69 Matching Annotations
  1. Sep 2020
  2. Aug 2020
    1. This means that while groups can generate high levels of solidarity, which can in principle be put to powerful political effect, it also becomes harder to express disagreement within the group. If, for example, an outspoken and popular member of a neighbourhood WhatsApp group begins to circulate misinformation about health risks, the general urge to maintain solidarity means that their messages are likely to be met with approval and thanks. When a claim or piece of content shows up in a group, there may be many members who view it as dubious; the question is whether they have the confidence to say as much. Meanwhile, the less sceptical can simply forward it on. It’s not hard, then, to understand why WhatsApp is a powerful distributor of “fake news” and conspiracy theories.

      Instead of positive feedback like this, is there a way to create negative feedback loops in these social media apps?

  3. Jul 2020
  4. Jun 2020
  5. May 2020
  6. Apr 2020
  7. Feb 2020
    1. Denn wer nicht dauergrinst, sondern sich mit seinen unangenehmen Gefühlen auseinandersetzt, tut seiner Psyche etwas Gutes. Das zeigen Studien von James Pennebaker, einem Psychologen an der University of Texas in Austin. Die Konfrontation mit dem Negativen solle schriftlich geschehen, rät Pennebaker. Er nennt es "expressives Schreiben". In zahlreichen Experimenten hat er festgestellt, dass dieses Schreiben, wenn es regelmäßig geschieht, Menschen nicht nur bei der Bewältigung ihrer negativen Emotionen helfen, sondern auch ihr Wohlbefinden fördern kann - und zwar langfristig.
  8. Jan 2020
  9. Nov 2019
    1. To avoid the pursuit of unproductive paths, we report here what has not worked in our hands, as well as our progress developing a method to screen the most efficient electroporation parameters for optimal DNA delivery into Prochlorococcus cells

      negative results

  10. Oct 2019
  11. Sep 2019
  12. Apr 2019
    1. Complying with these various laws could cause us to incur substantial costs or require us to change our business practices in a manner adverse to our business.
    2. Our business is subject to complex and rapidly evolving U.S. and international laws and regulations regarding privacy and data protection. Many of these laws and regulations are subject to change and uncertain interpretation and could result in claims, changes to our business practices, penalties, increased cost of operations, or declines in user growth or engagement, or otherwise harm our business.
    3. Technologies have been developed to make customizable ads more difficult or to block the display of ads altogether and some providers of online services have integrated technologies that could potentially impair the core functionality of third-party digital advertising. Most of our Google revenues are derived from fees paid to us in connection with the display of ads online. As a result, such technologies and tools could adversely affect our operating results.
    4. A number of our Other Bets initiatives are in their initial development stages, and as such, the sources of revenues from these businesses could change over time and the revenues could be volatile.
    5. We generate our advertising revenues increasingly from mobile and newer advertising formats, and the margins from the advertising revenues from these sources have generally been lower than those from traditional desktop search. Accordingly, we expect TAC paid to our distribution partners to increase due to changes in device mix between mobile, desktop, and tablet, partner mix, partner agreement terms, and the percentage of queries channeled through paid access points. We expect these trends to continue to put pressure on our overall margins.
    6. Programmatic buying has a different monetization profile than traditional advertising buying on Google properties
    7. Similarly, the Directive on Copyright in the Digital Single Market (DSM) in Europe, if passed in its proposed form, will increase the liability of large hosted platforms with respect to content uploaded by their users. It will also create a new property right in news publications that will limit the ability of online services to interact with or present such content.
    8. Our revenue growth rate could decline over time, and we anticipate downward pressure on our operating margin in the future.
    9. We and other companies in the technology industry have experienced increased regulatory scrutiny recently. For instance, various regulatory agencies are reviewing aspects of our search and other businesses.
    10. In addition, new products and services, including those that incorporate or utilize artificial intelligence and machine learning, can raise new or exacerbate existing ethical, technological, legal, and other challenges, which may negatively affect our brands and demand for our products and services and adversely affect our revenues and operating results.
    11. If we do not continue to innovate and provide products and services that are useful to users, we may not remain competitive, and our revenues and operating results could be adversely affected.
    12. Competition for qualified personnel in our industry is intense, particularly for software engineers, computer scientists, and other technical staff.
    13. We face formidable competition in every aspect of our business, particularly from companies that seek to connect people with online information and provide them with relevant advertising.
  13. Aug 2018
    1. Weber notes that according to any economic theory that posited man as a rational profit-maximizer, raising the piece-work rate should increase labor productivity. But in fact, in many traditional peasant communities, raising the piece-work rate actually had the opposite effect of lowering labor productivity: at the higher rate, a peasant accustomed to earning two and one-half marks per day found he could earn the same amount by working less, and did so because he valued leisure more than income. The choices of leisure over income, or of the militaristic life of the Spartan hoplite over the wealth of the Athenian trader, or even the ascetic life of the early capitalist entrepreneur over that of a traditional leisured aristocrat, cannot possibly be explained by the impersonal working of material forces,

      Science could learn something from this. Science is too far focused on the idealized positive outcomes that it isn't paying attention to the negative outcomes and using that to better define its outline or overall shape. We need to define a scientific opportunity cost and apply it to the negative side of research to better understand and define what we're searching for.

      Of course, how can we define a new scientific method (or amend/extend it) to better take into account negative results--particularly in an age when so many results aren't even reproducible?

  14. Mar 2018
    1. Con-servative strategies (15) serve individual careerswell but are less effective for science as a whole.Such strategies are amplified by the file drawerproblem (16): Negative results, at odds withestablished hypotheses, are rarely published,leadingto a systemic bias in published researchand the canonization of weak and sometimesfalse facts (17). More risky hypotheses may havebeen tested by generations of scientists, but onlythose successful enough to result in publicationsare known to us.

      cc @Lepou

  15. Jan 2018
  16. doc-0g-c0-docs.googleusercontent.com doc-0g-c0-docs.googleusercontent.com
    1. Reinstates the classification of mobile broadband Internet access service as a private mobile service.

      Internet used on the phone will be charged as a service fee because they are consuming more of it than other people.

  17. Sep 2017
    1. the term “trump” indicates positive feeling, something which is likely no longer true for a sizable number of Americans.

      How can these technologies account for these linguistic contingencies?

  18. Mar 2017
    1. oil and gas exploration in and around the Beaufort Sea concerns the people who live there, because they depend on the fish, seals, whales and polar bears for which the Beaufort Sea is vital habitat.

      As the ecological impact of the region is considered, it is worthy to note the group consciousness that the Alaskan natives experienced with regards to this risk. The heightened awareness of this ecological impact on the region became evident in the political activism and energy behind these local communities in the decade leading up to the project proposal. With the expanding presence of oil and gas extractive companies in the Northern Yukon and surrounding territories, a strong negative externality was exerted onto “fur-bearing creatures” and the resulting trapping lifestyle of the indigenous communities. Furthermore, the integrity of the region’s permafrost became comprised with the widespread and often times ill-measured construction of roads and conduct of industrial activity. Finally, the studied biodiversity of the Arctic region indicated that the ecosystem proved to be particularly vulnerable to the impacts of manmade industrial activity. These elements of vulnerability and danger to the Arctic region contributed to the notion that its ecosystem had become decidedly “disturbed” by the impacts of industrial development. This collective experience of a disturbed ecosystem led to the emergence of political activist groups such as Inupiat Paitot (or the “peoples heritage”), a political organization with the mission to serve all Alaskan natives against the external pressures of the oil and gas industries. As the development of a group consciousness among Alaskan natives grew, and subsequent grassroots organizations began to take on the political cause in the Arctic, national and international efforts to confront environmental science were simultaneously becoming a formalized and mainstream effort within into policy-making and industrial project consideration. Upon the initial arrival of the Mackenzie Valley Pipeline Inquiry in 1974, the stage was set for a grassroots movement against the project. In defense of an ecosystem at severe risk of damage, Alaskan natives now possessed the political and social capital necessary to bring about a concerted effort to preserve the region’s resources as well as the self-determination of indigenous communities.

      Stuhl, Andrew. Unfreezing The Arctic: Science, Colonialism, and the Transformation of Inuit Lands. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press, 2016.

  19. Jun 2016
    1. Our results suggest, as some critics argue (Holt, 1964; Sil- berman, 1970), that the information routinely given in schools -- that is, grades -- may encourage an emphasis on quanti- tative aspects of learning, depress creativity, foster fear of failure, and undermine interest. They also suggest that no such negative results ensue from the use of task-related individual- ized comments.

      Good quotation on the negative aspect of grades.



  20. Jul 2015
    1. n contrast to our initial hypothesis, the genetic deletion of HDAC6 did not reduce the weight loss or the deficits in cognitive abilities and nest-building behavior shown by R6/1 mice, and even worsened their social impairments, hypolocomotion in the Y-maze, and reduced ultrasonic vocalizations.
  21. May 2015
    1. “Unfortunately, I couldn’t find the effect,” he said. “But the worst part was that when I submitted these null results I had difficulty getting them published.

      Important point to make again in the proposal as to why negative results are difficult to publish

  22. Apr 2015
    1. Why sully a CV with papers from the ‘Journal of Failed Experiments’? Don’t we want our colleagues (and especially our competitors) to believe that we succeed at every undertaking?

      Same reason pharma hates the term: Failed drugs

    2. Thus, although the arguments in favor of small-unit publishing all seem to revolve around benefits to the community, the costs of generating these small units would fall on individual authors. If the community is to reap the benefits, then the costs to the individual authors must be driven to zero – or associated with some reward.

      Will they do it?

    3. Time spent publishing small papers is time not spent developing big ones
    4. but because journal editors are obsessively vigilant about rejecting papers that fall below a threshold of ‘novelty’, these papers become unpublishable in practical terms

      The Inglefinger rule.

  23. Nov 2013
    1. Deception, flattering, lying, deluding, talking behind the back, putting up a false front, living in borrowed splendor, wearing a mask, hiding behind convention, playing a role for others and for oneself-in short, a continuous fluttering around the solitary flame of vanity-is so much the rule and the law among men that there is almost nothing which is less comprehensible than how an honest and pure drive for truth could have arisen among them.

      Nietzsche is quick to point out extreme human flaws. Negative nancy. Really sets the tone for the reading, very dark.

  24. Sep 2013
    1. I maintain also that if you compare me with those who profess54 to turn men to a life of temperance and justice, you will find that my teaching is more true and more profitable than theirs. For they exhort their followers to a kind of virtue and wisdom which is ignored by the rest of the world and is disputed among themselves; I, to a kind which is recognized by all. They, again, are satisfied if through the prestige of their names they can draw a number of pupils into their society; I, you will find, have never invited any person to follow me, but endeavor to persuade the whole state to pursue a policy from which the Athenians will become prosperous themselves, and at the same time deliver the rest of the Hellenes from their present ills.

      Works through a negative opposition here and several other places. What might we think of this style? What does it offer?