146 Matching Annotations
  1. Nov 2023
    1. the overwhelming majority of our time is spent looking down and as we should have talked about in previous videos we really care about 00:03:57 the hinges that you place in your spine so if you're on a laptop or looking down on your phone there's generally a hinge that we put into our neck and keep it there for a period of time and that 00:04:09 section and it can be right at the top if we're looking at you we've down or it can be lowered down if we're hinging down a lot more towards more of a 90-degree angle the longer in those shapes and the average American at 00:04:22 least can sit you know 10 to 14 hours a day particularly in today's climate without raising an eyebrow it can be just a simple thing that we do and if that's sitting down looking down is a 00:04:33 constant thing then what happens is we take that overloaded tissue to bed and sleep is our recovery time
      • for: BEing journey - unconscious body posture - sleep impacts
    1. hypoglossal nerve stimulator
      • for: sleep apnea - treatment - surgical implant

      • treatment: sleep apnea

        • surgical implant
        • for moderate to severe cases
        • hypoglossal nerve stimulator
    2. two Dental devices
      • for: sleep apnea - treatment - dental devices

      • treatment: sleep apnea

        • dental devices
        • for moderate sleep apnea
          • mandibular advancement splint
          • tongue retaining device
    3. CPAP
      • for: sleep apnea - treatment - CPAP air pressure machine
    4. if you've got atrial fibrillation which is an irregular heartbeat highly recommend testing for obstructive sleep apnea
      • for: sleep apnea - symptoms - irregular heartbeat
    5. when you have sleep apnea this is something that is called dipping and non-dipping people who have no apnea in the blue notice 00:07:11 what happens their blood pressures go down at nights here in the 3 A.M to 6 a.m goes down at night they're systolic and diastolic but the people who have apnea they don't get the benefit of that dipping they're not getting the benefit 00:07:25 of rest at night it's because of sympathetic nervous system activity
      • for: sleep apnea - blood pressure comparison, dipping vs nondipping

      • interesting fact: sleep apnea

        • dipping and non-dipping
        • normal person relaxes blood pressure at night (dipping)
        • sleep apnea patient has elevated blood pressure at night (non-dipping)
    6. in a normal person this is what their sympathetic nervous 00:06:45 system activity looks like and people with sleep apnea who are having these difficulties at night this is what their sympathetic nervous system looks like during the day when they're actually not having apnea it's because it's ramped up 00:06:57 and this is a problem that causes their blood pressure to not be able to relax
      • for: sleep apnea - sympathetic nervous system - comparison
    7. when we're looking here at sleep apnea we're looking at these bars here and you can see that people with 00:06:21 sleep apnea the most likely time for them to die is between midnight and six o'clock in the morning and you can imagine why that would be
      • for: stats - sleep apnea - most likely time to die

      • stats: sleep apnea

        • most likely to die between midnight and 6am
    8. let's take a look at everything here before the purple line
      • for: sleep apnea - graph

      • graph: sleep apnea

        • incredible how many times our breathing is obstructed!
    9. sometimes this 00:04:37 can happen up to a hundred times in an hour that means at least once a minute or more maybe even twice a minute that this is happening you can expect that people are not going to get very good sleep with this
      • for: stats - sleep apnea cycle

      • stats: sleep apnea cycle

        • can happen up to 100 times an hour!
    10. polysomnography
      • for: polysomnograph, oxygen saturation levels, graph - sleep apnea, sleep apnea - monitoring

      • description: sleep apnea oxygen saturation process

        • oxygen saturation cycles through the night with peaks and troughs
        • abdominal movement attempts to draw air in but is obstructed
        • when a threshold of oxygen deprivation occurs, the brain wakes up and awakens the person to remove the obstruction
    11. they wake up in 00:02:31 the morning with headaches they don't feel well rested they fall asleep very easily while not really being engaged or it could be very subtle things like fibromyalgia body aches low energy
      • for: sleep apnea - symptoms

      • symptoms: sleep apnea

        • waking up in middle of night gasping for air
        • wake up in morning with headache
        • wake up not feeling well-rested and low energy
        • fibromyalgia
        • body aches
    12. typically men more than women when they gain weight tend to store fat in their tongue and so 00:01:55 their tongues will swell you can see that really nicely on MRI actually because fat shows up as basically white tissue on MRI the other thing is that men's Airways are larger and so because of the law of Laplace which we don't 00:02:07 have time to get into larger Airways are more collapsible and so they're easier to close off with pressure placed on the outside so that's why men are typically more at risk for obstructive sleep apnea 00:02:18 but women are also at risk for sleep apnea especially after menopause
      • for: sleep apnea - enlarged tongue in overweight men, sleep apnea - post menopause in women, sleep apnea - increased risk - overweight men, sleep apnea - increased risk - post menopause women

      • increased risk: sleep apnea

        • men: overweight
        • women - post menopause
      • for: sleep apnea - silent reflux connection

      • summary

        • this natural doctor applies nutrition to resolve sleep apnea and silent reflux problem
    1. every person who got apnea got to be on vitamin d vitamin d makes a tremendous change for so many different 00:24:20 chemical changes in our entire body uh it affects you not only our immune system because you know we look at covet they you know they found like eight over eighty percent of every covert case had deficiency of vitamin d so you think about if your immune system 00:24:33 is weakened that means other systems are weakened which what does the immune system do it keeps away inflammation you see it's all tied together it's so important so now you say why do i need vitamin d well how much are you in the 00:24:46 sun as we get older we're just not in the sun all that much and oh i eat healthy you're not getting it from you're not from your food you need to supplement
      • for: sleep apnea - treatment - vitamin D
    2. for people who have this sleep apnea you may want to start taking a little more magnesium because magnesium what does it do it relaxes it causes the vessel to relax cause the muscles to relax causes all the tissues 00:21:22 to relax and basically when you're getting that apnea things are closing okay so magnesium has been a huge huge change in the research right now so uh you know my favorite magnesiums you know 00:21:34 you have the citrate you have you have the the glycinates those are the best that absorb so i would it was me that's what i would get on uh and try the magnesium because you know sometimes when we just make a little bitty change 00:21:47 it can go a long way because you know unfortunately in the medical field they're not really tuned into nutrition
      • for: sleep apnea - treatment - magnesium, magnesium citrate, magnesium glycinate
    3. as you start taking weight off number one the weight because as you lose weight you lose 00:16:50 weight in here too i promise you if you are overweight anyone is over 15 pounds overweight you will see a tremendous difference in your sleep apnea it will start getting better and better and better
      • for: sleep apnea causes - overweight
    4. for those people who have sleep apnea try gargling with salt water before you 00:14:31 go to bed you may be amazed 40 50 percent of you may say the next morning i don't know what the heck happened but guess what salt water 00:14:42 reduces inflammation so gargling with salt water can be a cure for many of those conditions
      • for: sleep apnea - potential treatment - gargling salt water to reduce inflammation, sleep apnea - potential treatment - eliminate sugar
    5. if you have those symptoms like you're always clearing your throat or you're getting that tickle in your 00:11:47 throat or you're getting that post nasal drip it's not science it's not your sinus most of the time if you're having sleep apnea because that acid if you just tuned in with us that acid is making its way up while you're sleeping 00:11:59 most of the time these symptoms happen at night okay and you can get the residual during the day and you're waking up like you're always doing that i can guarantee that the majority of you you're going to have silent reflex that silent reflex is 00:12:13 affecting your breathing
      • for health - sleep apnea - silent acid reflux connection

      • health - sleep apnea - silent reflux connection

        • if you have sleep apnea and you are experiencing post nasal drip, coughing, clearing throat etc, that is the acid coming up from your stomach and obstructing breathing
    6. the ringo pharyngeal reflux
      • for: health - sleep apnea, sleep apnea - acid reflux - laryngopharyngeal reflux, sleep apnea - slient reflux connection

      • comment

        • symptoms
          • sleep apnea, silent reflux, post nasal drip, coughing,
  2. Aug 2023
    1. Ten minutes before sleep, do the following: PRAY

      It's a combination of visualization, commitment, and meditation

      Request the subconscious through this act of prayer.

      Also visualize the outcome and process of that which you aspire to do the following day, and even that which you want to achieve the following month(s). Thus, visualize the following: Big Picture, Milestones, and yourself the next day.

    2. In the morning, process your subconscious state by instead of immediately inputting, you start outputting!

      This can be done through journaling.

    3. Put the phone on airplane mode (in addition to blocking blue light) before sleep, for quite some time before sleep, in order to avoid (over)stimulation and the creation of dopamine which negatively impacts (falling a)sleep

    4. What is done right before and right after sleep sets the stage for literally everything.

      How you do anything is how you do everything.

    1. Ideally in the evening, before sleep, do some activity or activities that turn off the mind. You want to relax and stop thinking so much.

      Interestingly enough, forgiveness, or the act of forgiving makes relaxing easy. So, if you have someone, or even yourself, to forgive... Do this right before going to sleep :)

    2. Apparently, cold shower for roughly 3-4 minutes (rather than a hot shower) before sleep are helpful for sleep, as it decreases the core body temperature.

    3. When you wake up, get sunlight in. Andrew Huberman also advocates for that. It tells the brain and body to wake up. It creates cortisol.

      Can be combined with movement/exercise as well which also increases sleep quality. (Movement should not to be too late, however.)

    1. Apparently, some Magnesiums can help with deep sleep.

      Author takes 400mg.

    2. It is important to block blue light in the evening. Blue light sends signals to your body to be awake.

    3. One of the things to optimize sleep is to take care of meal timing. Author eats: - Breakfast at 8 - Lunch at noon (12) - Dinner between 5 and 6.30

      Discipline and consistency is important here.

      Essential is to eat dinner 3+ hours before you go to sleep.

      Food increases core body temperature which negatively impacts sleep.

  3. Jul 2023
    1. we're beginning to demonstrate is that actually contrary to our perceptions Consciousness does not become annihilated just because a person has just died and in fact Consciousness 00:04:49 appears to continue at least in the first period the early period of death the first minutes or hours after death
      • claim with evidence

        • Consciousness does not become annihilated just because a person has just died
        • Consciousness appears to continue at least in the first period the early period of death the first minutes or hours after death
        • Explanation
          • death is a biological process
          • when you stop blood flow to brain cells they undergo certain changes and will eventually become damaged
          • however the first thing that happens is that you stop oxygen delivery to the areas inside the core of the brain that modulate your sense of being awake and alert
          • the reticulate activating system various other parts and so it's very similar to the effect of giving a general anesthetics to somebody
          • if you give a high enough dose of general anesthetic to a patient or person then you basically shut down those areas of the brain
          • the person's consciousness looks like it's lost
          • it flips out of sight but we wouldn't say that person's Consciousness has become annihilated forever
          • we just realize it's gone temporarily and so when people first die what's happening is that oxygen is stopping to those parts of the brain and it's essentially taking Consciousness out of you and making it disappear but it doesn't necessarily disappear Forever
      • comment

        • could this be the reason in Tibetan Buddhism, there is the Thukdam meditation practice as well as dream yoga practice?
  4. May 2023
    1. Every evening fill out 3 wins for the day.  Sleep scientists have discovered that when you reflect on the positive things that happened during your day before you go to bed, you fall asleep faster and have a more restful sleep.

      via: https://www.3x5life.com/pages/about

      Where is the specific research reference to back up this claim?

    1. Summary - a growing body of research suggests that - the reasons we sleep is far more fundamental than simply neurological - and far more widespread - experiments with a wide range of neurologically primitive organisms did that they possess behavioural characteristics of sleep - this suggests that sleep may have evolved fire reasons of cellular metabolism

  5. Mar 2023
  6. Feb 2023
    1. The effects of four reference antihistamines: ketotifen, diphenhydramine, chlorpheniramine and pyrilamine and of astemizole, a new potent and long-acting antihistamine, were studied on 16 hr sleep-wakefulness patterns in the same dogs. Using a computer-based on-line analysis and automatic stage classification, a differentiation was made between wakefulness, transition to sleep (drowsiness), slow wave sleep and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. The reference antihistamines significantly increased non-REM sleep. The reference antihistamines significantly increased non-REM sleep: diphenhydramine and chlorpheniramine increased drowsiness, ketotifen increased slow-wave sleep and pyrilamine increased both. All, but astemizole, significantly prolonged the latency to the first REM period, prolonged the interval between successive REM periods and suppressed the total amount of REM sleep. With all antihistamines, the effects were most pronounced for the first 4 hr and there was no within-night rebound. Chlorpheniramine had long-lasting effects throughout the night, especially on REM sleep. The effects on non-REM sleep might be due to a blockage of brain histamine H1 receptors, whereas the effects on REM sleep might be due to the anticholinergic properties of the antihistamines. Astemizole was devoid of any significant effect on the sleep-wakefulness pattern, in spite of its long-lasting antihistamine effects, suggesting that the common clinical side-effects of antihistamines, such as sedation and dryness of mucosal surfaces, will be lacking.

      It may be worth exploring the improvements on non-REP sleep, particularly if they are increasing slow wave (deep) sleep. This is particularly true, since newer generations of antihistamines aren't anticholinergic.

    1. It’s different for everyone. I have found it to be amazing. It has given me energy, drive, motivation, euphoria, happiness, mood enhancement, and more endurance. It also makes music super awesome to listen to, with a physical and mental high. The difference bw this and any benzo is that they target different things. Benzodiazepines target a binding point found on certain GABA-A receptors and it enhances GABA by modulating it (increasing GABA’s overall effectiveness and activity), and there are more than one binding points that benzodiazepines can bind to (BZD1, BZD2, etc) that cause different effects like sedation, hypnotic, muscle relaxation, anxiolytic, etc. Phenibut is a moderately mild-average GABA-B receptor agonist, meaning it can boost the amount of GABA released. It’s main effects come from it being like a gabapentinoid, which means it also binds to the GABA-B calcium channels and blocks them. This causes different signals to happen due to the channels being open or closed. Because of this, and because Phenibut isn’t identical to gabapentin or pregabalin (both gabapentinoids), it causes different signals to influence other neurotransmitters. It can be said that it causes a boost of dopamine as well as natural endorphins. It has a more stimulating effect at the right doses than any benzo, which is more sedating. Benzos only modulate GABA at the GABA-A receptor sites, but Phenibut can sometimes activate both GABA-B and GABA-A, giving a unique effect as well. The people who use it recreationally enjoy the body and mental high as well as the increase in sociability since a lot of people take it for social anxiety and going to parties so they can be more talkative and outgoing. Phenibut can also be used for insomnia and sleep issues. It is very effective in my experience. I have chronic insomnia and even with sleep meds I still wake up a bunch of times a night. Phenibut has allowed me to sleep thru the entire night once except I did wake up after the sun came up around 7am because I had to pee really badly. Otherwise, I went right back to sleep. I also noticed I can feel more refreshed on less sleep, which is good if you are a parent to young children who get up super early. Another use that is interesting is using it before exercise and going to the gym to work out. Phenibut can give you more endurance and enjoyment doing exercise, so you benefit more from each workout. This could be from the increased release of endorphins. This is one thing I really enjoy doing myself and have noticed really great benefits as well as it putting me in a real motivated state and mood and I feel like I could workout forever it seems! I definitely notice the difference when I go to the gym without taking it (because I am taking a break from it to lower tolerance). One thing to keep in mind is once you find the ideal therapeutic dose, you won’t get the same effects every time you take it if you use it every day. Tolerance to some of the actions like euphoria and body high tend to disappear. This is why a lot of users suggest taking it only 1–3 days a week MAXIMUM. It is possible to become dependent on Phenibut, but the withdrawal is not supposed to be as intense and life-threatening like benzos are (due to seizures, etc). A high dose is considered anything more than 2g/day. Therapeutic doses can be as low as 250–750mg/day. Considering this is a prescription medication used in Russia, it does have some psychiatric use. People taking therapeutic doses are less likely to have extreme reactions or build rapid tolerance to Phenibut. There are some people who take Phenibut from unreliable sources that claim they do not feel anything on it that is noticeable even at high doses for a first time (1g-2g). It’s just like some people do not respond to certain benzodiazepines (one seems to work the best for different people as well as what kind of dose is needed), as well as SSRIs, which all are selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, because each one may be selective to different subtypes of serotonin (5HT) receptors, which are quite numerous, each one and its variations seem to do different things. Some people don’t respond to SSRIs at all (2/3 of people apparently according to statistics), but the rest that do respond find that they really have helped them and changed their lives by boosting their moods, etc. Are you going to feel Phenibut the first time you take it? Since it is not controlled in the USA, for example, it is sold as a “supplement” or found on “nootropic” websites. There are a lot of good vendors out there just like there are a lot of bad ones do to the supplement field being so uncontrolled compared to prescription drugs, which are controlled and regulated by the FDA & DEA to be a certain level of purity. So if you get a bad batch, you may find yourself feeling nothing. But if you get a good batch (I’ve found at least 2 that I would definitely call awesome supplement/nootropic suppliers online), you should be more inclined to feel something at least, unless you are one of those genetic exceptions that don’t benefit from this type of agonist/channel blocking. Be sure to start lower dose and if you don’t feel anything in 4 hours at least, then you could try another dose. But really don’t go overboard thinking a huge dose will be good for you. Some people report getting nauseous, overly sleepy, and having other reactions you don’t want. You don’t want to pass out and wake up having to throw up over and over. Don’t mix it with alcohol, as alcohol tends to modulate GABA in various ways as well as some other neurotransmitters and hormones. They can create a combined effect. Interestingly, some people use Phenibut to give them the same desired effects of alcohol (ability to socialize, being more talkative and clever, going out with friends to have fun at a club or whatever, etc) without the messiness of it (getting drunk, dizzy, nauseous, throwing up, headaches, sour stomach, hangovers, etc). Be sure to respect it like you would any prescription medication, since it is one in certain Countries, even if it is just a supplement in yours. Proper titration of the ideal dose as well as cycling (taking days off or even taking a break for a while from all use) are really important. These can affect the potency of Phenibut each time you use it.
  7. Jan 2023
    1. ProPublica recently reported that breathing machines purchased by people with sleep apnea are secretly sending usage data to health insurers, where the information can be used to justify reduced insurance payments.

      !- surveillance capitalism : example- - Propublica reported breathing machines for sleep apnea secretly send data to insurance companies

    1. I stayed up each night until the problem was released (11pm my time), but I didn’t try to code up the solution right away. Instead, I read the problem description before bed and then thought about how to solve it while falling asleep. I usually woke up every morning with a full sketch of the solution in my head, or something close to it.

      Sleep tactic for solving programming challenges

  8. Dec 2022
  9. Nov 2022
  10. Aug 2022
  11. May 2022
    1. The phone will try to go into deep sleep as soon as the screen is turned off. If it wakes up to process an interrupt then it will go back into deep sleep as soon as possible. If you come from a Linux background like me, it's hard to adjust to the idea that during normal operation, the phone is constantly dropping in and out of suspend.


  12. Feb 2022
    1. Do they perform better or worse in the long-term on cognitive tests? Do they have more or less inflammation? Do they need less recovery sleep over time?

      this is a great question - reminder to self to do more research on this

    2. Someone in r/BipolarReddit asked: How many do you sleep when stable vs (hypo)manic? Depressed?

      While this is interesting analysis, I wonder if it's close to the best data we have on this.

      Personally as a bipolar person, I can say this definitely correlates with my experience! You could maybe add my experience to the data: + Severe mania - 0-3 hours avg (often in involuntary naps) + Hypomania - 1-5 hours avg (w/ all-nighters) + Elevated/sub-hypomania - 5 hours avg + Stable - 6-8 hours avg + Depressive - 8-10 hours avg + Severe depression - 10-16 hours avg

    3. Think about sleep 10,000 ago.

      while this is a good list and a valuable thought experiment, it also misses the features that made sleep 10,000 years ago easier and more effective: + Far better diets on average than Western person + No blue light / constant digital stimulation + Extremely active lifestyles with lots of exercise, makes sleep easier + Natural attunement to circadian rhythms that comes with waking up & sleeping w/ dusk & dawn + Lower stress and lower levels of psychopathology on average? Better resilience to stress? + Other things

      This may explain why we "need" the hyper-comfortable modern sleep, more than we used to need it

    4. Modern sleep, in its infinite comfort, is an unnatural superstimulus that overwhelms our brains with pleasure

      This sounds a bit hyperbolic, unlikely a scientific paper would use this language. Also unclear what it means for brains to be "overwhelmed with pleasure," or what objective scientific criteria for what shows something is a "superstimulus" are.

    1. Nursing professionals are facing with severe sleep problems during the covid 19 pandemic time. Nurses were asked to work in an environment that had a more increased level of risk than ever before. Depression and anxiety from the workplace could affect the confidence of healthcare workers in themselves as well as general trust in the healthcare system. This will lead to their turnover intention which may undermine the efforts of the governments to control the COVID-19 pandemic. The rising concern may change the working schedules of healthcare workers, offering more occupational healthcare support.

  13. Jan 2022
  14. Dec 2021
    1. In contrast, short afternoon naps at the workplace improved an overall index of outcomes by 0.12 standard deviations, with significant increases in productivity, psychological well-being, and cognition, but a decrease in work time.

      Short afternoon naps at the workplace lead to significant increases in productivity, psychological well-being and cognition. In contrast, an extra 30 minutes sleep at night shows no similar improvements. [Pedro Bessone]

  15. Nov 2021
    1. Seeing this, long-suffering great Odysseus was happy,and lay down in the middle, and made a pile of leaves over him.

      What was the Greek for "happy" here? Despite all of the foregoing descriptions of exhaustion and his history of "long-suffering" Odysseus is "happy" for a rest in the least of possibly dangerous and lethal surroundings.

      Even the idea of sleep on travel is life-threatening to Odysseus here.

    2. As when a man buries a burning log in a black ash heapon the island of the Phaiakiansin a remote place in the country, where none live near as neighbors, 490and saves the seed of fire, having no other place to get a light from, soOdysseus buried himself in the leaves, and Athene shed a sleep on his eyesso as most quickly to quit him,by veiling his eyes, from the exhaustion of his hard labors.

      Wonderful analogy, particularly given the value of storing the heat and spark of fire in the wilderness at the time of the poem's composition.

      This is an interesting use of the verb "to quit". I'm curious what the sense of the original Greek was. Who/what is quitting who/what?

      Also interesting given his weakened state that he would need the help of Athene to fall asleep.

  16. Oct 2021
    1. Sleep was then impaired during withdrawal, as indicated by decreased duration and poorer subjective quality, being worst on the 3rd withdrawal night.

      My guess is that this is caused by a sleep surplus. I'd analogize it to the CBT-i recommendation to avoid napping because it will impair sleep drive that night.

  17. Sep 2021
    1. All individual parameters (Items 1 to 8) were also significantly improved from baseline after 6 weeks of IQP-AO-101 intake. Analysis of variance with baseline values as covariates showed statistically significant improvements across all individual parameters for IQP-AO-101 when compared to placebo.

      That's quite impressive. It's worth noting that benefits accrued throughout the entire study duration. There's likely further benefits over longer durations. I take the benefit to be from antioxidants.

    1. ethodists, the Evangelicals took up the theme. Hannah More contributed her own imperishable lines on "Early Rising": Thou silent murderer, Sloth, no more My mind imprison'd keep; Nor let me waste another hour With thee, thou felon Sleep.10

      The number of quotes and passages here makes me wonder what his sources were and how he came to them?

      Did he keep a commonplace book and collect references on time? Find them via other's or from published collections? The number and types of them, particularly in the non-technical literature he's citing makes me think that something like a commonplace pattern is being leveraged here.

    2. ties. So also is "that slothful spending the Morning in Bed": The necessity of early rising would reduce the poor to a necessity of going to Bed betime; and thereby prevent the Danger of Midnight revels. Early rising would also "introduce an exact Regularity into their Families, a wonderful Order into their Oeconomy". The catalogue is

      I wonder what effects this shift in time and industry had on causing the disappearance of the idea of first and second sleeps?

      Cross reference: https://www.sciencealert.com/humans-used-to-sleep-in-two-shifts-maybe-we-should-again

    1. sildenafil and vardenafil, caused a significant improvement in sleep quality and depression in this cohort of HD patients with ED.

      These are the effects I was expecting to find. cGMP plays a role in SCN nighttime signalling, though I expect it has other mechanisms as well.

  18. Aug 2021
    1. No significant differences were found for HRV in SCHypo. No association was found between HRV and SCHyper or SCHypo compared to euthyroid subjects in this sample of apparently healthy subjects.

      This confirms that thyroid function probably lacks any (direct) effect sleep. Of course, not this evidence alone, but rather this combined with "Effects of Supraphysiological Doses of Levothyroxine on Sleep in Healthy Subjects: A Prospective Polysomnography Study"

    1. In both healthy and insomnia subjects, there was a significant improvement in the sleep parameters in the Ashwagandha root extract supplemented group. The improvement was found more significant in insomnia subjects than healthy subjects.

      Benefits accrued throughout the 8 weeks. I recall reading on Longecity forum that ashwagandha takes a month for benefits to kick in. This study demonstrates that benefits continue to increase over two months. I suspect they continue even further than that.

      Interestingly, this is pretty similar to the two placebo controlled studies on antioxidants for sleep. Thus, I wonder of the benefits of ashwaganha extract are largely antioxidant capacity. This would be a bit surprising because the ORAC of dried ashwaganda is just slightly above raw pinto beans. Based on the recommended doses, the extract isn't vastly more potent than the whole root. Though, this comment saying that the Withanolide/Withaferin A (edit: withaferin A is purportedly cytotoxic) reside mostly in the leaves has greatly confused me. Either the extract has more antioxidant activity than I realize (directly or indirectly), or the benefits come primarily from the purported mechanisms of ashwagandha (which include cortisol reduction and GABAergic activity). Edit: the full text mentions a 15 to 1 extract ratio, which is enough to put the antioxidant mechanism back on the table. It's probably a partial explanation, but after seeing the full text I think the benefits are too great to be simply from antioxidants.

      I see no mention of the time of day of administration. I'm assuming it was in the morning, which contrasts with the near bedtime dosing in the antioxidant studies. If I later find out that antioxidants in the morning don't help with sleep, then that will suggest ashwagandha works by other mechanisms. However, I expect antioxidants at any time of day help with sleep. Nonetheless, I'm not discounting that ashwagandha may work by other mechanisms.

    1. Conclusions: Chronic vitamin E administration improves the ratio of cardiac sympathetic to parasympathetic tone in patients with type 2 diabetes. Such an effect might be mediated by a decline in oxidative stress.

      This is plausibly the reason why antioxidants enhance sleep. Though it is likely that there are other mechanisms as well, such as reduced neuroinflammation. Come to think of it, given that ME/CFS appears to be caused by high sympathetic tone during sleep, antioxidants are the perfect treatment. Antioxidants are proven in placebo-controlled trials to help with sleep in healthy subjects and insomniacs alike. I doubt that antioxidants can cure ME/CFS, but I'm confident they will help.

  19. Jul 2021
    1. ConclusionThere is autonomic dysfunction in children with ADHD - reduction in overall HRV with sympathovagal imbalance with sympathetic dominance.

      Unsurprising. This supports my hypothesis that ADHD is a sleep disorder. This hypothesis should hold sound regardless of EEG. That said, I also expect to find EEG disturbance during sleep in ADHD.

    1. Desperate for rest in a frenzied world, at least 8.6 million Americans take prescription sleeping pills to catch some Zzzs, according to the first federal health study to focus on actual use.Between 2005 and 2010, about 4 percent of U.S. adults aged 20 and older popped popular prescription drugs such as Lunesta and Ambien in the previous month, say government researchers who tracked 17,000 people to their homes and peered into their medicine cabinets.

      8.6m americans. 4% of population 20 and older

  20. Jun 2021
    1. Anne: And how long have you been back?Mike: Since October. So like eight, nine months, right? October, November, December.Anne: So what is it like here?Mike: I can't say it's been bad, but it's really hard to try to adjust to everything. My kids are the thing that really hits me. It’s the hardest at night—just knowing that you used to sleep everyday with them in your bed. And just when you're alone in that bed, just thinking about everything, that's when it really hits you. It just like bop right in the face.

      Return to Mexico, Challenges, Family separation

  21. May 2021
    1. Franceschini, C., Musetti, A., Zenesini, C., Palagini, L., Pelosi, A., Quattropani, M. C., Lenzo, V., Freda, M. F., Lemmo, D., Vegni, E., Borghi, L., Saita, E., Cattivelli, R., De Gennaro, L., Plazzi, G., Riemann, D., & Castelnuovo, G. (2020). Poor quality of sleep and its consequences on mental health during COVID-19 lockdown in Italy [Preprint]. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/ah6j3

  22. Apr 2021
    1. In seven out of the eleven subjects in whom core body temperature could be sampled, the nadir of body temperature was advanced during L-T4 intake by 15 minutes to 270 minutes.

      This supports my speculation from another study, found here.

    1. Using this data, a large international team was able to pinpoint 114 specific loci – locations in the human genome – that contribute to risk of both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, and four genome regions that contribute to differences in the biology of the two disorders.

      This is exactly what I expected. In fact, I would have been extremely surprised if this weren't the case. I just google "schizophrenia bipolar genes" expecting this result.

      I had the thought a few minutes ago, and google it right away. This means that I wasn't able to write it down as a prediction. Nonetheless, I think this points in favor of my prediction abilities. My confidence was inordinately high (i.e. on the order of 90%) even before collecting any evidence. Compare that to other high confidence beliefs (e.g. CFS is caused partly by blood volume), for which I have confidence on the order of 95%, but I have good evidence for that belief. Thus, this instance provides data that my confidence meter is reliable. I'll continue to make an effort to write down predictions ahead of time (to eliminate publication bias).

      There are several reasons I suspected this would be the case. Firstly, personal subjective experience; that's what gave me the first inkling. Secondly, the connection of mania with long periods of sleeplessness. If the sleep deprivation causes the mania, then bipolar may be a sleep disorder. This is backed up by the sleep deprivation therapy for depression. Additionally, the connection of depression to sleep disturbance implies that sleep may also be causal in low mood. Furthermore, given that schizophrenia is associated with disrupted sleep spindles, it follows that the two sleep disorders, namely schizophrenia and bipolar, may be closely related genetically (via sleep regulating genes). Moreover, I knew that schizophrenia and bipolar were two of the most heritable psychological conditions; given that both are highly genetic and both involve sleep, it follows that they would likely be closely linked. Finally, I know mania can be associated with delusions, so there are several symptom crossovers. All in all, it is highly surprising that I have not seen this discussed before. Neither documentaries on schizophrenia nor documentaries on manic depression/bipolar have mentioned a link. Nor have studies I've read (admittedly few on this particular topic) mentioned anything of the sort. I shall have to look through the literature to see if this idea has been around for long.

    1. Exercise can tackle symptoms of schizophrenia

      Not only am I unsurprised by this, but I'd be surprised if it were otherwise. The logic is that schizophrenia is a sleep disorder, and exercise enhances sleep. Additionally, lack of movement is one of the negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Therefore, this poverty of movement may play a role in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia symptoms.

      I need to start a google search document with predictions prior to actually searching. It will slow down my research speed, but it is necessary in order to provide unbiased data on my intuitive understanding of diseases. It seems like the majority of my strong intuitions are true. Edit: I'll just record the search phrase in my hypothes.is notes. This one was "exercise schizophrenia"

  23. Mar 2021
    1. People diagnosed with REM sleep behaviour syndrome have an increased risk of developing Parkinson's disease.

      According to this statement, those who are diagnosed with RME sleep behavior syndrome have an increased risk of developing Parkinson’s disease. A number of questions arise from this statement.

      • What are the characteristics of REM sleep behavior syndrome? How does it manifest itself? How often does it manifest itself? Do those individuals in which it manifests itself more frequently have an increased chance of developing Parkinson’s disease?
      • What is the neurological mechanism that is causing REM sleep behavior syndrome? Is the mechanism that is causing this the actual cause of the reduction of dopamine production that is characteristic of Parkinson’s disease?
  24. Feb 2021
    1. Scientists break through the wall of sleep to the untapped world of dreams
      • Neuroscientists achieve the unthinkable - talking to someone who’s asleep, and they’ve already done it with several people.
      • Cross-national research team demonstrated two-way communication with lucid dreamers in the REM (rapid eye movement) sleep phase.
      • Eye movements generate current, which is recorded by electrodes placed around the eyes, and the signals are translated to dialogue.
      • Studying the mind during sleep used to be limited to people telling stories about their dreams after waking up, so this is a big gamechanger.
      • Psychology experiments with sleeping people are now possible, and it could greatly enhance our understanding of consciousness and the mind’s abilities.
    1. 'Night owls' may be twice as likely as morning 'larks' to underperform at work
      • Whether you perform best in the morning or evening depends on your chronotype - ‘larks’ work early, ‘night owls’ work late.
      • Because night owls go to sleep later but have to get up early with everyone else, they incur sleep debt and need catch-up sleep on non-work days, which is bad for health.
      • To explore this, researchers used data from a 1966 Finland birth cohort study, initially consisting of 12,058 children.
      • At age 46, 2672 men and 3159 women from the study were questioned about their chronotypes in 2012, and monitored for 4 years afterwards.
      • Compared to larks, owls had worse ratings for variables related to sleep and health, and were twice more likely to underperform at work.
  25. Jan 2021
    1. Nonetheless, enhancement of cannabinergic function may not be the only mechanism by which OA alters sleep, as it can act synergistically with subthreshold doses of triazolam (0.125 μg) to reduce sleep latency.

      I'm moderately certain that cannabinoid receptor agonism is not the primary mechanism. However, I'll need to check whether THC synergizes with benzos to see if their logic holds up. I bet it doesn't follow (meaning I expect THC to synergize).

  26. Dec 2020
    1. In contrast, ritanserin did not impair driving performance or affect objectively measured daytime sleepiness, while subjects reported to feel more alert during daytime.

      Fascinating. This increased subjective alertness is probably due to enhanced sleep.

    1. blue light has been found to have the strongest impact on your natural production of melatonin, filtering it out when you’re using devices at night can make it easier to fall asleep, according to a recent study published in the Journal of Applied Psychology. But even here, experts see a more mundane connection between devices and comfort: “Most of the negative impact of electronics on sleep and on your circadian clock is not due to the light. It’s due to the fact that these things are engineered to keep you awake and entertained and engaged in what you’re doing for an extended period of time,”

      Finding it hard to sleep might be either because of the blue light or the psychological effect of screens on us

  27. Nov 2020
  28. Oct 2020
    1. Rather than the night before a quiz or exam, it may be more important to sleep well for the duration of the time when the topics tested were taught. The implications of these findings are that, at least in the context of an academic assessment, the role of sleep is crucial during the time the content itself is learned, and simply getting good sleep the night before may not be as helpful.
    1. Daydreaming at Work Can Fuel Creativity

      Summary of the article:

      • We spend nearly half of each day daydreaming, and usually think that it’s a bad thing, but it turns out that highly demanding tasks make us daydream more.
      • It allows us to turn off our surroundings, and can be a way of imagining solutions to the problem at hand.
      • To find this out, researchers did two studies of employees and managers in South America, including mainly surveys about daydreaming.
      • Daydreaming turned out to happen more when the tasks required a lot of focus - it can boost creative problem-solving as long as we’re personally invested in our work.
      • However, for people who don’t identify with their work, daydreaming was linked to worse performance.
    1. Why, though, do we not romanticize our preservation? The same matter of chance, of the fleeting nature of fate exists on the other side of the coin. What would have happened if we were better rested, if our energy was better preserved, if we managed our time and said what we really mean? Rarely do we approach whether we get eight hours of sleep with the same guilt as we do whether or not we attended a party, even when, according to sleep expert Matthew Walker, sleep deprivation prevents the brain from remembering information, creating new memories, and sustaining emotional well-being.

      A great observation!

  29. Sep 2020
  30. Jul 2020
    1. To facilitate the TDI protocol, an interdisciplinary team at the Media Lab designed and developed Dormio, a sleep-tracking device that can alter dreams by tracking hypnagogia and then delivering audio cues based on incoming physiological data, at precise times in the sleep cycle, to make dream direction possible. Upon awakening, a person’s guided dream content can be used to complete tasks such as creative story writing, and compared experimentally to waking thought content.

      Dormio - new device to achieve TDI protocol

    2. Previous neuroscience studies from researchers such as sleep and cognitive sciences expert Stickgold show that hypnagogia (the earliest sleep stage) is similar to the REM stage in terms of brainwaves and experience; however, unlike REM, individuals can still hear audio during hypnagogia while they dream. 

      Hypnagogia vs REM phase of your dream

    3. In a new paper, researchers from the Media Lab’s Fluid Interfaces group introduce a novel method called “Targeted Dream Incubation” (TDI). This protocol, implemented through an app in conjunction with a wearable sleep-tracking sensor device, not only helps record dream reports, but also guides dreams toward particular themes by repeating targeted information at sleep onset, thereby enabling incorporation of this information into dream content. The TDI method and accompanying technology serve as tools for controlled experimentation in dream study, widening avenues for research into how dreams impact emotion, creativity, memory, and beyond.

      TDI - new protocol to record your dreams and guide them toward particular themes

  31. Jun 2020
  32. May 2020
    1. Haight, T. A. P. A. gratefully acknowledges R. S., PsyD, psychologist, a V. clinical, Saskin, P., PhD, Breathing, clinical director of the M. P. C. for, City, S. D. in K., & sheet, M. for contributing to this fact. (n.d.). Getting a good night’s sleep. Https://Www.Apa.Org. Retrieved April 9, 2020, from https://www.apa.org/helpcenter/sleep-disorders

  33. Apr 2020
  34. Mar 2020
    1. sleep Student's Sleep Data

      Data which show the effect of two soporific drugs (increase in hours of sleep compared to control) on 10 patients.

  35. Feb 2020
    1. Surprisingly, treatment with supraphysiological doses of L-T4 did not cause significant effects on sleep architecture. However, the increase in body movements and REM density was close to reaching statistical significance.

      This is just as I expected, though I'd also be unsupervised by opposite findings. I'm yet to find why symptoms such as insomnia are so often cited for hyperthyroidism. I see a few possibilities. One is that it's very slow onset effect that takes more than 2 months to develop (personally, this seems unlikely). Another is that it only effects people with preexisting anxiety or hyper-arousal (strikes me as a likely partial explanation). A third is that it only effects people with the most extreme hyperthyroidism (also strikes me as partial explanation). Finally, it's possible that the entire thing is a myth. Authors of another study from 2011 noted that "[sleep] is being characterized as poor without further elaboration." I think it may be the case that people are just assuming patient's sleep issues are caused thyrotoxicosis because it seems like it would, when in fact only a small fraction actually are. Perhaps thyrotoxicosis even turns depressive insomnia into anxious insomnia, thereby confusing physicians.

      The next question is whether treating light to moderate hyperthyroidism would resolve insomnia. This would answer some of the above possibilities. However, I'm uninterested in severe hyperthyroidism because it is above the maximum treatment dose I commonly see, namely 500 mcg thyroxine.

  36. Jan 2020
    1. 22.3 per cent (−10.7; 95% CI, −15.6 to −5.7) in the diet group

      Interesting that the diet group worked better. I'd like to see if it's statistically significantly better than the drug group. It's also worth asking whether sodium was the only important dietary change, or if avoiding sodium caused many other dietary improvements.

    2. Sleepiness and neck circumference were significantly reduced only in the diet group (p = .007 and p < .001 for the time × group interactions, respectively).

      Fascinating. Neck circumference suggests that sodium intake may indeed be the significant dietary factor. The recommended diet wasn't even very restricted in sodium.

    1. This review evidence that adults with obstructive sleep apnea may demonstrate diminished vagal tone and higher sympathetic responsiveness.

      This seems like an obsurdly obvious prediction to me. Is also lends credence to the idea of positive feedback loops in sleep disorders, particularly insomnia. That is to say, sleep insufficiency can be expected to increase arousal rather than increase sleepiness. This is also supported by the data that sleep deprivation increases evening cortisol the following evening.

  37. Dec 2019
    1. The sodium-restricted diet group received a regimen aiming a maximum intake of 3 g of sodium per day (equivalent to 7.5 g of sodium chloride).

      That sounds incredibly high to me. 3000 mg is the absolute maximum intake that could ever be considered 'low' sodium. Under 1500 is usually considered ideal. Would, then, a diet aiming for half the sodium be twice as effective?

    1. RESULTS: We observed that poor sleep quality was correlated to low total BMD and legs BMD in middle-aged women after adjusting for potential confounders. Furthermore, when we reran the regression models based on menopausal status in middle-aged women, significant associations between BMD and sleep quality were observed in premenopausal and early postmenopausal groups.

      This is exactly what I expected to find. This is why I doubt that there is significant risk to high dose T3 taken in the morning. In fact, given that hypothyroidism is also associated with increased fracture, I'm inclined to think that thyroid hormones per se play no role whatsoever, but rather the downstream effects. That is to say, hyperthyroidism disturbs sleep, thus harming bones. I conclude, then, that so long as sleep quality is maintained, hyperthyroidism is plausibly safe for the bones.

  38. Nov 2019
    1. The average American adult is sleeping 6 hours and 31 minutes per night 

      Average sleep duration

    2. A tiny percentage of people have the DEC2 gene, a genetic mutation that produces a short sleeping phenotype“The probability that you are a DEC2 carrier is very low… You’re far more likely to be struck by lightning in your lifetime.” – Dr. Matthew WalkerPeople with the DEC2 gene only need ~6.25 hours of sleep per night

      A very tiny percentage of the population having the DEC2 gene is okay with sleeping only 6 hours.

  39. Oct 2019
    1. Summary: Napping
      • good siesta can double creative productivity
      • siesta should be taken 7-8 hours from natural waking
      • alarm clock undermines the value of napping
      • caffeine before the nap undermines the value of napping
      • caffeine after the nap may boost the effect of napping
      • one nap per day is optimum
      • habitual nappers improve nap quality over years of the habit
      • nap compensate slow-wave sleep needs in roughly 1:3 duration ratio
      • short night sleep may be a sign of bad health, aging, or a sign of good sleep (see: How long should we sleep?)
    2. NapNumber = 5.6 - 0.8*CoreSleep

      Nap number formula