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  1. Last 7 days
    1. 2021-07-22

    2. Leah Keating on Twitter: “This work with @DavidJPOS and @gleesonj is now on arXiv (https://t.co/hxjZnCmKcM): ‘A multi-type branching process method for modelling complex contagion on clustered networks’ Here is a quick overview of our paper: (1/6) https://t.co/3jQ2flhk71” / Twitter. (n.d.). Retrieved July 23, 2021, from https://twitter.com/leahakeating/status/1418150117106978816

    3. All of our code is on github: https://github.com/leahkeating/MTBP_complex_contagion_on_clustered_networks… Any feedback or suggestions are more than welcome! (6/6)
    4. The multi-type branching process model lends itself to a method of simulating cascades which is more computationally efficient than network-based methods with no finite-size effects. There is very strong agreement in the cascade size distribution for both methods. (5/6)
    5. We show a way to analytically calculate the expected cascade size which agrees very strongly with simulations. (4/6)
    6. Using this model we get some nice analytical results about the criticality of the system, we can identify parameter regions where we expect subcritical (and supercritical) diffusion. We compare this for networks with different clustering levels. (3/6)
    7. We describe a model using multi-type branching processes (more commonly used to model populations in ecology) to track the propagation of clique motifs in a network under complex contagion dynamics. The motifs are characterised by the infection state of the nodes. (2/6)
    8. This work with @DavidJPOS and @gleesonj is now on arXiv (http://arxiv.org/abs/2107.10134): "A multi-type branching process method for modelling complex contagion on clustered networks" Here is a quick overview of our paper: (1/6)
  2. Jul 2021
    1. 2021-07-08

    2. Government’s Mass Infection Plan pushed by Great Barrington Declaration Lobbying Effort to End COVID Protections – Byline Times. (n.d.). Retrieved July 19, 2021, from https://bylinetimes.com/2021/07/08/governments-mass-infection-plan-pushed-by-great-barrington-declaration-lobbying-effort-to-end-covid-protections/

    3. Nafeez Ahmed reports on an open letter published in April, which was coordinated by a Government advisor and signed by those behind the controversial ‘herd immunity’ declaration
    4. Government’s Mass Infection PlanPushed by Great Barrington Declaration Lobbying Effort to End COVID Protections
    1. 2021-07-16

    2. CovidCallOut on Twitter: “Vaccines work or they don’t…. If they do…. Opening up… let them do there job… If they don’t…. You have to return to normality at some stage… Otherwise then what… restrictions on who you see, what you do and where you go until when…. Forever.. It’s one or the other…” / Twitter. (n.d.). Retrieved July 18, 2021, from https://twitter.com/Covid_CallOut/status/1416078635266609152

    3. Vaccines work or they don’t…. If they do…. Opening up… let them do there job… If they don’t…. You have to return to normality at some stage… Otherwise then what… restrictions on who you see, what you do and where you go until when…. Forever.. It’s one or the other…
    1. Teresa Watanabe on Twitter: “JUST IN: @UofCalifornia will require COVID-19 vaccinations this fall to access campus, the largest public university to mandate the vaccines without full federal approval. Https://t.co/oS6KK9WR3d” / Twitter. (n.d.). Retrieved July 18, 2021, from https://twitter.com/TeresaWatanabe/status/1415793727696637952

    2. Legal questions remain over whether campuses can require inoculations of vaccines under emergency use authorization and some students have filed lawsuits over it, including three at Cal State Chico. An @ACEducation memo says courts would probably uphold campus mandates.
    3. But @calstate and @laccd will wait for full approval, as will many of the 580+ universities and colleges that have announced vaccine mandates.
    4. JUST IN: @UofCalifornia will require COVID-19 vaccinations this fall to access campus, the largest public university to mandate the vaccines without full federal approval.
    1. 2021-07-15

    2. UC to require student COVID-19 vaccines for fall term—Los Angeles Times. (n.d.). Retrieved July 18, 2021, from https://www.latimes.com/california/story/2021-07-15/uc-to-require-student-covid-19-vaccines-for-fall-term

    3. The University of California announced Thursday that COVID-19 vaccinations will be required before the fall term begins for all students, faculty and others, becoming the nation’s largest public university system to mandate the vaccines even though they don’t have full federal approval.
    4. UC mandates COVID-19 vaccinations and will bar most students without them from campus
    1. 2021-07-13

    2. Seong, E., Noh, G., Lee, K. H., Lee, J.-S., Kim, S., Seo, D. G., Yoo, J. H., Hwang, H., Choi, C.-H., Han, D. H., Hong, S.-B., & Kim, J.-W. (2021). Relationship of Social and Behavioral Characteristics to Suicidality in Community Adolescents With Self-Harm: Considering Contagion and Connection on Social Media. Frontiers in Psychology, 12, 691438. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.691438

    3. 10.3389/fpsyg.2021.691438
    4. A close link has been established between self-harm and suicide risk in adolescents, and increasing attention is given to social media as possibly involved in this relationship. It is important to identify indicators of suicidality (i.e., suicide ideation or attempt) including aspects related to contagion in online and offline social networks and explore the role of social media in the relationship between social circumstances and suicidality in young adolescents with self-harm. This study explored characteristics of Korean adolescents with a recent history of self-harm and identified how behavioral and social features explain lifetime suicidality with emphasis on the impact of social media. Data came from a nationwide online survey among sixth- to ninth-graders with self-harm during the past 12 months (n = 906). We used χ2 tests of independence to explore potential concomitants of lifetime suicidality and employed a multivariate logistic regression model to examine the relationship between the explanatory variables and suicidality. Sensitivity analyses were performed with lifetime suicide attempt in place of lifetime suicidality. 33.9% (n = 306) and 71.2% (n = 642) reported to have started self-harm by the time they were fourth- and six-graders, respectively; 44.3% (n = 400) reported that they have friends who self-harm. Having endorsed moderate/severe forms and multiple forms of self-harm (OR 5.36, p < 0.001; OR 3.13, p < 0.001), having engaged in self-harm for two years or more (OR 2.42, p = 0.001), having friends who self-harm (OR 1.92, p = 0.013), and having been bullied at school were associated with an increased odds of lifetime suicidality (OR 2.08, p = 0.004). Notably, having posted content about one’s self-harm on social media during the past 12 months was associated with an increased odds of lifetime suicidality (OR 3.15, p < 0.001), whereas having seen related content in the same period was not. Sensitivity analyses yielded similar results with lifetime suicide attempt, supporting our findings from the logistic regression. The current study suggests that self-harm may be prevalent from early adolescence in South Korea with assortative gathering. The relationship of vulnerable adolescents’ social circumstances to suicide risk may be compounded by the role of social media. As the role of social media can be linked to both risk (i.e., contagion) and benefit (i.e., social connection and support), pre-existing vulnerabilities alongside SH and what online communication centers on should be a focus of clinical attention.
    5. Relationship of Social and Behavioral Characteristics to Suicidality in Community Adolescents With Self-Harm: Considering Contagion and Connection on Social Media
    1. 2021-07-12

    2. Woodford, L., & Bussey, L. (2021). Exploring the Perceived Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic Social Distancing Measures on Athlete Wellbeing: A Qualitative Study Utilising Photo-Elicitation. Frontiers in Psychology, 12, 624023. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.624023

    3. 10.3389/fpsyg.2021.624023
    4. Countries all over the globe have implemented mandatory social distancing measures in an attempt to suppress and control the spread of the Coronavirus disease (COVID-19). This enforced period of isolation, disruption to normal training routines and competition cancellation, could be having an adverse effect on the mental health and wellbeing of athletes. This study sought to explore the perceived impact of the COVID-19 social distancing measures on athlete wellbeing. Fourteen elite athletes who were unable to train or compete due to government imposed lockdown measures were recruited to participate in this qualitative study. Utilising the photo elicitation method, participants were asked to take a series of photographs that represented their experiences as athletes living in lockdown. These photographs were used to guide discussions in follow up unstructured interviews. Reflexive inductive thematic analysis identified three main themes that captured athletes’ experience of social distancing measures and the implications for their wellbeing: (1) threats to wellbeing; (2) adapting routines and maintaining motivation; and (3) reflecting on participation in competitive elite sport. The initial sudden loss of sport in the athlete’s lives posed a threat to their wellbeing, but over the duration of the lockdown period the athletes developed numerous strategies to protect their wellbeing. Furthermore, their time away from sport encouraged them to reflect on their athletic identity and to make life changes that would protect their wellbeing during the rest of the lockdown period and when they returned to sport. A number of immediate practical recommendations are offered for athlete support personnel working with athletes during the crisis, these include developing self-care strategies and social networks, adapting routines, setting new goals and encouraging the pursuit of dual-careers. Future research is encouraged to investigate how practitioners can deliver effective psychological support through tele-consulting, and to consider whether their support is best focused on therapeutic counselling or mental skills training during the pandemic.
    5. Exploring the Perceived Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic Social Distancing Measures on Athlete Wellbeing: A Qualitative Study Utilising Photo-Elicitation
    1. 2021-07-14

    2. Prof Nichola Raihani on Twitter: “Submitted a paper reporting null results to a mid tier journal. Guess how it went. I literally don’t care at this point but I do feel bad for the first author (who I won’t name here). Https://t.co/sX5lTcEl29” / Twitter. (n.d.). Retrieved July 16, 2021, from https://twitter.com/nicholaraihani/status/1415308025179656194

    3. Submitted a paper reporting null results to a mid tier journal. Guess how it went. I literally don’t care at this point but I do feel bad for the first author (who I won’t name here).
    1. 2021-07-12

    2. Iacob, C. I., Ionescu, D., Avram, E., & Cojocaru, D. (2021). COVID-19 Pandemic Worry and Vaccination Intention: The Mediating Role of the Health Belief Model Components. Frontiers in Psychology, 12, 674018. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.674018

    3. 10.3389/fpsyg.2021.674018
    4. Given the negative consequences of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic on public health, his study aimed at investigating: (1) the differences between adults with and without chronic illness in buying behavior, vaccination intention, pandemic worry, and the health belief model (HBM) components; (2) the HBM components as mediators of the relationship between pandemic worry and vaccination intention. The sample consisted of 864 adults (66.6% females, Mage = 47.61, SD = 9.23), of which 20.5% reported having a chronic illness. Associations between pandemic worry, vaccination intention, and HBM were ascertained using correlation and mediation analyses. Individuals with chronic illness reported a higher level of pandemic worry, higher levels of perceived threat, greater benefits from vaccination, had lower self-efficacy and bought more medicine and sanitary/hygienic products. No significant differences were observed regarding vaccination intention, barriers against vaccination, and changes in food buying behavior. We found that the relationship between pandemic worry and vaccination intention was partially mediated by the perceived threat of disease and the benefits of vaccination. Pandemic worry predicted vaccination intention directly but also through the contribution of the perceived threat of disease and the benefits of vaccination. These findings suggest that presenting evidence of COVID-19 vaccine efficacy and the benefits of having the vaccine (especially for vulnerable groups, such as chronic illness patients) will encourage the population to follow vaccination recommendations.
    5. COVID-19 Pandemic Worry and Vaccination Intention: The Mediating Role of the Health Belief Model Components
    1. 2021-07-14

    2. Schweitzer, F., & Andres, G. (2021). Social nucleation: Group formation as a phase transition. ArXiv:2107.06696 [Cond-Mat, Physics:Physics]. http://arxiv.org/abs/2107.06696

    3. 2107.06696v1
    4. The spontaneous formation and subsequent growth, dissolution, merger and competitionof social groups bears similarities to physical phase transitions in metastable finite systems.We examine three different scenarios, percolation, spinodal decomposition and nucleation,to describe the formation of social groups of varying size and density. In our agent-basedmodel, we use a feedback between the opinions of agents and their ability to establish links.Groups can restrict further link formation, but agents can also leave if costs exceed the groupbenefits. We identify the critical parameters for costs/benefits and social influence to obtaineither one large group or the stable coexistence of several groups with different opinions.Analytic investigations allow to derive different critical densities that control the formationand coexistence of groups. Our novel approach sheds new light on the early stage of networkgrowth and the emergence of large connected components.
    5. Social nucleation: Group formation as a phase transition
    1. 2021-07-15

    2. People on Twitter: “Three Friends Celebrate Turning 100 After COVID Vaccines: ‘We’ve Gone Through This Together’ #PEOPLEtheTVShow https://t.co/MSatUt1z5J” / Twitter. (n.d.). Retrieved July 16, 2021, from https://twitter.com/people/status/1415692631380795394

    3. Three Friends Celebrate Turning 100 After COVID Vaccines: 'We've Gone Through This Together' #PEOPLEtheTVShow
    1. 2021-07-12

    2. Parrott, J., Armstrong, L. L., Watt, E., Fabes, R., & Timlin, B. (2021). Building Resilience During COVID-19: Recommendations for Adapting the DREAM Program – Live Edition to an Online-Live Hybrid Model for In-Person and Virtual Classrooms. Frontiers in Psychology, 12, 647420. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.647420

    3. 10.3389/fpsyg.2021.647420
    4. In standard times, approximately 20% of children and youth experience significant emotional, behavioral, or social challenges. During COVID-19, however, over half of parents have reported mental health symptoms in their children. Specifically, depressive symptoms, anxiety, contamination obsessions, family well-being challenges, and behavioral concerns have emerged globally for children during the pandemic. Without treatment or prevention, such concerns may hinder positive development, personal life trajectory, academic success, and inhibit children from meeting their potential. A school-based resiliency program for children (DREAM) for children was developed, and the goal of this study was to collaborate with stakeholders to translate it into an online-live hybrid. Our team developed a methodology to do this based on Knowledge Translation-Integration (KTI), which incorporates stakeholder engagement throughout the entire research to action process. KTI aims to ensure that programs are acceptable, sustainable, feasible, and credible. Through collaboration with parents and school board members, qualitative themes of concerns, recommendations and validation were established, aiding in meaningful online-live translation. Even though the original program was developed for intellectually gifted children, who are at greater risk for mental health concerns, stakeholders suggested using the program for both gifted and non-gifted children, given the universal applicability of the tools, particularly during this pandemic time period when mental health promotion is most relevant. An online-live approach would allow students studying at home and those studying in the classroom to participate in the program. Broader implications of this study include critical recommendations for the development of both online-live school programs in general, as well as social-emotional literacy programs for children.
    5. Building Resilience During COVID-19: Recommendations for Adapting the DREAM Program – Live Edition to an Online-Live Hybrid Model for In-Person and Virtual Classrooms
    1. 2021-07-12

    2. Hascher, T., Beltman, S., & Mansfield, C. (2021). Swiss Primary Teachers’ Professional Well-Being During School Closure Due to the COVID-19 Pandemic. Frontiers in Psychology, 12, 687512. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.687512

    3. 10.3389/fpsyg.2021.687512
    4. During sudden school closures in spring 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemic, teachers had to move to distance teaching. This unprecedented situation could be expected to influence teacher well-being and schools as organizations. This article reports a qualitative study that aims at understanding how changes in teachers’ professional lives that were related to school closure affected Swiss primary teachers’ professional well-being. In semi-structured online-interviews, 21 teachers from 15 schools sampled by snowball method reported their experiences during school closure and distance teaching and how this situation influenced their professional well-being. Results showed that medium to high levels of teacher well-being could accompany a general negative evaluation of the move to distance teaching. Factors such as high work-load, social distancing and feelings of lack of competence and self-efficacy were among the most aversive aspects of distance teaching and associated with deteriorating professional well-being. Among a plethora of factors that supported teachers in maintaining their well-being, contextual work-related aspects such as school resources, collegial support or leadership support along with individual aspects such as resilience, coping strategies, and clear work structures were important. Additionally, it was found that teacher well-being was nourished by positive experiences with the new forms of distance teaching and feelings of professional mastery. Despite methodological limitations (snowball sampling, retrospective interviews), the findings of this study could inform schools and authorities about what is needed to support teacher well-being and might help to develop organizational strategies that aim at preventing harmful declines in teacher well-being during challenging and difficult times such as a pandemic.
    5. Swiss Primary Teachers’ Professional Well-Being During School Closure Due to the COVID-19 Pandemic
    1. 2021-07-12

    2. Plakhotnik, M. S., Volkova, N. V., Jiang, C., Yahiaoui, D., Pheiffer, G., McKay, K., Newman, S., & Reißig-Thust, S. (2021). The Perceived Impact of COVID-19 on Student Well-Being and the Mediating Role of the University Support: Evidence From France, Germany, Russia, and the UK. Frontiers in Psychology, 12, 642689. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.642689

    3. 10.3389/fpsyg.2021.642689
    4. The rapid and unplanned change to teaching and learning in the online format brought by COVID-19 has likely impacted many, if not all, aspects of university students' lives worldwide. To contribute to the investigation of this change, this study focuses on the impact of the pandemic on student well-being, which has been found to be as important to student lifelong success as their academic achievement. Student well-being has been linked to their engagement and performance in curricular, co-curricular, and extracurricular activities, intrinsic motivation, satisfaction, meaning making, and mental health. The purpose of this study was to examine how student perceptions of their degree completion and future job prospects during the pandemic impact their well-being and what role university support plays in this relationship. We used the conservation of resources theory to frame our study and to develop five hypotheses that were later tested via structural equation modeling. Data were collected from 2,707 university students in France, Germany, Russia, and UK via an online survey. The results showed that university support provided by instructors and administration plays a mediating role in the relationship between the perceived impact of COVID-19 on degree completion and future job prospects and levels of student well-being. Student well-being is decreased by their concerns for their degree completion but not by their concerns for future job prospects. In turn, concerns for future job prospects affect student well-being over time. These results suggest that in a “new normal,” universities could increase student well-being by making support to student studies a priority, especially for undergraduates. Also, universities should be aware of the students' changing emotional responses to crisis and ensure visibility and accessibility of student support.
    5. The Perceived Impact of COVID-19 on Student Well-Being and the Mediating Role of the University Support: Evidence From France, Germany, Russia, and the UK
    1. 2021-07-13

    2. Herrera-Diestra, J. L., Tildesley, M., Shea, K., & Ferrari, M. (2021). Network structure and disease risk for an endemic infectious disease. ArXiv:2107.06186 [Physics, q-Bio]. http://arxiv.org/abs/2107.06186

    3. 2107.06186v1
    4. The structure of contact networks affects the likelihood of disease spread at the population scaleand the risk of infection at any given node. Though this has been well characterized for both theoreticaland empirical networks for the spread of epidemics on completely susceptible networks, the long-termimpactofnetworkstructureonriskofinfectionwithanendemicpathogen,wherenodescanbeinfectedmorethanonce,hasbeenlesswellcharacterized. Here,weanalyzedetailedrecordsofthetransportationofcattlebetweenfarmsinTurkeytocharacterizetheglobalandlocalattributesoftheshipmentsnetworkbetween 2007-2012. We build an aggregated static directed - weighted network, using the informationabout source-destination of shipments and the frequency of shipments between farms as weights. Wethenstudythecorrelationbetweennetworkpropertiesandthelikelihoodofinfectionwith,orexposureto, foot-and-mouth (FMD) disease over the same time period using recorded outbreaks. The shipmentsnetworkshowspropertiesof"small-worldness"inthattheshortestpathlengthissmall(similartothatofarandom-equivalentnetworksensemble),combinedwithalargeclusteringcoefficient(muchlargerthanonarandomnetwork). Thedegreedistributionisscale-freeovertheintermediaterangeofdegrees,buthas an exponential cut-off for high degrees. Further, high degree nodes disproportionately have morefrequentshipmentsonaverage. Inaddition,theshipmentsnetworkillustratesstrongmodularstructure,where farms are more preferentially attached to other geographically proximate farms than to distantfarms; and lack of assortativity, i.e. farms connecting other farms regardless of their connections. Thiscombination of features has not been previously observed in other reported networks of shipments.Locally, the shipments network shows signs of spatial constraints, with relatively few long-distance con-nections, and a strong similarity to other spatially constrained networks. We find that farms that wereeither infected or at high risk of infection with FMD (within one link from an infected farm) had highervalues of centrality (eigenvector centrality, betweenness centrality, degree, coreness); farms that werenever less than 2 links from an infected farm had disproportionately low centrality. However, the corre-lation of the rankings of farms shows that central farms (high eigenvector centrality) are not necessarilythosewithmoreconnectionsto/fromit(in/outdegree). Severalfarmswithinfluentialconnections(higheigenvector centrality) serve asbridgesof densely connected farms (high betweenness centrality); i.e.,areconnectionsbetweenmodules. TheseresultssuggestthattodetectFMDspread,surveillanceeffortscould be focused preferentially on farms with centralities greater than the mean
    5. Network structure and disease risk for an endemic infectiousdisease
    1. 2021-07-03

    2. New study indicates conspiracy theory believers have less developed critical thinking abilities. (n.d.). Retrieved July 12, 2021, from https://www.psypost.org/2021/07/new-study-indicates-conspiracy-theory-believers-have-less-developed-critical-thinking-ability-61347

    3. New research published in Applied Cognitive Psychology provides evidence that critical thinking skills are negatively related to belief in conspiracy theories. In other words, the study suggests that people with greater critical thinking skills are less likely to believe that terrorist attacks are being covertly directed by a country’s own government or that mind-control technology is secretly being used to control the population.
    4. New study indicates conspiracy theory believers have less developed critical thinking abilities
    1. 2021-07-09

    2. Gargano, J. W., Wallace, M., Hadler, S. C., Langley, G., Su, J. R., Oster, M. E., Broder, K. R., Gee, J., Weintraub, E., Shimabukuro, T., Scobie, H. M., Moulia, D., Markowitz, L. E., Wharton, M., McNally, V. V., Romero, J. R., Talbot, H. K., Lee, G. M., Daley, M. F., & Oliver, S. E. (2021). Use of mRNA COVID-19 Vaccine After Reports of Myocarditis Among Vaccine Recipients: Update from the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices — United States, June 2021. MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 70(27), 977–982. https://doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm7027e2

    3. What is already known about this topic?An elevated risk for myocarditis among mRNA COVID-19 vaccinees has been observed, particularly in males aged 12–29 years.What is added by this report?On June 23, 2021, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices concluded that the benefits of COVID-19 vaccination to individual persons and at the population level clearly outweighed the risks of myocarditis after vaccination.What are the implications for public health practice?Continued use of mRNA COVID-19 vaccines in all recommended age groups will prevent morbidity and mortality from COVID-19 that far exceed the number of cases of myocarditis expected. Information regarding the risk for myocarditis with mRNA COVID-19 vaccines should be disseminated to providers to share with vaccine recipients
    4. Use of mRNA COVID-19 Vaccine After Reports of Myocarditis Among Vaccine Recipients: Update from the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices — United States, June 2021
    1. 2021-07-06

    2. Dr Ellie Murray on Twitter: “When relaxing infection precautions, its expected that risk among vaccinated increases, as is happening in UK & Israel. But the solution isn’t 3rd doses for vaccinated, it’s 1st & 2nd doses for unvaccinated!! More vaccines to more countries & in more arms should be our goal!!” / Twitter. (n.d.). Retrieved July 12, 2021, from https://twitter.com/EpiEllie/status/1412508522374483976

    3. (And in case it isn’t clear, also reinstating or maintaining other community level precautions like masks while we work on getting more people vaccinated is also helpful!)
    4. When relaxing infection precautions, its expected that risk among vaccinated increases, as is happening in UK & Israel. But the solution isn’t 3rd doses for vaccinated, it’s 1st & 2nd doses for unvaccinated!! More vaccines to more countries & in more arms should be our goal!!