12 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
    1. Bleuler defined schizophrenia with his four ‘A’s’, referring to the blunted Affect (diminished emotional response to stimuli); loosening of Associations (by which he meant a disordered pattern of thought, inferring a cognitive deficit), Ambivalence (an apparent inability to make decisions, again suggesting a deficit of the integration and processing of incident and retrieved information) and Autism (a loss of awareness of external events, and a preoccupation with the self and one’s own thoughts)

      I stumbled upon this accidentally. I was going to add to my prediction that schizophrenia might be related to autism, but now that I've found this I need to publish my draft.

      Edit: Here was the prediction I wrote. Copied unmodified, ensuring transparency.

      March 28, 6:15pm Prediction: Some cases of schizophrenia are being misdiagnosed as autism. I recently took a Coursera.org course on schizophrenia. The negative symptoms look similar to some autism symptoms.

      Before I look it up, there are a few other predictions I should make. Do I think schizophrenia and autism will be linked? If there’s cross-diagnosis, will this link be artificial or real? Last time I looked, people with aspergers had (more or less) normal sleep EEGs. In contrast, schizophrenia is associated with disrupted sleep spindles. I already know that schizophrenia and bipolar are genetically linked, but I don’t know what the bipolar sleep EEG looks like. That is to say, I don’t know if the lack of sleep abnormality in autism is evidence against a link to schizophrenia. All in all, I predict that there will be a real link (for example, genetic), but I have a low confidence in this prediction. The reason is that I expect there is little EEG sleep changes in bipolar, implying that there is a supra-mechanism causing all these effects; somewhat like metabolic syndrome, the same cause may manifest in different ways.

  2. Apr 2021
    1. Using this data, a large international team was able to pinpoint 114 specific loci – locations in the human genome – that contribute to risk of both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, and four genome regions that contribute to differences in the biology of the two disorders.

      This is exactly what I expected. In fact, I would have been extremely surprised if this weren't the case. I just google "schizophrenia bipolar genes" expecting this result.

      I had the thought a few minutes ago, and google it right away. This means that I wasn't able to write it down as a prediction. Nonetheless, I think this points in favor of my prediction abilities. My confidence was inordinately high (i.e. on the order of 90%) even before collecting any evidence. Compare that to other high confidence beliefs (e.g. CFS is caused partly by blood volume), for which I have confidence on the order of 95%, but I have good evidence for that belief. Thus, this instance provides data that my confidence meter is reliable. I'll continue to make an effort to write down predictions ahead of time (to eliminate publication bias).

      There are several reasons I suspected this would be the case. Firstly, personal subjective experience; that's what gave me the first inkling. Secondly, the connection of mania with long periods of sleeplessness. If the sleep deprivation causes the mania, then bipolar may be a sleep disorder. This is backed up by the sleep deprivation therapy for depression. Additionally, the connection of depression to sleep disturbance implies that sleep may also be causal in low mood. Furthermore, given that schizophrenia is associated with disrupted sleep spindles, it follows that the two sleep disorders, namely schizophrenia and bipolar, may be closely related genetically (via sleep regulating genes). Moreover, I knew that schizophrenia and bipolar were two of the most heritable psychological conditions; given that both are highly genetic and both involve sleep, it follows that they would likely be closely linked. Finally, I know mania can be associated with delusions, so there are several symptom crossovers. All in all, it is highly surprising that I have not seen this discussed before. Neither documentaries on schizophrenia nor documentaries on manic depression/bipolar have mentioned a link. Nor have studies I've read (admittedly few on this particular topic) mentioned anything of the sort. I shall have to look through the literature to see if this idea has been around for long.

    1. The prospective ratings demonstrated 10–15% average improvements in global well-being, energy, and negative, cognitive and mood symptoms, with almost no change in psychosis, after individual exercise sessions.

      Fascinating that there are acute benefits (presumably in addition to chronic benefits). Given that negative symptoms in particular are resolved, it may simply be stimulating effects.

    1. Exercise can tackle symptoms of schizophrenia

      Not only am I unsurprised by this, but I'd be surprised if it were otherwise. The logic is that schizophrenia is a sleep disorder, and exercise enhances sleep. Additionally, lack of movement is one of the negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Therefore, this poverty of movement may play a role in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia symptoms.

      I need to start a google search document with predictions prior to actually searching. It will slow down my research speed, but it is necessary in order to provide unbiased data on my intuitive understanding of diseases. It seems like the majority of my strong intuitions are true. Edit: I'll just record the search phrase in my hypothes.is notes. This one was "exercise schizophrenia"

    2. The areas which were most improved by exercising were patients' ability to understand social situations, their attention spans, and their 'working memory'

      That is an interesting set of improvements. These are negative symptoms that are resolved, which is largely what I'd expect. I'd bet there is some effect on positive symptoms too, but with low certainty. Moreover, these results are excellent in that negative symptoms are the hardest to treat.

    1. How Catching Covid Can Change Your Personality - Dr Diana Fleischman | Modern Wisdom Podcast 290

      41:20 Influenza caused an uptick in schizophrenia. Given context, it sounds like she's talking about the mothers catching the flu during pregnancy.

  3. Sep 2020
    1. HARs are short stretches of DNA that while conserved in other species, underwent rapid evolution in humans following our split with chimpanzees, presumably since they provided some benefit specific to our species. Rather than encoding for proteins themselves, HARs often help regulate neighboring genes. Since both schizophrenia and HARs appear to be for the most part human-specific, the researchers wondered if there might be a connection between the two.dfp.loadAds("right2","MPU2","dfp-right2-article-1")Advertisement

      Schizophrenia is unique to humans. There are also regions that human and other species have, but have undergone more rapid evolution in humans called Human Accelerated regions (HAR).

      Maybe these HARs and Schizophrenia are linked.

      Also HARs are regions whose purpose is to regulate the expression of other genes, not so much directly code for a protein.

    2. schizophrenia. Though psychotic animals may exist, psychosis has never been observed outside of our own species; whereas depression, OCD, and anxiety traits have been reported in many non-human species

      Humans are the only ones that develop schizophrenia

  4. Jun 2020
  5. May 2020
  6. Jun 2019
    1. SCN, hippocam-pus, piriform cortex, and cerebellum (Figure 2 and datanot shown). Lower levels ofmPer3RNA were detectedin neocortex. The sense (control) riboprobe had a repro-ducible, robust, anatomically specific pattern of hybrid-ization that did not overlap with the antisense probe.Specifically, the sense probe labeled the supraoptic andparaventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus (

      The paraventricular axis is interesting and could relate to chronic pain. It also has some linkage to schizophrenia and possibly low latent inhibition, IIRC. yes.It is the area I thought. How very curious. The pain drug developed in the 70's was Thalidomide, a disaster in Britain as the Ramones sang about and the American doctor who stopped it recieved a Presidential medal and was then tasked with reforming our system of clinical trials that we use today. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31009420

  7. May 2018