Churchill was a famous biphasic sleeper. His naps let him squeeze two productive days into 24 hours

      Nap can let you be creative twice in 24 hours

  6. Jun 2019
    1. Sleep: What is the biological function of sleep? Why do we dream? What are the underlying brain mechanisms? What is its relation to anesthesia?

      This may be the biggest problem. What is/are the factors that increase or decrease the need to sleep? How can we push against natural fatigue and its causes? How can we give people more wakefulness / conscious life per day? (without suffering significant debuffs)

  7. Apr 2019
    1. Yup, three years later, I have the exact same problem still with my otherwise great Surface Book 1. This has made me distrust Microsoft hardware, and yes, windows machines as a whole. Especially as my previous Dell laptop was also unreliable in this regard. Such a shame, because otherwise it's a fantastic piece of kit.

  8. Feb 2019
  9. Jan 2019
    1. Clonidine is associated with diminished susceptibility to hypocapnic central apnoea without significant effect on ventilation or upper airway mechanics.

      In other words, clonidine elevates CO2. I'm not yet sure whether this is a good thing.

    1. ConclusionsThese findings suggest that in patients with HF, sodium intake plays a role in the pathogenesis of SA.

      The question remains, then, for the general population with SA.

    1. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that pharyngeal edema contributes to sleep-disordered breathing in obese patients with severe OSA, hypertension, and diastolic heart failure. Upper airway edema may contribute to the frequent occurrence of OSA in patients with heart disease.

      I suspect it also plays a role in UARS. This study probably selected people with heart failure because the fluid retention leads to a more dramatic response. Hypertension was likely a neccesary ethical consideration. Hypotension is common in UARS; therefore, one is unlikely to find a study administering diuretics to UARS patients. That leaves correlation as the only tool available to confirm this suspicion.

    1. 50 mg naltrexone at bed-time.

      Interesting. Conventional doses of naltrexone appear effective for sleep apnea. I'll be interested in seeing if LDN fairs well.

    1. So if you are tired during the day, check that you’re giving yourself the opportunity to get 7 to 9 hours.

      This is super helpful. Bold

    2. So if you are tired during the day, check that you’re giving yourself the opportunity to get 7 to 9 hours.

      This is super helpful.

  10. Nov 2018
    1. Why, though, do we not romanticize our preservation? The same matter of chance, of the fleeting nature of fate exists on the other side of the coin. What would have happened if we were better rested, if our energy was better preserved, if we managed our time and said what we really mean? Rarely do we approach whether we get eight hours of sleep with the same guilt as we do whether or not we attended a party, even when, according to sleep expert Matthew Walker, sleep deprivation prevents the brain from remembering information, creating new memories, and sustaining emotional well-being.

      A great observation!

    1. CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis confirms a medium effect (SMD = 0.62) of sleep deprivation on pain perception. As this meta-analysis is based on experimental studies in healthy subjects, the clinical relevance should be clarified.

      I'll have to look at this meta-analysis more closely, but they are likely looking at total sleep deprivation for one night, or partial sleep deprivation for one or several nights. Partial sleep deprivation tends to deprive more REM sleep via early awaking. I'd expect the greatest effect from SWS deprivation.

  11. Oct 2018
    1. SWS was generally not affected. It is concluded that beta 1 neurotransmission is directly involved in the regulation of PS.

      Full text summary: Beta 1 but not beta 2 is involved in REM sleep generation. High dose propranolol (which is not selective) practically obliterated REM sleep. Selective beta 1 agonism restored REM, while selective beta 2 agonism did not.

    1. Low BP was more prevalent in subjects with upper airway resistance syndrome (UARS) (23%) than in subjects with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) (0.06%), parasomnia (0.7%), restless leg syndrome (0.9%), or psychological insomnia (0.9%).

      That's an extremely high rate of hypotension in UARS. This may be what I have. If UARS causes hypotension, then sleep apnea (SA) may be different because of its link to obesity.

  12. Sep 2018
    1. Ritanserin, 5 mg, produced a substantially larger increase in SWS (51.4%) than either ketanserin, 20 mg (17.2%) or ketanserin, 40 mg (24.4%). Ritanserin has a significantly higher affinity than ketanserin for 5-HT2C receptor binding sites in the human brain and, based on estimates of per cent occupancy by the two compounds at brain 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors, we conclude that SWS in humans is primarily regulated by 5-HT2C receptors.

      This doesn't quite clarify the effect of 5HT2C antagonism in the absence of 5HT2A antagonism.

  13. Oct 2017
    1. Beta blockers have long been associated with sleep disturbances such as difficulty falling asleep, staying asleep, and insomnia. They have been shown to reduce the production of melatonin via specific inhibition of beta-1 adrenergic receptors. Melatonin is a hormone secreted by the pineal gland in the brain, and helps in maintaining normal circadian rhythms.6,20-21 People with hypertension already have a lower melatonin production rate than those with normal blood pressure.22

      The question becomes, then, do beta blockers impair sleep when exogenous melatonin is administered concurrently?

  14. Feb 2016
    1. To test this notion, a recent study investigated the consequences of perturbing slow wave activity. During sleep, EEG was used to record the ongoing brain activity. When slow wave activity increased above a certain threshold, a device started to play sounds. These sounds served to reduce the slow wave activity. After sleep the brain activation following the recall of memories recently acquired was tested. The study demonstrated that MTL activation probed by the memory recall was reduced following the slow wave intervention (Van Der Werf et al., 2009). Using this type of BSDS, it was concluded that slow wave sleep is causally related to memory formation.