2,460 Matching Annotations
  1. Aug 2021
    1. 2021-08-02

    2. Dai, H., Saccardo, S., Han, M. A., Roh, L., Raja, N., Vangala, S., Modi, H., Pandya, S., Sloyan, M., & Croymans, D. M. (2021). Behavioral Nudges Increase COVID-19 Vaccinations. Nature. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-03843-2

    3. 10.1038/s41586-021-03843-2
    4. Enhancing vaccine uptake is a critical public health challenge1. Overcoming vaccine hesitancy2,3 and failure to follow-through on vaccination intentions3 requires effective communication strategies3,4. We present two sequential randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to test the impact of behavioral interventions on COVID-19 vaccine uptake. We designed text-based reminders that make vaccination salient and easy, and delivered them to patients of a healthcare system one day (first RCT; N=93,354, clinicaltrials #NCT04800965) and eight days (second RCT; N=67,092, NCT04801524) after they received notification of vaccine eligibility. The first reminder boosted appointments and vaccination rates within the healthcare system by 6.07 (84%) and 3.57 (26%) percentage points, respectively; the second reminder increased those outcomes by 1.65 and 1.06 percentage points, respectively. The first reminder was more impactful when it made patients feel the vaccine was already theirs. However, we find no evidence that combining it with an information intervention addressing vaccine hesitancy heightened its effect. Online studies (N=3,181) examining vaccination intentions reveal divergent patterns from the first RCT, underscoring the importance of pilot-testing interventions in the field. These findings inform the design of behavioral nudges for promoting health decisions5, highlighting the value of making vaccination easy and inducing feelings of ownership.
    5. Behavioral Nudges Increase COVID-19 Vaccinations
    1. 2021-06-07

    2. Hosseinmardi, H., Ghasemian, A., Clauset, A., Mobius, M., Rothschild, D. M., & Watts, D. J. (2021). Examining the consumption of radical content on YouTube. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 118(32), e2101967118. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2101967118

    3. 10.1073/pnas.2101967118
    4. Although it is under-studied relative to other social media platforms, YouTube is arguably the largest and most engaging online media consumption platform in the world. Recently, YouTube’s scale has fueled concerns that YouTube users are being radicalized via a combination of biased recommendations and ostensibly apolitical “anti-woke” channels, both of which have been claimed to direct attention to radical political content. Here we test this hypothesis using a representative panel of more than 300,000 Americans and their individual-level browsing behavior, on and off YouTube, from January 2016 through December 2019. Using a labeled set of political news channels, we find that news consumption on YouTube is dominated by mainstream and largely centrist sources. Consumers of far-right content, while more engaged than average, represent a small and stable percentage of news consumers. However, consumption of “anti-woke” content, defined in terms of its opposition to progressive intellectual and political agendas, grew steadily in popularity and is correlated with consumption of far-right content off-platform. We find no evidence that engagement with far-right content is caused by YouTube recommendations systematically, nor do we find clear evidence that anti-woke channels serve as a gateway to the far right. Rather, consumption of political content on YouTube appears to reflect individual preferences that extend across the web as a whole.
    5. Examining the consumption of radical content on YouTube
    1. 2021-07-29

    2. Sulik, J., & McKay, R. (2021). Studying science denial with a complex problem-solving task [Preprint]. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/huxm7

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/huxm7
    4. Explanations of science denial rooted in individual cognition tend to focus on general trait-like factors such as cognitive style, conspiracist ideation or delusional ideation. However, we argue that this focus typically glosses over the concrete, mechanistic elements of belief formation, such as hypothesis generation, data gathering, or hypothesis evaluation. We show, empirically, that such elements predict variance in science denial not accounted for by cognitive style, even after accounting for social factors such as political ideology. We conclude that a cognitive account of science denial would benefit from the study of complex (i.e., open-ended, multi-stage) problem solving that incorporates these mechanistic elements.
    5. Studying science denial with a complex problem-solving task
    1. 2021-08-02

    2. Bleckmann, C., Leyendecker, B., & Busch, J. (2021). Sexual and Gender Minorities Facing the Coronavirus Pandemic: A Systematic Review [Preprint]. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/dnc87

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/dnc87
    4. Sexual and gender minorities (SGM) constitute vulnerable groups in many countries. Thus, they might be affected to a different extent than heterosexual and cisgender individuals by the Coronavirus pandemic. The aim of this systematic review is to summarize the current state of international research on the effects of the Coronavirus pandemic on SGM individuals. Following the PRISMA protocol, we synthesized 35 publications including different article formats. Key findings yield that SGM individuals overall suffer to a larger extent from combinations of both minority- and pandemic-specific stressors. Some evidence was contradicting across studies, for example changes in the extent of risk behavior, and minority stress experiences during the pandemic. Although our review distinctively spots on the impact of the pandemic on SGM individuals’ lives, its pathways still remain to be better understood. Moreover, future research should also examine the yet unforeseeable long-term consequences of the pandemic for SGM populations.
    5. Sexual and Gender Minorities Facing the Coronavirus Pandemic: A Systematic Review
    1. 2021-07-13

    2. KFF COVID-19 Vaccine Monitor: In Their Own Words, Six Months Later | KFF. (n.d.). Retrieved August 2, 2021, from https://www.kff.org/coronavirus-covid-19/poll-finding/kff-covid-19-vaccine-monitor-in-their-own-words-six-months-later/

    3. At the beginning of 2021 as vaccine distribution began in the U.S., KFF conducted interviews with a nationally representative sample of adults using open-ended questions to better understand public concerns around receiving a COVID-19 vaccine. Six months later, we recontacted these individuals to find out whether they chose to receive a COVID-19 vaccine, their reasoning behind their decisions, and how they are feeling about their choice. The vast majority (92%) of those who planned to get vaccinated “as soon as possible” in early 2021 have received at least one dose of a COVID-19 vaccine, as have slightly more than half (54%) of individuals who had previously said they wanted to “wait and see” before getting vaccinated. On the other hand, a majority (76%) of people who had previously said they would “only get vaccinated if required” or said they would “definitely not” get a COVID-19 vaccine remain unvaccinated. One-fifth of adults (21%) now report being vaccinated after saying in January they planned on waiting to get vaccinated, would only get it if required, or would definitely not get vaccinated. Many of these individuals noted the role of their friends and family members as well as their personal doctors in persuading them to get a vaccine. Seeing their friends and family members get vaccinated without serious side effects, talking to family members about being able to safely visit, and conversations with their personal doctors about their own risks were all persuasive factors for these individuals. A small but meaningful share also say the easing of restrictions for vaccinated people was a factor in their decision to get a vaccine. When asked to name the feeling that best describes how they feel now that they have been vaccinated, nearly a quarter of vaccinated adults offer responses around feeling safe (24%) and relieved (22%). Other positive feelings reported were freedom, confidence, and more certainty that if they did get COVID-19 it would be less serious or they were less likely to die from it. And while most respondents react with some positive emotion, one in ten said they felt the same or neutral. This feeling was more common among those who initially said they would “wait and see” in January or who said they would only get vaccinated if required or would not get vaccinated. Conversations with family members and friends have played a major role in persuading people to get vaccinated. Two-thirds of vaccinated adults say they have tried to persuade their friends and family members to get a COVID-19 vaccine, and 17% of adults who are now vaccinated after saying in January they planned on waiting to get vaccinated, would only get it if required, or would definitely not get vaccinated, say they were persuaded to do so by a family member and 5% say they were persuaded by a friend. In addition to this, others cite protecting friends and family members as the main reason for getting vaccinated and others offer being able to see their friends and family members as well as family pressure or encouragement as the main reasons why they chose to receive a vaccine. About one-fourth of those who previously said they planned on getting vaccinated “as soon as possible” or were wanting to “wait and see” before getting a vaccine, remain unvaccinated six months later. Some of these individuals either have an appointment to get a vaccine or still plan on getting it as soon as they are able, but one in ten (6% of total) now say they either will “only get vaccinated if required” or say they will “definitely not” get a vaccine. When asked what changed their mind, many offer concerns about the side effects of the vaccine as the reasons why they now do not plan on getting vaccinated. Being concerned about side effects is the top reason offered by unvaccinated people for why they haven’t gotten a COVID-19 vaccine. When asked what would motivate them to get vaccinated against COVID-19, most in the “wait and see” group say they just want more time to see how the vaccine affects others who have already gotten it.
    4. KFF COVID-19 Vaccine Monitor: In Their Own Words, Six Months Later
    1. 2021-07-14

    2. Benjy Renton on Twitter: “Over half of those who answered ‘wait and see’ to @KFF’s vaccine poll in January have now received the vaccine. So what changed their mind? - Seeing friends and family without side effects—Doctors and healthcare providers encouraging them https://t.co/iRxWp2BLTQ https://t.co/XStHV975Qt” / Twitter. (n.d.). Retrieved August 2, 2021, from https://twitter.com/bhrenton/status/1415163661291819008?s=20

    3. And story here:
    4. Informative thread here:
    5. Over half of those who answered "wait and see" to @KFF's vaccine poll in January have now received the vaccine. So what changed their mind? - Seeing friends and family without side effects - Doctors and healthcare providers encouraging them https://kff.org/coronavirus-covid-19/poll-finding/kff-covid-19-vaccine-monitor-in-their-own-words-six-months-later/
    1. 2021-07-19

    2. The Daily 202: Nearly 30 groups urge Facebook, Instagram, Twitter to take down vaccine disinformation—The Washington Post. (n.d.). Retrieved August 2, 2021, from https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/2021/07/19/daily-202-nearly-30-groups-urge-facebook-instagram-twitter-take-down-vaccine-disinformation/?utm_source=twitter&utm_campaign=wp_main&utm_medium=social

    3. In the latest salvo of the social media wars, a coalition of liberal individuals and groups has written to Facebook and Twitter urging them to ban 12 people who, one study found, spread the bulk of disinformation about coronavirus vaccines. 
    4. The Daily 202: Nearly 30 groups urge Facebook, Instagram, Twitter to take down vaccine disinformation
    1. 2021-07-22

    2. Zeke Emanuel on Twitter: “Masks are off, theaters and indoor dining are back: Life seems to be returning to normal. But the highly transmissible Delta variant is spreading quickly, & we aren’t even halfway to a fully vaccinated population. It’s time for employer vaccine mandates. Https://t.co/34UArFfHN5” / Twitter. (n.d.). Retrieved August 1, 2021, from https://twitter.com/ZekeEmanuel/status/1418266496749428737?s=20

    3. COVID19 vaccines are safe, effective, and lifesaving. Employer mandates can cut through the swirling misinformation on this topic and bring the pandemic in America to an end. Listen to the whole convo with @PJSkerret on @STATnews First Opinion podcast:
    4. Employer vaccine mandates are ethical, effective, and will save lives. The health care industry should lead the way: care providers have a moral obligation to their patients, & remaining unvaccinated during a pandemic shirks their responsibility to do no harm.
    5. States have tried million dollar lotteries and other incentives, yet only 1% of the population is being vaccinated each week. With cases surging across the US, the unvaccinated & partially vaccinated are increasingly at risk. In areas w/ low vaccination rates, deaths are spiking.
    6. Masks are off, theaters and indoor dining are back: life seems to be returning to normal. But the highly transmissible Delta variant is spreading quickly, & we aren’t even halfway to a fully vaccinated population. It’s time for employer vaccine mandates.
    1. 2021-06-17

    2. We’ve analyzed thousands of COVID-19 misinformation narratives. Here are six regional takeaways—Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. (n.d.). Retrieved August 1, 2021, from https://thebulletin.org/2021/06/weve-analyzed-thousands-of-covid-19-misinformation-narratives-here-are-six-regional-takeaways/

    3. Five days after the World Health Organization classified COVID-19 as a pandemic, the Empirical Studies of Conflict Project at Princeton University began cataloging misinformation efforts surrounding the spread of the coronavirus in collaboration with Microsoft Research. Our initial goal was to support industry efforts to limit the spread of false narratives about the pandemic, and we realized that categorizing the stories we found in a systematic way and making the data public could contribute to a much broader understanding of trends in COVID-19 misinformation. Led by Jacob Shapiro, a professor at Princeton, and research specialists Samikshya Siwakoti and Jan Oledan, our team of undergraduate students from Princeton tapped into their language skills to scour the internet and social media the world over to identify, record, and track COVID-19 misinformation narratives. We eventually recruited an international network of 28 research assistants from six universities across 10 countries, covering misinformation stories in every region of the world, from Europe and the Middle East, to Latin America, Asia, Africa, and the United States. By December 2020, we recorded 5,613 distinct misinformation stories from over 80 countries, in 35 languages. The global reach of the pandemic created a unique opportunity for a regional analysis of misinformation trends. It allowed us to explore the ways in which misinformation actors in many countries, regions, and cultural contexts responded against the common backdrop of COVID-19. We observed several overlapping misinformation narratives. No matter where in the world we looked, there were plenty of claims of false cures or fake home remedies, outlandish accounts of supposed government conspiracies, and reports of exaggerated case counts meant to instill fear— trends we explored in a series of articles in the Bulletin over the past year. Most of these stories appear to have been efforts to shape political debates. But a myriad of motivations likely prompted the misinformation we found—including people seeking ideological ends, political gain, and financial profit. An overwhelming majority—80 percent of the stories—were spread by individuals on social media such as Facebook and Twitter, while 17 percent were spread by media outlets and political figures. It is often suggested that all politics is local; so is misinformation. Contrary to what one might expect from the globalized information environment, the salient themes in pandemic-related false narratives varied significantly across regions and countries; localized false narratives prevailed over global ones. When generating misinformation, social media users seemed to absorb a common set of COVID-19 background conditions and use them to falsify specific narratives to reflect local and regional realities.
    4. We’ve analyzed thousands of COVID-19 misinformation narratives. Here are six regional takeaways
    1. 2021-07-11

    2. Trisha Greenhalgh on Twitter: “LONG THREAD on masks. Mute if not interested. Do masks work? Why do some people claim they don’t work? Do they cause harm? What kinds of masks should we wear? How does masking need to change now we know that Covid is airborne? When can we stop wearing them? Get your popcorn. 1/” / Twitter. (n.d.). Retrieved August 1, 2021, from https://twitter.com/trishgreenhalgh/status/1414294003479089154

    3. LONG THREAD on masks. Mute if not interested. Do masks work? Why do some people claim they don’t work? Do they cause harm? What kinds of masks should we wear? How does masking need to change now we know that Covid is airborne? When can we stop wearing them? Get your popcorn. 1/
    1. 2021-07-30

    2. Partisanship Isn’t The Only Reason Why So Many Americans Remain Unvaccinated | FiveThirtyEight. (n.d.). Retrieved August 1, 2021, from https://fivethirtyeight.com/features/partisanship-isnt-the-only-reason-why-so-many-americans-remain-unvaccinated/

    3. But partisanship isn’t the only thing that has shaped Americans’ vaccination status. Unvaccinated Americans tend to be younger, less well-educated and poorer; they are also more likely to be a person of color. The situation we’re in is not just because of politics but also because of access to the vaccine and broader skepticism of the health care system.
    4. Partisanship Isn’t The Only Reason Why So Many Americans Remain Unvaccinated
  2. Jul 2021
    1. 2021-07-27

    2. Escandón, K., Rasmussen, A. L., Bogoch, I. I., Murray, E. J., Escandón, K., Popescu, S. V., & Kindrachuk, J. (2021). COVID-19 false dichotomies and a comprehensive review of the evidence regarding public health, COVID-19 symptomatology, SARS-CoV-2 transmission, mask wearing, and reinfection. BMC Infectious Diseases, 21(1), 710. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12879-021-06357-4

    3. 10.1186/s12879-021-06357-4
    4. Scientists across disciplines, policymakers, and journalists have voiced frustration at the unprecedented polarizationand misinformation around coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Several false dichotomies have beenused to polarize debates while oversimplifying complex issues. In this comprehensive narrative review, wedeconstruct six common COVID-19 false dichotomies, address the evidence on these topics, identify insightsrelevant to effective pandemic responses, and highlight knowledge gaps and uncertainties. The topics of thisreview are: 1) Health and lives vs. economy and livelihoods, 2) Indefinite lockdown vs. unlimited reopening, 3)Symptomatic vs. asymptomatic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, 4) Dropletvs. aerosol transmission of SARS-CoV-2, 5) Masks for all vs. no masking, and 6) SARS-CoV-2 reinfection vs. noreinfection. We discuss the importance of multidisciplinary integration (health, social, and physical sciences),multilayered approaches to reducing risk (“Emmentaler cheese model”), harm reduction, smart masking, relaxationof interventions, and context-sensitive policymaking for COVID-19 response plans. We also address the challenges inunderstanding the broad clinical presentation of COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2 transmission, and SARS-CoV-2 reinfection.These key issues of science and public health policy have been presented as false dichotomies during thepandemic. However, they are hardly binary, simple, or uniform, and therefore should not be framed as polarextremes. We urge a nuanced understanding of the science and caution against black-or-white messaging, all-or-nothing guidance, and one-size-fits-all approaches. There is a need for meaningful public health communicationand science-informed policies that recognize shades of gray, uncertainties, local context, and social determinants ofhealth.
    5. COVID-19 false dichotomies and acomprehensive review of the evidenceregarding public health, COVID-19symptomatology, SARS-CoV-2 transmission,mask wearing, and reinfection
    1. The Daily Beast on Twitter: “The Russian marketing agency Fazze made a splash with attempts to pay off European influencers to spread fake dirt about Western vaccines in an apparent bid to make Moscow’s COVID-19 jab seem more appealing https://t.co/PEOnx1IggE” / Twitter. (n.d.). Retrieved July 28, 2021, from https://twitter.com/thedailybeast/status/1420388337421013001

    2. The Russian marketing agency Fazze made a splash with attempts to pay off European influencers to spread fake dirt about Western vaccines in an apparent bid to make Moscow’s COVID-19 jab seem more appealing
    1. 2021-07-21

    2. Aizpurua, A., Migueles, M., & Aranberri, A. (2021). Prospective Memory and Positivity Bias in the COVID-19 Health Crisis: The Effects of Aging. Frontiers in Psychology, 12, 666977. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.666977

    3. 10.3389/fpsyg.2021.666977
    4. This study aimed to determine whether the observed tendency to remember more positive than negative past events (positivity phenomena) also appears when recalling hypothetical events about the future. In this study, young, middle-aged, and older adults were presented with 28 statements about the future associated with the COVID-19 pandemic, half positive and half negative. In addition, half of these statements were endowed with personal implications while the other half had a more social connotations. Participants rated their agreement/disagreement with each statement and, after a distraction task, they recalled as many statements as possible. There was no difference in the agreement ratings between the three age groups, but the participants agreed with positive statements more than with negative ones and they identified more with statements of social content than of personal content. The younger and older individuals recalled more statements than the middle-aged people. More importantly, older participants recalled more positive than negative statements (positivity effect), and showed a greater tendency to turn negative statements into more positive or neutral ones (positivity bias). These findings showed that the positivity effect occurs in even such complex and situations as the present pandemic, especially in older adults. The results are discussed by reference to the notion of commission errors and false memories resulting from the activation of cognitive biases.
    5. Prospective Memory and Positivity Bias in the COVID-19 Health Crisis: The Effects of Aging
    1. 2021-07-21

    2. De Pasquale, C., Sciacca, F., Conti, D., Pistorio, M. L., Hichy, Z., Cardullo, R. L., & Di Nuovo, S. (2021). Relations Between Mood States and Eating Behavior During COVID-19 Pandemic in a Sample of Italian College Students. Frontiers in Psychology, 12, 684195. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.684195

    3. 10.3389/fpsyg.2021.684195
    4. The fear of contagion during the COVID-19 pandemic has been indicated as a relevant cause of psychological pathologies occurring in this period. Food represents a compensating experience, distracting from the experiences of uncertainty, fear and despair, causing alterations in eating habits and behaviors. The study aims at evaluating the relations between fear of a pandemic, mood states and eating disorders in Italian college students, taking into account gender differences. During the lockdown for the pandemic, a sample of 469 college students equally distributed by gender, was recruited online using a questionnaire including the FCV-19S for the assessment of fear of COVID-19, the profile of mood states (POMS) for the evaluation of different emotional states, the eating disorder inventory-2 (EDI-2) and the binge eating scale (BES) to evaluate the presence of the levels of eating disorders. As expected, all emotive states measured by POMS (tension, depression, anger, tiredness, confusion) resulted significantly correlated with the fear of COVID-19. Women were more exposed to fear of COVID-19 showing greater tension, fatigue, depression and confusion, and a significantly higher total mood disturbance score than males. Regarding the EDI-2 and BES variables, tension and anxiety resulted significantly correlated also with bulimic behavior, while depression with interoceptive awareness, impulsivity, and binge eating behaviors, without gender differences. In conclusion, the negative impact of the fear of COVID-19 on the emotional profile and eating behavior suggests the need to implement strategies against psychological distress during the pandemic emergency, and to design psycho-educational interventions aimed at modifying the lifestyle for preventing risks of mental disorders fostering health-oriented behaviors.
    5. Relations Between Mood States and Eating Behavior During COVID-19 Pandemic in a Sample of Italian College Students
    1. 2021-07-22

    2. Li, M., Xu, Z., He, X., Zhang, J., Song, R., Duan, W., Liu, T., & Yang, H. (2021). Sense of Coherence and Mental Health in College Students After Returning to School During COVID-19: The Moderating Role of Media Exposure. Frontiers in Psychology, 12, 687928. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.687928

    3. 10.3389/fpsyg.2021.687928
    4. The COVID-19 pandemic not only threatens people’s physical health, but also affects their mental health in the long term. Although people had returned to work and school, they are closely monitoring the development of the epidemic and taking preventive measures. This study attempted to examine the relationship between media exposure, sense of coherence (SOC) and mental health, and the moderating effect of media exposure in college students after returning to school. In the present study, we conducted a cross sectional survey on 424 college students returning to school around May 2020. Self-report questionnaires were used to assess media exposure scale, SOC, depression, anxiety and stress. Correlation and moderation analysis was conducted. The results showed that (1) negative epidemic information exposure, rather than positive epidemic information exposure, was significantly associated with depression, anxiety, and stress. (2) SOC was also associated with depression, anxiety, and stress. (3) The effect of SOC on depression was modified by negative epidemic information exposure. With the increase of negative epidemic information exposure, the predictive effect of SOC on depression is increasing gradually. These findings demonstrated that negative epidemic information exposure was associated with an increased psychological distress in the sample. A high SOC played a certain protective role in the adaptation of college students in the post-epidemic period. It is important to find more ways to increase the colleges’ SOC level and avoid negative information exposure.
    5. Sense of Coherence and Mental Health in College Students After Returning to School During COVID-19: The Moderating Role of Media Exposure
    1. 2021-07-27

    2. Jani, B. D., Ho, F. K., Lowe, D. J., Traynor, J. P., MacBride-Stewart, S. P., Mark, P. B., Mair, F. S., & Pell, J. P. (2021). Comparison of COVID-19 outcomes among shielded and non-shielded populations. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 15278. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-94630-6

    3. 10.1038/s41598-021-94630-6
    4. Many western countries used shielding (extended self-isolation) of people presumed to be at high-risk from COVID-19 to protect them and reduce healthcare demand. To investigate the effectiveness of this strategy, we linked family practitioner, prescribing, laboratory, hospital and death records and compared COVID-19 outcomes among shielded and non-shielded individuals in the West of Scotland. Of the 1.3 million population, 27,747 (2.03%) were advised to shield, and 353,085 (26.85%) were classified a priori as moderate risk. COVID-19 testing was more common in the shielded (7.01%) and moderate risk (2.03%) groups, than low risk (0.73%). Referent to low-risk, the shielded group had higher confirmed infections (RR 8.45, 95% 7.44–9.59), case-fatality (RR 5.62, 95% CI 4.47–7.07) and population mortality (RR 57.56, 95% 44.06–75.19). The moderate-risk had intermediate confirmed infections (RR 4.11, 95% CI 3.82–4.42) and population mortality (RR 25.41, 95% CI 20.36–31.71) but, due to their higher prevalence, made the largest contribution to deaths (PAF 75.30%). Age ≥ 70 years accounted for 49.55% of deaths. In conclusion, in spite of the shielding strategy, high risk individuals were at increased risk of death. Furthermore, to be effective as a population strategy, shielding criteria would have needed to be widely expanded to include other criteria, such as the elderly.
    5. Comparison of COVID-19 outcomes among shielded and non-shielded populations
    1. 2021-07-15

    2. Music festival in the Netherlands leads to over 1,000 Covid infections. (n.d.). Retrieved July 28, 2021, from https://www.cnbc.com/2021/07/15/music-festival-in-holland-leads-to-over-1000-covid-infections.html

    3. A festival in the Netherlands has shocked officials after 1,000 coronavirus infections were linked to the event despite requiring a “test for entry.”The Verknipt outdoor festival, which took place in Utrecht in early July, was attended by 20,000 people over two days.Everyone who attended had to show a QR code that demonstrated that they were vaccinated, had recently had a Covid infection or had a negative Covid test.
    4. Music festival in the Netherlands leads to over 1,000 Covid infections
    1. 2021-07-27

    2. Inasaridze, K. (2021). Behavioral activation method for depression therapy [Preprint]. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/ge8s3

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/ge8s3
    4. Under the lockdown of COVID-19 infection, a dramatic decline in social contacts, a radical change in daily life routine, economic problems, a real threat to one's own life, and the death of loved ones have led to depression in many people of all ages. In the arsenal of methods used by psychologist consultants when conducting telephone and online consultations, it is recommended to use the method of behavioral activation. Behavioral activation is a structured, short-term psychosocial approach that aims to alleviate depression and prevent future relapse by focusing directly on behavioral change. The article includes a discussion of the characteristics of the behavioral activation method.
    5. Behavioral activation method for depression therapy
    1. 2021-07-27

    2. Sadus, K., Göttmann, J., & Schubert, A.-L. (2021). Predictors of stockpiling behavior during the COVID-19 pandemic in Germany [Preprint]. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/2m9nu

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/2m9nu
    4. As a result of the spreading of the coronavirus (COVID-19), we witnessed an increase in purchases of certain products, such as toilet paper, disinfectants, or groceries. In the present study, we examined the individual and socio-psychological determinants of stockpiling behavior to determine what factors lead some people to stockpile essential products. For this purpose, we defined an explanatory model based on the Health Belief Model (HBM) and extended it by social norms as predictors of behavior. The final sample included 841 German respondents (male= 197, female = 624, mean age = 36.62, SD = 12.29). Perceived barriers turned out to be the strongest predictor of stockpiling. Participants also reported increased stockpiling the more they felt threatened by infection and especially the more severe they perceived it to be. Finally, our results suggest a significant impact of social cues, showing that descriptive normative beliefs are associated with stockpiling behavior.
    5. Predictors of stockpiling behavior during the COVID-19 pandemic in Germany
    1. 2021-07-27

    2. Hartshorne, J. K. (2021). Just give them childcare: The COVID-19 pandemic as a natural experiment in parenting practices [Preprint]. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/r64hf

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/r64hf
    4. Correlations between parenting practices and child development outcomes are as established as anything in human behavior. Their causes remain controversial. Parenting practices are confounded with culture, socio-economic status, and genetics. As a general rule, randomized controlled experiments are impractical if not impossible. We use the COVID-19 pandemic school reopenings as a natural experiment to address this gap. A number of studies showed that the advent of the pandemic affected families negatively affected families. Prior work tied increased child recreational screen time and decreased parent mental health specifically to school and daycare closures (rather than work-at-home policies, unemployment, fluctuating COVID rates, etc.). However, losses are different from gains, and just because losing childcare hurts families does not mean increasing childcare will help them. We use the fact that schools reopened at different times and to different degrees across the country, showing that return to in-person schooling decreased child recreational screen time and improved parent mental health. Again, we rule out potential confounds like work-from-home policies, COVID rates, and unemployment. The results indicate that addressing childcare gaps may be critical to improving child and family well-being.
    5. Just give them childcare: The COVID-19 pandemic as a natural experiment in parenting practices