52 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
  2. Nov 2022
    1. we propose the Transformer, a model architecture eschewing recurrence and insteadrelying entirely on an attention mechanism to draw global dependencies between input and output.The Transformer allows for significantly more parallelization a

      Using the attention mechanism to determine global dependencies between input and output instead of using recurrent links to past states. This is the essence of their new idea.

  3. Aug 2022
    1. Assuming honest MKR governance, oracle manipulation may be reasonably controlled.

      Controlling the manipulation with hourly price delays, median price feed implies majority collusion, maximum oracle price limits, price delays give ample time for global settlement.

  4. Mar 2022
  5. Feb 2022
    1. https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/an-ancient-greek-astronomical-calculation-machine-reveals-new-secrets/

      Overview and history of the Antikythera mechanism and the current state of research surrounding it.

      Antikythera mechanism found in diving expedition in 1900 by Elias Stadiatis. It was later dated between 60 and 70 BCE, but evidence suggests it may have been made around 205 BCE.


      One of the primary purposes of the device was to predict the positions of the planets along the ecliptic, the plane of the solar system.

      The device was also used to track the positions of the sun and moon. This included the moon's phase, position and age (the number of days from a new moon). It also included the predictions of eclipses.

      Used to track the motions of the 5 known planets including 289 synodic cycles in 462 years for Venus and 427 synodic cycles in 442 years for Saturn.

      Risings and settings of stars indexed to a zodiac dial


      metonic cycle, a 19-year period over which 235 moon phases recur; named after Greek astronomer Meton, but discovered much earlier by the Babylonians. The Greeks refined it to a 76 year period.

      saros cycle, the 223 month lunar cycle which was used by the Babylonians to predict eclipses. A dial on the Antikythera mechanism was used to predict the dates of the solar and lunar eclipses using this cycle.

      synodic events: conjunctions with the sun and its stationary points


      Archimedes - potentially the designer of an early version of the Antikythera mechanism

      Elias Stadiatis - diver who discovered the Antikythera mechanism

      Albert Rehm - German philologist who the numbers 19, 76 and 223 inscribed on fragments of the device in the early 1900s

      Derek J. de Solla Price, published Gears from the Greeks in 1974. Identified the gear train and developed a complete model of the gearing.

      Michael Wright - 3D x-ray study in 1990 using linear tomography; identified tooth counts of the gears and understood the upper dial on the back of the device

      Tony Freeth - author of article and researcher whose made recent discoveries.

    2. the moon has variable motion because it has an elliptical orbit: when it is farther from Earth, it moves more slowly against the stars; when it is closer, it moves more quickly. The moon’s orbit, however, is not fixed in space: the whole orbit rotates in a period of just under nine years.
  6. Nov 2021
  7. Oct 2021
  8. Sep 2021
    1. The Uncomfortable Truth is the Difficult and Unpopular Decisions are Now Unavoidable.

      Topic is relevant across a span of global issues. Natural resources are Finite.....period! Timely decisions are critical to insure intelligent use of resources. DENIAL is the enemy and 800lb gorilla in the room. Neoliberisim and social dysfunction feed on any cognitive dissonance and poop it out as "crap". True believers of American Capitalism (yes there is a difference) have become "cult-like" and drink the fluid of the cult to the very end, human consequence is of no concern.

      Point being: Reality is always elusive within a cult controlled (authoritative) mindset. Cult members are weak sheep, incapable of individual logic/reason. Authority can not be challenged. -- Denial, a human defense mechanism has been and is the common denominator in all personal and global conflict. Denial can be traced throughout modern history and rears its ugly head whenever the stakes are high.

  9. Aug 2021
  10. Jun 2021
    1. As the speed of unperturbed electrophoretic polynucleotide passage precludes the resolution of individual nucleotides, a DNA- or RNA-binding motor enzyme is added to the system to gain a processive and slowed down passage (millisecond scale per nucleotide) of the polynucleotide through the nanopore
    2. single-stranded polynucleotide is electrophoretically threaded through a protein or solid-state nanopore.
  11. May 2021
  12. Mar 2021
  13. Feb 2021
  14. Jan 2021
  15. Nov 2020
    1. intracellular signaling

      This is an important mechanism that cells can respond to their environment and extracellular cues. Cells sense their environment and modify genes, mRNA splicing, protein expression and protein modifying to respond to these cues.

  16. Sep 2020
  17. Aug 2020
    1. Martino, C., Kellman, B. P., Sandoval, D. R., Clausen, T. M., Marotz, C. A., Song, S. J., Wandro, S., Zaramela, L. S., Benítez, R. A. S., Zhu, Q., Armingol, E., Vázquez-Baeza, Y., McDonald, D., Sorrentino, J. T., Taylor, B., Belda-Ferre, P., Liang, C., Zhang, Y., Schifanella, L., … Knight, R. (2020). Bacterial modification of the host glycosaminoglycan heparan sulfate modulates SARS-CoV-2 infectivity. BioRxiv, 2020.08.17.238444. https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.08.17.238444

  18. Jul 2020
  19. Jun 2020
  20. May 2020
  21. Apr 2020
  22. Nov 2019
  23. Sep 2019
    1. move away from identifying correlative relationships between characteristics of the microbiome and system-level processes, and towards identifying more causative and mechanistic relationships
  24. Aug 2019
    1. relationships between characteristics of microbiomes and the system-level processes that they influence are often evaluated in the absence of a robust conceptual framework and reported without elucidating the underlying causal mechanisms. The reliance on correlative approaches limits the potential to expand the inference of a single relationship to additional systems and advance the field
  25. Jan 2019
    1. 计算机领域在分布式处理过程中追求高效、一致。对错误数据记录的修复和更正,通常会另行设计一套机制来保证。相对传统数据库,区块链由于需要保证事后数据的不可篡改,引入了共识机制,为错误的出现和修复提供更多的容忍度。这一重要思想通常被许多区块链设计者所忽略,众多项目纷纷追求提高短交易及确认速度,这会导致弱化甚至牺牲其他节点对数据的验证过程。同时,更早更快的确认也会带来问题。参与生成数据的节点需要满足生成数据不能出错等更严苛要求,导致现在很多区块链项目的在落地过程中出现困难。因为系统使用方会背上了数据必须一次性正确输入的包袱,需要非常保守和谨慎地选择上链数据。最终,区块链落地应用范围的狭窄,许多存在出错可能性的数据难以结合区块链的优点参与业务升级改造。

      <big>评:</big><br/><br/> 传统数据库与区块链式处理,哪个才是更佳的业务模式?这个问题的回答早已在我们的日常工作中得以体现,但却迫于某种难以逾越的权力边界而成了难言之隐。「事中容错,事后一致」是一种颇为崇高的境界,甚至可以从中一窥理想社会的光耀图景,但人们目前尚未能大规模应用这套 workflow,究其原因,并非目标遥远,而是由于决策权被少部分人掌控着,和数据打交道的主体只是把数据当作本职工作,并未主动贡献、积极参与。系统使用方背上的不是「数据必须一次性正确输入」的包袱,他们直面的,是将权利拱手让人后的自责,是与民主开放的理想世界背道而驰的困惑。

  26. Oct 2018
  27. Jun 2018
    1. Mechanism design studies solution concepts for a class of private-information games. Leonid Hurwicz explains that 'in a design problem, the goal function is the main "given", while the mechanism is the unknown. Therefore, the design problem is the "inverse" of traditional economic theory, which is typically devoted to the analysis of the performance of a given mechanism.'[1] So, two distinguishing features of these games are: that a game "designer" chooses the game structure rather than inheriting one that the designer is interested in the game's outcome

      Advantages over traditional game theory for token econimics:

      • a game "designer" chooses the game structure rather than inheriting one
      • that the designer is interested in the game's outcome
  28. Jun 2017
    1. incidents are an unavoidable reality of working with distributed systems, no matter how reliable. A prompt alerting solution should be an integral part of the design,

      see how it can hook into the current logging mechanism